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^ SIRE, 

^ During the twelve months which His Royal 

jj7 Highness the Duke of Clarence lately passed in your 

^ Majesty's kingdom of Hanover, and in the different States of 

"i^ ' Germany, the History and Antiquities of your Majesty's 

■< Royal House occupied a considerable share of his attention. 

^ His Royal Highness collected a number of valuable docu- 
ments, relating chiefly to objects which had in some measure 


escaped the notice of preceding inquirers; and finding them or 
great importance, as illustrating many doubtful points in the 
family records, I besought and obtained permission to lay them 
at your Majesty's feet in their present form. 

The historical Memoir which accompanies these documents 
has been compiled from the best authorities ; and gives a correct 
though short view of the lives of your Majesty's illustrious 
Ancestors. I most humbly hope it will be found not 
altogether unacceptable to your Majesty, nor uninteresting 
to the great body of your Majesty's loyal subjects. A history 
of the House of Brunswick has long been desired by the 
British public : the appearance, therefore, of the present 
volume may induce some of our eminent writers to undertake 
such a work; and the records it contains cannot fail to 

facilitate their labour. With the most profound respect, 

devotion, and loyalty, 

I have the honour to be, 

Your Majesty's most dutiful and most faithful ^ 
Subject and Servant, 


Lo^fDON, December 20, 1820. 



ScYRRi, Gothic tribe, first mentioned by 
Pliny 2 

Guelphlll. of Altdorf . 

IV.. blstnrv nf. 


.. 19 
. . 20 

T/ie Header is requested to correct thefoUowin 

£• Errata. 

Page 15, line 2,/or writer, read writers. 

46, h, — court, reud coiist. 

75i 17, — authority, read authenticity. 

89, 24, — latter, read former. 

ib. 2.5, — former, read latter. 

90, 4, — Luneburg, read Brunswick. 

107, 22, — bad been, read was subsequently. 

119, In the Genealogical Table, between " Bernhard" and " Otho, 

1478 ; " and between " Otho" and " Ernest, duke of Celle," insert ' 

died 1.532." 
122, line 3, for sister and both daughters, read the sister and daughter. 
274, 3 from bottom, after " prrssul" insert a period ; and/or fil. 

Lambert, marquess of Tuscany, history of ib. 

Otbert I., account of 13 

Otbert II., history of 14 

Judith of Altdorf, empress 15 

Conrad of Altdorf, history of 16 

Ethico of Altdorf, brother of the empress 

Judith 17 

Ethico II. of Altdorf ib. 

Guelph II. of Altdorf 17 

Heury of Altdorf, styled of the Golden 

Chariot, history of , . . . . 18 

Altdorf, situation of ib. 

Ravensberg, situation of r ib. 

Conrad, bishop of Constance ib. 

Rudolph I. of Altdorf 19 

Henry II. of Altdojf, death of • . • • ib. 

insert '' Frederick died 
Henry the Younger, who 

read filius. 


.. ib. 

.. ib. 


.. 2.5 

.. 26 

.. 27 

.. 28 

.. ib. 

.. ib, 

.. 29 

.. 31 

.. ib. 

^......g., ........... o. 32 

Lothaire, emperor 33 

Henry the Proud, history of ib. 

Albert the Bear 37 

Leopold of Austria ib. 

Henry the Lion, history of 39 — 56 

Frederick I. Barbarossa 40 

Obotrites, account of • 46 

Lubeck, history of 48 

Prebeslaus of Swerin 47 

Richard Coeur de Lion 55 

Henry of Saxony 57 

Otho of Saxony, emperor 58 

William of Winchester 61 

Genealogy of the Guelphs, from Guelph 

VI. to Otho the Child 63 

Otho the Child, history of 64—68 


escaped the notice of preceding inquirers; and finding them oi 
great importance, as illustrating many doubtful points in the 
family records, I besought and obtained permission to lay them 
at your Majesty's feet in their present form. 

The historical Memoir which accompanies these documents 

devotion, and loyalty, 

I have the honour to be, 
Your Majesty's most dutiful and most faithful ^ 
Subject and Servant, 


London, December 20, 1820. 



ScYRRi, Gothic tribe, first mentioned by 

Pliny , 2 

Wlpli (Guelph) princes of the Scyrri- • • • ib. 

Edico, leader of the Scyrri 3 

Odoacer, king of the Heruli ib. 

Guelph, dux or leader of the Bavarii- • • • 4 

Adelbertus, count of Bavaria ib. 

Otkarius, duiie of Burgundy ib. 

Ruthardus, missus regius in Bavaria • • • • ib. 

^oniface I., count of Lucca • 6 

Boniface II., ditto, history of • • • • 7 

Adelbert I , marquess of Tuscany 8 

Adelbert TI., history of • 9 

, his epitaph 228 

Adelbert III., succeeds his cousin Lambert 12 

, history of 13 

Berta, account of 10 

Guido, marquess of Tuscany, history of • • 11 
Lambert, marquess of Tuscany, history of ib. 

Otbert I., account of 13 

Otbert II., history of 14 

Judith of Altdorf, empress 15 

Conrad of Altdorf, history of 16 

Ethico of Altdorf, brother of the empress 

Judith 17 

Ethico II. of Altdorf ib. 

Guelph II. of Altdorf 17 

Henry of Altdorf, styled of the Golden 

Chariot, history of »»•••• 18 

Altdorf, situation of ib. 

Ravensberg, situation of • ib. 

Conrad, bishop of Constance ib. 

Rudolph I. of Altdorf 19 

Henry II. of Altdorf, death of • • • ib. 


Guelph III. of Altdorf 19 

IV., history of 20 

V. of Altdorf, duke of Bavaria, 

duke of Carinthia, and marquess of 

Verona ib. 

Cuniguiida, marriage of ib. 

Tabular view of the genealogy of the 

Guelphs, from 476 to 1055 25 

Azo II., marquess of Este 26 

, history of 27 

Hugo, prince of Este 28 

Fulk, prince of Este ib. 

Guelph VI. of Altdorf, history of ib. 

Guelph VII., history of 29 

Henry the Black 30 

Wulfildaof Billung 31 

Conrad the Monk ib. 

Billungs, the history of 32 

Lothaire, emperor 33 

Henry the Proud, history of ib. 

Albert the Bear 37 

Leopold of Austria ib. 

Henry the Lion, history of 39 — 56 

Frederick I. Barbarossa 40 

Obotrites, account of • • > 46 

Lubeck, history of 48 

Prebeslaus of Swerin 47 

Richard Coeur de Lion 55 

Henry of Saxony 57 

Otho of Saxony, emperor 58 

William of Winchester 61 

Genealogy of the Guelphs, from Guelph 

VI. to Otho the Child 63 

Otho the Child, history of 64—68 


Albert the Great, duke of Brunswick, 69—72 

John, duke of Luneburg 73 

Henry the Wonderful 74 

Henry of Greece 75 

Otho, duke of Grubenhagen 76 

, prince of Tarentum 77 

Joan, queen of Naples ib. 

Albert the Fat 80 

Otho, duke of Gottingen ib. 

Magnus the Pious ib. 

Albert of Saxe-Lawenberg 81 

Magnus Torquatus, history of 83 

Genealogy of the Guelphs, from Otho 

the Child to Magnus H. 85 

Frederick of Brunswick, emperor 86 

Bernhard c^ Luneburg 89 

Henry of Brunswick ib. 

William, duke of Brunswick 90 

Henry, duke of Brunswick, surnamed 

the Bad 91 

Erich, duke Calemberg 93 

Henry the Younger, history of 94 — 105 

Julius, duke of Brunswick 106 

Henry-Julius ib. 

Frederick- Ulrick 108 

Otho the Lame ib. 

Frederick the Just ib. 

Otho, duke of Luneburg 1 09 

Henry, duke of Luneburg ib. 

Otho, duke of Harburg Ill 

Henry, duke of Gifforn ib. 

Ernest, duke of Celle, history of •• 113, 114 

Francis-Otho, duke of Celle ib. 

Henry, duke of Danneberg 115 

William, duke of Celle ib. 

Julius-Ernest, duke of Celle ib. 

Augustus, duke of Wolfenbuttle ib. 

Rudolph, duke of Brunswick 117 

Anthony-Ulrick - ib. 


Louis-Rudolphus, duke of Blaukenburg- 117 

Augustus- William ib. 

Ferdinand-Albert, duke of Brunswick • • ib. 
Genealogy of the Guelphs, from Mag- 
nus IL to Ernest the Confessor •••• 119 
William, duke of Luneburg, history of- • 120 

Ernest, duke of Luneburg 121 

Christian, duke of Luneburg, history 

of 121.^125 

Augustus, duke of Luneburg 125 

Frederick, duke of Luneburg 127 

George, duke of Luneburg, history of, 128-132 

Christian- Louis, duke of Luneburg 1 32 

Treaty of Osnaburg 1 33 

George-William, duke of Celle 1 34 

John-Frederick, duke of Hanover ib. 

Ernest-Augustus, bishop of Osnaburg ■ . ib. 

Duke of Hanover 138 

Elector of Hanover 141 

Sophia, electress 148 

, death and character of 165 

George-Louis, elector of Hanover 143 

, history of 143_171 

, king of England 172 

Genealogy of the Guelphs, from Ernest 

the Confessor to George L 173 

Genealogy of the dukes of Brunswick, 
from Ernest the Confessor to the pre- 
sent time 1 74 

Past and present state of the kingdom of 

Hanover 175—202 

Genealogy of George IV., from the first 
Saxon king of England, and first king 

of Scotland v* 203 

Guelphs, account of the 207 — 211 

Altmunster, account of 212 

Princes buried at « 215 

Etthal, account of • > ib. 

Altdorf, account of 218 


Altdorf, princes buried at 219 

Weingarten, account of ib. 

, princes buried at • • 220—224 

Steingnaden, account of 224 

, princes buried at 225 

Tours, account of 227 

, empress buried there 227 

Lucca, account of 228 

Epitaph of Adelbert II. ib. 

Berta, epitaph of 229 

Padia, La, account of 230 

Cunigunda, epitaph of 231 

Padolerone, account of 232 

Matilda, countess, epitaph of 233 

Bari, account of 235 

Neuburg, account of • ib. 

Schonan, account of 236 

Walserode, account of ib. 

Ancestors of the Guelph Saxons-. 237—241 

, sepulchres of 242, 243 

Gandersheim, account of 244 

, persons buried at 245 

Ebstorff, account of 246 

Aix-la-Chapelle, account of 247 

Quedlingburg, account of 248 

, princes buried at 250 

Henry the Fowler, epitaph of 249 

Magdeburg, account of 250 

, princes buried at 251 

Kbnigs-Lutter, account of 253 

, princes buried at. • 253 — 255 

Nordlieim, account of 256 

, princes buried at 257 

Stade, account of 258 

Cologne, epitaph of bishop Bruno • • • • ib. 

Bunfelde, account of 259 

Brunswick, monuments in St. Blase's 

church 261 

, list of illustrious persons in- 
terred there 263—300 


Wolfenbuttle, account of iUustrious persons 

interred there 300—307 

Tubingen, monument of bishop Rudolph, 

account of 310—318 

Strasburg, monuments in the minster 

of 311—315 

Nordlingen, account of 215 

Versa, account of 316 

, princes buried there 317 

Schleussingen, account of 318 

Nurnberg, monuments there 319 

Verden, princes buried there • • • • 321 — 330 

Bremen, princes buried there 331 

llildesheim, princes buried there 333 

Osnaburg, princes buried there 335 

Gottingen, princes buried there 337 

Hardegsen, princes buried there 338 

MUnden, princes buried there 339—343 

Epitaph of Henry the Lion 365 

in the old vault at Brunswick, by 

Eberhard Finen 268 

in Rudolph's chapel 270 

of Ferdinand- Albert, duke of 

Bevern • 274 

■ of Christine of Hesse 275 

■ of her children 276 

— of duke Augustus-Ferdinand"" 279 

■ — of Ferdinand-Christian 281 

of Henry-Ferdinand 282 

of Sophia-Eleonora 284 

of Ferdinand-Albert II. 285 

of Ernest-Ferdinand 286 

of Louis-Rudolph 288 

of Frederick-William 290 

of Augustus ib. 

of George-Louis-Frederick • • • • 293 

of six infants 294 

Inscriptions on the windows of the old 
cathedral of St. Blase, the glass of 
which has been destroyed 299 




Epitaph of duke Rudolph, bishop of 

Halberstadt 310 

of Henry, duke of Danneberg, 


of Bruno, duke of Saxony • • • • 321 

Inscriptions on the monuments at Verden, 

at Osna- 

burg 335 

Nienburg, account of 346 

Celle, princes and princesses buried 

at 347, 348 

-, list of coffins and inscriptions in 

the town church of 349—364 

Wienhausen, account of 364 

, princes buried at" - 365 

Isenhagen, letter from 366 

Uelzen, account of 367 

Oberkirchen, account of 368 

Stadthagen, letter from 369 

, epitaph in the church of •• 37) 

* Luneburg, princes and princesses buried 

at 373—386 

Wittenburg, account of 386 

Scharnebeck, letter from 387 

Herzberg, memoir respecting the princes 

who resided at 389—391 


Herzberg, princes and princesses buried 

at 392—406 

Osterode, princes and princesses buried 

at 407—417 

Harburg. account of 417 

, princes and princesses buried 

at 418—424 

Dannenberg, letter from 424 

, record of the princes who 

resided at 425, 426 

Giffbrn, princes buried at 427 

Eimbeck, account of sepulchres at, 428 — 433 
Wiebrechtshausen, account of • • • • 433, 434 

Uslar, extract of a letter from 435 

Vienna, princes and princesses buried 

at 437—449 

Darmstadt, letter from 449 

Minden, account of 450 

Eisleben, account of • • • •• 451 

Schwartzburg, house of 454 

Salfeldt, account of 455 

Altenburg, princes buried at 456 

Meissen, princesses buried at- • • • 458 — 460 
Hanover, princes and princesses buried 

at 460—467 

Charter of the dutchy of Brunswick and 

Luneburg • 468 


There are two remarkable periods in the early history of Ger- 
many, which have attracted, in a particular manner, the attention 
of antiquaries, and to which may, in some measure, be traced the 
establishment of the various nations and families of Germany. 
The first, the reign of Attila, the Hun, who formed the 
many barbarous tribes of the north into one united body, and 
directed the swords of those innumerable, and often hostile 
nations, against their more civilized neighbours of the south. The 
second, that of Charlemagne. 

The death of Attila dissolved the union which his power 
had effected. His extensive empire was divided among his sons ; 
who, possessing little of the genius or military talents of their 
father, were soon involved in quarrels that led to the total 
extinction of their authority : while the formation of so many 
separate kingdoms, and the wars which ensued, were productive 
of great and lasting changes among the nations of the continent. 

The chiefs who had submitted to the power of Attila, no 
longer regarded the commands of his degenerate sons. Each 
became the sovereign ruler of that portion of the country 
his tribe occupied; and a new dynasty of princes commenced 
in every city or province to which the exigencies of the cam- 
paign had conducted the head quarters of a general. From this 
period, therefore, we must date the settlement of many of the 
tribes of barbarians in those countries from which they after- 
wards took, or to which they gave, their name, and where their 
leaders held regal sway, when the overwhelming power and 


enlightened policy of Charlemagne succeeded in forming them 
again into one great empire. 

The antiquaries of the continent have been able to trace, with 
every degree of probability, the origin of the present Royal Family 
of England, and Dukes of Brunswick, to the days of Attila, the 
Hun. The Sc]/?-ri, of whom the first Guelph is stated to have 
been the leader, were a people of some consideration at that 
early period. Edico, the coadjutor of Guelph, and, as some 
think, his father or brother, was the colleague of Orestes in 
his embassy to Constantinople, and one of the representatives 
of Attila at the court of Theodosius the Second. But in their 
subsequent wars with the Ostrogoths, the Scyrri were either 
altogether extinguished, or became incorporated with other 
nations. Their name was lost ; and it is believed that they finally 
settled in the country, and adopted the name and laws of the 

The whole of the provinces which now form the kingdoms 
of Bavaria and Wirtemberg, the electorate, and other territories 
of the house of Hesse, together with the grand dutchy of Baden, 
were comprehended in what was anciently called Oriental France. 
Switzerland was subject to the same crown : and at the com- 
mencement of the reign of Charlemagne, these countries were 
governed by the deputies of his father, the 7nissi regii, or domi- 
nici, of the Latin records ; in the character of one of whom the 
first certain ancestor of the house of Guelph makes his appear- 
ance in history. All that is known of the origin of this family 
will be found in that part of the present work which it is wished 
should bear the character of an authentic record; and these 
introductory observations will therefore be confined to a few 
remarks on the origin of the name, and to the connexion of the 
direct line with the ancient and modern reigning families in Europe. 

The origin of the name Guelph, or, as it was originally spelt, 
Wlph, is still more obscure and more involved in fable than 
that of the family. The learned author of the " Origines Guelficse" 


tells us, that the word is considered by some as a transla- 
tion of the Latin Catulus ; that among the Saxons it was 
written and pronounced Woelpe, among the Belgians Welpe, 
Wolpe, and Wiilpe, and among the English Whelp. Others 
again consider it to be a translation of the Latin Lupus, the 
wolf, or canis sylvestris. The monk of Weingarten, whose chro- 
nicle is often quoted in the following pages, but who lived in 
an age when no family could be accounted great or honourable 
that was not descended from, or in some way connected with, 
a Greek or Roman Hneage, informs us, that one of the ancestors of 
this house married the daughter of a senator of Rome, whose 
name was Kathalina ; that from her their descendants were called 
Catuimi ; which being translated into German, the Latin name 
was rejected, and Welp or Welf, the translation, became the 
patronymick of the family. 

Another learned monk, Theodore Damaidanus, abbot of 
the convent of St. Mary and St. Martha at Venice, A. D. 1685, 
compiled a work, which he presented to the elector Ernest- 
Augustus; and in which, from the circumstance of Azo the Second 
being styled marquess of Este, he has ingeniously traced his 
descent from Actius Novus, a Sabine chief, the friend and com- 
panion of the founder of Rome. If we are to believe this learned 
fabulist, the first emperor of Rome, and the first elector of Hanover, 
were descended from the same father. 

A more humble origin is assigned to the counts of Altdorf in an 
amusing fable respecting their name, which is found in the records 
of the bishoprick of Cologne, and extracted from the writings of 
one John Tambacus, a professor of theology, who, in the eighteenth 
chapter of his eleventh book de Consolatione Theologica, has stated, 
" that the wife of a certain knight having borne, at one and the same 
time (simul et semel) twelve sons ; and being afraid, on account 
of her husband's poverty, that they would be unable to bring 
them up ; and fearing also that he might be offended with her 
for proving so prolific ; she bribed her hand-maiden to carry them 


to the river and to drown them." The remainder of the story may 
perhaps be better given in the words of the professor : — " Ilia 
itaque ancilla hac de causa se cum illis infantulis ad ripariam con- 
ferente, et circa factum sibi comm.issum an perficeret hcesitante, 
accidit, quod archiepiscopus Coloniensis, cum patre puerorum, de 
quodam loco equitans supervenit; qui videns a remotis dictam ancil- 
1am circa littus fluvii occupatam, uni de comitiva mandavit, ut illuc 
equitaret, et quid ibi ageretur adverteret ; quo reverso, et dicente 
se tot similiter infantulos invenisse, ipse ad fluvium ilium celeriter 
episcopus equitans, et videns duodecim pueros, ac cognito toto 
facto, sciensque patris et matris inopiam, dixit se velle esse patrem 
eorum, et nutritium ; et assumsit eos in suam curam, et processu 
temporis ad scholas posuit; qui omnes tandem in nova canonia 
propter eos in civitate Coloniensi instituta, et juxta duodenarium 
eorum numerum ad apostolos nominata, volente Altissimo, in 
canonicos profecerunt." The professor then adds, " Ecce cele- 
berrimum Augustali et vere regia trium sanctorum regum Colo- 
niensi in urbe duodecim geminorum monumentum, celeberrimam 
collegiatam sanctorum duodecim apostolorum Basilicam, ut milla 
sit causa cur in dubium revoces duodecim uno partu gemellorum 
Guelporum historiam." It is added, that the maiden, when ques- 
tioned by the bishop's servant as to what she carried in her 
apron, answered, Wlielps ; and that afterwards having taken a 
pride in being so denominated, the young men adopted it as 
the name of their family. 

Another conjecture as to the origin of the name is stated in 
the " Origines Guelficae;" and is that to which we believe a 
learned professor, who has investigated, with great diligence 
and ability, the early history of the Guelphs*, is inclined to 
give the preference. According to this opinion, which is both 
ingenious and probable, Guelph, or Welf, is a corruption of 
the ancient Saxon word huelpe ; written in German hiilpe ; 

* . Professor Eichorn, of G6ttin2:en. 


which signifies aid or assistance; and is the same as the 
English word help. Hence it is argued that Wlph, the son or 
brother of Edico, was so denominated because he was the 
lieutenant or helper of that prince in his command, or govern- 
ment, of the Scyrri. Our own opinion, if we may be allowed 
to hazard an opinion on such a subject, is simply, that this 
name is derived from the animal which was painted on the 
standard of the chief, and was the rallying war cry of the tribe 
they commanded. The symbols of animals, painted on their 
war flags, were the only distinctive marks of chiefs or nations 
before the adoption of proper names ; and as many of the 
ancient princes of this house have the catulus sculptured on their 
tomb, it is probable that it was the bearing of the first counts 
of Bavaria, or of their ancestors, the leaders of the Scyrri. The 
first Christian count of Altdorf may have assumed it as the family 
name when he submitted to the rite of baptism. Welf, the father 
of the empress Judith, from the period in which he lived, 
was, in all probability, a Christian. He, as has been already 
observed, is the first certain ancestor of the house, and must there- 
fore be accounted the founder of the present Guelphic dynasty. 
The country in which he lived was so unsettled, and so fi-e- 
quently overrun by its pagan neighbours, that for two centuries 
after his time there are few documents illustrative of its history, 
and no means of ascertaining that of a name which originated in 
a period still more barbarous. 

At the accession of Charlemag-ne to the undivided throne 
of Pepin on the death of his brother, Carloman, the inhabitants of 
the south of Germany were, for the most part. Christians, and, as 
has been stated, vassals of that kingdom ; but those of the north 
and west were still pagan, and independent. Their conquest 
and conversion became the great business of the active life of the 
French king ; and before it was accomplished, he had undergone 
the labour of thirty-three campaigns, and resided in their country 


during an equal number of years. On the consolidation of 
the western empire, a still greater change took place, among the 
reigning dynasties of that country, than on the dispersion of 
the Huns; and about the same period, too, those titles of 
rank were established, which, with little variation, have con- 
tinued to the present day. The Dux, in German Herzog, was 
the military commander, or general of the troops of a particular 
district or province; while the Comes, or Gi^af, was the civil 
governor. The situation or nature of the country led to the 
more definite appellation of landgraf, markgraf, phalzgraf, 
or rhingraf; and there are grounds for believing, that the 
comes, or graf, was a rank, in the first instance, superior to 
that of dux or herzog. But in proportion as the feudal system 
became perfect, and military honours were more coveted than 
civil, the title of duke gained the ascendancy, and was that of 
which princes were most ambitious. 

It was one of the leading maxims of Charlemagne, to send 
the princes of one province to act as his Comites, or generals, 
in another, with which they were little connected, or where 
they were altogether strangers : and although these appointments 
were considered temporary, they were often continued to the 
son on the death or removal of the father; and, finally, towards 
the decline of the Carlovingian race, became hereditary. The 
German comes, therefore, who had been sent into Italy, or 
the southern provinces of France, as a military or civil governor, 
became the founder of a new dynasty of princes in these countries ; 
while the native chiefs either sunk into oblivion, or had been 
transferred to a province in the north. In the countries which 
Charlemagne acquired by conquest, many of the ancient families 
had become extinct, their male issue having been cut oflf during 
the war ; though, in some cases, their name and inheritance were 
conveyed by a female heiress to the rising house of the new 
commander, or covies. This happened more particularly in 


the country of the Saxons, and in the kingdom of Lombardy. 
But, with respect to the family, the history of which is here 
investigated, except the establishment of one of its members 
in the government of Lucca, nothing remarkable took place till 
after the death of the emperor ; when the marriage of the daughter 
of the count of Altdorf with Louis, his son and successor, brought 
them into more immediate connexion with the affairs of Europe. 

The records, though meagre, which have come down to us ; 
the extent of their possessions ; and the well arranged and 
princely establishment of their court, afford sufficient evidence 
to warrant the assertion, that the counts of Altdorf had existed, 
as a powerful dynasty, long previous to the time of Charlemagne ; 
though their true history only commences with the reign of 
his father, and does not assume importance till that of his 
son. In the first chapter of the following work the reader will 
find some account of the marriage of Louis, the son and suc- 
cessor of Charlemagne, with Judith, the daughter of Welf, 
count of Altdorf, and its effects upon the fortunes of the younger 
branches of that family. But to proceed in a general review of 
the history of the direct line. 

The changes that took place in the empire during the 
lifetime and after the death, of Louis the Pious, had little effect 
upon the affairs of the elder branch of the counts of Altdorf. 
Ethico the First was nothing benefited by the exaltation of 
his sister, and took little interest in the fluctuating fortunes 
of his younger brothers. Henry, the fourth in descent from 
Guelph L, is the first who emerged from the seclusion 
of his ancient castles of Altdorf and Ravensberg, and mingled 
with the world at the court of the emperor. During the 
lifetime of his father he attached himself to Louis, the son 
of Arnold, and was bribed by that monarch to become a 
vassal of the empire, by a grant of as much land as he could 
surround with a chariot (jnit et/tiem gulden tvagen bevaren konde) 


in the course of twenty-four hours. Henry took advantage of 
what may be considered a want of precision in the terms of 
the grant, and instead of riding in a chariot, as was intended, 
he had a little carriage made of gold, which he carried with him 
upon his fleetest horses ; and in the time allowed he encompassed, 
(and, as he proved, with a chariot,) a territory of four thousand 
mansi. If we suppose the German mansus equal to what was 
formerly called a hyde of land in England, or what, as Gibbon 
supposes, was sufficient to maintain a peasant and his family, it 
will be allowed that the young count of Altdorf gained, by his 
stratagem, no inconsiderable territory. Yet the reader will be 
amused with the effect which such a proof of his degeneracy 
in sentiment and independent feeling produced upon his high- 
minded father, as stated in the text and the records, from the 
report of the monk of Weingarten. In addition to that extent of 
territory, it is almost certain that this prince obtained the title 
of duke of Lower Bavaria ; and his interest in that country 
was greatly strengthened by his marriage with Beata, or 
Hatta ; who, according to the authority of Leibnitz, was a 
natural daughter of the emperor. Henry was cotemporary 
with Adelbert the Second, marquess of Tuscany, who was the 
fourth in descent from Boniface, count of Lucca. 

The next remarkable event in the history of this branch of 
the family, is the failure of heirs male. Guelph, the fourth of 
the name, and eighth prince in succession from the first count 
of Altdorf, married Irmitrude, or Imiza, daughter of Fre- 
derick, count of Luxemberg, and niece of Cunigonde, the 
empress of Henry the Second, afterwards St. Cunigonde. By her 
he left only one son and one daughter. The son received 
his father's name, and the daughter was called after the 
empress. He had received, as a marriage portion with 
the princess Irmitrude, a large tract of country in Italy; 
and on the marriage of their only daughter, Cunigunda, with 


Azo the Second, marquess of Este, he conveyed it to that 
prince. Guelph, his son, having attached himself to the fortunes 
of the third Henry, was rewarded for his faithful services with 
the dutchy of Carinthia, and marquesate of Verona. On the 
death of this Guelph, unmarried, his Italian states returned to 
the emperor; and, by a death-bed will, he gave his hereditary 
possessions to the monastery of Weingarten. His mother, how- 
ever, was still alive ; and aware of the undue influence practised 
upon her son by the monks who surrounded him, sent to Italy 
for her grandson, the only issue of her daughter. As a Guelph, 
he was hailed their chief by the vassals of his house ; and 
having, without much difficulty, set aside the will of his uncle, 
the last of the direct male line of Altdorf, took possession of his 
states in Swabia and Bavaria. His father's patrimony had been 
secured to him also by marriage settlement, and he rose to be 
one of the most powerful princes of his day. 

Soon after his establishment in Germany, this, the first of the 
Este Guelphs, married the daughter of Otho, count of Nordheim, 
who held the government of Upper Bavaria, with the title of 
duke. On Otho's removal by the emperor, Henry the Fourth, 
in 1070, Guelph received the investiture of the whole dutchy, 
in a diet held at Goslar, in 1071. Gibbon imputes to this prince 
a great want of virtue, in having repudiated his first wife : but 
nothing was more common at that early period. It was even 
a duty often imposed upon the reigning prince by the general 
voice of the nation. The right of a son to succeed his father 
could not be doubted nor disputed ; but if the succession fell 
into any collateral branch, the claims of the relatives were 
generally decided by the sword. In default, therefore, of issue 
in the existing marriage, it became a matter of state necessity, 
in order to preserve the tranquillity of the country, that a 
divorce should take place. Custom and the canon law had 
so arranged it, that neither party suffered any disgrace from 


such a separation : nay, instead of proceeding from a want of 
virtue, it was often a severe sacrifice made to public duty, and 
only submitted to from the most urgent necessity. In the 
present instance, so far from either of them being injured by 
this measure, the divorced Ethelinda was immediately married 
to the count of Westphalia; and the duke of Bavaria selected 
for his second consort, a princess who had been intimately 
connected with England. In 1071 he married Judith, daughter 
of Baldwin, earl of Flanders, and widow of Tostos, son of 
Godwin, earl of Kent, who had been created duke of Northum- 
berland by Edward the Confessor. 

The sons of the earl of Kent might consider themselves as 
having some claim to the crown of England, their mother 
being a daughter of Canute the Great : and as Tostos was the 
elder brother, and not the younger, as stated by Gibbon*, he 
no doubt felt that he was injured by the election of Harold. 
He had recourse to his brother-in-law, William, duke of Nor- 
mandy, from whom he naturally received every encouragement 
to dispute that election. William had already resolved on mak- 
ing an attempt to secure the crown of England for himself; and 
any measure which might tend to distract the attention of 
the nation, or weaken the power of his rival, was an advantage 
gained on his side. Tostos having collected about sixty vessels in 
the ports of Flanders, put to sea; and after committing some 
depredations in the Isle of Wight, and on the south and east 
coasts, sailed for Northumberland, his own county; where, 
although he had been expelled from the government on account 
of his tyranny and bad conduct, he had still, it may be supposed, 
many adherents. He was joined off the mouth of the Humber 
by Harold Halfager, king of Norway, who had arrived with an 
armament of three hundred vessels. Their combined fleets sailed 

* Antiquities of the House of Brunswick, note, p. 160, quarto edition. 


up the river ; and their forces having landed, began to commit 
depredations on all sides. Their army was superior to that of 
the English in the north, and they attacked and defeated the 
king's brothers-in-law, Morcar, earl of Northumberland, and 
Edwinj earl of Mercia; but having been met by Harold in 
person, near the town of Stamford, a most bloody action ensued, 
in which the English were completely victorious, and the ambi- 
tious Tostos lost his life. There is no mention of any issue 
of this nobleman by the Flemish princess ; yet it is probable 
she had been a mother, or she would not have been chosen 
as the consort of the duke of Bavaria. Tostos, before his death, 
assumed the title of king ; and his widow, on her second mar- 
riage, is styled the dowager queen of England. 

Previous to the commencement of the 11th century the pro- 
vincial honours of the elder branch of the house of Guelph 
were those of a private, though illustrious family ; but, from this 
period, they became the principal actors in every revolution of the 
empire. Their lives and actions, as Gibbon observes, are deeply 
impressed on the annals of the times, and intimately connected 
with the general history of Europe. 

The power and influence the duke of Carinthia had 
acquired, were fully confirmed, and greatly enlarged, by his 
nephew and successor, the duke of Bavaria. Within a year 
after his second marriage he became the father of a son ; and 
there being no longer any doubt of an heir to his name and 
possessions, entered with more earnestness into the affairs 
of the empire, and took a decided part in all the differences 
between the representatives of St. Peter and the sovereign 
of the West. 

The popes, from their weakness and licentious conduct, had 
long been mere passive tools in the hands of the emperors, by 
whom they were appointed; and by whom, on every dispute, 
they were insulted, if not deposed. But about tliis time, Gre- 


gory the Seventh, a man of virtuous conduct, austere manners, 
and unbounded ambition, had obtained the government of the 
church. Neither to be terrified nor trampled upon, he gained 
to his party several powerful princes of Italy and Germany, 
and bade defiance to the threatening commands of Henry the 

The duke of Bavaria was one of those who joined the party 
of the pope, and heartily supported the independence of the 
church. He was more than once degraded and proscribed by 
the emperor; but his power was so great, that instead of the 
imperial sentence of those days having any ill effect upon his 
fortunes, it frequently became necessary to purchase his alle- 
giance by some new favour, or an additional grant of territory. 
His influence was not a little increased by the marriage of his 
eldest son with Matilda, countess of Tuscany, a Guelph also by 
'birth, one of the richest heiresses of Italy, and a staunch sup- 
porter of the rights of pope Gregory. Although altogether a 
union of political interests, and the marriage was in a few 
years dissolved, it had the effect of giving a decided 
superiority to the duke of Bavaria in the assemblies of the 
German princes, and got that son associated with him in 
his lifetime in the government of the Bavarian states. We 
have noted in their proper place the principal actions of his 
life, which, like that of his father, the marquess of Este, was 
prolonged to an unusual period, and we believe was only 
brought to a close by the hardships he underwent in his 
pilgrimage to the Holy Land. 

In his seventy-ninth year, the duke of Bavaria, with a 
long list of nobility and a numerous retinue of tried warriors, 
set out on a religious mission to Jerusalem. In travelling 
through Hungary and Asia Minor they suffered severely from 
the attacks of banditti; and before he reached the coast of 
the Archipelago, his followers were almost all cut off in their 


engagements with the barbarians, had fallen victims to the 
diseases of the country, or the fatigues of their ill-conducted 
march. Many of them too were taken prisoners, and sold 
for slaves. The aged duke, unable to continue his journey 
by land any longer, took ship in a very bad state of health. 
He accomplished the object of his mission, and beheld the holy 
city; but had scarcely reached the island of Cyprus, on his 
return, when he expired. 

To pass over his eldest, who reigned for a few years after 
his father's death, we proceed to Henry, his second son, the 
next in the line of descent, who succeeded to the whole of the 
Guelphic possessions in 1120. This prince, known in history 
by the surname of " the Black," had in a manner formed an 
establishment for himself, previous to his father's death, by his 
marriage with Wulfilda, the eldest daughter of Magnus, the last 
duke of Saxony, of the Billung family. 

On the death of duke Magnus without male heirs, the 
emperor gave the investiture of the dutchy of Saxony to 
Lothaire, count of Supplingenburg ; but it is evident that the 
duke of Bavaria received the greatest share of the Billung posses- 
sions. His influence was now so preponderating in the empire, 
that he may be said to have acted as a dictator in the 
assembly of the princes : and the reader cannot fail to observe 
the patriotism of his conduct on the death of Henry the Fifth, 
when the crown was contested by the dukes of Saxony and 
Swabia. Henry the Black did not reign more than six years. 
He died at the castle of Ravensberg, in December 1126, and 
his dutchess is said to have survived him only one day. He 
left a family of three sons and four daughters. Conrad, his 
eldest son, became a monk; Henry, his second, succeeded to 
the states of Bavaria, and carried on the succession; while 
Guelph, his third, rose to wealth and power in Italy. Judith, 
his eldest daughter, married Frederick, duke of Swabia, the 


unsuccessful candidate for the purple. Sophia, the second- 
daughter, married Berchhold, duke of Zaringhen ; Matilda, the 
third, Theobald, marquess of Voheburg, and after his death, 
Gerhard, count of Sulzbach ; and Wulfilda, the fourth, became 
countess of PhuUendorf. Henry the Second, duke of Bavaria, 
styled " the Proud," married the only daughter and heiress 
of Lothaire, emperor of Germany, duke of Saxony, and count 
of Supplingenburg. This led to his being invested with the 
Saxon dutchy, and secured to him the possession of the 
states of Supplingenburg and Nordheim. It also gave him a 
claim to the imperial crow^n ; but his party was outvoted by 
the supporters of Conrad, duke of Franconia, a Gibelline, who, 
with his brother Frederick, duke of Swabia, had contended for 
that crown during the lifetime of Lothaire. 

The Swabian family acquired the name of Gibelline from the 
village or castle of Wublingen, where they were first established. 
They rose into power by their marriage with the daughters of the 
Franconian emperors, whose titles and territories they inherited. 
The enmity between the two houses, which commenced at an 
early period, was much augmented by the conduct of Henry the 
Black at the election of Lothaire, and also by the opposition 
of Henry the Proud. The elevation of Conrad to the purple 
in preference to that prince, was the beginning of dissentions 
in the empire and in Italy, and gave a name to a faction which, 
in after ages, proved the ruin of many cities and provinces; 
and, in a great measure, that of the Guelphic power in Germany. 
Conrad was no sooner confirmed in his dignity than he began 
to humble his rival. The question was agitated. Whether 
two dutchies could be vested in the same person? and the 
Guelph being too proud to enter into any compromise, it was 
decided that they could not ; and he was divested, by an imperial 
senteiace, of both : a decision which affords a sample of the 
imperial justice in those days, when able to act with impunity. 


Saxony was given to Albert, margrave of Brandenburg, surnamed 
the Bear; and Bavaria to Leopold, margrave of Austria. 

Henry fled from Bavaria to Saxony : on the banks of 
the Elbe his vassals flocked to his standard, and he vi^as soon 
at the head of an army sufiicient to drive the intruders from 
his hereditary states. Conrad marched against him in person; 
but his army w^as more than a match for the imperial force, 
and instead of bringing him to action, the emperor found it 
necessary to negotiate. Henry died at this time rather sud- 
denly, which led to a suspicion of his being poisoned, and the 
cause of the Guelphs was left in the hands of a child only 
ten years of age. The dowager empress Richenza remained 
faithful to the interests of her grandson; but he was forsaken 
by his own mother, who, soon after the death of Henry the 
Proud, gave her hand to Henry of Austria, the successor 
of his brother Leopold in his claims upon the dutchy of 
Bavaria. By the advice of his mother, the young Henry was 
induced to cede the dutchy of Bavaria to his father-in-law ; upon 
which he was acknowledged by the emperor and empire as the 
rightful heir of the states of Saxony. 

Guelph, the younger brother of Henry the Proud, and only 
surviving uncle of the young prince, though fixed in a distant 
country, was not inattentive to the concerns of his family in 
the north of Germany : he appealed against the imperial decree, 
and maintained, that though the father might be proscribed, 
and the son renounce the dutchy of Bavaria, still, if these Avere 
admitted as legal acts, he must succeed to the inheritance of his 
grandfather, and be entitled to Bavaria as the patrimony of his 
ancestors. Aided by the subsidies of the kings of Sicily and 
Hungary, Guelph was able to lead a powerful army against the 
enemy of his house; and though sometimes crushed by the 
weight of imperial power, his invincible spirit rose more terrible 
from every defeat. 


This first Guelph and Gibelline warfare continued for ten 
years ; and the favours of the imperial court were, in the end, the 
reward of the long opposition of the seventh and last of the name of 
Guelph. He received the titles and possessions of duke of 
Spoleto, marquess of Tuscany, prince of Sardinia, and lord of 
the patrimony of the countess Matilda. 

The son of Henry the Proud, on attaining the age of man- 
hood, was so distinguished for his valour and prudence, as to 
be honoured with the surname of " the Lion." The surrender 
of the Bavarian dutchy, which had taken place in his childhood, 
was no longer considered binding, and was an act not to 
be justified. The death of Conrad, and the accession of 
Frederick-Barbarossa, opened a channel for negotiation : but 
though the claims of the duke of Saxony could not be denied, 
the reader will observe they were for a long time evaded, 
and that it was not till Henry the Lion was in his twenty- 
eighth year that he regained possession of the original patrimony 
of his ancestors. This was the period when the House of Guelph 
possessed the greatest degree of power, and was certainly 
the most renowned of any of the princely houses in Europe. 
Henry the Lion was more than the equal of the emperor in 
every thing but the title ; and in wealth and power he was raised 
far above the other princes of Christendom. 

It is in vain to search the history of his life for any crime 
that could warrant the severe sentence pronounced against him 
in 1180, or any act that could justify the measures then resorted 
to, to deprive him of his legitimate honours and hereditary 
possessions. The family quarrel between him and the emperor 
seemed to be forgotten during the first years of the reign of 
Frederick the First, and the friendship which existed between 
them was of the most intimate kind. It was at the desire and 
command of the emperor, that the first marriage of Henry the 
Lion was cancelled, and his second, with the princess royal 


of England, concluded. It was the anxious wish of Frederick 
that Henry should have issue to succeed him in the imperial 
throne, if his own should fail. Yet, extraordinary as it may 
appear, Frederick no sooner saw Henry the father of a family 
of sons, than his friendship was turned into enmity. He tampered 
with the duke of Spoleto, and deprived Henry of his uncle's 
patrimony — a circumstance not likely to conciliate the proud 
spirit of the Guelph ; and though apparently friends, there was 
little cordiality between them from that moment. We must 
observe, however, that the ruin of Henry the Lion was as 
much owing to the envy of the other princes of the empire, 
as to the enmity of the emperor. The overgrown power and 
wealth of the Guelphic princes had long been objects of jealousy 
to their less fortunate neighbours ; who no doubt saw, that 
if once they could get a sentence of outlawry pronounced against 
Henry the Lion, the boldest of the adventurers might be made 
powerful princes out of his spoils. The emperor was therefore 
beset on all sides. Every man that approached him was the 
enemy of the rival he disliked ; and many a family rose to 
wealth and power by the downfal of Henry. 

His immense estates were divided among laymen and prelates ; 
and never was there such a general muster of the forces of the 
empire, as was brought against this individual prince, when the 
ban was published against him. The reader will find in its 
proper place the issue of this contest, and the ineffectual struggle 
Henry made, during the last fifteen years of his life, against the 
forces by which he was overwhelmed. The wreck of his estates 
he left, in a great measure, to two of his sons, Otho and 
William ; as his eldest son, Henry, was amply provided for by his 
marriage with the heiress of the palatinate of the Rhine. 

In the history of the family, some account is given of the 
several princes of this ancient house whose illustrious deeds 


brought them conspicuously before the world; but these intro- 
ductory remarks are strictly confined to the individuals by 
whom the line of descent was regularly carried on. 

William, the youngest son of Henry the Lion, never had any 
other title than that of prince of Brunswick. At the age of 
eighteen he married Helen, daughter of Waldemar the First, king 
of Denmark. On liis father's death he was invested with the states 
of Luneburg and the dutchy of Lawenburg, of which he took 
possession after his return from the court of Leopold, duke of 
Austria, at which he had resided as an hostage for the ransom 
of Richard the First, king of England. William died in 1213, 
when only twenty-nine years of age, leaving his widow and 
only son, Otho, to the protection of his elder brothers, Otho, 
then emperor of Germany, and Henry, count palatine of the 
Rhine. Henry, it will be seen, on the death of the emperor, 
took possession of the whole of the Brunswick states, to the 
great prejudice of his nephew; but finding he was not likely 
to leave any male issue of his own body, he resigned all claim to 
the remaining Guelphic possessions, and Otho, the only son of 
William, was regularly declared the sovereign of Brunswick. 

Otho was nine years of age when his father died ; and 
at this period he is styled Dominus de Luneburg, and Otho 
Puer. Otho " the Child" was, as is elsewhere stated, only 
forty-eight years of age when he died. The reader will find 
in detail the principal events of his life, and some account of the 
marriages of his daughters, in the thii'd chapter of the History. 

Albert, surnamed the Great, his eldest son, is the next in 
the line of succession; and from the division which took place 
in the states of the family during his reign, he has been called 
the patriarch of the old house of Brunswick ; while his brother 
John is styled the founder of the old house of Luneburg. Albert s 
second dutchess, by whom he left issue, was a princess of Italy, 


of the house of Montferrat. This gave his family a new con- 
nexion with the princes of that country, and led, as will be 
found in the history of the collateral branches, to the attain- 
ment of the high rank and sovereign principalities which were 
held there by several of his descendants. Albert the Great died 
in 1279, and was succeeded by his son, Albert the Second, or 
the Fat. He was the second son ; and is the first of the family 
who was created duke of Gottingen, that principality being the 
portion of the Brunswick possessions which he inherited. 

The divisions and subdivisions of their hereditary states, which 
took place after the death of the sons of Otho the Child, reduced 
the power of the Guelphic princes almost to a level with the 
ordinary class of nobles ; and their succession was regulated 
more by family compacts, than by any regard to the rights of 
primogeniture. Besides the first grand division, by which a 
dutchy of Brunswick and a dutchy of Luneburg were established, 
it cannot fail to be observed, that not less than three sovereign 
principahties were formed out of that of Brunswick, for the 
three sons of Albert the Great ; Grubenhagep, Wolfenbuttle, and 
Gottingen. Albert the Fat died on the 22d September, 1318 ; and 
the prince who comes next in the succession is Magnus, his 
seventh son, and ninth child. 

After the death of Otho, their elder brother, in 1344, Magnus 
and Ernest, the two youngest sons of Albert, divided the country 
between them : Magnus got Brunswick and its dependencies, 
and Ernest took Gottingen. Magnus acquired the title of the 
Pious ; and, we may suppose, spent his life in quiet and retirement, 
as little is known of his history. He married Sophia-Agnes, 
daughter of Henry, landgrave of Brandenburg, by whom he had 
six sons and four daughters. Otho, his eldest son, died on his 
return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land ; Ernest, the second, 
died young; Albert, the third son, was elected archbishop of 


Bremen ; Henry, the fourth, was provost of the holy cross at 
Hildesheim; Louis and Magnus, his fifth and sixth sons, suc- 
ceeded him in the government of Brunswick. Matilda, his eldest 
daughter, became the wife of Bernhard, duke of Anhalt ; Helen 
and Agnes were married to counts of Hoya ; and Sophia to the 
count of Holstein. Magnus the Pious died in 1369, and was 
succeeded by his youngest son, Magnus, surnamed Torquatus. 

The contest in which he was engaged for the recovery of 
the Luneburg division of the family possessions, and the trans- 
actions of that period, are so fully gone into in the following 
pages, that the present remarks will be confined to what more 
immediately concerns his family. Magnus married Catherine, 
the daughter of AVoldemir, prince of Anhalt, and margrave of 
Brandenburg, by whom he had four sons and seven daughters. 
His three sons, Frederick, Bernhard, and Henry, reigned conjointly 
for some time ; but when the dispute regarding Luneburg was 
settled, they divided the country. Otho, the fourth son, was 
successively bishop of Verden and archbishop of Bremen. Agnes, 
the eldest daughter of Magnus, married Albert the Second, duke 
of Mecklenburg, who succeeded to the crown of Sweden. His 
second daughter, also Agnes, married Albert, one of the princes 
of the Grubenhagen branch. His third daughter was married 
to the count of Mansfeldt ; his fourth to the duke of Holstein ; 
his fifth to the count of Oldenburg; his sixth to the count of 
Hoya ; and his seventh to Erich, duke of Saxe-Lawenburg. The 
reader is referred to the 83d page of the History for the manner 
of this prince's death. The next in succession is Bernhard, his 
second son, who, in the division of the property, got Luneburg 
for his portion. 

Bernhard is called the patriarch of the middle house of 
Luneburg ; and his brother, Henry, was the founder of the 
middle house of Brunswick. In the history of the two sons of 


Magnus Torquatus there is an error ; Luneburg and Calem- 
berg are given to Henry, and Brunswick to this prince. 
Bernhard married Margaret, daughter of Wenzelaus, duke of 
Saxony, by whom he had two sons and one daughter. His 
sons, Otho and Frederick, both succeeded him ; but the first left 
no issue ; and the last, therefore, is the prince who carried on the 
line. Margaret, the only daughter of Bernhard, married Casamir, 
duke of Pomerania. 

Frederick, the youngest son of Bernhard, succeeded his, 
elder brother as duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, in 1446. He 
had married, in 1430, Magdalaine, daughter of Frederick the 
First, elector of Saxony, and had three children, two sons 
and a daughter. Both sons died before their father; but as 
Otho, the youngest of the two, left issue, he is the prince 
that comes next in succession. Margaret, their only sister, 
married Ulrich, duke of Stutgard. 

Otho was born in 1439. In 1467 he married Anne, daughter 
of John, count of Nassau-Dellingburg, by whom he had one 
child ; fortunately for the succession, a son. This prince, named 
Henry, was only three years of age when the government of 
the country devolved upon him by the death of his grandfather. 
At the age of nineteen he married his cousin, Margaret, daughter 
of Erich the Fifth, elector of Saxony, and by her had three 
sous and three daughters. Elizabeth, his eldest daughter, married 
ELgmont, duke of Guelders ; Apollonia, his second, was abbess 
ofWeinhausen; and Johanna, his third daughter, married Barnim, 
duke of Pomerania. His sons, Otho, Ernest, and Francis, 
divided the country amongst them. Otho, the reader will find, 
became duke of Harburg, and Francis acquired the principality 
of Giffbrn. 

Ernest, the second son, is the prince who carried on the 
line of succession. He got Luneburg and its dependencies. 


and is known in history as the Confessor, and duke of Celle. 
Ernest was born in 1497, and married, in 1528, to Sophia, 
princess of Mecklenburg. By her he had four sons and six 
daughters. Francis-Otho, Henry, and William, divided the 
country amongst them ; and Frederick, his other son, died of 
the wounds he received at the battle of Silverhausen. Margaret, 
his eldest daughter, married John, count of Mansfeldt ; Ursula, 
his second, died unmarried ; Catharine, his third daughter, 
died young; Elizabeth, his fourth, married Otho, count of 
Schaumburg ; Magdalaine, his fifth, Arnold, count of Bentheim ; 
and Sophia, his sixth, Poppe the Eighteenth, count of Hen- 

Henry, the second son of Ernest the Confessor, got the 
principality of Dannenberg, in the division of his father's states ; 
and William, the youngest, got Luneburg and Celle. The 
latter is the prince who carried on the succession in the royal 
family of England ; and the former is the ancestor of the present 
reigning duke of Brunswick. 

Henry married Ursula, daughter of Francis, duke of Engern, 
in Westphalia, and by her had four sons and three daughters. 
His eldest son, Julius-Ernest, succeeded him at Dannenberg, 
but left no male issue; and at his death, that portion of the 
states came to his younger brother, Augustus, who had been 
originally portioned off with the castle of Hatzacher ; but who, 
in ] 634, had succeeded to the principality of Wolfenbuttle, on 
the death of Frederick-Ulrich, the last male issue of the second 
duke of Wolfenbuttle, who was William, styled the Victorious, 
the eldest son of Henry, the son of Magnus Torquatus, to 
whom this principality had reverted in 1473. 

The title of Wolfenbuttle was first granted to the third son 
of Albert the Great ; but, as he left no issue, was not restored 
in the family till the division which took place among the grand- 


sons of Magnus Torquatus, when it fell to the share of Henry, 
the youngest son of Henry, duke of Brunswick, the youngest 
son of Magnus Torquatus. The principality of Calemberg 
belonged, at that period, to the same branch of the family ; and 
when Henry got Wolfenbuttle, his elder brother, William, got 
Calemberg; and only succeeded to Wolfenbuttle upon his 
brother's death, without male heirs. 

Augustus, duke of Dannenberg- and Wolfenbuttle, had three 
wives. His first dutchess, Clara, princess of Pomerania, left no 
issue ; his second, Dorothea, princess of Anhalt-Zerbst, left two 
sons and two daughters; and his third, one son and one 
daughter. The sons by the second marriage reigned together 
at Brunswick, and were styled dukes of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle ; 
but Ferdinand-Albert, who is the prince next in the line of suc- 
cession of the Brunswick branch, got the small territory of Bevern 
for his portion, and was styled duke of Brunswick-Bevern. 

This prince married Christina, daughter of Frederick, land- 
grave of Hesse-Eschwage, by whom he had seven sons and two 
daughters. Ferdinand-Albert, his fourth son, succeeded to the 
states of Wolfenbuttle on the death of his cousin, Louis-Rudolph, 
duke of Blankenburg, in 1735, whose youngest daughter, Antoi- 
nette-Amelia, he had married in 1712, and by whom he left a 
family of six sons and six daughters. His eldest son, Charles, suc- 
ceeded him as duke of Wolfenbuttle; but the principality of 
Beveni was given to Ernest-Ferdinand, the younger brother of 
Ferdinand- Albert, and continued in his descendants till 1809; 
when, by the failure of heirs male of the body of Charles-Fre- 
derick-Ferdinand, a field-marshal in the Danish army, it reverted 
to the elder branch. 

Charles, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle, married Charlotte, 
daughter of William the First, king of Prussia, and was the 
father of seven sons and five daughters. Charles- William-Fer- 


dinand, his eldest son, succeeded him. He married the princess 
Augusta of England, sister of his late majesty, king George the 
Third, and was the father of four sons and two daughters. 

He justly merits the title of the great duke of Brunswick, 
both from his rank as a prince, and his talents as a general. 
The eldest son died without issue, while his father was still 
alive ; and in consequence of this event, the estates were settled 
upon the father of the present duke, his youngest son, the gallant 
Frederick-WiUiam, who was killed at Quatre Bras, in Belgium, 

Prince Ferdinand, who commanded in the seven years' war, 
was the son of Ferdinand-Albert, the second of that name in 
this branch, and the grandson of the first duke of Bevem : 
Frederick-Augustus, the brother of the great duke Charles- 
William, married the heiress of the last duke of Oels; and 
there being no issue of this marriage, the principality, at 
his death, was devised to Frederick- William, his nephew, 
who came to be known in his father's lifetime as duke of 
Brunswick-Oels. By a family arrangement, after the death 
of the hereditary prince, Charles-George, in 1806, it was set- 
tled, that the duke of Oels should succeed to the government, 
in preference to his two elder brothers, George-William and 
Augustus, as the situation of the country at that period required 
a more active prince at the head of the state, and one more fit 
to command in the field, than was compatible with the weakly 
constitution of the former, and the blindness of the latter. Duke 
George- William died in 1811; but duke Augustus has survived 
the loss of his gallant younger brother ; and, though long afflicted 
with blindness, is the cheerful companion of his young nephews ; 
a prince who takes a deep interest in all that concerns the glory 
of Brunswick. To return to what may more properly be called 
the British branch of this illustrious family. 


Every prince, though nominally a subject of the empire, was chap. vi. 
virtually and absolutely a sovereign in his own dominions ; could "'■^^''"V^ 
enter into foreign and domestic alliances ; and pursue, by all 
political measures, his own private interest as much as any 
other monarch could do. When an imperial war was declared, 
he might remain neuter if the safety of the empire was not con- 
sidered at stake ; and even then, if he furnished his legal quota 
of supply, he might by alliances furnish as many troops as he 
pleased to any other power. Each state formed as it were an 
imperium in imperio, as the government of the smallest princi- 
pality resembled, in most instances, the machinery of the empire. 
The prince had his states, who met in the several provinces of 
his dominions, and were under the management of his privy 

When the dictum of Buonaparte put an end to the German 
constitution, and the Csesar of the West was obliged to content 
himself with the title of emperor of Austria, this feudal compact 
was broken; the larger states became independent kingdoms, 
and a number of the minor principalities were deprived of 
their right of sovereignty. According to the present consti- 
tution of Germany, as settled at Vienna, in 1815, the mediatized 
principalities are incorporated with the Austrian empire, Prussia, 
Hanover, or others of the newly formed kingdoms ; and these 
princes, though retaining their rank and privileges as to blood, 
have sunk into the first class of nobility. The states which are 
not of sufficient extent to form a kingdom, are made grand 
dutchies; others again retain their former rank of sovereign 


CHAP. VI. dutchies, and the ruler of Hesse Cassel is the only prince that has 
^"^^^^-^ the title of elector under the new arrangement. The diet of the 
confederation sits at Franckfort; and every sovereign prince, 
whether emperor, king, elector, grand duke, or duke, has a repre- 
sentative at that diet. Each state is obliged to keep ready for 
service its regulated quota of troops, and to support by its in- 
dividual means the general welfare of the whole confederation. 
Buonaparte's arrangement extended only to a number of the minor 
German states, and was called the confederation of the Rhine ; 
but the present settlement of the constitution comprehends the 
whole of what is known as Germany. 

The great improvement in the representation of Hanover since 
it became a kingdom, has been the formation of one general 
assembly from the several provincial states, which is called upon 
to decide in the enactment of laws, and to advise the sovereign in 
matters of policy ; and where one uniform system is adopted for 
the whole kingdom, instead of the jarring and often incompatible 
regulations of the states of every petty province, formed solely for 
their own guidance and advantage, and, as was occasionally the 
case, in direct opposition to the general good. His majesty, how- 
ever, has wisely continued to the provinces their former states, for 
the management of their internal affairs; and there has been 
no attempt to push the improvements in legislation beyond the 
wisdom of the age, or to divert it from the known and approved 
channels of antiquity. In no instance has the count de Miinster 
shown more good sense and sound discretion, than in adapting 
the new constitution of the kingdom, in matters of form, to the 


established and well understood proceedings of their ancient chap. vi. 
provincial states; and in limiting the power and prerogatives of ^•^^'^^^^ 
the new representative body to the as yet bounded knowledge 
in general politics of those who compose a majority of the 

The established religion of the country, with the exception of 
two provinces, is the Lutheran ; and the government of the church 
is under the direction of pastors, and general and special super- 
intendents. But every religion has free toleration, and all deno- 
minations of Christians are eligible for the highest offices of the 
state. The Jews, who are in a great measure the bankers of 
the kingdom, are in some degree restricted as to residence in 
particular cities, but are equally under the protection of the 
laws as the other citizens. 

The Lutheran clergy are all resident, and form a most respect- 
able body of men, highly distinguished for their learning and moral 
conduct. A certain number of parishes form a special superin- 
tendency, which is under the inspection, in spiritual matters, of 
an intendant, who is also the simple pastor of a parish, and has the 
duty of his own cure to perform. The special superintendencies 
of a district, or province, are under the direction of a general 
superintendent, a member of the same body, and who possesses no 
other temporal powers or prerogatives than what belong to the 
humblest of the parish priests. The affairs of this church, in a 
national point of view, are managed by a general court, called the 
Consistorium ; of which there are four in the kingdom. These 
courts are composed of a certain number of the clergy, and some 


sjHAP. VI. laymen appointed by the king*. The members are called coun- 
""^^ sellers of the consistory, and have the direction of all matters con- 

nected with the property of the church, the settling of tithes and 
stipends, and the examination and ordination of candidates for the 
ministry. The tithes in some instances have been valued, and are 
paid at a fixed rate in money ; and, while many of the salaries are 
scarcely sufficient for the decent support of the ministers of the 
temple, there are few who can be said to have more than is 
required for their respectability and rank in life. The heads 
of one or two of the reformed convents enjoy some kind of 
hereditary rank ; thiis the abbot of Loccum is considered the 
head of the consistorial court of the district of Hanover, and 
sits, by right, in the first chamber of the legislative assembly ; 
but in other respects the church government of Luther partakes 
much of the presbyterian system. "What is called the reformed 
church in Germany is purely presbyterian ; and several congre- 
gations of this church exist in different parts of the kingdom. 
The reformed convents, or cloisters, though a part of the church 
establishment, are governed in temporal and spiritual matters by 
a separate jurisdiction; each has its own abbot or abbess, and 
sends its representative to the general states. The general 
government is vested in what is called the cloister chamber; and 
their revenues are expended in the support and education of a 
number of young men and women, who are elected by the heads 
of the convent, or presented by the king. They resemble the 
foundation schools or endowed colleges of England. 

* There are four consistories, ten general, and ninety-two special superintendencies 
in the Lutheran church, and two catholic consistories. 


William, the youngest son of Ernest the Confessor, suc- 
ceeded, on the death of Francis-Otho, his eldest brother, to 
the states which had been the more immediate portion of their 
father, and became duke of Luneburg or Celle. He married, 
at the age of twenty-six, Dorothea, daughter of Christian the 
Third, king of Denmark ; who, in an union of thirty-one years, 
bore him seven sons and eight daughters. The reader will find, 
in the lives of these princes, some account of the most remarkable 
events of the thirty years' war, in which they were all more or 
less engaged, and in which several of them acted a conspicuous 
part. Sophia, the eldest daughter of duke William, was married 
to the margrave of Brandenburg- Anspach ; Elizabeth married 
Frederick, count of Hohenlohe ; Dorothea, the phalzgrave of 
Birkenberg ; Clara, the count of Schwartzburg ; Margaret, John 
Casmir, duke of Saxe-Coburg ; and Sybilla, Julius-Ernest, duke 
of Brunswick-Dannenberg : Anne and Maria died unmarried. 

George was the prince of this family who carried on the 
succession. He married, in his thirty-fifth year, Anne-Eleonora, 
daughter of Louis the Fifth, landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt ; by 
whom he left four sons, and one daughter, who became the 
queen of Frederick the Third of Denmark. Previous to joining 
the protestant confederation, George had served in the army 
of the emperor, in which he held the rank of colonel ; but after 
he became united with the king of Sweden, he continued firm 
to that cause as long as he lived. He was the father, as we 
have said, of four sons, and also of four daughters, though 
only one survived him; and, by a family arrangement, it was 
settled, that the states of Luneburg should be divided into two 
dutchies after the death of his surviving brothers. His eldest 
son. Christian -Louis, got the dutchy of Luneburg; and his 
second son, George -William, the principality of Calemberg, 
which was then formed into a dutchy ; and, from his residence 


in the capital of this province, he took the title of duke of 
Hanover. As Christian -Louis died soon after his accession, 
George -William, the next brother, removed to Celle, and 
became duke of Luneburg ; w^hile the third brother, John- 
Frederick, succeeded him as duke of Hanover. John-Frederick 
died also soon after his accession, without male issue; and was 
succeeded by his youngest brother, Ernest-Augustus, who, for 
some time previous to his brother's death, had been sovereign 
bishop of Osnaburg. This prince, therefore, is the next in the 
line of succession. 

When twenty-nine years of age, Ernest-Augustus married 
Sophia, the youngest , daughter of Frederick the Fifth, elector 
palatine of the Rhine and king of Bohemia, then in her twenty- 
eighth year ; and by her had six sons and one daughter. 
In the lifetime of this prince the states of Hanover were 
constituted an electorate ; and in his sixty-third year, 1692, 
Ernest-Augustus was raised to the rank of an elector, and ap- 
pointed hereditary standard-bearer of the Holy Roman Empire. 
Christian-Louis, the eldest son of George, duke of Luneburg, was 
married to Dorothea, daughter of Philip, duke of Holstein-Gliick- 
stadt; but left no issue. George- William, who succeeded him, 
married Mademoiselle d'Olbreuse, a Frenchwoman of low ex- 
traction ; but being ennobled by the emperor, their issue, an 
only daughter, became legitimate : and by a family arrangement, 
which appears as an anomaly in the history of this house, it was 
settled that she should inherit the states of Luneburg at her 
father's decease. 

To guard against the bad effects of an arrangement by which 
so large a portion of the family possessions might be conveyed 
to an alien, perhaps an enemy of the house, it became necessary 
that her union with one of the princes', her relations, should be 
secured ; and state policy directed that this must be effected in 


her own branch, if possible. The electoral prince of Hanover 
was of an age to marry ; but it is said his affections were 
engaged, as were those of the princess of Celle. An union, 
however, was effected between the two cousins, which was 
productive of misery to both, though it reunited the states of 
Luneburg and Hanover, after the death of George-William, 
in 1705. 

George-Louis, the eldest son of the elector, is the first of the 
present dynasty of the kings of England ; as he succeeded to the 
crown of Great Britain in 1714, and was succeeded by his only 
son, George the Second, in 1727. Frederick, prince of Wales, 
who died in 1751, was the eldest son of George the Second, and 
the father of his late majesty, George the Third. Such, then, 
is the direct descent of his present majesty, George the 
Fourth, through a series of thirty-three generations, and the 
long period of a thousand years. 

Thirty-three generations, and a thousand years, occupy most 
certainly a small space even in the historical period of the world ; 
but all greatness is relative : and it may be added, that there 
is not one family in Europe which can establish, by clear and 
contemporary proofs, a similar antiquity. The House of Guelph 
appear as sovereign princes from the earliest period of their 
history. If, therefore, antiquity and illustrious birth are entitled 
in any degree to respect. Great Britain may be proud of her 
present Sovereign : and although George the First owed the crown 
more immediately to his female parent, the reader will find, by 
consulting the genealogical tables, that he was the only lineal 
descendant of the Plantagenet stem. The blood which warmed 
the heart of Bruce, flowed also in the veins of the elector of 
Hanover. It cannot fail to be remarked, in the history of this 
family, that while its sons acquired wealth and honours by their 
union with the daughters of emperors and kings, the daughters 


adorned the thrones of the greatest potentates in Europe and 

Could the conjectural evidence of the German antiquaries be 
admitted, not less than five centuries might be added to the 
period of our history, and fifteen generations more, of probable 
ancestors; but the highest ambition of human pride may be 
satisfied w^ith what is certain in the pedigree of the House of 
Guelph. There is no sovereign house in Europe, ancient or 
modem, that has not been connected w^ith, or sprung from, 
some branch of this family. 




1 HERE are few subjects which can be of more interest to a 
Briton, than the history of that Family which bears sovereign 
sway in the land ; yet there is not in the English language a 
single work that can be called a history, not even a true genea- 
logical account, of the Royal Family. When George the First 
came to England, several treatises were printed as histories of 
the House of Brunswick, &c. but they are merely translations 
of the ancient Brunswick chronicles, full of fiction and falsehood ; 
and their authors seem to have been so little acquainted with 
the subject, that they are a disgrace to the age in which they 
appeared. Nothing, therefore, excepting Gibbon's fragment, 
(which, from his want of authentic materials, is not altogether 
correct,) remains for the English reader to consult, with regard 
to the antiquity and history of the present race of our kings. 

It is, however, not only important, as a subject peculiarly 
British, it is interesting as a general historical record, to trace 
the annals of the Guelphs to their first origin, and then to follow 


the fortunes of this illustrious Family through a series of nearly 
two thousand years. Much, indeed, of fable is connected with 
the early history of this name : and when we consider the want 
of a written language and of records among the tribes of the 
North, little can be known of the people among whom, or of 
the period when, it first occurs. Yet the diligent inquirer will 
discover some traces to guide his researches during even the 
darkest ages of the world : and at a period when the present 
reigning Families of Europe were unheard of, or merely emerging 
into notice, the Ancestors of George the Fourth of England were 
already reigning in their greatest splendour. 

Pliny is the first of the ancient writers who gives us a distinct 
account of the Gothic tribes, and among these the Scyrri* are 
particularly mentioned. In the days of the Roman historian this 
tribe occupied the southern shores of the Baltic at its western 
extremity, and some of the Danish islands in the Great Belt. 
As a body of warriors, they must often have changed their 
residence, as well on account of the campaigns in which they 
happened to be engaged, as from the success which might 
attend any particular expedition. About the middle of the fifth 
century, the name Wlph, or, as now spelt, Guelph, first occurs, 
as a leader or prince of this tribe ; and we find that they were 
then in possession of what was called Noricum, the ancient 
Rhoetia, and present country of the Tyrol. The Scyrri are 
enumerated as one of the nations that fought under the banners 
of Attila the Hun ; but after his death we find them in the pay of 

• Nat. Hist. lib. iv. cap. 27. 


the Romans ; and Jornandes, in his History of the Goths, chap. 
53, 54, has expressly told us, that " tunc super Danubium con- 
sidebant, et cum Gothis pacific^ morabantur." This expression, 
cum Gothis, would lead us to suppose that they were considered 
as a tribe of the Huns, or, at any rate, as a distinct people from 
the Goths. They are next found with the army of Hunnimund, 
leader of the Suevi, and engaged in a war with Theodemir, the 
brother of Walemir, king of the Goths — a war which ended in 
their ruin ; as " ut pene de gente Scyrrorum," says Jornandes, 
" nisi qui nomen ipsum ferrent, et hi cum dedecore, non remanis- 
sent." What did remain of the people after this war continued 
to serve the Suevic prince ; and " cum Edico et Wlpho, eorum 
Primatibus, quasi ad ultionem suam, acrius pugnaverunt." 

Although we have no certain information with regard to the 
ancestors or successors of these Primates, we have this positive 
evidence, that the first Guelph upon record was one of the 
chiefs of his nation. 

Edico and Guelph are said by some to have been brothers : 
other chronicles state that they were father and son : there is, 
however, a want of historical authorities on this point. The rank 
of prince, or primas, might be hereditary, but that of dux, or 
leader, was only temporary. There is some probability that 
Odoacer, king of the Heruli, who extinguished the Roman empire 
in Italy and the West, was the son of this Edico mentioned by 
Jornandes, but no proof that Guelph was his brother, though 
certainly his equal as to rank, and one who accompanied him in 
the conquest of Italy, and assisted in the establishment of the 
kingdom of Lombardy. 


CHAP. I. In 590 we find a Guelph commanding the Boiavarii, or Bava- 

""T^^spT '■i^^S' under Cliildibert, king of the Franks, and acting as an 
auxiliary of the Romans against Autharis, king of the Lombards. 
But for a century afterwards the name chiefly occurs among the 
princes of the Bavarian nation and the nobles of Lombardy, or 
as one of the great officers of the Court of France. 
A. u. 613-635. From 613 to 635, a Guelph was the chamberlain of Dogabert, 
king of France, and employed by him in collecting and arranging 
the laws (leges alemannkcE) of the Gothic nations. This prince 
is said to have married a German, and to have settled in Bavaria ; 
and it is from him, either as sons or grandsons, that the follow- 
ing illustrious individuals are descended : — Guelph, count of 
Bavaria, 670, who is mentioned by historians as the friend of 
Bertrard, king of the Lombards ; Otkarius, duke of Burgundy, 
" qui novem comitatus in Bavaria possidebat ;" Adelbertus, count 
of Bavaria, ancestor of the marquesses of Tuscany ; and Ruthar- 
dus, ancestor of the counts of Altdorf and kings of Burgundy or 
Aries, who was missus regius of France, and who, with a count 
Warinus, during the lifetime of St. Othmar, 759-768, " totius 
Alemanise curam administrabant." 

That Otkarius and Adelbertus were brothers, we have certain 
proof* ; but that Ruthardus was another brother is not so evident, 
though there is no doubt of his being of the same nation and 
family, and a near kinsman. Of the two first, we are informed 
that their mother was of Bavaria, and their father a Burgundian : 
and although there is not the same positive proof, there is abun- 

* Historia Fundationis Monasterii Togrensii, ann. 756. 


dance of circumstantial evidence, to show that Adelbertus and 
Ruthardus were the immediate ancestors of the two illustrious 
houses, which, after a separation of more than two centuries, 
were again united by the marriage of the eldest son of the one 
with the only daughter of the other. The labours of Leibnitz, 
and the learned editor of the Origines Guelphicce, have thrown 
much light upon this part of the genealogy of the Guelphs. 
Previous to the appearance of their works, the marriage of Azo 
of Este with Cuniga, or Cunigunda, of Guelph, was supposed 
to have been the first connexion of these two houses, though it 
was known, and had indeed been proved, that the founder of 
the house of Este in Italy was a Bavarian prince, and not a 
descendant of the Aetii of Rome, or of any Italian family, as the 
fabulous chronicles had generally stated, and is still currently 
believed by many in England. 

In the early ages of Christianity, and in the then unsettled 
state of society, the right of primogeniture was neither ascer- 
tained nor regarded. The inheritance of the children depended 
altogether upon the will of their father, and not unfrequently 
upon the number of their respective followers. It is not, there- 
fore, of any consequence whether Ruthardus or Adelbertus, 
allowing them to have been brothers, was the eldest son of the 
Bavarian prince : all that we know with certainty is, that the 
former settled in Bavaria, and carried on the line of Altdorf, 
while the latter took up his residence in Italy ; and that Otkarius, 
the other prince of the same house, obtained a dukedom in Bur- 
gundy, and in his old age retired to a monastery, which he had 
founded and endowed. 


Wolfhardus was the son of Adelbertus. His name in Ger- 
man, signifying the " Doer of Good Works," was literally 
translated into the Latin records of the age ; and Bonifacius, 
count or governor of Lucca, and of the whole province of Tus- 
cany, makes no contemptible figure in the days of Charlemagne. 
The grandmother of Adelbertus was an Italian of the house of 
Friuli : we therefore find his descendants settled upon the states 
of that family in Italy, where they professed to live according 
to the laws and customs of the Bavarians. 

That the government of Lucca and Tuscany was a charge 
bestowed upon count Boniface by the emperor Charlemagne, 
is highly probable. That emperor was proud to_ consider himself 
a branch of the Guelphic race, and would naturally choose a 
German and a kinsman for so important a trust. Boniface, 
though highly connected in the country, could not be considered 
as a native, and was therefore the better fitted for the command 
of such a province. " The eye of the vigilant and sagacious 
emperor," says Gibbon, " was able to pervade the vast extent 
of his dominions, and to discover the merit of every subject, in 
whatever country or condition he had been cast, so that he was 
assigned that station most beneficial to himself and to the state." 
Boniface appears to have been worthy of the trust reposed in 
him, and to have merited the honours which his sovereign con- 
ferred upon him. At his death his states and authority were 
usurped for a time by a relation named Ilderraud, who is 
also styled count of Lucca ; but Boniface the Second, who was 
a child when his father died, having attained the age of manhood, 
soon recovered his rights and possessions : and not only as the 


heir of his father, but as a prince and a commander, he appears chap. 
with great splendour in the records of his time. Nothing could ^^^^ 
tempt him to swerve from his loyalty to the son of Charlemagne, 
Louis the Pious ; and while the empire was relaxed by weakness, 
or agitated by discord, Boniface asserted the glory of the French 
and the Christian arms. 

He was intrusted with the defence of the maritime coast 
and of the isle of Corsica against the Mahometans of Africa. 
With a small fleet he sailed from Pisa, and after providing- 
himself with expert pilots at the island of Corsica, he steered 
for the African coast, and landed between Carthage and Utica. 
The Aglabites, who reigned there as the nominal vicegerents of 
the caliphs, were astonished and provoked at the insolence of 
the Christians. It was boastingly said, that they should soon be 
made to repent their temerity. Their camp was surrounded 
by a formidable host of Arabs and Moors. It was assaulted 
five times, but each time the Infidels were repulsed with slaughter 
and shame. The field was covered with the bodies of their 
slain ; and in their retreat they were pursued to a great distance 
by some of the adventurous Franks, who unfortunately became 
the victims of their own rashness. Boniface was satisfied with 
the victory. He embarked the troops, the captives, and the 
spoil, and, returning in triumph to the port of Lucca, left an 
example of successful enterprise, which was long remembered 
by the Moors of Africa, and but seldom imitated by the 
Christians of Italy. His cousin and empress, Judith of Altdorf, 
was at this time confined in the monastery of Tortona, in the 
power of her rebellious step-son Lothaire, who, it was probable. 


would have made her a sacrifice to his disappointed ambition. 
Boniface perceived her danger, and flew to her reUef. By his 
celerity and the courage of his followers she was rescued from 
prison, conducted over the Alps, and restored to the embraces 
of an impatient husband. This gallant act exposed him to the 
displeasure of Lothaire, though it deserved the gratitude of the 
emperor : but, as the rebellious son still held possession of the 
kingdom of Italy, he was compelled to retire to the court of 
France, where the most honourable employments were bestowed 
upon him. 

In the civil wars which ensued after the death of Louis, there 
is reason to believe that Boniface was restored to his estates in 
Italy, and died in the possession of the government of Tuscany. 
His son and successor was named Adalbert, in memory of his 
great-grandfather (another strong proof of the Bavarian connexion), 
and is the first of the family who is styled duke and marquess of 
Tuscany. The decay of genius and power in each of the imperial 
generations had confirmed the independence of the hereditary 
governors : hence the titles of duke and marquess or margrave of 
Tuscany became fixed in the family of the counts of Lucca. 
Adelbert, first duke of Tuscany, is chiefly known for his pious 
zeal in founding churches and monasteries ; and, as the historian 
remarks, " it is only by the glimmering of old charters that his 
existence during thirty years is visible :" yet it would appear from 
some existing documents of the church, that he was joined with 
the duke of Spoleto in soliciting the aid of the Saracens in an 
invasion of the Ecclesiastical States. They were excommunicated 
by pope John the Eighth, and declared the enemies of God 


and man. He is styled a robber, and his wife an adulteress ; but chap. 
some political change having restored his holiness to a better "'^^■'^ 
frame of mind, the excommunication was taken off, and both 
the prince and his spouse are recommended by the same pope, 
in his subsequent epistles, to the love and protection of all the 
friends of the church. 

In the dignity of duke and marquess of Tuscany, Adelbert 
the First was succeeded by his son Adelbert the Second, styled 
the Rich. He married Berta, daughter of Lothaire, king of 
Austrasia or Lorraine, and great grandson of Charlemagne. 

It was a maxim of policy with the Italians to entertain the 
competition of two kings. The dukes of Friuli and Spoleto long 
disputed the crown; and while Berengarius reigned at Verona, 
his rivals, Guido and Lambert, were seated on the throne of Pavia. 
These last-mentioned princes, father and son, were the uncle 
and cousin of the duke of Tuscany; but he supported, or 
deserted their standard with a licentious perfidy rarely equalled 
even in that age. 

It is reported, that during one of these desertions he marched 
to surprise his cousin Lambert, who was hunting without suspicion 
in a forest near Placentia. The tents of the Tuscans, who deemed 
themselves secure of their royal game, resounded with drunken 
and lascivious songs during the greater part of the night ; but 
when their intemperance subsided into sleep, they were surprised 
by the watchful Lambert at the head of no more than a hundred 
horse. Adelbert, who could neither fight nor fly, was dragged 
from his hiding-place among the mules and asses of the baggage 
train. His shame was embittered by the rude pleasantry of 


CHAP. I. the conqueror, who told him that his wife Berta had said he 
should be either a king or an ass. " A king thou art not," said 
he, " but thy second title I shall not dispute ; and wisely hast 
thou chosen a place of refuge among the animals of thy species." 
The death of Lambert restored Adelbert to liberty ; but the state 
of Italy long fluctuated with the vicissitudes of his interests or 
passions. Berengarius, who was oppressed by his service, 
sometimes accused and sometimes imitated the example of his 
ingratitude. Louis, king of Aries, was defeated and dismissed, 
and recalled to the crown of Italy, again established, and again 
dethroned, as he was the friend or enemy of the marquess of 

Adelbert the Second died at a good old age in his palace of 
Lucca, and his real or imaginary virtues are inscribed upon 
his tomb. He was formidable to his enemies, liberal to his 
soldiers, just to his subjects, and charitable to the poor. His 
memory was embalmed in the tears of a grateful people, and 
the public happiness was buried in his grave. He left two 
sons, Guido and Lambert, the eldest of whom was acknowledged 
as duke and marquess of Tuscany. 

The pride and power of Berta were not impaired by her 
husband's death. They hurried her into an unequal contest 
with the emperor and king of Italy, and she was imprisoned 
with her sons in the fortress of Mantua; but by the firmness 
of her faithful subjects a treaty was negociated, and the captives 

In the murder of the emperor Berengarius the marquess 
of Tuscany had no concern ; but in the election of a successor 


he took an active part, and his voice had a decisive weight chap. i. 
in favour of Hugo, count of Provence, the son of his mother by 
a former marriage. Rodulph of Burgundy, the other pretender, 
was driven beyond the Alps; and Hugh, by the unanimous 
choice of the nobles, was invited into Italy, and proclaimed 
king. He landed at Pisa, and the sons of Adelbert were proud to 
salute their brother as king of Italy. But the new monarch 
betrayed a faithless and ungrateful character. The death of 
the mother dissolved the union between the children of her 
first and second marriage. 

The mild and moderate Guido died in the prime of life; 
and though he had been married for some time to Marozia, a 
woman of infamous character, it does not appear that he left 
any children. He was succeeded by his brother Lambert, 
who became duke or regent of Tuscany, in 932. 

In a hasty and indecent marriage with Marozia, the widow 
of his half brother Guido, Hugh, king of Italy, trampled upon 
all the ordinances of the church as well as on the prejudices 
of mankind. Regardless also of his mother's fame, he invented 
and propagated a report that her obstinate barrenness had 
tempted her to procure and impose two male infants upon her 
second husband. 

The arbitrary sentence of the king, who refused to acknow- 
ledge Lambert as a brother, denied, of course, his right as well 
as that of his heirs to the succession of Tuscany. But the 
undaunted Lambert threw down the gauntlet, and challenged 
to single combat the false accuser of his own and his mother's 
fame. The challenge was accepted, and an easy victory was 


CHAP. 1. obtained by the marquess of Tuscany in this appeal to the 
'^'^^^^^ judgment of God. But the still impious monarch, in his pride 
of power, loaded his victorious brother with irons, confiscated 
his dominions, and put out his eyes ; while the nobles of Italy 
most basely acquiesced in this act of cruelty as well as injustice. 
His titles and estates were given first to the brother, and 
afterwards to the bastard of the tyrant. 

The death of Lambert seems to have ended the direct line 
of the descendants of Adelbert, count of Bavaria, the founder 
of this branch of the Guelphic Family, but a collateral stem 
was still in existence. The tyrant Hugh was at last driven 
from his kingdom, loaded with the curses and treasures of the 
Italians. His son Lothaire was too feeble to maintain the 
royal authority after him; and accordingly we find, that with 
Berengarius, marquess of Friuli, and grandson to the emperor 
of that name, the family of the marquesses of Tuscany is 
restored, in the person of Adelbert the Third, the first cousin 
of the marquess Lambert, and the grandson of Adelbert the 
First, by Boniface, a younger brother of Adelbert the Second. 

There was long some doubt as to the connexion of this 
branch of the family, authors being convinced that the marquess 
Guido left no male issue by his wife Marozia; nor is it men- 
tioned by any writer of that day that he had any other family. 
The marquess Lambert, his brother, certainly left no issue. 
But the doubt has now been removed ; and it is ascer- 
tained that Adelbert the Third succeeded as the rightful heir 
to his cousins, his descent being from their immediate ancestor 
Adelbert the First, duke and marquess of Tuscany. Adelbert 


the Third was evidently an old man when he came to the chap. i. 

succession ; we therefore know little of him, or of the individual '"■^'^"^'^^ 

he married : but he was succeeded by his son Otbert, sometimes 

called Albert or Adelbert, and who is styled the well-beloved 

and trusty friend of the king Berengarius. It appears, however, 

that in character with the unsettled period in which he lived, 

this friend and counsellor of Berengarius was soon found as 

a fugitive and a rebel at the court of Otho the First, emperor 

of Germany, whom he accompanied with a powerful army into 

Italy, and aided in the overthrow of his sovereign and, as we may 

suppose, benefactor. His services were rewarded by Otho with 

the title of count of the sacred palace, and with many states 

both in Germany and Italy. 

The tyranny and vices of Berengarius are a sufficient excuse 
for the conduct of the marquess of Tuscany, or rather, as he 
was now called, the marquess of Liguria and count palatine. 
The dutchy of Tuscany, as we have stated, had been given 
by the tyrant Hugh to his bastard, and was still in the possession 
of the son of that illegitimate branch, whose title was respected 
by the emperor. As Otbert, in his official capacity of count 
palatine, represented the judicial character of the emperor, 
and pronounced finally in all civil and criminal appeals, he 
resided chiefly in the city of Pavia and castle of Lomello. He 
retained this important office for twelve years, and retired from 
it to a convent, which he had richly endowed ; and in the habit 
and character of a Benedictine monk laboured to expiate the 
sins of his secular life. 

After the resignation of the count palatine, his estates were 


CHAP. I. inherited by his son, who is known as Otbert the Second, and 
who, as Gibbon says, " was rich in land, in vassals, and in four 
valiant sons, Azo, Hugh, Adelbert, and Guido." On the failure 
of the direct line of the Saxon emperors, the kingdom of Italy 
again split into factions ; and at the diets of Mentz and Pavia 
the hostile parties elected each a king; viz. Henry the Saxon, 
and Arduin the Lombard. The German, after a war of ten 
years, prevailed, and Henry was declared emperor, while Arduin 
the Italian became the inmate of a monastery. Otbert took 
part with Arduin, as did his four sons, and his grandson Azo 
the Second. They made a noble stand near Pavia, jaised a 
formidable insurrection in the city of Rome, and finally were 
overthrown and made prisoners at Apulia. They were all con- 
victed of treason, and sentenced to be beheaded ; but their lives 
were spared by the clemency of Henry, and their confis- 
cated estates were restored, excepting such portions as had been 
dedicated to the pious purposes of the church. They remained 
faithful to Henry, their sovereign and benefactor, as long as he 
lived ; but after his death they opposed the election of Conrad, 
duke of Franconia, and, in hopes of foreign aid, offered the 
iron crown and the empire first to Robert, king of France, 
and, upon his refusing it, to the duke of Aquitain. But it 
would appear that they joined latterly the more powerful com- 

Azo, who, according to some authors, was the eldest son, 
and according to others the second, married Valdrada the 
daughter of Laudianus, doge or duke of Venice, and niece 
to Hugh, marquess of Tuscany, the son of the bastard of the 


king of Italy : and as he resided chiefly in the ancient castle 
or fortress of Este, he came to be styled by the writer of that 
age the marquess of Este. He had one son, who succeeded 
him as Azo, the second marquess of Este, and whose name 
and character shine conspicuous through the gloom of the 
eleventh century. But we must leave the consideration of his 
various qualities, until we have traced through the same series 
of ages the descendants of the other branch of the same family, 
which remained stationary in their native soil, and retained the 
name and designation of Guelph. 

Ruthardus, the brother of Adelbertus, with a count 
Warinus, as has been already observed, had the command 
of the whole of Germany under Pepin and his sons in 759. 
He took up his residence in the castle of Altorph or Altdorf, 
in the centre of his paternal domain, where he and his imme- 
diate successors retained the friendship and maintained the 
authority of the German emperors. They are called counts, 
dukes, and princes indiscriminately, in the writings of that period. 
They held the situation, as well as supported the character, of 
independent chiefs, and were known and esteemed as the noblest 
race of the Bavarians. The count Ruthardus was succeeded 
by his son Guelph the First, of Altdorf, who was the com- 
panion in arms of Charlemagne, and afterwards his comes in 

After the death of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, who suc- 
ceeded him, being then a widower, determined on a second 
marriage. The fairest and noblest dames of the empire were 
invited to his court; and the beauty and accomplishments of 


CHAP. I. Judith, daughter of Guelph, count of Altdorf, and the grand- 
daughter of Ruthardus, were rewarded with what Gibbon calls 
" a fond and feeble husband," in the person of Louis. During 
ten years,- from 819 to 830, this daughter of Guelph enjoyed 
and embellished the feasts of an itinerant court ; and after passing 
through many vicissitudes, she died in peace and honour in 843, 
leaving a posterity which reigned in France for a century and a 
half, 840-987. 

The eldest son of Guelph, father of the empress, remained 
stationary at his hereditary seat ; but two of her younger brothers 
accompanied her to the court of the empire, and shared her 
happy as well as her adverse fortunes. These princes were 
Conrad and Rudolph. When Judith was surprised and con- 
fined by Lothaire, her unnatural stepson, her brothers were 
shaven as priests ; but they stood beside the throne as priests 
of the blood royal. Conrad had two sons — Conrad the Second, 
and Hugh, so named after his relations in Italy, and who, from 
his church preferment, was called the abbot. Their ambitious 
spirit maintained their hereditary rank ; and they are conspicuous 
in the annals of the period as governors of provinces, and as 
commanders in peace and war. 

Conrad the Second was created marquess of Burgundy 
trans-Juram ; or, we should rather say, succeeded his granduncle 
Otkarius in that title; and in this dignity he was again suc- 
ceeded by his son Rudolph, who, on the downfal of the Carlovingian 
race, assumed the royal crown, at the abbey of St. Maurice, in 888. 
His independence was confirmed by two victories, and at last 
acknowledged in a diet of the German empire. His son, Rudolph 


the Second, twice attempted the conquest of Italy in 912 and 937 ; chap. i. 
and both times his retreat was purchased by a fair equivalent. 
His dominion extended over the French or western part of 
Switzerland, Franche Compt^, Savoy, Dauphine, Provence, and 
the country between the Rhone and the Alps ; and was known 
as the kingdom of Burgundy, or Aries. His son Conrad reigned 
for upwards of 56 years, from 937 to 993, and enjoyed the friend- 
ship and support of Otho, emperor of Germany: but after the 
death of his son and successor, Rudolph the Third, surnamed the 
Lazy, the sovereignty of this kingdom of Aries, or Burgundy, 
devolved, as a fief or legacy, to his nephew, Conrad the Salic, 
who was elected emperor in 1024. But to return to the elder 
branch, the immediate ancestors of our Royal Family. 

Ethico, or Edico, the elder brother of the empress Judith, 
was succeeded, 830, by his son Guelph, who again, 876, was 
succeeded by his son Ethico, who was alive in 900, and whose 
son was Henry ; of whom it is recorded, that being much at the 
court of the emperor Arnulph, and having consented to receive, 
and to hold as a fief of the empire, as much land as he could 
surround in one day with a chariot, he had a little vehicle 
made of gold, with which he mounted his fleetest horses, sta- 
tioned at proper distances, and so acquired about four thousand 
mansi, or measures of land, in the twenty-four hours. As these 
states lay in Upper Bavaria, he was created duke thereof, and 
engaged to perform the homage of a faithful client. From this 
circumstance he is styled, in the records of that period, Henry of 
the Golden Chariot. This degradation, for so it was considered, 
so disgusted his free and independent father, that, in the height 


CHAP. I. of despair, he retired, with only twelve of his lords, to the forest 
^^'^^^^ of Ambergau, where he erected thirteen single cells, and where he 
lived and ended his days, without ever seeing or forgiving his 
degenerate son*. 

The principal seat of this branch of the family was in Swabia, 
in the neighbourhood of the Lake of Constance ; and their chief 
castles were Altdorf and Ravensberg : but their power extended 
from the mountains of the Tyrol to the plains of Alsace, and 
several free communities of the Grisons were once the vassals of 
these powerful princes. In their household they displayed the 
pomp and pride of regal economy; and, from the first records 
of their name, the offices of their courts were filled by counts, 
or nobles of equal rank. The cathedral churches of Frisingen, 
Augsburgh, Constance, and Coire, were endowed by their devo- 
tion with liberal grants of land and peasants ; and the monasteries 
of Altomunster, Weingarten, and HoiFe, were founded by their 
munificence : but they were bound to offer at the shrine of St. 
Othmar a humiliating tribute, as an atonement for the guilt of 
their ancestor Ruthardus, who, with his colleague Warinus, in the 
eighth century, had abused his power as governor of Alemania, 
and had persecuted that saint. 

Henry of the Golden Chariot, the first duke of Upper, or 
rather Nether Bavaria, had two sons — Rudolph, who succeeded 
him as count of Altdorf; and Conrad, bishop of Constance; a 
prelate, who, after having filled the episcopal chair for a period 
of forty years, was translated to heaven, and numbered among 

* Vide Appendix, No. I. Monastery of Etthal. 


the saints. His life and miracles have been recorded with some chap. i. 
care, as more worthy of preservation than the actions of a ^^ 
temporal prince ; and while almost every occurrence, however 
trifling, in the life of the good bishop, is related and commented 
upon at great length, the transactions of his elder brother, a duke, 
a prince, and a count, have scarcely been noticed. 

Rudolph the First died in 940, and was succeeded by his 
son Guelph, who is the third of that name as count of Altdorf, 
but the first as duke of Bavaria. We know little more than 
that he died in 980, and was succeeded by his son, Rudolph 
the Second. By the grand- daughter of the emperor Otho the 
First, this Rudolph had two sons, Henry and Guelph ; and 
because the following miracle was to be recorded, we know more 
of these youths than perhaps we should otherwise have done. 

We have stated that the Guelphic princes were bound to 
present annually a degrading tribute, as a sin-offering, at the 
shrine of St. Othmar. This the young Henry refused to do ; 
but the denial was soon followed by his untimely death. After 
hunting the roe in the mountains of the Tyrol, he was reposing 
under the shadow of a rock, when a huge fragment of the 
stone fell upon his head, and killed him on the spot. His 
brother Guelph was more pious and submissive ; he paid the 
annual tribute ; and accordingly, as we are told, he was blessed 
with a long and glorious reign. Guelph, the fourth of Altdorf 
and second of Bavaria, succeeded his father after the death of 
his elder brother Henry, in 1009. He married Imiza, daughter 
of the count of Lucemburgh, and niece of the empress St. Cune^ 
gonde. He accompanied the emperor Henry the Second, duke 


CHAP. I. of Bavaria, at his coronation at Rome, and afterwards joined 
^^^'''^^ in a rebellion against him, and assisted in the establishment 
of Conrad the Salic. 

Guelph died in 1030, after having bestowed his daughter 
Cuniga, or Cunigunda, upon his kinsman Azo, now marquess of 
Este, with a dowry of eleven thousand mansi of land in the 
valley of Elisina, in Lombardy ; and he was succeeded by his 
only son, Guelph, the third of Bavaria and fifth of Altdorf. 

Guelph, the brother of Cunigunda, was invested with the 
dutchy of Carinthia and marquesate of Verona, aw important 
province, which included the country of the Tyrol, and com- 
manded the passage of the Rhoetian Alps ; " and," says Gibbon, 
" the servant of Henry the -Third maintained the vigour of his 
character and the pride of his birth." An Italian diet was sum- 
moned, according to custom, in the plain of Roncaglia, where 
Guelph waited for three days, without seeing or hearing from 
the emperor. On the 4th he sounded a retreat ; and though 
he met Henry on the way, neither threats, prayers, nor promises, 
could prevail on him to return. 

When an arbitrary tax of ar thousand marks was imposed 
upon the citizens of Verona, he flew to their relief with a powerful 
army, and scarcely could the concessions of the emperor purchase 
for him an ignominious escape. He died childless, in the prime 
of life, 1055, and is the last male issue of this branch, which 
had long been considered the chief of the House of Guelph. 
The monks of Weingarten, a monastery that had been built and 
endowed by his ancestor, persuaded him to leave his lands and 
vassals to them ; but Imiza, his mother, immediately despatched 


a messenger into Italy for the son of her daughter Cunigunda, chap. i. 
who, on his arrival, annulled the donation, and asserted his own ^^^^^^^ 
right as the true and legitimate heir of the ancient Guelphs. 

We have now, in this hasty sketch, brought down the 
history of these two branches of the House of Guelph to that 
period when they were reunited, and to a period, too, pregnant 
with important events, of which more documents have been 
preserved and transmitted to us, and when a clearer light is 
thrown around those who acted a conspicuous part in the great 
drama of life. But before we proceed to consider the character 
and actions of the marquess A/n and his descendants, who in- 
herited the estates and assumed the name of their immediate 
ancestor by the mother's side, it may not be improper to re- 
consider the several steps by which we have advanced through 
the preceding pages, and cite the proofs which have led us to 
the conclusions there drawn. 

Previous to the middle of the eighth century, the only proofs 
which can be adduced are the frequent occurrence, in general 
history, of the name Wlph, or, as now spelt, Guelph, as a leader 
of a northern tribe of barbarians, and more particularly as a 
prince, or piimas, of the Scyrri. 

Having assisted in the conquest of Italy and the establishment 
of the Lombard kingdom, there is a strong presumption that 
some of the family sat upon that throne, and positive evidence 
that they ranked high at the courts of Lombardy and France ; 
and we are rather inclined to think that they resided in Italy, and 
that, as powerful princes of the age, they had estates in Lombardy 
as well as in Burgundy and France. From their princely origin 


CHAP. I, and existing German connexion, they were always chosen as the 
^"^^^^*^ representatives of the French kings, or the royal inquisitors, in 
Germany. About the period when we are able to fix upon 
a particular individual, and can continue to trace his posterity 
with some degree of probability, we find in the general records 
that a Guelph was the friend of Charles Martell, and the missus 
regitis of Pepin, the father of Charlemagne. 

The name is common among the dukes of Friuli and Spoleto, 
with whom we know they were connected ; and, from 750 to 756, 
a Guelph Aistulphus was king of Lombardy. About this period 
also, we find, by documents already referred to, (the History of 
the Foundation of the Monastery of Togrensee, in Bavaria,) that 
there were at that time (746) two brothers, " principes Noricorum 
ex patre Burgundi, ex matre Bavari ;" that they were " consan- 
guinitatis affinitate proximi" of king Pepin. Their names are 
expressly stated to be Albertus and Otkarius : " Albertus novem 
comitatus possedit in Bavaria, alter ver6 Okarius, qui et setate 
provectior ducatum tenuit in Burgundia." From Albertus, or 
Adelbertus, we have traced the marquesses of Tuscany and of 
Este ; and from another prince of that age, supposed to have 
been another brother, Ruthardus, or Rodoardus, whose existence 
is also proved by charters* of as early a date, we find the counts 
of Altdorf, and dukes of Bavaria and of Carinthia, as also the 
kings of Burgundy, were lineally descended. Of the descendants 

* 1. Placitum Pepini regis compendiense, cui assedit Rothardus comes, ann. 750. 

2. Charta venditionls a Rhothardo comite Julrado abbati facta, 765. 

3. Charta sub Rodharto comite scripta, ann. 768. 

4. Charta Caroli regis memoraus venditionem illam, ann. 790. 


of duke Otkarius we know little ; but it appears that, in his old chap. i. 
age, he, with the permission of Charlemagne, retired to a monas- 
tery which he had richly endowed, and that he ended his days 
among the monks of St. Faro at Meldos, where his tomb still 
exists, and his effigy is placed by the side of that of St. Benedict. 
He had one son, Rochus, who was educated with Charlemagne 
at the court of France, and who was killed in a fit of boyish 
passion by that afterwards great potentate. Now, though there 
is positive evidence of the existence of these several individuals, 
it must be confessed that there is no existing document which 
absolutely states that Boniface was the son of Adelbert, or that 
the first Guelph owed his origin to Ruthardus : the collateral 
proof, however, is very strong ; and there are documents of a 
later period that abundantly prove this descent, or at least prove 
that it was believed a thousand years ago. From Boniface the 
First, and Guelph the First, I find no doubt or difficulty in tracing 
their genealogy to the period at which we are now arrived. It 
is also very probable, we may further remark, that the grandsons 
of Ruthardus, the brothers of the empress Judith, took possession 
of their granduncle's dutchy in Burgundy, when they quitted 
Bavaria in the train of their sister, and that it was on this account 
they became so powerful in that country, and at last were raised 
to the regal dignity. 

There is, however, another account, which has been stated 
by some authors, namely, that Guelph, the father of the empress 
Judith, and Boniface the First, count of Lucca, were brothers, 
and the sons of Adelbertus, the founder of the monastery at 
Togrensee. They certainly lived at the same period, and died 


CHAP. I. within a few years of each other : but there is stronger evidence 
'^^^"''^^ of their being first cousins than that they were brothers. 

In the tables which are to be found in the records, and which 
illustrate these remarks, we have not gone to a higher source 
than the father of the empress Judith, because it is only from that 
period that we can trace with perfect certainty the descent of this 
illustrious race ; but we have added here a tabular view of that 
descent, as detailed in this chapter, in order that the reader may 
have it more immediately under his eye*. 

* The reader may consult, as authorities : — 

GoLDASTUS Scriptores Rer. Alemann. edit. 1606, torn. ii. pp. 43,46, 54, 58, 74. 

Mabillok Rei Diplomat, lib. vi. cap. 44, pp. 493, 494, 502 ; torn. iii. pp. 680, 
690, 867 ; Elogium S'' Odonis, p. 135, et seq. ; S<i Benedicti, pp. 71, 72, 217. 

CoiNTius Annales Eccles. Francorum ad Ann. 831. 

Labeus Curiositat. Miscellanse, cap. vi. sect. 6 ; Concilia, torn. viii. pp. 95, 
100, 861. 

DuRANDUs Thesaurus Anecdotorum, torn. i. pp. 42, 67, 140 ; Veterum Scriptor. 
et Monumentorum Collectio Ampliss. torn. ii. pp. 292, 330, 400, 523. 

Balusius Capitularium, torn. ii. pp. 1492, 1536 ; Miscellanea, torn. ii. p. 161. 

Dacher Chronica Centul. tom. ii. p. 316, lib. c; torn. iii. pp. 375, 379, 380, 
386, 391. 

MuRATORius Antiquit. Italic, tom. ii. pp. 41, 122 ; tom. iii. pp. 55, 156 ; tom. vi. 
p. 325; tom. i. pp. 47, 276, 415, 417 ; Antiquit. Estens, part i. pp. 6, 47. 

Crusius Ann. Suevicse, part ii. lib. iv. p. 138. 

HuNDius Metropolit. Salisburgense, tom. i. pp. 55, 172, 191, 395 ; tom. i. p. 316, 

ScHEiDius Origines Guelficse, tom. ii. lib. iv. v. vi. 

Gibbon's Antiquities of the House of Brunswick, passim. 

JoENANDES de Reb. Geticis, cap. 53, 54. 





GUELPH, prince of tbe Scyrri, 476. 


GuEiPH, prince or leader of the Bavarians, 590. 

GuELPH, chamberlain of France, 613-635. 

ria, 670. 

1, RuTHARDUs, governor of 2, Otkarius, duke of 

Germany under Pepin, Burgundy trans- 

759-768. Juram, 756. 

GuELPH, count of Altdorf. 

Edico. 2, Conrad. 3, Rudolph. 4, Judith, empress. 

1, Conrad, duke of Burgundy, a, Hugh, abbot 

Rudolph, king, 888. 

Henry of the Golden Chariot, 925. Rudolph 2d, king. 

GuELPH 2, 830. 
EiHico or Edico 2, 870. 

Adelbert 2d, duke of 
Tuscany, 916. 

3, Adeleertus, count of Bavaria, 
who had the government of some 
provinces in Italy, 756. 

WoLFHARDus, ex Wol, bonus, and 
fahren, facere ; translated Boni- 
face, count of Lucca, 823. 

Boniface 2, count of Lucoa in 850. 

Adelbert 1, duke of Tuscany in 871. 
int of 

1, Rudolph 1. 2, Conrad, bishop, Conrad, king. 

I 940. I 

Guelph, 1st duke of Bavaria, Sd Rudolph 3d, last king of Burgundy, 
count of Altdorf, 960. 
Rudolph 2, 995. 

BONIFACE, connt 
Lncca, 884. 

GuiDO, 931. 2, Lam- Segisfrede, prince 
BERT, 960; successively Lucca, 900. 
dukes, iS;c. of Tuscany, | 

bnt left no issue. 

1,Henrv, killed voung. 2, Guelph, 4th couui 
of Altdorf, 2d duke of Bavaria, 1030. 

Adelbert 3d, marquess 
of Tuscany, count of 
Lncca, 952. 

Otbert, count pala- 
tine, 974. 

Otbert 2d, marquess of 
Liguria, 1014. 

1, Guelph, 5th count of Alt- 
dorf, 3d duke of Bavaria; 
also duke of Carintliia and 
marquess of Verona, last 
male issue of this brauch, 


manied to Azo, sjd mar- 
quess of Este. - 

1, Azo, marquess of Este, 1030. 2, Hugh. 3, Adelbert. 4, Guit 
-Azo 2, marquess of Este, 1097. 

Guelph, 6th connt of Altdorf, 3d duke of Bavaria*. 

above table i 



CHAP. II. There are few individuals in any age, or in any country, 

^^"^"^^^"^ that hold a more conspicuous place in history than the marquess 
Azo the Second ; and he claims our attention more particularly 
as the common father of the German and Italian princes of the 
Brunswick and Este lines of the House of Guelph. As the 
representative of the emperor, he was officially recognised in 
Italy ; but the progress of Italian liberty had reduced his power, 
in a great measure, to the empty name of marquess of Liguria. 
Eighty-three fiefs, or manors, are enumerated, which he held 
of the empire in Lombardy and Tuscany — from the marquesate 
of Este, the residence of the family, to the county of Luni : 
besides the terra Obertenga in the counties of Arezzo, Pisa, and 
Lucca, and the immense possessions which he received as the 
dowry of Cunigunda of Altdorf. He was therefore designated, 
among the princes of his time, by the epithet of Rich. 

A. D. 1012. At the age of seventeen, Azo the Second was proscribed 

as a rebel, with his grandfather, his father, and his three uncles ; 
but in his fiftieth year we find him governing the cities of Milan 

A.D. 1045. and Genoa as the minister of the emperor. He was the friend 
and servant of pope Gregory VII., and is styled by that pontiff 
the most faithful and best beloved of the Italian princes. 
In every war between the emperor and pope, Azo and the 
countess Matilda led the powers of Italy. With their aid the 
pope maintained his station in the fortress of Canossa; while 


Henry the Fourth, barefoot on the frozen groimd, fasted and chap. ii. 
prayed for three days at the foot of the rock. At this perioxl 'A^.'me!^ 
Azo must have been m his eightieth year; but in the twenty 
following years he was still alive, and active amidst the vicissi- 
tudes of peace and war. The last act which he subscribed, 
is dated above a century after his birth ; yet in that act he has a. d. loge. 
shown that he possessed the command of his faculties, his 
family, and his fortune. 

At the age of forty he married, for the first time, the only 
daughter of his kinsman Guelph the Fourth, of Altdorf ; whose 
brother, we have already remarked, had been invested with 
the dutchy of Carinthia and the marquesate of Verona, on the 
confines of the Venetian states of the Este branch of this house. 
This marriage was productive of one son, who received at his 
baptism the name of Guelph. Cunigunda died in the flower 
of her age; but her son, on the death of his uncle, 1055, the last 
male heir of the house of Altdorf, having been sent for by his 
grandmother, became the head not only of the Italian but also 
of the German branch of the Guelphic family. 

Azo married a second time. His choice was the widow 
Garsenda, daughter and afterwards heiress of the counts of 
Maine. By her he had two sons, Hugo and Fulk; the latter 
of whom was the acknowledged parent of the dukes of Ferrara 
and Modena. His third consort (for he had three wives) was 
his first cousin, also a widow of noble birth ; but from her he 
was divorced in his seventy-eighth year, by the stern impartial 
justice of his friend Gregory VH. Besides his three sons, he 
had one daughter, Adelaide ; but it does not appear that he left 


CHAP. ir. any other issue. The fortunes of his eldest son are now to 
^"■^"^"''^ be traced : but, before quitting Azo the Second, we may remark, 
that Hugo his second son was married to the fourth daughter 
of Robert Guiscard, the conqueror of Apulia and Sicily; and 
that the descendants of this marriage became extinct in the 
second generation. The descendants of Fulk, the third son, 
existed till of late, and were mingled with most of the royal 
houses in Europe ; but their states have now merged, by a 
female heir, in the house of Austria. 
A.D. io5o. Guelph the Sixth succeeded to the patrimony of his 

mother, and, by the marriage settlement, his father's states 
were also secured to him. " His fortune," says Gibbon, " was 
adequate to his birth, and his warlike ambitious spirit soared above 
his fortune." In a diet of the empire held at Goslar, (1071) he 
was invested by Henry the Fourth with the dutchy of Bavaria, 
a title first assumed by his ancestor Henry of the Golden 
Chariot, in 900. By his first marriage with Ethelinda, daughter 
of the duke of Lower Bavaria, he had acquired a right to 
the whole of these states, and, though afterwards divorced 
from the Bavarian princess, he retained possession of that 
entire dutchy, which in those days extended to the confines of 

His second marriage was with Judith, daughter of Baldwin, 
count of Flanders, widow of Tostus, the son of earl Godwin, 
and brother of Harold, king of England. By her he had two 
sons. The eldest is known as Guelph the Seventh, who, being 
A. D. 1089. sent into Italy at the age of seventeen, was married to his 
cousin Matilda, countess of Tuscany, then in her forty-third 


year*. They lived together for six years; but, as their union chap. ir. 
gave no hopes of issue, a divorce took place in 1095. The ^'"'^'^^^''^ 
second son vv^as Henry the Black. 

In the differences between the emperor and pope, Guelph 
the Sixth arranged his forces on the side of the church, and 
w^as, therefore, not unfrequently declared a rebel. In his old 
age he went with a considerable force to the Holy Land ; but 
the greater part of his army was buried in Asia Minor, and 
he himself died, on his return, at Paphos, in the isle of Cyprus, 
1101. He survived his father only four years; and though well 
inclined to see the settlements of his parents in his behalf most 
strictly executed, he was so effectually opposed by his younger 
brothers, Hugo and Fulk, who with their followers had seized 
on the passes of the Alps, that he was obliged to yield to a 
more equal treaty of partition. 

On the death of his father, Guelph the Seventh, in right of a.d. noi. 
primogeniture, took possession of his dominions, and governed 
the states of Bavaria from 1101 to 1120. His power gave a.d. 1120. 
him a rank among the first princes of Germany ; and when 
he appeared in state, a sword was carried before him. The 
Bavarians applauded the mildness of his sway, and his paternal 
care in the education of the young nobles of his court. At 
Rome he often appeared as a mediator between the emperor 
and pope. He was remarkable for his sonorous voice and 

* Matilda, called indiscriminately dutchess and countess of Tuscany, was the 
grand-daughter of Atto, count of Modena, a younger brother of Adelbert the Third, 
and the only daughter and heiress of Boniface, marquess of Tuscany, 1033, one 
of the most powerful princes in Italy. 


CHAP. 11. great corpulence, which, however, the historian remarks, were 
~'^''~*~ not in him the attributes of manhood. On his death, 1120, the 
whole of the allodial estates and subordinate fiefs of the family 
in Germany and Italy, were reunited in the person of his only 
brother, Henry the Black, a prince well calculated to maintain 
the dignity and increase the power of this illustrious house. 
A. D. 1125. On the death of the emperor Henry the Fifth, Henry the 

Black, with the sacerdotal and noble attendants that had met 
at his funeral, subscribed a writ of summons, which speaks 
what Gibbon calls " the language of freedom and resentment." 
A diet was held in the neighbourhood of Mentz, while the 
followers of the different chiefs, amounting to nearly sixty 
thousand soldiers and freemen, were encamped on either side of 
the Rhine. On the recommendation of the archbishop of Mentz, 
the scene of election was removed from the camp to the cathe- 
dral ; and through his influence the previous nomination of 
the emperor was intrusted to a committee of ten princes 
and prelates, which formed the first rudiments of the electoral 

Three candidates for the imperial purple appeared at this 
diet, — Leopold, marquess of Austria ; Lothaire, duke of 
Saxony ; and Frederick, duke of Swabia. The evasions of the 
latter betrayed a secret and offensive presumption of hereditary 
right; for though the son of Frederick of Stauffen, a soldier 
of fortune, his mother Agnes was the daughter and sister of 
the two last emperors. He had shared with his brother Conrad 
the rich inheritance of the Franconian, or, as they were afterwards 
better known, the Ghibelline house ; and his ambition might find 


countenance from the examples of preceding reigns. The electors chap. ii. 

determined at once to crush this ambition by the free election 

of Lothaire, duke of Saxony ; but, while they were ignorant 

of the sentiments of the duke of Bavaria, they were afraid to 

declare their choice. Henry they knew was personally attached 

to Frederick, for he had given him his daughter in marriage; 

and they were aware that the votes of his dependent bishops, 

and the swords of his military vassals, could give the crown 

to whichever candidate he selected. 

To the honour of Henry the Black, the public interests 
prevailed over his private feelings ; and appearing in the cathe- 
dral of Mentz, and having declared in favour of the Saxon, soth August. 
Lothaire was proclaimed in triumph, and Frederick fled in 
despair. Henry did not survive the diet of Mentz many months. 
He died in 112G, having reigned little more than six years. 

By Wilfilda, daughter and heiress of Magnus, the last 
duke of Saxony of the Billung race, Henry the Black left 
seven children. Conrad, the eldest son, preferred the quiet 
and security of the church to the pomp and bustle of the 
world ; and to escape the honours and powers which, from 
his rank and connexions, must have been bestowed upon him 
had he remained in his own country, he fled to the abbey of 
Clairvaux in France, pronounced the vow of a Cistercian 
monk, and lived under the austere discipline of Saint Bernard. 
In a pilgrimage to the Holy Land he buried himself for some 
time in the cell of a hermit of the desert; and when the decay a.d. 1126. 
of his health compelled him to return to Europe, he found a 
grave at Bari, on the sea coast of Italy. 


CHAP. II. As the eldest son was dead to the world from the moment 

^^■^"^V^^ he entered the convent, the states in Germany and Italy were 
divided between his two brothers, Henry, surnamed the Proud, 
and Guelph the Eighth. Henry, as the first-born, succeeded 
his father as duke of Bavaria ; and, as the heir of his mother's 
house, he also succeeded to those states of Saxony, which 
comprehended the present dutchy of Luneburg and that of 
Lawenburg, with the neighbouring provinces on the Elbe. The 
title of duke of Saxony, on the demise of Magnus the last Billung, 
the father of the dutchess of Bavaria, was given by Henry 
the Fifth to Lothaire, count of Supplingenburg ; who, by the 
decisive vote of Henry the Black, was now raised to the throne 
of the Csesars. 

The Billungs were a race of free and independent chiefs, 
who long held sovereign sway between the Elbe and the 
Weser, and had risen from being counts or military go- 
vernors under Charlemagne, to the rank of hereditary dukes 
of Saxony; a title first granted them by Otho the Great, 
960. Henry the Proud, in right of his mother, was now the 
representative of this noble family ; and this is the first of the 
many sovereign houses which centered in him and his descend- 
A.u. use. ants. By his marriage with Gertrude, the only daughter and 
heiress of Lothaire the Second, and the empress Richenza, 
who was also the only daughter and heiress of the last count 
of Nordheim, and, in right of her mother, the heiress of Eckbert, 
second margrave of Saxony and Thuringen, and prince of Bruns- 
wick, the last of the Brunonian family, he acquired not only 
a right to the remaining Saxon states, but also to the title of 


duke of Saxony, and became the sovereign of Supplingenburg, chap. ii. 
Nordheim, and Brunswick*. The marriage of Henry the Proud ^^^^^ 
was not accomplished till after his father's death : but as it 
was celebrated with great splendour, a full account of it has 
been preserved in the records of the period. 

The nuptial feast was held on the banks of a pleasant river 
in the plain of Lechrain, and that extensive plain was covered 
with tents and wooden edifices. A general invitation had col- 
lected twenty or thirty thousand guests, consisting of princes, 
barons, and knights ; who, with their numerous retinues, conti- 
nued to keep up a festival, which, by the profuse hospitality of 
the bridegroom, was prolonged for several weeks. In all the 
tournaments of chivalry Henry bore off the prize. 

The restless spirit of Frederick of Swabia, the disappointed 
candidate, and brother-in-law of the duke of Bavaria, was not 
long in stirring up feuds in the empire. He and his brother 
Conrad took up arms ; and by the discontented the latter was 
elected king. Their adherents were numerous in Italy and in 
Germany, and they seduced the fidelity of Albert, archbishop a. d. 1130. 
of Mentz. The political sagacity of Henry was not less advan- 

* By this marriage with the only lineal descendant of Wittikend, the last Saxon 
king, Henry also acquired a right to, and assumed, the armorial bearings of that 
sovereign ; and the white horse was adopted as the crest of the Guelphic princes. 
The banner of Wittikend bore the emblem of a black horse, but when he changed his 
religion, and became a Christian, Charlemagne, his conqueror, and through whom his 
conver^on was effected,, permitted him to retain his ancient ensigns, but requested 
he would change the colour ; and for the future the horse was painted white, from 
respect to the pure faith by which he had been rescued from the power of the devil, 
whose colour was supposed to be black. The descent of the dutchess Gertrude is 
given in Table I. B. 


CHAP. II. tageous to his father-in-law, than his sword was powerful in 
^"""^'''^ quelling the rebellion. Though the power of the Swabian 
princes extended from the Upper Danube to the Lower Rhine, 
the cities of Ulm and Spires, on which their chief reliance 
was placed, were reduced by the valour of Henry. He sur- 
prised and vanquished Frederick on his march to the relief of 
Spires, and the walls and buildings of Ulm were levelled to 
the ground by his irresistible assault. The brothers were obliged 
to resign their pretensions to the crown, and to implore the 
pardon of the emperor; so that Lothaire remained without a 
rival, the sole monarch of the German empire. These are amongst 
the first quarrels, and indeed may be considered the origin of 
that jealousy between the Guelph and Ghibelline lines, which 
for ages kept the Christian world in alarm, and was the ruin of 
many of the finest provinces of Italy. 

The reward of Henry's faithful services was the title and 
power of duke of Saxony, which was conferred upon him by 
his father-in-law. " Few Christian kings," says Gibbon, " in the 
twelfth century could vie with the power or dominion of the 
duke of Saxony and Bavaria, supreme governor of the Danish, 
Sclavic, and Hungarian borders." The celebrated Matilda, countess 
of Tuscany, had bequeathed her estates to the church ; but this 
donation, Lothaire, as the representative of the Caesars and king 
of the Lombards, thought proper to dispute ; but, as a com- 
promise, he accepted of the investiture of her patrimony, which 
extended from the Adriatic and the Po to the Tiber and the 
Tuscan sea. An annual quit-rent of one hundred marks of silver, 
declared the supremacy of the pope ; and the reversion was 


granted to Henry the Proud, on condition that he should swear chap. ii. 
fealty and perform homage to the holy see. '^-•-v-*^ 

The eldest son of the House of Guelph was now raised above a. d. 1133. 
the level of a subject. He was addressed by his august father 
as the presumptive heir to the crown, to which there was every 
prospect of his succeeding. When the emperor went to Rome 
(1133) to be crowned, Henry was left behind, to maintain peace, 
or prosecute war, in the Teutonic kingdom. In 1136, fifteen A.D.tise. 
hundred knights and men at arms marched under the banners 
of the duke of Saxony, who accompanied the emperor in his 
expedition to vindicate the altar and the throne from the schism 
of an anti-pope and the rebellion of a king of Sicily. Henry 
the Proud appeared as the second person in the army of the 
powers of Germany. On descending from the Rhoetian Alps, 
he stormed the castles and took the strong places situated on 
the borders of the lakes and on the mountains ; and as the su- 
perior lord of the patrimony of his ancestors, he granted the fief 
of Este to his cousins, the descendants of the younger branch. 
From Verona to Turin, and from Turin to Ravenna, he led or 
followed the royal standard, repressing the proud, and interceding 
for the humble. XOOD jrO / 

After celebrating the festival of Christmas with the emperor, 
he was detached with a body of three thousand German horse, 
with which he crossed the Appenines, and reinstated the bishops 
and magistrates who had been expelled by the popular insurrec- 
tions. He besieged Florence, pardoned Lucca, and forcibly entered 
the gates of Sienna. The whole of these provinces were reduced ; 
and to his German titles was now added that of duke of Tuscany. 


CHAP. II. He conducted pope Innocent the Second from Pisa to the 

*^'^^'^^ siege of Bari, a distance of five hundred miles, through an 
enemy's country, and filled with garrisons of Norman and Saracen 
soldiers, in the pay of Roger, king of Sicily. The force under 
his command was not equal to the siege of Rome ; but in his 
march southward he compelled the abbey of Mount Cassin, 
the principality of Capua, and the ecclesiastical province of 
Beneventum^ to acknowledge their lawful governors. His pru- 
dence and valour were conspicuous in the sieges of Bari and 
Salernum ; and it was owing to his activity that the infidels 
were driven from Italy. 

Lothaire was not so fortunate in his expedition. He retreated 
from Apulia ; and, at a nameless village on the confines of Bavaria, 
he breathed his last on the 3d of December, 11 37. It was natural 
to suppose that he would be succeeded by his adopted son ; 
and Henry's claims were founded, not only on his having married 
the only daughter of Lothaire, but on the very superior advan- 
tages of his merit and ample fortune. But he had not risen 
to such wealth and power without exciting the envy of many, 
and his proud and haughty demeanour had given great offence. 
* The conspiracy of the ecclesiastical and secular princes, which 
was formed against him, was fomented by the policy of Rome ; 
and Conrad, the brother of Frederick, the elder of the Ghibelline 
brothers, was elected in a hasty and irregular meeting, which 
anticipated the summons and forms of election. Their choice 
was sanctioned and ratified by the consent of the nation ; and 
even the empress dowager Richenza was compelled to attend the 
diet, and to renounce the cause of her own son-in-law. 


As any attempt at resistance seemed vain, Henry desisted chap. n. 
from a fruitless contest ; and the ensigns of royalty, which he ^'^^Tiss 
had received from his dying father, were delivered into the 
hands of his rival. But the pride and power of Henry could 
neither stoop to obey, nor expect to be forgiven ; and the rival 
of his house, now in power, was determined that the Saxon 
influence should be lessened as much as possible. The question 
was agitated, whether two dutchies could legally be vested in 
the same person, and of course decided in the negative, by 
those who wished to oppress, and those who had hopes of 
succeeding the reigning duke. Had Henry quietly submitted 
to part with one of the dutchies, he might probably have been 
allowed to retain the other ; but as his proud spirit scorned 
the humiliating option, he was at once, in a diet composed 
chiefly of his enemies, stripped of all his possessions, and, as 
a rebel, put under the ban of the empire. 

The dutchies of Bavaria and Saxony were respectively granted 
to the first and most powerful relations of Henry, or, we should 
rather say, to those who were in greatest favour at the court 
of the emperor. Saxony was bestowed upon Albert, surnamed 
the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg ; and Leopold, margrave of 
Austria, the half-brother of Conrad, was created duke of Bavaria. 
Albert's mother was a younger sister of the mother of Henry the 
Proud ; he therefore claimed, with some right, a share of the 
property of duke Magnus of Saxony, and perhaps was entitled to 
a part of the inheritance of the Billungs. So universally was 
Henry deserted when the ban was proclaimed against him, that 
he fled with only four followers from the banks of the Danube to 


CHAP. 11. those of the Elbe and Weser ; where, however, he soon found 
^^"^"''"^ support. The states of Brunswick and Luneburg poured forth 
a swarm of soldiers ; and as soon as they had recovered from 
their first alarm, the Guelphic vassals of Swabia and Bavaria 
resorted in immense bodies to the standard of their lavdul sove- 
reign. Henry was a veteran in the art of war : his pride was 
stimulated by shame and resentment. The margrave of Branden- 
burg was driven from the Saxon territories, and obliged to take 
refuge at the court of the emperor. Conrad marched against 
Henry at the head of an imperial army ; but on a nearer view 
of his strength, he desisted from hostilities, and had recourse 
to negotiation. A diet was announced : but Henry, alike pre- 
pared to defend his cause by arguments or by arms, was 
suddenly seized with a severe illness, which in a few days ter- 
minated his earthly career. A report was prevalent that he had 
been poisoned ; and it must be confessed that there is something 
suspicious in the time and manner of his death. 
A. D. 1139. Henry died in 1139, leaving an only son, also named Henry, 

in the tenth year of his age. The young duke was soon aban- 
doned by his mother; for, in 1141, she married the enemy of his 
house, Henry, margrave of Austria, the brother and successor of 
Leopold, who had been invested with the dutchy of Bavaria. 
But his grandmother Richenza took care of his interests ; and 
as she possessed the affections of the people, she assumed the 
regency of the country. The faithful Saxons showed themselves 
ready to protect the child of the nation. Being persuaded to 
give up his claim to Bavaria, the youthful prince was acknow- 
ledged as duke of Saxony by the emperor and the empire — an 


act which secured some years of domestic peace, without at all chap. ii. 
injuring the rights of the minor. '^■^•V^h^ 

Henry was a prince of most wonderful promise. While yet 
a child, he had displayed an extraordinary degree of energy 
and decision of character, delighting in the most noble and 
manly exercises ; and so conspicuous was he for fortitude and 
courage, that he very early got the surname of the Lion. His 
uncle, Guelph, the younger brother of his father, who had been 
portioned off with some fiefs in Italy, took a great interest in 
his welfare, and supported his rights and claims at the court of 
the emperor with all the influence of his name and all the power 
of his vassals. His education was that of a Saxon and a soldier ; 
to support the inclemency of the seasons, to disdain the tempta- 
tions of luxury, to manage the horse and the lance, to contend 
with his equals in the exercise of military and even civil virtues, 
and to disguise the superior gifts of fortune, perhaps of nature, 
under the winning graces of modesty and gentleness*. At the age 
of eighteen he was admitted into the diet at Frankfort, composed A. d. m?. 
of men and princes, and received the order of knighthood, which 
had been newly instituted, instead of declaring him of age by 
the national custom of delivering the sword and spear. Europe 
was then agitated with the preparations for the second crusade ; 
but as the northern states of Germany, with their allies of Den- 
mark and Poland, preferred a holy warfare less remote, a hundred 
and sixty thousand soldiers of the cross were speedily enrolled 
to convert or exterminate the idolatrous Sclavi of the Baltic. 

* Vide Gibbon's Antiquities, passim. 


CHAP. II. The young duke of Saxony, with a numerous body of 

and followers, formed a part of this army ; and though the first 
campaign was neither successful nor glorious, he showed himself 
on a splendid theatre to the Christians and pagans of the north. 
On the return of the emperor from the Holy Land, Henry 
endeavoured, but without success, to wrest Bavaria from his Aus- 
trian competitor ; and while he was detained on the Danube, it 
was announced to him that Conrad had entered Saxony with a 
numerous army to deprive him also of that dukedom. " Com- 
mand my vassals," replied the dauntless Henry, " to assemble at 
Brunswick on Christmas day : they will find me at their head." 
Though the time was short, the distance long, and all the passes 
guarded, yet the young duke, disguising his person, with only 
three attendants, darted swiftly and secretly through the hostile 
country ; and appearing on the fifth day in the camp at Brunswick, 
forced his imperial adversary to sound a precipitate retreat. 

After the death of Conrad, the unanimous election of his 
nephew, Frederick Barbarossa, (1152) seemed to open a new 
prospect of concord and peace. The young monarch embraced 
the margrave of Austria and the Guelphic princes (uncle and 
nephew) as his friends and kinsmen, and laboured with sincerity 
to terminate their Bavarian quarrel by an amicable compromise or 
a judicial sentence. Henry, as the claimant, pressed for a speedy 
decision ; but the actual possessor proposed so many delays and 
evasions, that the final settlement was postponed till the return 
of the emperor from his coronation at Rome. Frederick passed 
the Alps with a court and army not unworthy of the successor 
of Charlemagne ; and as the Guelphs were desirous of shewing 


their power and proving their loyalty, the gallant squadrons that chap. ii. 
marched under the banner of the Lion were equal in number a. d. 1154 
to those of the emperor himself. At the siege of Tortona, and 
in the camp at Milan, the young Henry greatly distinguished 

Notwithstanding the apparent harmony which seemed to exist 
between the emperor and the holy father, the crown had scarcely 
been placed on the head of Frederick when the alarm bell rang 
from the capitol, and the august rites were disturbed by an assault 
of the Romans from the bridge of St. Angelo. The Germans 
flew to arms, and stood in battle array. After a conflict of some 
hours, they slew or drove into the river a thousand rebels, without 
losing a single man ; and the glory of this aifair was ascribed to 
the duke of Saxony, who fought in the foremost ranks. So much 
influence did he gain by his gallant conduct, that the pope was a. d. 1155. 
induced, at his entreaty, to relax in some measure the strictness 
of ecclesiastical discipline ; and the emperor declared him the 
firmest pillar of his throne. On his first entrance into Italy, 
Henry had exercised the rights of primogeniture and dominion, 
by renewing the preceding grants of his father to his cousins, 
the marquesses of Este. 

Without involving Germany in a civil war, the restitution of 
Bavaria could no longer be delayed. The emperor had pledged 
his word, and the diets had declared their sentence. The per- 
formance was therefore imperiously urged by the arguments, 
the services, and the power of Henry the Lion, who had already 
received the homage of the nobles, and the oaths and hostages 
of the city of Ratisbon. Yet a fair compensation was yielded 



CHAP. II. to his father-in-law as soon as he had abdicated, after a possession 
Tl>!n56^ of eighteen years. The margrave of Austria resigned the seven 
banners, or symbols of the Bavarian dutchy, into the hands of 
the emperor, at a public assembly in the plain of Ratisbon ; and 
Frederick immediately transferred them to Henry the Lion, who 
returned two of them, which were used by the emperor in the 
investiture of the margrave, who was created an independent 
duke, and his territories, with three additional counties, for ever 
enfranchised from the dominion of Bavaria. 

By this act the circle of the duke of Bavaria was circum- 
scribed : but the bishops of the province still attended his 
courts ; and he held a real or nominal jurisdiction over the three 
remaining marches of Tyrol, Styria, and Istria, as far as the 
Adriatic Gulf. Guelph, the uncle of Henry, received the titles 
and possessions of duke of Spoleto, marquess of Tuscany, prince 
of Sardinia, and lord of the house or patrimony of the countess 
Matilda. These estates had been dilapidated by waste and 
rapine ; but the power of the emperor, and the prudence of 
Guelph, soon reduced them into the form of a well-governed 
and productive domain. 
A. n. 1157. The prosperity of Henry the Lion had now reached its summit. 

His power extended from the shores of the Baltic to the Medi- 
terranean Sea, and he was certainly the most opulent sovereign 
of the age. But he was destined to experience a sad reverse of 
fortune. The emperor was naturally jealous of so powerful a 
competitor ; and there were not wanting many who, from envy, 
or fear for the liberties of Europe, as they boastingly affirmed^ 
were anxious to see the Guelphs extinguished. 


The parsimony of Henry the Lion was in some measure his chap. ir. 
ruin. After the premature death of his cousin, the only son of ah', 
the duke of Spoleto, the eyes of the old man were naturally 
turned to his nephew as his heir, and the only representative 
of the Guelphic name. A will was made in his favour ; but being 
in want of money, he required, for the assurance of so many 
provinces, the grateful retribution of a gift, a loan, or a fine. 
This demand could not be refused ; yet Henry hesitated so long, 
that his uncle, already peevish from age, was offended at the 
delay. So fair an opportunity of supplanting his cousin was 
seized by the dexterous Frederick ; he stepped forward with an 
immediate offer of the money. The pride of family yielded to 
the influence of passion ; and Guelph surrendered to a Ghibelline 
heir the whole of his feudal and allodial estates in Italy and 
Swabia, reserving only the enjoyment of them during his own 
life. The mortification of Henry was embittered by a tardy 
sense of his own folly ; and while this deep animosity rankled 
in his breast, he was summoned to attend the emperor beyond a. d. 1174. 
the Alps, and to draw his sword against the rebels of Lombardy. 
He disobeyed the summons, because, as it is said, the emperor 
refused to grant him, as the reward of his military services, the 
city of Goslar, which would have given him the command of the 
silver mines of the Harz. 

The disasters which were occasioned by the long blockade 
of Alexandria, and his total inability to cope with the league of 
Lombardy, obliged the emperor once more to solicit the aid of 
Henry, who, it is said, smiled at his distress. They had an 
interview at Chiavenna, near the lake of Como. The Lion was 


CHAP. II. still inexorable ; and after trying every argument in his power, 
the emperor threw himself at his feet. The vassal raised his 
sovereign from the ground with secret joy and apparent confusion, 
when one of his companions whispered rather audibly in his ear, 
" Suffer, dread sir, the imperial crown to lie at your feet ; speedily 
it must be placed on your head." The duke departed with some 
vague professions of loyalty, but without acceding to the emperor's 
views. From this moment, it may be said, his doom was sealed, 
and his destruction determined upon. The empress, who had 
been a witness of the scene so degrading to her husband, desired 
him, with all the bitterness of female passion, to remember what 
had passed ; and added, " God will remember it one day." All 
the subsequent misfortunes of the emperor were attributed to 
the desertion of Henry ; and he was even accused by Frederick, 
in a public assembly, of an indirect conspiracy against his life 
and honour. 

The ruin of the Guelphic House was the first aim of the 
policy and revenge of Frederick Barbarossa; yet for near thirty 
years (11 50-1180) the duke of Saxony and Bavaria maintained 
a lofty station, and was second only in dignity and renown to one 
of the most illustrious of the German emperors. But we are 
anticipating events, and must therefore return to the regular 
order of time. 

The chief residence of Henry the Lion was at Brunswick ; but 
he visited Bavaria as often as he was called to redress injuries and 
suppress tumults ; and Munich, the capital of the present king- 
dom, owes its foundation to his discernment and munificence. The 
working of the silver mines of the Harz mountains was greatly 


improved in his day* ; and the quantity of the precious metals chap. ii. 
which he drew from this source rendered him one of the richest ^ ^ 
sovereigns in the world. The emperor, therefore, was ably 
seconded in his desire of revenge by many of the ecclesiastic 
as well as secular princes, who were jealous and envious of his 
greatness ; yet for a while he was able to overcome every attempt 
to reduce his power. In 1147 he married Clementia, daughter 
of Conrad, duke of Zahringen, and by her had one daughter, 
who married first a duke Frederick of Swabia Rotenburg, but 
who, in 1169, was given a second time in marriage to Canute, 
king of Denmark. In 1162 Henry was divorced from his first 
wife; and, in 1168, the imperial ambassador demanded the hand 
of the princess royal of England for the duke of Saxony and 
Bavaria. The fame of Henry the Lion, his birth and merit, his 
riches and dominion, obtained from Henry the Second an easy 
consent and an ample dower. Matilda of England embarked 
for Germany with a splendid train. The marriage ceremony was 

* The Harz mountains, or, as pronounced by the natives, the Haartz, compre- 
hend a district of country in the north-west part of Germany belonging to Hanover, 
Prussia, Brunswick, and some minor states. It has long been celebrated for its 
romantic views, as well as for the rich mineral productions which are found in the 
bowels of its mountains, and which form one of the greatest sources of the wealth 
of his majesty's continental dominions. The Goslar or Rammelsberg mines were 
discovered so early as A. D. 900, and have been constantly wrought since that 
period. It is reported that they were discovered by accident, and that the first 
portion of silver ore, or native silver, was dug up by the pawing of a horse during 
a hunting expedition in these mountains. The reader will find a short account of 
the Harz mines in the Appendix. In the days of Julius Caesar these mountains 
formed one continued and impenetrable forest, called the Sylxa Bacenis. " Silvam 
esse ibi infinitee magnitudinis, quae adpellatur Bacenis, et pro nativo muro objectam 
Chiruscos a Suevis, Suevosque k -Cheruscis, injuriis iucursionibusque prohibere." 


CHAP. II. performed at Minden, when the princess was not more than 
^ ^^ twelve years of age ; the consummation was therefore delayed. 
1160-1170. p(jj. |.gj^ years, from 1160 to 1170, Henry was engaged with the 
king of Denmark in a holy war against the pagans of the Baltic 
court ; and the alternative of death or baptism was presented to 
these Sclavic idolaters. At length the whole of these tribes, not 
excepting the Obotrites, the most powerful and most obstinate, 
were reduced to accept the laws and religion of the Saxons. 
It was not, however, till after much blood had been shed, and 
many doubtful battles fought. 

The Obotrites possessed the country now known as the 
grand dutchy of Mecklenburg. In the open field and fair battle 
they could not struggle with the arms and discipline of the 
Germans, but they often prevailed in the surprise and stratagem 
of desultory warfare. The impervious woods of the country, 
and the deep morasses with which it abounded, rendered pursuit 
impossible ; and so dexterous and daring were they at sea, that 
they ravaged with impunity the isles of Denmark, as well as 
the shores of Saxony. To the first summons the prince or leader 
of the Obotrites returned an answer of ironical submission, " that 
he would adore Henry the Lion, and that he might adore his 
Christ." In a rash sally this daring prince was killed, and his 
head sent as a grateful offering to the Danish king. He had 
three sons. Two remained faithful to their father and their 
gods ; but the third became a Christian, and joined with the 
Christiaas against his brothers. The elder brother, Wertislaus, 
was taken prisoner by Henry, and sent to Brunswick in chains ; 
but, having been discovered in stirring up his people to a new 


war, he was carried into his own country, and hanged on a gibbet, chap. ii. 
The younger brother, Prebislaus, finding further resistance vain, ^^^\^ 
submitted to the yoke of necessity, and became a Christian "^o-ii-d. 
with apparent sincerity. Henry, who esteemed his valour, 
restored to him the greater part of his states ; and the present 
grand duke of Mecklenburg is the descendant of this the last 
heathen king of the Obotrites, and first Christian vassal of Henry 
the Lion. 

The Sclavic provinces beyond the Elbe were possessed by 
Henry, not as a portion of the Germanic empire, but as an 
absolute and independent conquest, which he alone had been 
able to achieve. Three bishopricks were established in the 
country of the Obotrites ; and the bishops received from his 
hand the pastoral crosier ; a prerogative which Rome had denied 
to the greatest emperors of Germany. 

War is certainly accompanied with its many horrors, and 
humanity shudders at the wanton and often barbarous de- 
struction of our species during the existence of the conflict : 
yet it must be confessed, that such destruction is generally 
the forerunner of prosperity, and, in those ages of which we 
are treating, it was productive of knowledge and civilization. 
The Saxon castles of Henry and his vassals were gradually 
incorporated into flourishing towns. The barren desert was 
replenished with industrious colonies, who have almost extin- 
guished the manners and language of the Sclavic race. 

Near the mouth of the river Trave there was a small settle- 
ment of pirates or fishermen. Its convenience as a harbour 
had been discovered, and it had been frequented by some 


CHAP. II. Christian merchants ; but this settlement was repeatedly de- 
^ "^^ stroyed by the pagans, until Henry the Lion acquired the 
1100-1170. (jQjj^ijjJQjj of lY^Q gQii^ when, under the shadow of his power, 
Liibeck arose on a broad and permanent basis. It was made 
the seat of a bishop, had a mint and a custom-house ; and the 
grant of a municipal government secured the personal, and pre- 
pared the way for the political rights of the burghers. 

By a proclamation, addressed to the Danes, Norwegians, 
Swedes, and Russians, Henry invited them to frequent his 
harbour of Wisby, with an assurance that the ways should be 
open and secure by land and water. They were told that they 
should be hospitably entertained, and free to depart; that the 
imposition of duties should be light and easy, and their persons 
and property guarded from injury; and that, in case of death, 
the effects of the stranger should be carefully preserved for 
the benefit of his heirs. This judicious policy was rewarded by 
a rapid and large increase ; and, before the end of the thirteenth 
century, Lubeck rose to be the metropolis of the Hanseatic 
league, which then numbered in its circle no less than sixty- 
four cities. . 

As an imperial city it was enfranchised from the dominion 
of the house of Saxony. But Henry the Lion was revered as 
its founder; and his grandson Albert obtained from Henry the 
Third (1266) the first Enghsh charter of the Hanseatic towns. 
A. D. 1172. In 1 172, the dutchess of Saxony became pregnant ; and Henry, 

who was now at peace with all the world, and in the height 
of his power, determined to make a pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land. The young dutchess was appointed regent of the country. 


with a council to assist her, during his absence. He chose chap. ii. 
for his companion the newly converted king of the Obotrites, """^'^"^ 

'■ '' ^ ' A.D. 1172. 

who, as Gibbon remarks, " exhibited to the world his own faith, 
and the fame of his conqueror." He was accompanied by the 
bishop of Worms, the imperial ambassador, as far as Constanti- 
nople, and by various other eminent persons of the clergy and 
nobility. A train of horses and waggons transported their 
baggage and provisions, and the camp was guarded by twelve 
hundred veteran knights, who had been well exercised in the 
use of arms. On leaving Bavaria, Henry had a meeting with 
his father-in-law, Henry of Austria. Their former quarrels 
seemed altogether forgotten, and they mingled their tears at 
the tomb of a mother and a wife. The duke travelled by water 
from Vienna to Belgrade ; but his progress on the Danube was 
measured by the march of the caravan along its banks, and he 
joined his followers every evening. In the journey from Belgrade 
to Nissa, the camp was often attacked in the morasses of Servia 
and Bulgaria; but the wild inhabitants of these districts were 
easily repelled by his vigilance; and, considering the objects of 
his mission, he had no temptation or desire for revenge. After 
Nissa, their march was through a civilized and friendly province, 
and the emperor of the east*, who had sent an embassy to 
Brunswick, received Henry as the equal of kings. A stout ship 
was provided to convey the duke and his retinue from Con- 
stantinople to St. Jean d'Acre, from which, after a short journey 
by land, they reached Jerusalem. 



c:hap. II. Henry the Lion visited the holy sepulchre, and all the cus- 

^'^^''**^ tomary places of devotion in the city and country. The churches 
were adorned with the silver offerings from his rich mines, and 
he presented the Templars with a thousand marks for the service 
of their perpetual crusades. On his return he followed the sea 
coast of Syria to the northward. The vessels of the prince of 
Antioch conveyed him from the harbour of Seleucia to the river 
Tarsus in Cilicia ; and from thence to Constantinople, his march 
intersected in a diagonal line the extent of Asia Minor. The 
sultan of Iconium, Kilidge Arslan the Second, embraced him 
as a friend, and claimed on the mothers side an affinity with 
the house of Saxony. The ambition of Henry during this pil- 
grimage was confined to the acquisition of holy relics, and of 
A. D. 1173. these he imported an ample store from Palestine and Greece. 
On his return to the capital of his dominions, he commenced 
building a magnificent cathedral, which, when finished, he dedi- 
cated to St. Blasius, the apostle of Brunswick; and in which 
were deposited, with great solemnity, the whole of his holy, 
and, as it was no doubt considered, invaluable collection. 
Notwithstanding the many revolutions and changes that have 
taken place in the ages that have passed since this memorable 
pilgrimage, the church of St. Blaze still stands a proud monument 
of the piety and power of Henry the Lion, and many of his 
relics are yet in existence. At the beginning of the present 
century, when the French invaded and took possession of 
Hanover, these relics, with other valuables, were sent to England, 
and lodged in the Tower of London. They have since been 
restored to the king's German dominions, and are now shown 


as curiosities by the clerk of the chapel royal in Hanover, chap. ir. 
A part of them are still valuable for their curious and costly ^^''"^'^^^ 

Henry vi^as absent about twelve months, and, on his return, 
he found his dutchess in health, his name illustrious, his servants 
faithful, and his enemies silent. His dominions were in a peaceful 
and prosperous state, and a princess had been added to his 

The religious zeal, or rather bigotry, of the duke of Saxony, 
rendered him (unfortunately for his temporal v^^elfare) but too 
favourable to the interests of the church; and he was at all 
times a ready and powerful engine in the hands of the popes, 
when ambition or envy tempted them to sow dissension among 
the princes of the German empire. The scene at Ciavenna 
was not forgotten ; and though the spirit of revenge had slumbered 
for a short time, Frederick lay ready to seize upon the first 
favourable opportunity. By engaging too openly in some of 
the intrigues of the times, and by his refusal to join the emperor 
in Italy, Henry laid himself open to the censure of the empire, a.d.ht*. 
A diet was called, and he was summoned to give an account 
of his conduct. He disregarded the summons; was again called, 
and again refused to attend, under the pretence that his life was 
in danger. He was now declared a rebel and an outlaw, and a.d. uso. 
the ban of the empire was put in force against him. Saxony 
was given to Bernard, the younger son of Albert the Bear; 
and Bavaria to Otho of Wittlesbach, count palatine of the 
Rhine, of the house of Bavaria. His other states were also a.d. 1 122, 
disposed of; and the country occupied by a powerful army. 


CHAP. II. The archbishops, bishops, and princes of Germany accom- 

^"^"^^'^^^ panied the emperor in this expedition ; the king of Denmark 
also sent his fleet to Lubeck, and the Mecklenburgers, then 
called Sclavi, united their army to that of the Dane. The 
dutchess Matilda fled to England with her family, and Henry 
shut himself up in the strong fortress of Stade. GunseUne, 
count of Swerin, undertook the siege of this fortress: it was 
surrounded by his troops, and all the resources of that period 
put in requisition to effect its reduction. 

Finding himself abandoned by those he had considered 
friends, and overwhelmed by the whole forces of the empire, 
Henry had recourse for the first time to entreaty. He sent a 
messenger to the emperor, to beg that he might be permitted to 
wait upon him at Luneburg, in hopes that when he heard his 
defence in person he would show him some mercy. Frederick 
listened to his request, and they had a meeting; but, after dic- 
tating the terms upon which he might expect pardon, he refused 
to grant it until the whole had been discussed and sanctioned 
in a diet of the princes. The terms were too humiliating for 
the proud spirit of the Lion, and he returned to the few troops 
which still remained faithful to his cause, and resolved to 
defend himself to the last. The king of England sent ambas- 
sadors to Frederick ; but could only obtain permission for 
his son-in-law to leave Germany with as many of his vassals 
as chose to accompany him. The emperor, however, to show 
his love for the king of England, agreed that the dutchess Matilda 
should have the government of the whole of the patrimonial 
states of the family, and that they should be restored to 


her and her children, to be freely and peaceably enjoyed chap. ii. 
for ever. The duke of Saxony, accompanied by his little ^^^^^^^ 
garrison, left Stade, and proceeded to join his father-in-law, then 
in Normandy. He was kindly received, and every exertion 
made to sooth his wounded spirit. But in a short time he dis- 
missed his faithful barons. They returned to Germany, and 
he proceeded on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James of a.d.ii84. 
Compostella, in Spain. On his return, he accompanied Henry 
the Second to England. The palace of Winchester was 
assigned for his residence ; and there William, his youngest son, 
was born. The king of England sent an embassy to Rome to 
interest the head of the church in the welfare of his son-in-law ; 
and the king of France was also applied to ; but nothing 
favourable could be obtained ; so deep-rooted was the spirit 
of revenge in the heart of Frederick Barbarossa. At length, 
in 1185, Henry was once more permitted to enter Saxony, 
and, with his dutchess and family, to take up his residence at 

In 1187, the emperor, moved by the prayers of the pope a. d. us?. 
and his own zeal in the cause, engaged in a crusade to retake 
Jerusalem, the loss of which had just been announced in Europe. 
Having received the banner of the holy cross at Mentz, he pro- 
ceeded to Goslar, where a diet of the empire had been summoned 
to regulate the expedition and decide on the affairs of the empire. 
Henry the Lion was anxious to be present at this diet, in order 
that the dispute between him and Bernhard of Saxony might be 
settled by the decision of the college of princes. But when it was 
communicated to him that his fate was already decided, and 


CHAP. II. his sanction all that was required, he preferred a second exile 

^■^^/'^^ to the abandonment of any of his just rights. Matilda was left 
as regent of Brunswick ; but she did not survive the absence of 
her husband more than twelve months*. On the death of his 

A.D. 1189. dutchess, Henry returned to Saxony, to try once more the chance 
of war. Richard the First, who had succeeded to the throne 
of England, furnished him with a fleet and some forces, and he 
also received assistance from Canute, king of Denmark. He 
sailed for the Weser, and landing his troops, attacked and re- 
covered the fortress of Stade, which had been given to the 
archbishop of Bremen. He also conquered the dutchy of 
Holstein, but was unable to retain possession of it. Bardewick, 
a town of some consequence, having refused to acknowledge his 
authority, he caused it to be levelled to the ground, and in its 

A.D. 1190. place built (1190) Luneburg, the present capital of that dutchy. 
Lubeck was besieged and capitulated, and in a short time he was 
in possession of all the strong places in the country. Henry, king 
of the Romans, and acknowledged successor of Barbarossa, was 
greatly enraged when he heard of the return and successes of the 
Lion. He assembled a diet at Goslar, and, to prove that he was 
not to be despised on account of his youth, he ordered a powerful 
army to march, under his immediate command, against Brunswick. 
This city was gallantly defended by Henry, the eldest son 
of the duke of Saxony; a youth as ambitious of fame as 
the king, and who conducted the defence with so much 
spirit and judgment, that the imperialists were obliged to 

* Appendix, Brunswick Moiiumeuls. 


withdraw from the contest*. A peace was concluded, and chap. ii. 
Henry of Brunswick joined the standard of the king of the ^A^.'Ti^r' 
Romans. In 1191, he accompanied the king into Italy, with 
a train of fifty knights ; and while on this tour they received 
the news of the death of the emperor. Henry resolved on 
being immediately crowned at Rome ; but before they could 
reach that city, Clement had departed this life ; and it was 
some time before the ceremony could be performed by his suc- 
cessor, pope Coelestine. Through the exertions of the prince 
of Brunswick, Coelestine was consecrated on Easter Sunday, 
and next day Henry and his empress Constantia were solemnly 
crowned : a ceremony at which this young prince bore a con- 
spicuous part. The Saxon entreated of the emperor his fathers 
pardon and restoration. But too many competitors were interested 
in the ruin of Henry the Lion to allow his son's voice to prevail : 
he therefore left the court in disgust, and returned to Brunswick. 
Henry the Lion was now determined, if it was possible, to effect a 
reconciliation with the successor of Frederick ; but so powerfully 
was he opposed by those who had got possession of his states, 
that his efforts for a long time were altogether in vain. 

In the year 1192, Richard Coeur de Lion, king of England, a. d. 1192. 
returning from the Holy Land, was travelling in the habit of a 
pilgrim, with a small train, through the states of the duke of Austria. 
At Vienna he was seized by order of the duke, and, in 1193, con- 
veyed a prisoner to the head-quarters of the emperor, and there 
kept in close custody. Such an act was considered barbarous even 

• The Chronicle quaintly remarks, that the king of the Romans " amaro animo 
reversus est in locum suum." 


CHAP. II. in that barbarous age. The gallant Richard was able to refute all 
A D 1193. *^^ calumnies that were brought against him ; yet it was decided 
that he could not be liberated until a ransom of a hundred and 
fifty thousand marks of silver was promised, two thirds of 
the money paid, and hostages given for the payment of the 
remainder. The duke of Austria demanded seven, and the 
emperor sixty, nobles. Among the illustrious princes who came 
forward in behalf of the king of England, Otho and William of 
Brunswick stand conspicuous. He was their uncle and their 
nearest kinsman ; and they voluntarily offered themselves as 
hostages for the payment of his ransom. During the cap- 
tivity of Richard, he was often urged to sanction the imperial 
A. D. 1194. sentence against his brother-in-law; but, convinced that Henry 
the Lion had been as unjustly deprived of his states and 
sovereignty as he had been of his liberty, he refused to listen 
to any proposals on the subject, though sensible that his own 
liberty depended in a great measure upon his acquiescence. 
Henry the Lion negotiated the treaty for Richard's liberation, 
and his promise was accepted for the payment of the remaining 
part of the ransom. Richard, on his part, did not leave Germany 
until he had extorted a promise of forgiveness from the emperor 
in behalf of Henry, and had got the sovereignty of all the 
provinces beyond the Elbe restored to him. It does not appear 
that Henry engaged in any further hostilities ; and the last few 
years of his life were spent at Brunswick in works of piety 
and benevolence ; and, though shorn of his hereditary titles and 
A. D. 1195. possessions, he continued till his death to hold the first rank 
among the princes of Germany. 


By Matilda, princess royal of England, Henry the Lion* had chap. ii. 
four sons and two daughters. Lothaire, his second son, and X'^^^^is 
Richenza, his eldest daughter, died young ; but Henry, Otho, 
and William, and a daughter, Matilda, who was married in 
England to Jeffrey, earl of Perth, survived him, and must now 
engage our attention. 

We have already detailed some of the actions of Henry, the 
eldest son of the Lion. In 1193 he married Agnes, the only 
daughter and heiress of Conrad, count palatine of the Rhine, 
and brother to Frederick Barbarossa the First ; and, in conse- 
quence of this connexion, he not only obtained the sovereignty 
of the palatinate, but also the friendship of the emperor. By 
the will of his father, he was excluded from the succession in 
Brunswick, but he still retained the rank and title of duke of 
Brunswick and Saxony. When recruits were raising for the 
third crusade, Henry, with many other princes and nobles, 
enlisted under the banner of the cross. During his absence, his 
younger brother William was intrusted with the regency of the a. d. 1195. 
palatinate. In Asia he conducted himself as a gallant knight; 
was at the capture of Joppa and many other places ; and not 
more distinguished for his valour in action, than for his clemency 
in the hour of victory. On his return from the Holy Land he 
visited Venice and other cities in Italy, claiming the sovereignty 
of the states that belonged to his family, and renewing the charters 
which had been granted by his ancestors to the descendants of 

* Morena, iiijine Rerum Laudensium, thus describes Henry the Lion : — " Henricus, 
dux Saxonise, erat mediocriter magnus, bene corapositus, viribus corporis valens, 
magnus facie, oculis magnis et nigris, capillis quoque quasi nigris." 



CHAP. II. the younger branch of his house. He was absent when Henry the 
^iTafugT^ Sixth died, and therefore his second brother was put in nomina- 
tion for the crown. In 1200 he accompanied his brother William 
to England, to demand from king John the legacies which had 
been left them by their uncle Richard. He was the great sup- 
porter of his brother Otho ; and while he continued firm to his 
cause, Otho was able to maintain his ground against Philip ; but 
he also being induced to acknowledge the claims of the latter, 
withdrew from his brother's interests. In 1204 he became a 
widower ; and, in 1205, assisted at the coronation of Philip, as 
king of the Romans. In 1215 he had a quarrel with Frederick 
the Second, was publicly proscribed, and the palatinate given to 
Louis, duke of Bavaria ; but in a few years he was restored ta 
favour, regained his title and possessions, and, at a diet held 
at Goslar in 1219, he took his place as duke of Saxony and" 
count palatine of the Rhine. From that period he does not 
appear to have taken much interest in the affairs of Europe, as 
his name is seldom found in the records of the period. He died 
in 1227, leaving only two daughters ; one married to Herman, 
margrave of Baden ; and the other to Otho, duke of Bavaria. 
On the death of the emperor Henry the Sixth, three candidates 
24tii April, were put in nomination for the crown : Philip of Swabia, a Ghi- 
belline ; Berthold, duke of Zeringen ; and Otho of Guelph, the 
second surviving son of Henry the Lion. Berthold having been 
chosen by the electors, refused the dignity. Otho was then pre- 
ferred to Philip, and immediately declared king of the Romans. 
It was through the influence of his uncle, Richard the First, 
that this was accomplished ; and when the counts of Dacksburg 


and Leiningen arrived in London, where he was then on a visit, chap. ii. 
and announced his election, he returned with them to Germany, ^^^■^"'*^ 
and, with the aid of his brother Henry and the forces that could 
be collected together in a hurry, he seized upon Aix-la-Chapelle,^ 
whei-e the archbishop of Cologne crowned him emperor. 

The partisans of the late emperor were not inactive ; and at 
another diet, in which the archbishop of Mentz presided, Fre- 
derick, the only son of Henry the Sixth, then a child of three 
years of age, was declared the head of the empire ; and Philip, 
his uncle and guardian, elected king of the Romans. The head 
of the church declared for Otho, and sent his legate to Cologne a. d. 1198. 
to confirm his election, while Philip and his adherents were 
excommunicated for disturbing the peace of Europe. 

During some years the war was carried on with great vigour 
by both parties, and often with doubtful success. Some of the 
finest provinces of Germany were ruined and laid desolate ; but 
fortune having at last declared in favour of Otho, he convoked 
a general diet of the princes of the empire at Metzburg, where a. d. 1200. 
he was a second time crowned by the hands of the pope's legate, 
who confirmed, and again approved, the first election. Philip, 
however, soon found more ample support ; and the struggle con- 
tinued for several years, until, through the mediation of the pope, 
a reconciliation was effected. Philip agreed to bestow his daughter 
Beatrix upon Otho, and to secure him in the succession, and he 
consented to wave all his pretensions to the crown during the life- 
time of Philip. The untimely end of this emperor, who was mur- 
dered by the count Otho of Wittelbach, left the son of Henry the a.d. vmb. 
Lion in the undisputed possession of the imperial crown within 


CHAP. II. the year after this family compact had been made, and before 
^-^~'^~*- ^[^Q marriage ceremony had taken place, Beatrix gave her hand 
A. D. 12)2. to Otho four years after her father's murder, but only survived 
the ceremony four days. 

He performed the usual journey to Rome for the purpose of 
being crowned ; and though Innocent the Third had declared his 
satisfaction at the advancement of Otho, he refused to perform 
the august ceremony unless he resigned all right to the patrimony 
of St. Peter, and restored to the church the possessions which 
had been left to it by his ancestor, the countess Matilda. Otho, 
finding himself unable to resist this demand, consented to the 
terms proposed, and was accordingly crowned. During his resi- 
dence at Rome, a quarrel, as was usual on such occasions, took 
place between the Italians and Germans ; and it is reported 
that a thousand of the imperialists were left dead under the 
walls of that city. As it is unnecessary to follow out the 
contests of the emperor with the pope, we shall only observe, 
A. D. 1214. that he was excommunicated, and the princes of Germany 
instigated to rise up against him. The claims of the young 
Frederick were brought forward, and were supported by the 
money and troops of France. Otho collected an army, and 
marched into the low countries ; but being beaten by Philip in 
a general action near Tournay, he withdrew from the contest, 
and lived for some years in retirement at Brunswick, where he 
A. D. 1128. died, in 1218. 

Otho (says the historian) was pious, without being super- 
stitious ; a lover of the clergy, and leading a most exemplary 
life. He was careless of his own affairs, but a strenuous 


defender of the rights of the empire. He was at all times chap. ii. 
desirous of peace, when it could be properly maintained ; but '^-'"v"*^ 
bold and forward in battle, when war called him to the field. 
His dispositions were mild ; and so attached was he to the in- 
terests of the church, that he entered with extreme reluctance 
into any controversy with the pope. 

William of Winchester, an Englishman by birth, was the 
youngest son of Henry the Lion, and born while his father was A.u.nai. 
an exile in England. When only ten years of age, he was sent 
as an hostage for his uncle, king Richard, to the court of 
Leopold, duke of Austria, where he resided for some months. 
His father, at his death, bequeathed to him the states of 
Brunswick ; and some old chronicles mention that Richard 
created him duke of Northumberland, and gave him the in- 
vestiture of that province. He married, in 1202, Helen, daughter 
of Waldemir, king of Denmark, and is the only one in this 
family that left male issue. He was not so much engaged in the 
transactions of his time as to attract particular notice ; and died a. u. ms. 
in the flower of his age, leaving a son, Otho, then in his eighth 
year, under the guardianship of his widow, Helen of Denmark*. 

* Vide Chronicon Recchenberg. p. 252. 

Chronicon Weingartense, apud Scheidei Origines Guelficas, torn. v. 

Historiam Penitentia2 Conradi, apud Balusium, torn. i. Epistol. Innocentii III. 
p. 19. 

Rethmeyer Antiquit. Eccles. Brunsuicens. part. i. p. 32. 

EccARD Genealog. Principum super Saxoniae, p. 23. 

MuRATORl Antiquit. Estens. part i. p. 343. 

Codicem Wibuldinam Epist. 233, apud Marteneum, Collect. Anipliss. torn. ii. 
p. 417. 


CHAP. II. Cartam Fred. Imperat. qua Henrico Leoni Bavariee Ducatum restituit, apud 

v.^*->Y-^-^ DuMONT, Corpor. Diplom. torn. i. p. 81. 

Epistolam Adrian! IV. P.P. ad Fred. Imper. apud Urtisium Scriptor. Rer. 
German, torn. i. p. 490. 

Deplomatoria Lubecens. apud Lunig Spicil. Eccles. torn. ii. p. 292. 
Stemmatoria Bavariee, apud Hund, torn. i. p. 4 ; Documenta Monasterior. Wur- 
temburg, apud Besoldum, torn. i. p. 453. 

Rymeri Acta Anglican, torn. i. pp. 83, 84, 85, 900. 
Leibnitz Scriptor. Brunsuic. torn. i. ii. 




GUELPH VI. count of Altdoif, duke of Bavaria, died llOl. 


, GuELPH VII. duke of Bavaria, died 1120. 2, Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria, died ii27. 


Conrad, a monk, died 1126. 2, Henry the Proud, duke of 3, Guelph, duke of Spoleto 
Bavaria and duke of Saxony, and duke of Tuscany, died 
died 1139. I 1191. 

Henry the Lion, duke of Bavaria and duke of Saxony, died 119.'>. 

Henry, duke of Saxony, count 2, Otho, duke of Saxony, 3, William of Wintou, duke of 
palatine of the Rhine, died emperor of Germany, Saxony, duke of Lunebarg, 

1227. died 1218. died 1213. 


I ■ '^ 1 

Otho the Child, created duke of Bruuswick and Limebiirg 21st August, 1233. 



We are now arrived at a period when the descendants of 
the Guelphic race, robbed of their hereditary states, and deprived 
of the titles of their ancestors, appear in the ordinary rank of 
German princes. Otho, the only son of William, duke of Saxony 
and Brunswick, was only eight years of age at his father's death ; 
but, as he was considered a child of the empire, Frederick the 
Second took him under his special protection, though his uncles 
Otho and Henry considered themselves his immediate guardians, 
and the former at his death declared him the heir of that part of 
the Brunswick possessions which he had held. Henry, however, 
taking advantage of the youth and incapacity of his nephew, 
appropriated to himself the states of his brother, and kept pos- 
session of them for several years. At last, moved by the injustice 
of such a proceeding, he delivered them up to Otho, in 1223, as 
appears by a deed which still exists in the archives of Brunswick. 
On the death of Henry, duke of Saxony, the last of the Guelphs 
who enjoyed that title, the emperor made an attempt to wrest 
the sovereignty of Brunswick from the young Otho ; but the 
fidelity of the citizens defeated this attempt. 

The feudal system had now become universal throughout 
Europe ; and to hold of the empire was considered as not only 
necessary, but honourable. Otho, though considered the child 
of his adoption, had been cruelly treated by the emperor, because 
he had rebelled against the general system, and wished to possess 


in full sovereignty the allodial states transmitted to him from his chap, hi 
ancestors. "^^ 

Otho had two female cousins, the daughters of his uncle 
Henry. The eldest, who was married to the margrave of 
Baden, laid claim to that part of the Guelphic possessions 
which had belonged to her father ; and in order that the emperor 
might have some pretence for his usurpations, he purchased for 
his son this claim of the margravine to the city and territories 
of Brunswick. The citizens, however, were still faithful to the 
legal heir, and refused to acknowledge any other sovereign. They 
repelled a second attack, which the son of the emperor made in a.d. i«27. 
person, and obliged his army to retire from the walls of the city 
with defeat and disgrace. 

During this invasion of his country, Otho was a prisoner at 
Rostock. He had joined his uncle, Waldemar, king of Denmark, 
in a war against the count of Swerin; and after a hard fought 
action near a place called Bornhoved, was captured with a sTthjniy. 
great part of his army. Henry the Third of England, who 
was much affected with the captivity of his young relation, 
addressed letters to the pope, soliciting his interference, and 
strongly urged the other princes of Germany to take up arms in 
his behalf. But Otho could only obtain his enlargement by the 
payment of a ransom, and was obliged to give the whole of 
his estates on the north side of the Elbe as a pledge for the 
money demanded. On his return to his capital he granted many a. u. isss. 
privileges and immunities to the citizens of Brunswick, as a 
reward for their fidelity during his confinement ; and soon after 
his marriage with Matilda, the daughter of the margrave of Bran- 
denburg, was celebrated with all the splendour of royalty. The 


CHAP. III. king of England wrote several letters, congratulating him on 
^^'^'''^'■^ having obtained his liberty, and on his marriage; and on all 
occasions he addresses him as his " dilectus consanguineus," and 
" amicus specialis." In his letter to the pope, Henry not only 
demanded the interference of his holiness in obtaining Otho's 
release from prison, but in the strongest terms recommended him 
as a fit person on whom to bestow the imperial throne, then vacant 
by a sentence of the church. Otho, we may believe, was well 
disposed to subscribe to any measure that could annoy his enemy, 
yet he was too fully sensible of the danger of entering into a com- 
petition for the crown, with only the thunder of the Vatican for his 
support, to accept of such a gift ; and he strenuously refused to 
render himself in any way an auxiliary to the vain threatenings 
and excommunications which the representative of St. Peter was 
daily issuing against Frederick the Second. 

On his return from the Holy Land, Frederick found his 
influence in the empire as strong as ever. But he was 
not ignorant of the manner in which Otho had been tam- 
pered with; and, though that prince had done nothing to 
warrant his displeasure, he resolved that his title to the crown 
in future should be less on an equality with his own. He com- 
menced a system of harassing warfare against the states and 
vassals of Brunswick, which involved them in great misery ; yet 
he was unable to drive the young prince into any act of open 
rebellion. Otho appealed to the pope and the king of England 
against the unjust aggressions of the emperor, but they could 
aiford him no effectual aid ; and at last finding it in vain to 
contend any longer with the enemy of his house, whose power 
was now at its height, he repaired to a general diet of the empire 


at Mentz; and on the 21st of August, 1235, resigned the whole chap. hi. 
of his possessions into the hands of the emperor. This was all ^^^Tsss^ 
that Frederick required. They were restored the next minute, 
as a henejichmi to be held of the empire ; and by a deed, which 
still regulates the succession in the house of Brunswick, they 
were formed into one dutchy, and Otho received the title of 
duke of Brunswick and Luneburg. Thus the lineal representative 
of the dukes of Bavaria and Saxony, the heir of the lords of 
Brunswick and of the king of the Saxons, of the conqueror of 
Holstein and Mecklenburg, and of the most powerful of the 
princes of Italy — he whose ancestors had created princes and 
ordained bishops — was reduced to the rank of a feudal duke, 
whose territories scarcely exceeded one fiftieth part of the states 
governed by his grandfather. 

On his return from the diet at Mentz, Otho, now duke of 
Brunswick and Luneburg by charter, instead of allodial right, 
entered into alliances with the princes and feudal lords in his 
neighbourhood, and commenced a system of reform in his 
dominions. He was active in suppressing the banditti that were 
organized in almost every province, and in correcting the disorders 
which had arisen in the government during his minority, and 
in consequence of his quarrels with the emperor. He was re- 
markably successfid in all these undertakings. Order began to 
prevail in the several departments of the state, and a just adminis- 
tration of the laws succeeded to anarchy and confusion. In 1238 a. d. lajs. 
he entered upon a crusade against a colony of infidels that still 
existed in Prussia, and is highly extolled for the effectual assist- 
ance which he was able to render the Teutonic knights in the 
conquest and conversion of these pagans. He afterwards levied 


troops for the purpose of marching against the Tartars, who had 
penetrated into Hungary. He received the banner of the cross 
from the bishop of Hildesheim in 1241 ; but though great pre- 
parations were made for the expedition, it did not take place, 
and Otho returned to the settlement of his domestic concerns. A 
long existing quarrel with the landgrave of Thuringen was put an 
end to, by the marriage of his daughter, Helen, with the nephew 
of Henry, the then landgrave, previous to his expedition in 
Prussia. This marriage was of advantage to both houses ; and 
when Henry of Thuringen was elected emperor, on the deposition 
of Frederick by pope Innocent the Fourth, in 1246, Otho was one 
of his firmest supporters in the diet. On the death of the land- 
grave next year, Otho was equally zealous in promoting the 
interest of William, count of Holland, with whom he lived in the 
strictest habits of friendship. 

In 1251 William espoused his daughter Elizabeth, one of 
the most celebrated beauties of her day ; and who, by her noble 
conduct, proved herself an ornament to the high station she was 
called to occupy in the empire. During the gaiety of the mar- 
riage feast the palace in which it was held was set on fire, 
and it was with difficulty that the king and queen escaped from 
the flames. William resided, during the greater part of the year 
after his marriage, at the court of his father-in-law; and his 
public acts during the whole of that period are dated from 

Early in 1252, a diet of the empire was ordered to be held 
at Franckfort; but Otho, while preparing to attend his son-in- 
law to that city, was taken unwell, and expired rather suddenly, 
in the forty- eighth year of his age. Previous to his death he 


had purchased from his cousin, the margravine of Baden, a right chap. hi. 
which had been reserved to her in the mines of Goslar, so that ^-^^""''^'^ 
he left his dutchy of Brunswick and Luneburg in an unem- 
barrassed and very flourishing state. 

Besides his two sons, Albert and John, who succeeded him a.d. 1252. 
in the government of the dutchy, Otho left five daughters. His 
dutchess also survived him, and was alive in 1263. The seal 
which he used, as lord and duke of Brunswick, was a lion rampant, 
proper, in a field, gules ; and the money which he coined bore the 
same emblem, with a ducal coronet. Helen, one of his daughters, 
we have seen, married the landgrave of Thuringen; Adelaide 
married the landgrave of Hesse; and the celebrated Elizabeth 
was married to William, king of Germany; Matilda, a fourth 
daughter, married Henry, count of Ascania ; Helen, who was 
the eldest, married Albert, duke of Saxony, after the death of 
her first husband ; and Agnes, the youngest, married Wenselaus, 
prince of Rugen. Otho had a third son of his own name, who 
was bishop of Hildesheim, but killed by the overturning of 
his carriage, in 1279; and a fourth, Conrad, who was arch- 
bishop of Bremen. 

Albert, the eldest son of Otho, succeeded to the government 
of the dutchy at his father's death, 1252. He took his place 
in the diet at Franckfort, and received the investiture of his 
states from king William, his brother-in-law. He admitted his 
brother John to a share in the administration, and very soon 
afterwards had the dutchy of Luneburg erected into a separate 
sovereignty for that prince. 

Albert, in the records of his time, is styled " the Great," 
but whether from his size or noble deeds is not altogether certain. 


The empire at this period, being without a legitimate head, was 
in a state of great turbulence and confusion. Albert therefore 
took advantage of the disorders of the day, and began to levy 
war upon some of his weaker neighbours. He besieged and 
conquered the castle of Wolfenbuttle, the residence of an inde- 
pendent noble ; and that principality was ever afterwards annexed 
to his hereditary possessions. Gottingen, one of his fiefs, having 
been invaded by the archbishop of Mentz, and a count Everstein, 
he waylaid and took them prisoners. The count of Everstein, 
as a rebellious vassal, was executed ; but his treasury was con- 
siderably enriched by the ransom he received for the prelate, from 
his cousin Richard, earl of Cornwall; who, through the influence 
of the archbishop, expected to be elected king of the Romans. 

After the death of Frederick the Second, the splendour of 
the empire was for many years obscured. William of Holland, 
Richard of England, and Alphonso of Leon, who were successively 
raised to the throne, were merely the sovereigns of a faction; and, 
though they exercised many of the prerogatives of kings, their 
authority was never perfectly established, nor were their com- 
mands at any time implicitly obeyed. Albert, amidst the disputes 
of the empire, continued to attend to his private affairs. The 
nobles of Assemburg excited his displeasure by emblazoning 
his arms, a lion and a wolf, on their standard, with the wolf upon 
the lion's back pulling his ears. Albert made them pay dear 
for this pleasantry. He invaded and took the strong castle of 
Assemburg, and added the territories of these nobles to his own 
dominions. During the year 1260, he invaded the dutchy of 
Holstein, and took the castle of Ploen. In this expedition he 
was assisted by the people of Lubeck, who, in gratitude to the 


memory of the founder of their city, were long the faithful allies chap. in. 
of the princes of Brunswick. Albert was led into this war from '^-^''''*^ 
his attachment to Margaret, the dowager queen of Denmark, 
whose son Erick had been supplanted in the succession by his 
cousin, the duke of Jutland. He was the guardian of the young 
king, and therefore bound to support his cause against the pre- 
tender, and his uncles, the dukes of Holstein. The matter, 
however, was settled by treaty, the dowager queen and her son 
returned to their own country, and were accompanied by the 
duke of Brunswick, who exerted himself greatly in reducing 
the refractory nobles to order, and in settling the government 
of his young ward. He had the command of several of the 
Danish islands and provinces conferred upon him; and as the 
tranquillity of his own dominions admitted of his absence, he 
remained for a considerable time at the court of Denmark. In 
1263, he accepted of an invitation from the town of Hameln, a.d. i263. 
on the Weser, to become their protector. This town, on the 
division of the spoils of Henry the Lion, had been given to the 
abbey of Fiilden ; but the abbot had sold it to the bishop of 
Minden ; who, by suppressing its commercial privileges, had 
reduced the inhabitants to a state of slavery. Albert undertook 
their defence ; and having subdued the bishop's garrison, he con- 
firmed to the inhabitants their ancient privileges. He also took 
the city of Stade from the archbishop of Bremen, and constituted 
himself the guardian of the rights of the city of Eimbech. In his 
latter years he extended his authority to the shores of the Baltic, 
having conquered from the counts of Swerin a great part of their 
country on the north of the Elbe. His last conquest was the 


CHAP. III. principality of Grubenhagen, which remained from his time an 
integral part of the Brunswick possessions. 

A.D. 1279. Albert died in 1279, after a reign of twenty-seven years. He 

was almost always engaged in war with his neighbours ; and being 
in general successful, added greatly to his dominions, and left 
the government of the country in a very settled state. At the 
recommendation of Henry the Third, of England, he married, 
1254, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry the Fifth, duke of Brabant ; 
and received from Edward the First, Henry's successor, not only 
a sum of money as the dower of that princess, but also a charter, 
granting a free commercial intercourse between his subjects of 
Bremen and the citizens of London. Albert had no issue of this 
marriage; and after the death of Elizabeth, 1261, he married, 
1265, Adelaide, daughter of Boniface the Fourth, duke of Mont- 
ferret, by whom he left six sons and one daughter. At the com- 
mencement of his reign he committed an error fatal to the 
independence of his house, by dividing his states with his younger 
brother ; and, at his death, he still further subdivided the portion 
he had retained among three of his sons. Henry, his eldest son, 
was made duke of Grubenhagen, a conquered province ; Albert, 
his second son, got the principality of Calemberg ; and William, 
his third son, had the provinces of Brunswick and Gdttingen. 
The death of this latter prince, without issue, soon after his 
father's decease, was the cause of a civil war between Henry 
and Albert, as they considered themselves both equally entitled 
to the property of their younger brother. The good fortune of 
Albert prevailed: he made himself master of the cities of 
Brunswick and 'Wolfenbuttle ; and being favoured by the citizens. 


compelled his elder brother to remain contented with his original chap. hi. 
patrimony. Conrad and Lothaire, two other sons of Albert the ^-^^""^^ 
Great, were commanders of the order of the knights of Malta ; and 
Otho, his sixth son, was a commander of the Templars. Matilda, 
his only daughter, married a duke of Schleswich-Glagau ; and 
his widow married Gehard, count of Schaumberg. 

John, the younger brother of Albert, after the division of 
the dutchy, is universally styled duke of Luneburg. He makes 
no figure in history, and we only know that he built and resided 
in the castle of Celle. He married a princess of Holstein, in 1265, 
and left one son, Otho, who succeeded him in 1277, and four 
daughters. Otho, the second duke of Luneburg, married, in 1287, 
Matilda, daughter of Henry, duke of Bavaria, count palatine, by 
whom he had four sons and one daughter. John, his eldest son, 
became administrator of the bishoprick of Bremen, but died before 
his father. liOuis, his second son, was elected bishop of Minden 
in 1324, and died in 1346. Otho and William succeeded him 
in the government. This prince was remarkable for his severity 
in the execution of the laws ; and, in a contest with the count of 
Swerin, he conquered the castle and principality of Danneberg, 
and added them to his hereditary possessions. Otho, the second 
of the name, and third duke of Luneburg, succeeded his father 
1330, and is styled the Younger. He married a princess of 
Mecklenburg, and had one son, Otho, who was drowned while 
a boy; and one daughter, Matilda, who married Henry, count 
of Waldeck. At his death, in 1352, he was succeeded by his 
brother William, the fourth duke of this line. This prince 
married, first, Hedewig, daughter of Otho, count of Ravensberg ; 
secondly, Sophia, a princess of Sweden; and, thirdly, Maria, 


CHAP. III. daughter of Erich the First, duke of Saxe-Lawenburg. William, 
^•^""^'^^ duke of Luneburg, left no male issue, and with him this branch 
of the family became extinct, in 1365. Elizabeth, his eldest 
daughter, married Otho, duke of Saxe-Lawenburg, and had a 
son named Albert, of whom more hereafter. Matilda, his second 
daughter, married her cousin, Louis, duke of Brunswick; and, 
after his death, Otho, count of Schaumburg. Albert, surnamed 
the Fat, the second son of Albert the Great, is the prince that 
claims our more particular attention, as by him the male line 
was continued. But we cannot pass over the descendants of 
Henry, his elder brother, styled the Wonderful; particularly as 
this branch of the family continued to flourish for many gene- 
rations, and several of its princes were too illustrious in their 
day, to be altogether omitted in a general history of the house 
of Guelph. Henry the Wonderful, the first duke of Grubenhagen, 
was so styled, we should suppose, from his possessing a greater 
share of general knowledge than was common to the princes 
of his age, and in the pursuit of which he had spent more time 
than was compatible with his temporal aggrandizement. He 
travelled much, and visited the different courts of Europe. In 
1282, he married Agnes, daughter of the landgrave of Thuringen, 
and had a family of four sons and five daughters. Bonifacia, 
one of these daughters, under the name of Irene, was married 
to Andronicus the Second ; and was for several years the ornament 
of the eastern empire. Small as this prince's possessions must 
have been, they were again divided at his death. Henry, the 
eldest son, succeeded in the principality of Grubenhagen ; Ernest, 
the second son, got the city and county of Osterode ; and William, 
a third son, had he lived, was to have had the county of Hertzberg ; 


but, as he died before his father, that portion reverted to the elder chap. hi. 
brother. John, the youngest son, was provost of the church of ^^"^v^^ 

Henry the Second, duke of Grubenhagen, inherited with his 
states the passion of his father for travelling. He spent more 
than two years at the court of France, and upwards of three 
with his relation, Edward the Third, of England. He after- 
wards made a tour through Italy and Greece, resided for 
some time with the emperor, his brother-in-law, and visited 
the Holy Land. Like his ancestor, Henry the Lion, he was 
fond of collecting relics ; and a charter has been preserved, by 
which he grants to the monastery of St. Pauline, a piece of the 
wood of the true cross, a quantity of oil consecrated by St. Catha- 
rine, and two thorns from the wreath with which our Saviour 
was crowned ; all of which he states he obtained while on his 
travels, and by his seal and signature he guarantees their 

This prince was so renowned for his travels and love of 
learning, that he acquired the surname of the Grecian. He 
married, first, a princess of the house of Brandenburg, from whom 
he was divorced ; and, secondly, Maria, a princess of Cyprus, 
who proved the mother of six sons. It is evident that the princes 
of this branch of the Guelphic family were more attached to 
the refinements of Italy and Greece than to the rude barbarity 
of their own country. The connexion of the second Henry with 
the royal family of Cyprus naturally drew his children to the 
south ; and we must remember also that his grandmother was 
of the house of Savoy, the daughter of Boniface the Fourth, 
duke of Montferret. Otho, his eldest son and successor, was 


CHAP. III. selected as the fourth husband of Joan, queen of Naples and 
^'^'^^'^^ Sicily. Balthazar married the daughter of count Honoratus, of 
Fundi ; while Phihp, a third son, was united to a dowager queen 
of Cyprus. Melchior was the only prince that remained in 
Germany ; he was bishop of Osnaburg and of Swerin, but died 
by poison or gluttony at a village near Rostock. Redday and 
Thomas were monks, and died in Italy. 

Joan, queen of Naples, was the last of the direct line of 
Charles, count of Anjou, the brother of St. Louis, and the con- 
queror of Naples and Sicily. Being arrived at an age when 
there was scarcely a hope of an heir of her own body, Otho 
persuaded her to adopt her relation, Charles, count of Duras, 
as her successor in the two kingdoms. The gratitude of this 
prince was not commensurate with the duty he owed to his 
sovereign and his patron. He intrigued with the pope and the 
king of Hungary, stirred up a rebellion in the country, and got 
the investiture of the kingdom of Naples from Urban the Sixth. 
The queen, irritated at the conduct of her cousin, endeavoured 
to cancel the act of adoption, and to transfer the succession to 
Louis, duke of Anjou. This rendered the ambitious Charles 
still more regardless of appearances, and induced him to take 
the field openly against her. Otho commanded the queen's 
forces, and for a while was able to blockade the city of Naples, 
of which Charles had got possession ; but, with his brother Bal- 
thazar, he was betrayed into the hands of the usurper. Balthazar 
had his eyes put out, and Otho was confined for three years in 
the castle of Minerva. But being allowed after a time to 
enjoy the exercise of hunting, he escaped from his guards during 
one of these excursions, and fled to Avignon; from whence he 


returned to Sicily. Joan, during Otho's confinement, had been chap. hi. 
taken, and murdered in her prison by her unnatural kinsman, '^'^'^^'^^ 
who was now quietly in possession of the throne; and, although 
Otho soon had a powerful army at his command, and got pos- 
session of the city of Naples, he desisted from hostilities, and 
remained satisfied with the principality of Tarentum, which had 
been given him by the queen. 

This prince in his youth had a quarrel with the duke of 
Lancaster, the great grandson of Henry the Third, in consequence 
of some disrespectful language used by the latter in the cathedral 
church of Cologne. A challenge ensued ; and they were to have 
decided the matter by single combat, after the manner of the 
times, in presence of John, king of France. Among the Cotton 
manuscripts there is a curious document in the form of a judicial 
sentence of the French monarch, by which it appears the affair 
was honourably settled without coming to action. This docu- 
ment, which is of considerable length, narrates the whole of 
the proceedings, and affords us an example of the solemnity 
with which the disputes of princes in those days were discussed 
and decided. It is dated at Paris, the 11th December, 1352. 
Otho died in 1387. 

As this prince left no issue, the Italian dutchy reverted to the 
crown of Naples ; and his portion of the Grubenhagen estates was 
inherited by his grand-nephew Erick, the son of Albert, and 
grandson of Ernest, his younger brother. 

The territory of Osterode, which Ernest inherited as his 
part of the Grubenhagen states, on the death of his father, 
Henry the Wonderful, was neither in extent nor revenue adequate 
to the support of a sovereign prince ; and unless we suppose that 


CHAP. HI. he had a share of the rich mines in his neighbourhood, his esta- 
^-^"^^^^^ blishment could not be greater than that of the ordinary class of 
nobility. In 1322 he married Agnes, or Adelaide, the daughter of 
the count of Eberstein, and was the father of six children. His 
sons, Albert and Frederick, succeeded him. Albert married one 
of his own family, Agnes, the daughter of Magnus the Second, 
duke of Brunswick, He received the town and district of Eim- 
beck, while Frederick, his younger brother, remained at Osterode. 
This latter prince married, first, a countess of Anhalt ; and, 
secondly, the heiress of Hesse-Homburg. He had one son, Otho, 
who succeeded him, but who died without issue. Albert had 
only one son, Erich, who succeeded him at Eimbeck in 1384, 
and who also succeeded to the dutchy of Grubenhagen in 1387, 
on the death of the prince of Tarentum. This prince married in 
his own family ; and by Elizabeth, daughter of Otho, called the 
Strong, duke of Gottingen, he had a family of three sons and five 
daughters. Ernest, his eldest son, entered the church, and was 
provost of Eimbeck and Halberstadt ; but Henry and Albert 
divided the states betwixt them, Henry received the dutchy 
of Grubenhagen, while Albert got the portion of his cousin Otho, 
of Osterode, Henry, duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, married 
Margaret, princess of Sagau-Silesia, and left one son, Henry, 
the fourth of the name, and sixth in succession, as duke of 
Grubenhagen. This prince married Elizabeth, princess of Saxe- 
Lawenburg, but left no issue, Albert, who resided at Herzberg, 
married Elizabeth, countess of Waldeck, and had five children. 
Erich, one of his sons, was successively bishop of Osnaburg 
and Munster; and Philip succeeded him. This prince, on the 
death of his cousin, Henry the Fourth, 1526, became sovereign 


of the whole of the Grubenhagen states. He married Catharine, chap. iii. 

daughter of Ernest the Third, count of Mansfeldt ; and had a ^"^^"^^^ 

family of eight children. Albert, one of his sons, who served 

with the army of Maurice of Saxony, was killed in an action 

near Giengen, in 1546. John, another son, died of the wounds he 

received in the battle of St. Quentin, 1557, where he commanded 

a corps in the army of Philip the Second, of Spain. Ernest, his 

eldest surviving son, succeeded him in the government; and 

having joined the protestant confederation, he had the command 

of the troops of Luneburg, after the death of his relation, the 

great Ernest of Celle, and was taken prisoner with the elector 

of Saxony, at the famous battle of Miilberg, or Miilhausen. 

Ernest died in 1567, without issue; and was succeeded by his 

next brother, Wolfgang. This prince reigned till 1595; when 

dying, without issue, his younger brother, Philip, succeeded 

him, but did not survive more than twelve months. Philip died 

in April 1596, and with him this branch of the family ended. 

The three last mentioned princes lived during the most eventful 

period of the reformation. We rather think their father, Philip 

the First, had adopted the tenets of Luther, and had introduced 

the protestant religion into his states ; and his sons, we know, 

were firm supporters of the doctrines of the reformed church. 

During the existence of the Grubenhagen branch of the house 
of Brunswick, it acquired several valuable provinces, which after- 
wards fell into the general mass. Eimbeck, Rudolphausen, and 
Lutherberg, with the town and rich mines of St. Andreasberg, are 
particularly mentioned ; and they were acquired by their right of 
sovereignty, in consequence of the failure of male heirs in the several 
baronial houses, to which they had originally been granted as fiefs. 


CHAP. III. We must now return to Albert the Fat, duke of Brunswick, 

the ancestor of the royal family of England. This prince married 
Richenza, a daughter of Henry, prince of Werle, in Mecklenburg, 
and had a family of nine children. His states were divided, at his 
death, in 1318, between his sons, Otho, Magnus, and Ernest. Otho 
got the principality of Gottingen ; but, as the guardian of his 
younger brothers, he governed the whole of the Brunswick states 
for several years. He died in 1344, without issue; and was suc- 
ceeded by his youngest brother, Ernest, whose patrimony had 
been Calemberg. Ernest married a princess of Hesse, and 
left a son, Otho, surnamed the Strong, who succeeded him 
as duke of Gottingen in 13C7. Otho the Strong married a 
princess of Holstein, by whom he left a son, Otho, called Cocks, 
from being blind of an eye. This prince did not leave any 
issue ; and the title of Gottingen became extinct at his death, 
in 1463. 

Magnus, called the Pious, the second son of Albert the Fat, 
succeeded his father at Brunswick. He married a princess of 
Brandenburg, and had a family of ten children. 

Albert the Fat had another son, Albert, who was elected bishop 
of Halberstadt, in opposition to the representative of St. Peter ; 
and who, notwithstanding the intrigues and troubles of the times, 
kept possession of the see for thirty-five years. If we are to 
credit the annals of that period, he was mor-e distinguished as 
a general in the field, than as a divine in the pulpit. He recovered 
the castle of Gattersleve, which had long been alienated from 
the church. He curbed the power of the marquess of Misnia, 
and for a while kept the counts of Regenstein in subjection : but 
being worn out with the tumults and civil wars, which so much 


prevailed, he resigned in favour of Louis, a prince of Misnia, chap. in. 
who had been nominated bishop by Innocent VI. '^^^'^m^ 

Magnus, the Pious, died in 1369, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, Louis, who had married his cousin, Matilda, 
youngest daughter of William, duke of Luneburg : but as there 
was no issue by this marriage, the sovereignty of Brunswick 
devolved upon his brother, Magnus the Second, surnamed Tor- 
quatus, who was married to Catharine, daughter of the prince of . 
Anhalt. Before, however, we pursue farther the history of this 
branch of the family, it may be proper to revert once more to 
the other descendants of Otho the Infant, who had lived and 
reigned as dukes of Luneburg. 

John, the younger brother of Albert the Great, we have 
already stated, had Luneburg and its dependencies for his por- 
tion ; and by the failure of heirs male in the third generation, 
it naturally reverted to the elder branch, now represented by 
Magnus Torquatus. But as William, the last duke of Luneburg, 
wished to enrich the children of his eldest daughter, who had 
married Otho, a prince of Saxe-Lawenburg, he solicited the 
emperor to institute their son Albert his heir, in preference to the 
elder branch of his own family. Albert was the youngest of 
all the branches of the house of Saxony ; the emperor there- 
fore refused to raise him above his brethren. But he consented 
to invest the sons of the princess of Luneburg conjointly, with 
the states belonging to their grandfather; and, in 1355, Charles a. d. 1355. 
the Fourth granted the reversion of the dutchy of Luneburg to 
Rudolph, and Albert, of Lawenburg, and Wenselaus, their uncle, 



CHAP. III. who was duke and elector of Saxony, and, on the death of duke 

^"^^^^^-^ William without male issue, to their heirs. 

In a short time the emperor saw the injustice of such an 
act, and caused it to be cancelled : yet the duke, in his dotage, 
made a will, by which he constituted Albert his heir. But 
this aged sovereign again altered his mind, as, previous to his 
death, we find that he ordered it to be officially notified to his 
nobles and vassals, that he wished duke Magnus to succeed 
him, in the event of his dying without male issue ; and he com- 
manded them to take the oath of allegiance to the said duke 
immediately after his own decease. 

This indecision during the latter days of the sovereign, led, 
as might have been expected, to much misery after his death. 
Magnus Torquatus, by usage as well as by the constitution and 
laws of the empire, was the heir to his cousin's possessions ; but 
Albert of Lawenburg had many adherents, and the consequence 
was a civil war, which devastated the country for the space of 
nineteen years. The emperor favoured the princes of Lawen- 
burg, and granted them letters patent, requiring the nobles, 
knights, burgesses, and vassals of Luneburg, to acknowledge them 
as their sovereigns. The senate of Luneburg permitted Albert to 
make a public entry into their city ; and the subjects of Hanover 
. and Altzel also paid him homage. But Magnus advancing with 
a considerable force against his adversary, he was obliged to 
retire beyond the Elbe. Magnus was put under the ban of the 
empire for presuming to take possession of Luneburg by force 
of arms. 


In 1372, it was agreed that the dispute between duke Magnus chap. hi. 
and the princes of Lawenburg should be decided by the emperor 
in person ; and they were summoned to appear before his majesty 
at Pyrna, a town in Misnia. Duke Magnus failed to appear. 
Judgment, therefore, was given against him ; and Albert of 
Lawenburg was confirmed in the government of Luneburg. The 
investiture, which had formerly been given to his elder brother 
and uncle, was again renewed, and the ban of the empire a 
second time declared against Magnus of Brunswick. Magnus, 
however, had got possession, and he determined to keep it. 
Albert collected a force ; and, with the aid of Otho, count of 
Schaumburg, who had married the youngest daughter of the 
duke of Luneburg, the widow of Louis duke of Brunswick, he 
reduced some of the strong holds of the country, and destroyed 
their fortifications. The rivals at last met in the field of battle, 
where, having discovered each other, they engaged in single 
combat; and during this rencounter duke Magnus was basely 
murdered by one of the attendants of the count of Schaum- 
burg, who stabbed him in the back. 

Thus died Magnus Torquatus, or the Chain-bearer, on the 
feast of St. James, 1373. The reason why he was called Tor- 
quatus, or Chain- bearer, is thus stated by the chronicler: — 
" This prince, in his younger years, being very insolent and 
troublesome to his subjects and neighbours, it was made known 
to his father, who sent him many letters and divers messages 
to reclaim him, but in vain ; so that at last he was obliged to 
use threats, and let him know, that if ever he took the field 


CHAP. III. again in a hostile manner, he would hang him at the next tree. 

^'''"^'^"*''^ The son, who was of a very active spirit, and daring, only 
laughed at his father's menaces, and in derision always wore 
a silver chain about his neck, that there might, as he said, be 
no lack of a thing to hang him with*." 

* Vide Origin. Guelficas, torn. iv. lib. 8. 

GoTTiNGENS. Geschichtbeschreibung, passim. 

Rethmeyeri Chronicon. 

Letznebi Chronicon, Accessiones Histor. apud Leibnitz. 

PfeffinctERi Historiam de Bruns. et Luneburg. 

Maderi Antiqiiit. Brunswicens. p. 248. 

Professor Eichorn's History, passim. 

Memoirs of the House of Brunswick, by M. B. London, 1716. 





OTHO the Boy or Infant, created 2lst Aug. 1235, duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, died 1252. 

, John, duke of Luneburg, died 1277. 2, Albert the Great, duke of Brunswick, died 1279. 

Otho, duke of Luneburg, died iSSO. i, Henry the Wonderful, 2, Albert the Fat, duke 
I dnke of Gnibenhagen, of Brunswick, died 

I died 1322*. 1318. I 

, Otho, duke of 2, WiLLtAM, duke 
Lnnebnrg, died of Luueburg, died 
1352. 1369. 

Magnus the Pious, duke of 
Brunswick, died 1369. 

Elizabeth, dutchess of Saxe 
Lawenburg, died 1362. 

1, Louis, duke of 2, Magnus, theChain- 
Bruuswickjdied bearer, dnke of 
1367. Brunswick, and, 

after the death of 
of Luneburg, killed 

• This branch became extinct i 



lAP. IV. The death of Magnus, the Chain-bearer, did not put an end 
^^TsTs! to the contest respecting the succession to the states of Luneburg. 
His sons, Frederick, Bernhard, and Henry, were in the prime of 
life ; they had agreed to reign conjointly, and were determined 
to maintain their right to the inheritance of their ancestors. 
But, in order to put an end to the horrors of this lengthened war- 
fare, the friends of the contending parties interfered, and through 
their mediation it was settled that the dukes of Saxe-Lawenburg 
and the sons of Magnus, and their heirs, should reign alternately 
over the dutchy of Luneburg, and that the towns and vassals of 
that state should pay equal homage to both parties. 

This treaty of partition was not much attended to by either 
party, and in a short time they again had recourse to arms. The 
sons of Magnus Torquatus collected a considerable force, and 
invaded the territories of Luneburg. They met the army of their 
D. 1374. opponents near Winhausen, and a general action took place. The 
Lawenburghers and their allies were so eager for the contest, that 
they drew up, with a river in their rear ; and when in the middle 
of the engagement they found they had no means of re treating, they 
became panic-struck, and the victory was easily gained by the 
princes of Brunswick. The slaughter was very great, and among 
the prisoners were the counts of Hoy, Vander, and Schaumberg, 
and Otho, bishop of Minden. A renewal of their former agree- 
ment was the consequence of this victory. The town of Lune- 
burg took the oath of allegiance to the princes of Brunswick ; 


and the senate agreed to pay them eight thousand marks of silver, chap. iv. 
as the ransom of Bernhard, who had been taken prisoner by ^^^^^^^ 
the forces of Lawenburg. Tranquillity, thus restored, was in some a. d. 1376. 
measure continued till 1384, when differences having arisen 
between the dukes of Brunswick and the senate of Luneburg, 
the latter agreed to pay them fifty thousand marks, as the price 
of their freedom, and to secure their protection. 

In 1375, Albert of Lawenburg had died, without issue, of a 
wound he received in an action before the town of Ricklingen ; 
but Wenselaus, his uncle, continued to enjoy the title of duke 
of Luneburg, conjointly with that of elector of Saxony, and trans- 
mitted it to his son Rudolph. The claim of Rudolph of Law- 
enburg, the elder brother of Albert, was purchased for three 
thousand marks of silver : and Rudolph of Saxony resigned his 
claim immediately after his father's death, in 1388; so that the 
sons of Magnus, duke of Brunswick, remained in possession of 
the undivided sovereignty of the country from that period. 

About this time the emperor*, having purchased the mar- 
quesate of Brandenburg from his son-in-law, sold it for a large 
sum to the marquesses of Moravia. The dukes Bernhard and 
Henry objected to the introduction of a foreigner on the borders 
of their territories. They marched an army into Brandenburg, 
took several of its fortresses, and laid the country waste, a.d. issy. 
They also quarrelled with the bishop of Osnabruch, invaded and 
devastated his states ; but having been attacked by the inhabitants 
of Vecht, their army was routed, they lost their booty, and 
narrowly escaped with their lives. 


While the younger brothers were occupied in extending their 
northern frontier, Frederick, the elder, was engaged in a war with 
the people of Hildesheim, who had treated his authority with con- 
tempt, and were in open rebellion. He marched an army mto 
their country ; and having met them in battle array near Goslar, 
a severe action was the consequence. The issue was for a 
long time doubtful, and Frederick's soldiers were beginning 
to give way, when a body of horse, commanded by a count 
of Gadestene, arrived most opportunely, and turned the scale 
in his favour. The greater part of the troops of Hildesheim were 
either killed or wounded ; and what, perhaps, was of more conse- 
quence in those days, the ransom of the prisoners amounted 
to a large sum ; a sum which, as the chronicle states, repaid 
him for the expenses of his brother's ransom in 1376. 

Frederick duke of Brunswick was esteemed one of the ablest 
princes of his day; and when Wenselaus, by his bad conduct, 
forfeited the crown of the Csesars, and was removed from the 
throne, he, by the unanimous voice of the empire, was elected 
king of the Romans. Being called to Franckfort to receive the 
crown, he set out from Brunswick with a small train. Near 
Fritzlar he was attacked by an armed band, his attendants were 
killed or dispersed, and he received so many wounds, that he 
expired almost immediately. The leader of this band of mur- 
derers was named Hardengshusen ; but the instigators of the 
plot were the archbishop of Mentz and Henry count of Waldeck. 
Frederick, says the chronicle, had all the accomplishments of 
a prince. Possessed of great magnanimity and a considerable 
share of learning, of a strong body, valiant in war, but prudent 


and indefatigable in promoting peace and justice. He was mar- chap. iv. 
ried to Anne, daughter of the elector of Saxony, but left no ""^^ 
male issue to interfere with the acknowledged sovereignty of 
his younger brothers. Hardengshusen, the murderer, was taken 
and delivered up to the dukes of Brunswick, who put him to 
death by quartering. 

Bernhard, who was attending his brother, the emperor elect, 
to Franckfort, was also wounded, and robbed of his arms and 
baggage, by the assassins of Frederick. He returned to Bruns- 
wick, collected an army, and declared war against the arch- 
bishop of Mentz, the supposed author of the murder. This 
war was carried on for three years, was injurious to both 
parties, and ruinous to many towns and villages in the arch- 
bishoprick. During one of the many battles which ensued, 
duke Henry of Brunswick was taken prisoner, and a hundred 
thousand florins were demanded for his ransom. This large sum, 
when the necessary expenses of the army had already drained 
their treasury, inclined the dukes to listen to terms ; and through 
the mediation of friends a peace was concluded. The ransom, 
however, was never paid, as Rupert of Bavaria, then king of 
the Romans, acquitted him of his oath and promises, and the 
pope granted him full absolution. 

In 1409 Bernhard and Henry agreed upon a division of their a. d. uop. 
states. The latter took Luneburg and Calenburg for his share ; 
while the former had Brunswick, including Hanover, Everstein, 
and other provinces. They had another brother, Otho, who 
entered the church, and was successively bishop of Verden 
and archbishop of Bremen. Bernhard is the prince whose 


CHAP. IV. posterity aj'e in existence : but, before we consider his descend- 
'^^ ants, we shall, as in the former case, treat of that branch which 
hjas become extinct. 

Henry duke of Luneburg married Sophia, a princess of Pome- 
rania, and by her had one son, William. He married, secondly, 
Margaret, a princess of Hesse, by whom he had another son, 
named Henry. After a life of great activity, and much trouble, he 
died in the year 1415, leaving his states to his sons by the first 
and second marriage, who reigned conjointly for some years. 

William, the eldest son, was a prince of considerable spirit, and 
was almost always engaged in the quarrels of the time. In 1421 
he quelled an insurrection of the Hussites, and next year reduced 
the bishoprick of Hildesheim to subjection. In 1424 he com- 
manded the army of the emperor Sigismund against the Turks, 
and in 1427 fought for the Hanse towns against Denmark. In 
1456 he defeated the archbishop of Mentz. In 1462 he overcame 
Maurice count of Oldenburg ; and in 1469 took the town of 
Eimbech, then a part of the Hanseatic league. His success in 
war gained him the appellation of the Victorious; and as he 
lived to the age of ninety, he was well entitled to that of 

Henry, the younger brother, commanded the troops of his 
cousin, the duke of Austria, in a war between Philip duke of 
Burgundy and Charles king of France. The Burgundians, with 
the aid of the Austrians, gained several victories ; and in every 
action the young duke of Brunswick behaved with great valour. 
He married Helen, a daughter of the duke of Cleves, and had 
the states of Wolfenbuttle for his portion ; but dying without 


male issue, they reverted to the elder brother and his de- chap. iv. 

William the Victorious married Cecilia, daughter of Frederick, 
elector of Brandenburg, and by her had three sons, William, 
Frederick, and Otho. The two eldest reigned together at Bruns- 
wick ; and Otho had the principality of Wolfenbuttle, but died 
before his father, without issue. Little is known of the life of 
Frederick : he is called the Turbulent ; and we find that he died 
while a prisoner at Munden. Frederick was married to his cousin, a.d. 1495. 
Anne, daughter of Erick duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, but 
left no issue. He acquired the principality of Gottingen on 
the death of his cousin Otho, Codes; and the whole of his states 
were inherited by his only surviving brother, William, the eldest 
son of William the Victorious, who was married to Elizabeth 
countess of Stolberg-Wernigerode. His deeds also are buried 
in oblivion; and we only know, that at his death, in 1503, 
William left Brunswick and Wolfenbuttle to his son Henry, and 
Calenburg, with Gottingen, to Erick. 

Henry of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle is the only prince of this 
house, which we have as yet met with, to whom the title of 
Bad is annexed ; but for what reason does not appear. Before 
his father's death he had joined the archbishop of Magde- 
burgh in a war against the inhabitants of Hildesheim, and had 
shown considerable talents as a general. Brunswick had joined 
the Hanseatic league, and was in consequence declared a free 
city : but the privileges and immunities which it claimed were 
incompatible with the rights of the sovereign. Henry remon- 
strated, but was not attended to. He threatened, but his threats 


CHAP. IV. were despised : it therefore became necessary to have recourse 
to compulsion, and he marched against the city with a considerable 
army. The Brunswickers, proud of their wealth and their num- 
bers, beheld his advance with indifference, and without making 
any preparations for their defence. The duke arrived before the 
place about the beginning of winter. The citizens now saw their 
error in not providing against such an occurrence. They had 
few regular troops in the city, and but a poor supply of pro- 
visions. The siege, or rather blockade, lasted the whole of the 
winter, the next summer, and great part of the autumn, as the 
duke's success depended more upon his starving the garrison 
into a compliance with his terms, than on the capability of his 
army to take it by assault. The allies of Brunswick were not 
idle ; they collected a strong force and a large quantity of pro- 
visions at Hildesheim, which they conducted in safety to the 
town of Peyna: from thence they communicated with the 
. ^ besieged. A concerted movement was agreed upon ; which 

Henry being aware of, determined to prevent. He drew off his 
troops from the siege, and marched to attack the army at Peyna. 
These forces, with the Brunswickers that had sallied from the 
city, advanced upon the duke, and an action ensued. They 
were much superior to the duke in numbers ; and had they not 
committed a fatal mistake, by taking up a position where they 
had not sufficient room to manoeuvre, they might have gained an 
easy victory. As it was, they succeeded in getting their supplies 
into Brunswick, though not without a considerable loss and much 
hard fighting. The citizens were now relieved from their greatest 
enemy, famine; and duke Henry, after his losses in the action. 


was Still less able to carry the place by storm. A negotiation chap. iv. 

was commenced, which ended in a truce, and they agreed to ^■^^^^^^ 

submit their differences to the decision of two independent 

princes. The cause was solemnly heard before the electors of 

Saxony and Brandenburg ; but there is no evidence that Henry 

gained any thing more than a nominal submission to his sovereign 

authority on the part of the city. His next warlike exploit was 

an attempt to take the city of Hanover by surprise, it having also 

foiled him when he endeavoured to take it in the regular way, 

during his war against Hildesheim. He marched quietly upon 

the town during the night, concealed his soldiers in the suburbs, 

and had resolved that they should rush into the city as soon 

as the gates were opened next morning. But a countryman 

gave the alarm, the citizens were upon their guard, and Henry 

was obliged to retire without obtaining his object. In 1514 he 

was killed by a cannon ball, while engaged in the siege of Lecropt, 

a town in East Friesland. 

Erick, the younger brother of Henry the Bad, had Calenburg 
and Gottingen. He was long engaged in a contest with his 
nephew about some parts of the succession, but does not appear 
to have made any figure on the great theatre of the world. He 
died in 1540, and, by Catherine, princess of Saxony, left one 
son, Erick, who succeeded him, and with whom this branch 
ended, in 1584. 

Erick the Second lived during that period when the opinions 
of Luther and his disciples had brought about a revolution in 
the sentiments of mankind, which was the greatest, as well as 
the most beneficial, that has happened since the promulgation 


CHAP. IV. of Christianity ; and when the emperor and the pope had recourse 
'^-^^^^"^ to arms, instead of arguments, to overthrow the doctrines of the 
reformed church, the princes of the house of Brunswick-Lune- 
burg were, for the most part, converts to the new doctrines. 
A. D. 1530. But Erick appears to have remained faithful to the church of 
Rome, and to have been a constant ally of Charles the Fifth. 
He raised a considerable force for the service of this emperor, 
and after his abdication commanded a division of the army in 
the Netherlands, under the duke of Alva, in the service of Philip 
king of Spain. Having married, for his second dutchess, a 
princess of Lorraine, whose mother was the widow of a duke 
of Milan, he retired to Pavia, where he resided during the latter 
years of his life. 

Henry, surnamed the Yovmger, was the only son of Henry the 
Bad of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle, who was not a bishop, or con- 
nected with the church. He succeeded his father in 1514, and 
was not only a zealous, but a bigoted defender of the Roman 
catholic faith, and a staunch member of the holy league. We 
may apply to him what Robertson has recorded of duke Albert 
of Saxony, " That from the first dawn of the reformation he had 
been its enemy, as avowedly as the other princes of his house had 
been its protectors ; and had carried on his opposition, not only 
with all the zeal flowing from religious prejudices, but with a 
virulence inspired by personal antipathy to Luther, and embit- 
tered by the domestic animosity subsisting between him and 
the other branches of his family*." When Christian king of 
Denmark, and several protestant princes of the empire, had met 

* Vide Robertson, Charles V. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 89. 


at Brunswick to concert measures for their mutual defence, he chap. iv. 
refused a safe conduct to the elector of Saxony and landgrave ^^^^CsT^ 
of Hesse, who were obliged to pass through his territories, and 
prevented their attendance. In 1539 he went to Spain, on a 
visit to the emperor Charles, and is said to have accused the 
whole of the princes, who were favourers of Luther, of a 
design to overturn the constitution, and dethrone the sovereign. 
In his letters to the emperor he called the great elector of 
Saxony abundance of evil names ; and asserted, that he con- 
sidered Luther as his God. He sent emissaries into the country 
of the protestants ; and many villages were set on fire and burnt 
down by these assassins. Some of them were taken, and con- 
demned, who with their last breath asserted that they had been 
hired for such infernal purposes by Henry of Brunswick. His 
youngest brother, William, commander of the Teutonic order 
at Mirow, in Mecklenburg, having changed his religion, was 
taken a prisoner, and confined by him for many years. His 
infamous conduct was brought before the emperor in a diet 
at Ratisbon; but Charles paid little attention to the complaints 
of the protestants. Brunswick and Goslar, as free towns, had 
both joined the Smalkalde league. They were therefore obnoxious 
to Henry : he attacked them with his forces ; and, though com- 
manded by the emperor to desist, he continued to annoy their 
citizens and commerce. It had now become necessary to put 
an end to his marauding; and the elector of Saxony and land- 
grave of Hesse took the field against him, with a considerable a. d. 1543. 
army. They soon overran his states, took his capital of Wolfen- 
buttle, and obliged him to take refuge at the court of Bavaria. 


A diet was called at Spires, to which the elector and landgrave 
stated in writing their reasons for levying war against the duke 
of Brunswick; and in this document, which still exists, they 
declared that he had forfeited his right to a seat in the college of 
princes, and that they would not sit and vote with him. Henry 
took his place in the assembly, allowing them to protest, and, 
in his turn, produced an accusation against the elector and land- 
grave, and their confederates; asserting, that in defiance of all 
law, both of God and man, in opposition to the constitution of 
the empire, and contrary to public faith and peace, they had 
by force of arms deprived him of his country ; for which they 
stood indicted before the imperial chamber, and, therefore, ought 
to have no place in the diet of the empire. To prevent further 
disputation, Charles agreed to decide their quarrel himself, and 
he fixed the 5th of April for hearing both parties at full length. 
The charges brought against duke Henry were numerous ; but the 
principal part of them were drawn from the letters found in his 
castle of Wolfenbuttle, when it was taken by the confederates, 
and his open attack upon the cities of Brunswick and Goslar. 
There was also another charge brought against this prince, which 
the reader may be gratified by perusing in the words of the 
chronicle* : — 

" The duke had married the lady Mary, sister to Ulrick, 
duke of Wirtemburg, who, among other ladies that waited on 
her, had one Eve Trotting, a young lady of extraordinary beauty 
and noble family. The duke began to be desperately smitten 

* Vide History of the House of Brunswick. Printed by J. Pemberton, opposite 
St. Dunstan's Church, 1716, p. 104, et seq. 


with her, and at length prevailing, had some children by her : chap. iv. 
but that the intrigue might not be discovered, and that he might 
still enjoy her company, he put a stratagem into her head, that 
she should pretend to return home to her parents ; and he fur- 
nished her with a waggon and horses, and all things necessary 
for her journey : but when people thought she was really returned 
home, she was conducted another way to a castle of his, whereof 
the governor was beforehand instructed by him what to do, and 
had a woman or two, in whom he most confided, to assist him 
in the plot. Some days after Eve came there, she took her bed, 
pretending to be very sick. Now, the duke had before prepared 
an image to be made of wood, representing the head, neck, and 
breast of a dead body ; the other parts of the body were done 
and shaped in linen, which the women stuffed with dust or earth, 
that so it might seem to be solid, and then fitted the wooden 
head and bust to it, which was likewise covered over with the 
linen cloth. Being thus ordered and wrapped in a shroud, it 
was laid on the floor, and presently one of the women ran to 
the governor's parlour door, crying out thiat Eve was dead : upon 
which he presently ordered a coffin to be made to put the body 
in : and to scare people from approaching the corpse, it was given 
out that she died of the plague ; and juniper berries and other 
odoriferous things were burnt to perfume the room. Afterwards 
the corpse was carried in funeral pomp to the Grey Friars' church, 
where it was honourably buried ; the Franciscans performing all 
the usual ceremonies, and praying for the soul of the deceased, as 
they did for a whole year after, and in their sermons exhorted the 
people to do the like. There was also, by the duke's order, a 


A. D. 1544. 

funeral office performed for her in the chapel of the castle, where 
it was said she died, priests being invited thither from the neigh- 
bourhood : the same was done in the castle of Wolfenbuttle. His 
wife, the dutchess, was present at this office, with her women and 
maids all in mourning. Many priests were invited to it, who had 
afterwards a dinner, and every one of them a piece of money in 
gratuity, according to the ancient custom observed among the 

" In the meantime. Eve, whose death was lamented by so 
many, was in the castle of Stauffenburg, where she was still 
visited by the duke, who since that time had seven children by 
her: he also persuaded his dutchess to write to Eve's parents 
and relations, to acquaint them with her death. 

" But when afterwards a rumour was raised that she was still 
alive, and kept in Stauffenburg, the dutchess's jealousy put her 
upon making a strict inquiry of the servants about the truth 
thereof; but the duke gave orders, that none of those should 
come near her that could give any information. However, her 
suspicion stuck to her as long as she lived, which put her upon 
writing many letters to him, to lament her misfortune." 

The duke was not present while the accusations against him 
were read, but he was furnished with a copy, and commanded 
to answer them. On the 13th of April his answer was produced, 
and consisted of assertions, that all the wars, conspiracies, and 
rebellions, that had occurred in the empire, were occasioned by 
the confederates. He failed, however, in gaining possession of 
his dutchy, as it was determined that it should be put into 
the hands of the emperor until the question could be legally 


decided. Henry was not satisfied with this sentence. He had ch.4p. iv. 
obtained a large sum of money from the king of France, under ^"^"^^^ 
pretence of raising a subsidiary force for that sovereign, to assist 
him in his war against England; and having collected an army 
of fifteen hundred horse, and eight thousand infantry, instead 
of sending them into Flanders, he ravaged the countries of 
Brunswick and Luneburg, and demanded satisfaction from the 
cities of Brunswick, Hanover, Minden, Bremen, and Hamburgh, 
for the injuries he had received from them, and threatened to 
destroy them unless they renounced the league of Smalkald. 

" The confederates," says Robertson, " were not more sur- 
prised at this unexpected attack than the king of France was 
astonished at a mean and thievish fraud so unbecoming the 
character of a prince." 

The landgrave of Hesse assembled an army for the pro- 
tection of his allies ; and at Nordheim he was joined by his 
son-in-law, Maurice, duke of Saxony, as also by Ernest, duke 
of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, with a thousand horse and three 
thousand infantry. Henry was at this time besieging his own 
castle of Wolfenbuttle ; but he withdrew from the siege, and 
resolved to meet his enemies in the open field. He encamped 
at Calfeld, within a mile of the landgrave's head quarters. An 
attempt was made to treat; but the landgrave stated, that he 
had no power to enter into terms without the advice and consent 
of the confederate princes ; and some skirmishing took place 
between the two armies. At last, through the mediation of 
Maurice of Saxony and Ernest of Grubenhagen, the landgrave 
consented, that if he would disband his troops, surrender himself 


CHAP. IV. to Maurice, and abide by his award, he might have peace. 

A.D. 1.554. Henry rejected these terms, and in the middle of the night 
detached a part of his forces, with the view of surprising the 
camp of his enemy. A severe action was fought ; and Henry 
was so completely beaten, that he was glad to sue for peace 
on any terms. The landgrave would not listen to any proposals 
until he and his eldest son had surrendered themselves prisoners, 
which they were obliged to do. When brought into the presence 
of the prince of Hesse, the landgrave addressed him in these 
terms : " Were I in your power as you are in mine, I should 
not have long to live ; yet I will use you more generously than 
you deserve. Had you submitted to the decision of the emperor, 
you would have been to-day a happier man, and might 
have provided for yourself and your posterity*." The duke of 
Brunswick and his son were put under a guard, their army 
was disbanded, and the landgrave transmitted an account of 
all that had taken place to the emperor, then at Ghent. 

A.D. 1546. The emperor, who had tampered with the protestants 

while it suited his interests, at last threw aside the mask, and 
declared openly the part he intended to act. Preparations were 
made for war; and when the confederate princes required to 
know whether these preparations were carried on by his com- 
mand, and for what end, and against what enemy, Charles 
owned the order which he had issued ; and professing not to 
molest, on account of religion, those who should act as dutiful 
subjects, he assured them, that he had nothing in view but to 

• Vide Commemoration succinct, hujus Belli, apud Scardium, torn. ii. page 307, 
et seq. 


maintain the rights and prerogatives of the imperial dignity ; chap. iv. 
and, by punishing some factious members, to preserve the ancient ^^^^'^^^ 
constitution of the empire from being impaired or dissolved by 
their irregular and licentious conduct. 

The emperor did not name the persons destined to be the 
objects of his vengeance ; but it was clear that he had in view 
the elector of Saxony and landgrave of Hesse. The greater 
part of the protestant confederates also clearly perceived that 
nothing short of the overthrow of the reformed religion was the 
end and aim for which Charles was about to take up arms. 
They resolved, therefore, to prepare for their own defence. 
Their deputies met at Ulm, and their deliberations were con- 
ducted with vigour and unanimity. They solicited the aid of 
the Venetians, of the Swiss, and lastly, of France and England ; 
but gained little by their negotiation with these courts. So 
popular, however, was their cause in Germany, that in the course 
of a few weeks they had collected an army of seventy thousand 
foot, and fifteen thousand cavalry, with a train of a hundred 
and twenty cannon, eight hundred ammunition waggons, eight 
thousand beasts of burden, and six thousand pioneers*. 

Henry of Brunswick, during these preparations, was still in 
close confinement, though several of the confederate princes, 
his relations, had interceded for his release. At last the want 
of union among the confederates, the division and dispersion of 
their army, gave the emperor the power of dictating terms ; 
but this prince did not obtain his liberty till after the fatal 
battle of Mulhausen, the defeat and imprisonment of the elector 

* Vide Thaun. Chron. lib. i. page 68. 


CHAP. IV. of Saxony ; and when the landgrave of Hesse having, by the 
"^^^^^ persuasion of his son-in-law, Maurice of Saxony, placed himself 
in the emperor's power, was obliged to subscribe to any terms 
which he might impose. The first and most galling command 
which he received, was to liberate Henry of Brunswick, without 
ransom, together with all the prisoners he had taken during 
the war. 
A. D. id5o. It was now the turn of Henry of Brunswick to triumph over 

his adversaries. He commenced a suit against the confederate 
princes in the imperial chamber, for the injury which he had 
suffered by the sequestration of his states, and renewed his 
claim to the sovereignty of the city of Brunswick. But the 
emperor interfered, and put an end to his dispute with that city ; 
and by a treaty concluded at Passau, in Bavaria, commissioners 
were appointed to settle all differences between him and his nobles, 
and also between him and the cities of Brunswick and jjoslar. 
But he continued still to make war upon the protestant princes 
A. D. 1553. in his vicinity: and in 1553 he joined Maurice, now become 
elector of Saxony, against the margrave of Brandenburg, whose 
turbulent ambition had excited commotions, and disturbed the 
empire during this year. 

The margrave's troops having shared in the calamities of the 
siege of Metz, were greatly reduced in number : but the emperor, 
prompted by gratitude for his distinguished services ; or, per- 
haps, (as Robertson observes,) " with the view of fomenting 
differences among the princes of the empire*," having paid up 
all the money due to him, he was enabled to hire so many of 

* Vide Robertson, Charles V. vol. ii. p. 368. 


the soldiers dismissed from the imperial army, that he was chap. iv. 
soon at the head of a body of men as numerous as ever. a^ i.'jss 

The bishops of Bamburg and Wurtzburg had obtained a deci- 
sion against him in the imperial chamber, annulling the con- 
ditions he had imposed upon them ; and he was enjoined to 
renounce all claim to the performance of these conditions : and 
if he did persist in such tinjust demands, all princes of the 
empire were exhorted to take arms against him, as a disturber 
of the public tranquillity. To this decision Albert opposed the 
confirmation of his transactions with the two prelates, which 
the emperor had granted him; and in order to intimidate his 
antagonists, as well as to convince them of his resolution not 
to relinquish his pretensions, he put his troops in motion to 
secure the territory in question. Various endeavours were made, 
and many expedients proposed, in order to prevent the kindling 
of another war : but that warmth of temper which rendered 
Albert turbulent, inspired him with the most sanguine hopes of 
success, and he disdainfully rejected all reasonable overtures of 

The imperial chamber now issued a decree against him ; and 
the elector of Saxony, with other princes, among whom was 
Henry duke of Brunswick, were required to take arms, in order 
to see it carried into execution. There was some reason to 
suppose that the emperor gave encouragement to the margrave 
of Brandenburg, and therefore Maurice and his associates were 
the more willing to comply with the requisition of the chamber ; 
and they were joined by many of the most powerful princes 
in the empire. Albert endeavoured, by his activity, to deprive 


A. I). 1553. 


this league of the power which it would acquire by the union of 
their forces. He marched directly against Maurice of Saxony, 
the enemy whom he dreaded most. Their armies were nearly 
equal in number, about twenty-four thousand each. They met at 
the village of Silverhausen ; and the animosity which reigned 
between the two leaders did not suffer them to remain long 
inactive. The troops, inflamed with the same hostile rage, 
marched firmly to the attack. 

The battle was long and obstinate. Both generals were ac- 
customed to command, and both capable of availing themselves of 
every error on the part of his adversary, and of every advantage 
which was gained on his own side. Victory, which was for a 
considerable time doubtful, at last declared for Maurice, whose 
cavalry turned the scale. Albert's army fled in confusion, leaving 
upwards of four thousand killed on the field, a number of 
wounded, with their camp, baggage, and artillery, in the hands 
of the conquerors. But this victory was dearly bought: three 
princes of Brunswick, (two of them sons of Henry,) fell, while 
gallantly leading their troops to the conflict : and Maurice himself, 
while rallying a body of horse that had been broken, and leading 
them a second time to a charge, received a wound in the belly 
from a pistol bullet, of which he died two days after the battle. 

After the action at Silverhausen, Albert took refuge in the 
city of Brunswick, whither he was pursued by Henry, who 
laid siege to the place; but being bribed by the citizens with 
a promise of eighty thousand crowns, he raised the siege, and 
marched into the territories of John-Frederick, duke of Saxony, 
who was the friend and ally of the margrave of Brandenburg. 


The successor of Maurice, elector of Saxony, now interposed, chap. iv. 

and through his mediation their diiferences were accommodated, ^■^^♦^'^ 

and Henry returned to the prosecution of the war against Albert. 

He took Lichtfelze, a town in the bishoprick of Bamberg, which 

was garrisoned by the troops of Brandenburg, and afterwards 

marched against Sweinfurt, in Franconia, where Albert had his 

head quarters: but as this town was in a condition to defend 

itself, and the winter was approaching, he returned to Wolfen- 


In the spring Albert withdrew his troops from Sweinfurt; a. 0.1554. 
but was pursued by Henry, and overtaken on the banks of 
the Mayne, where he suffered a second defeat ; and being obliged 
to swim across that river, he narrowly escaped with his life, 
but lost all his baggage and cannon, and the greater part of 
his troops. In 1556 Henry took for his second wife, Sophia, 
daughter of Sigismund, king of Poland ; and, having retired 
from the bustle of the world, spent the last two years of his 
life in arranging his private affairs. He died in 1558 ; and by 
his first dutchess, Mary of Wirtemburg, left one son, Julius, 
who succeeded him, and who also succeeded to the states of 
Gottingen and Calemburg on the death of his cousin, Erick the 

Julius was a prince of a mild disposition. He became 
early in life a convert to the doctrines of the reforma- 
tion ; and on his accession to the government of his paternal 
states, he subscribed to the confession of Augsburg, and took 
care to have it propagated throughout his dominions. He entered 
into an amicable arrangement with the city of Brunswick, and by a 
public act confirmed their privileges ; leaving the disputes which 


CHAP. IV. had existed between that city and his father on minor points, to be 
^^'^'^^^ decided in the courts of law. He raised Wolfenbuttle, which was 
hitherto a village dependent upon the castle, to the rank of a city, 
and, in memory of his father, gave it the name of Henreichstadt. 
He was a great encourager of learning, and founded a college at 
Gandersheim, which was afterwards transferred to Helmstadt, 
and, by favour of the emperor Maximilian, constituted a university, 
with many privileges. 

Julius does not appear to have engaged in any of the contests 
of his time, and he died, at the age of sixty-one, on the 3d 
of May, 1589. In 1560 he married Hedwig, daughter of Joachim 
elector of Brandenburg, and left a family of eleven children. 
Henry-Julius, his eldest son, succeeded him. 

When only two years of age, Henry-Julius was chosen bishop 
of Halberstadt, a Roman catholic see, with the view, it is sup- 
posed, of preserving him from the heresy of his father: but 
this did not succeed, as he adopted the creed of the reformed 
church; and at the same time obliged the chapter to pay his 
revenues as bishop. His brother, Philip-Sigismund, was bishop 
of Minden ; and Charles, another brother, provost of Strasburg. 

The existence of free and independent cities in the centre of 
their states was at all times a subject of great jealousy to the 
sovereign princes : the relation which existed between these cities 
and the princes in whose territories they were situated' was 
seldom well defined, and never properly understood ; they were 
constantly quarrelling about some grievance or other, or the 
imaginary infringement of some right or privilege. The insolence 
of the Hanseatic league not unfrequently provoked their superiors 
to take vengeance on its members, and to compel them to 


acknowledge the paramount authority of their superior lords, chap. iv. 
The Brunswickers above all were a turbulent set; and not- '^^"^^-^"^^ 
withstanding the kindness with which they had been treated 
by the father of Henry-Julius, they soon rebelled against 
his authority, and forced him to have recourse to arms for their 

With his own subjects, and a subsidiary force which he 
took into his pay, he laid siege to that city. It was sup- a.d. leoe. 
ported by the other towns of the league ; who, by way 
of diverting his attention from the conquest of Brunswick, 
marched a formidable army into the territories of the duke. The 
circle of Saxony interposed by its ministers, a reconciliation 
was effected, and by command of the emperor both parties laid 
down their arms ; though the rabble, which constituted the 
Hanseatic army, did not disperse until they had devastated a great 
part of the states of Brunswick. They attempted to waylay the 
duke when he had separated from his army; but he happily 
escaped, and arrived safe at Wolfenbuttle. In 1599 he had 
acquired the countries of Regenstein and Blankenburg, by 
the failure of heirs in these houses; but the elector of 
Brandenburg laid claim to Regenstein, as sovereign of the 
bishoprick of Halberstadt, which had been granted to him by 
the treaty of Westphalia; and his claim was considered good 
by the imperial chamber. 

Henry- Julius died at Prague, in 1613. He was twice 
married : first, in 1585, to Dorothea, daughter of Augustus, elector 
of Saxony, who died in child-bed of her first child, a daughter ; 
and secondly, in 1590, to Elizabeth, princess of Denmark, by 


CHAP. IV. whom he had eleven children. Christian, one of his sons, who 

'-^^'^^ was bishop of Halberstadt, was a great favourite with James the 
First of England, and by him made a knight of the Garter. On the 

AD. 1596. failure of heirs male in the Grubenhagen branch, Henry-Julius 
seized upon those states, under the pretence that he was heir, in 
preference to the descendants of the elder brother; but Fre- 
derick-Ulrick, his eldest son, who succeeded him in the govern- 
ment, was compelled to restore the'm to the dukes of Luneburg. 

Frederick-Ulrick spent a great part of his youth in England 
and France, and was possessed of all the accomplishments of 
the age in which he lived. On succeeding to the sovereignty, 
a quarrel with the city of Brunswick engaged him in a civil 
war ; and, though baffled for several years by the intrigues of the 
Hanse towns, he at last compelled that capital to do homage to him, 
and put an end to a controversy that had existed for centuries. 
He married Sophia, daughter of Sigismund, elector of Branden- 
burg, but died, in 1636, without issue; and with him. this branch 
of the family ended. 

We must now revert to the elder branch, the descendants 
of Bernhard, second son of Magnus the Chain-bearer. Bernhard 
left two sons, by Margaret, princess of Saxony ; Otho, styled 
the Lame, and Frederick the Just. The first succeeded his 
father in 1434, and reigned twelve years. He was actively 
engaged in the troubles of his time, and appears to have served 
in all the campaigns of his cousin, William the Victorious. He 
married a countess of Eberstein, but left no issue; and at his 

^ death, in 1446, he was succeeded in the government of Luneburg 

by his brother Frederick, who, from his peaceable disposition 


and upright conduct, a rare quality in those days, was called chap. iv. 
the Just. By Magdalen, princess of Brandenburg, Frederick ^■^^'^'^ 
had two sons ; to whom, on their attaining the age of manhood, 
he delivered up the government of the dutchy, and retired 
to the privacy of a convent. His eldest son, Bemhard, 
the second of this branch, reigned for a few years. He married 
a countess of Schaumburg; but leaving no issue, Otho, the 
younger son, became the head of the state. 

From 1464 to 1471 we find this Otho engaged in a contest 
with his nobles, who, under the mild sway of his father, had 
become turbulent and presumptuous, and in a great measure 
usurped the sovereign authority. The most powerful of these 
barons were Schulenburg and Berteslaw, chiefs possessed of 
considerable estates, and allied to almost all the noble families 
in the country. Otho pursued them into the most difficult of 
their fastnesses; and at length compelled them to submit and 
sue for mercy. But he died also in the prime of life, and his 
deeds have not been such as to find a place in history. He 
had married Anne, a princess of Nassau, and by her had one 
son, Henry, who at his father's death, in 1471, was only three 
years of age. Bemhard now emerged from the cloister, and 
again assumed the reins of government, as the guardian of his 
grandson. His second reign was as peaceable as his first had 
been; and he died in 1478, leaving the young Henry, then ten 
years of age, sovereign of the country. 

This Henry was both an active and an enterprising prince. He 
seceded from the church of Rome, and was a great promoter 
of the reformation; a circumstance which involved him in war 
with his cousins, Erick and Henry, of Brunswick Wolfenbuttle, 


CHAP. IV. the two catholic princes whose history we have already detailed. 

^^""^^ Fabricius mentions a severe action fought near Peyna, in which 
Henry commanded the troops of Luneburg and Hildesheim 
against those of Brunswick. 

The duke of Luneburg, with a force much inferior to his 
adversaries', obtained so complete a victory, that he took both 
Erick and William of Brunswick prisoners, with their ally, the 
bishop of Minden. Charles the Fifth interfered, and com- 
manded him not only to desist from further hostilities, but 
also to set his prisoners free. This command was not obeyed ; 
he was therefore put under the ban of the empire; and Erick, 
who had been ransomed, was ordered, with his brother Henry, 
to 'see the ban enforced. 

Henry, to avoid the , effects of this prescription, resigned 
the dutchy to his three sons, and fled to France, where he re- 
mained an exile for several years. On making proper submission, 
however, he was allowed to return; and we find him, in 1526, 
engaged in suppressing the insurrection occasioned by the ex- 
travagancies of Muncer of Stollberg, the apostle of the ana- 
baptists. Muncer was taken and beheaded, his followers were 
dispersed, and for a while this sect of fanatics was suppressed. 
But it appeared again with renewed vigour; and few are unac- 
quainted with its history in the city of Munster, where John 
of Leyden was elected their king, and where, when besieged 
by the bishop, they endured the utmost rigour of famine, and 
suff'ered hardships at which humanity shudders, rather than 
accept of the terms which were offered to them*. 

* Vide History of Charles V. vol. ii. p. 20, et seq. 


Henry of Luneburg married Margaret, daughter of Ernest, chap. iv. 
elector of Saxony; and by her had three sons, Otho, Ernest, ^^^^""^ 
and Francis. Otho succeeded his father in 1531 ; but pre- 
ferring retirement to the parade of a court, he resigned the 
government to his brother Ernest, and took up his residence 
at Harburg, and there he was succeeded by his only son, also 
Otho, in 1549. 

Otho the First, of Harburg, was married to Matilda, a 
daughter of the baronial house of Camp6 : and his son, Otho 
the Second, married a countess of Schwartzburg, who died in 
1557 ; and, secondly, a countess of East Friesland : by the 
first he had three, and by the latter eleven children; but only 
one son, William, survived him; and, as he died unmarried, 
this branch ended in 1642. Francis, the youngest son of Henry 
of Luneburg, and brother to the first duke of Harburg, resided 
at GiiForn : he married Clara, of Saxe Lawenburg, but left no 
male issue. 

Ernest, the second son of Henry duke of Luneburg, was a 
prince of more spirit and greater ambition than either his 
elder or younger brother. He was educated at the university 
of Wittenburg, where he attended the prelections of Luther, 
and early adopted his sentiments in religion. In the records of 
that period he is styled the Confessor, from the active and zealous 
part which he took in the establishment of the reformation. He 
was the intimate friend and constant companion of the great 
elector of Saxony. In the diet at Augsburg, his voice had a a.d. i^so. 
powerful influence in persuading the princes to support the 
cause they had adopted, and to reject the flattering and tempt- 


CHAP. IV. ing promises of the emperor ; and in the second meeting at 
^^*^''^*^ Smalkalde, he ably supported the exhortations of Luther, and 
was amongst the first to propose the league for their mutual 
defence against all aggressors, and by which the protestant states 
of the empire were formed into one regular body. At his sug- 
gestion, they resolved to apply to the kings of England and 
France to implore them to protect the new confederacy. Both 
these sovereigns, we may observe, were well disposed to any 
measure that could weaken the power of their ambitious rival ; 
but Henry was so much engaged in the negotiations for effecting 
his divorce from his queen, that he had no leisure for foreign 
ajflfairs, and all they could obtain was a small supply of money ; 
and Francis having received no provocation, could not violate 
a treaty of peace which he had himself so lately solicited. Yet 
the king of France listened with the utmost eagerness to the 
complaints of the protestant princes, and determined secretly 
to cherish those sparks of political discord which might be after- 
wards kindled into a flame. He sent William de Bellay, one 
of his ablest negotiators, into Germany, who visited the several 
courts of the malcontent protestants, and concluded an alliance 
between them and his master; which, though kept secret at 
the time, and productive of no immediate effects, laid the founda- 
tion of an union that on many subsequent occasions was fatal 
to the ambitious projects of Charles. 

Ernest of Celle was one of the leading members in the 

A. u. 1531. negotiations, which ended in the pacification that was agreed 

upon at Nuremberg, and ratified in the diet at Ratisbon; and 

he accompanied the elector of Saxony and landgrave of Hesse, 


with a considerable body of troops, when they took the field chap. iv. 
against Henry of Brunswick, his cousin, compelled him to raise ^^'^'"^^ 
the siege of Goslar, and afterwards drove him from his dominions, a. n. 1543. 

His second son, Frederick, commanded the troops of Lune- 
burg, under the landgrave of Hesse, in the hard fought action 
of Silverhausen. This gallant youth was killed in leading his a. d. 1545. 
troops to one of those desperate charges which succeeded in 
gaining the victory, and his father did not long survive him. 
Ernest died on the 11th of January, 1546. From the influence 
which he had acquired among the confederate princes, we must 
consider his death as a severe loss to the protestant cause. He 
was an able negotiator and a sound politician; and his com- 
manding eloquence could at all times confirm the wavering spirit 
of the elector of Saxony, or calm the violence of the landgrave 
of Hesse, the acknowledged heads of the protestant league. After 
his death his troops were commanded by his cousin, Ernest, duke 
of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, a pupil of his own, and one equally 
zealous in the defence of the cause they had undertaken to support. 

At the fatal battle of Mulhausen these troops formed a con- a. 0.1547. 
siderable portion of the confederate army ; and when the Saxons 
were routed and fled, they remained firm and kept their ground. 
Among them the elector fought in person ; and with them he was 
taken prisoner, after being surrounded on every side. But not till 
he was wounded in the faceand exhausted with fatigue, and fully 
satisfied that all resistance was vain, did he command them to lay 
down their arms. Ernest of Grubenhagen was conducted, with 
John Frederick, a prisoner to the emperor, and accompanied 
that prince in bondage during his progress through the country. 


CHAP. IV. The name of Ernest of Celle appears as one of the first sub- 

^•^^''"^^ scribers to the confession of Augsburg, and he protested against 
the decrees of the diets of Ratisbon and Spires. He married, in 
1528, Sophia, daughter of Henry, duke of Mecklenburg, and had 
a family of ten children. In his days the house of Luneburg 
enjoyed some degree of its ancient splendour; and Ernest was, in 
many respects, a prince worthy of his descent from the Lion of 
Brunswick. He resided in the castle of Celle, and took the title 
of duke of that city in preference to that of duke of Luneburg. 
The whole of the Brunswick and Luneburg states centered in 
him or his immediate descendants, and he is therefore considered 
the common father of all tlie existing princes of that house. He 
was succeeded by his eldest son, Francis-Otho, in the dukedom of 
Celle. Henry, his second surviving son, received the principality 
of Danneberg; and William, the youngest, had the dutchy of 

The states of Luneburg were anxious to form a powerfid 
alliance for the eldest son of Ernest the Confessor, and they 
A. D. 1549. sent a formal embassy to England to demand the hand of the 
princess Mary for their young sovereign. This embassy was 
favourably received; but as a treaty was then on foot for the 
marriage of the princess with the Infant of Portugal, their request 
could not be acceded to. For what reason, or on what account, 
is not stated, but about this period Edward the Sixth granted 
a pension of three hundred pounds sterling to Otho, duke of 
Luneburg, payable annually on the eve of the feast of St. John 
the Baptist. Francis-Otho, in his thirtieth year, 1559, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Joachim, elector of Brandenburg ; but. 


dying within a few months after his marriage, left no issue, chap. iv. 
Henry, his next brother, who resided at Danneberg, agreed to 
reign conjointly with his brother "William, and the country was 
governed in their names for several years. But, having married 
a princess of Saxe-Lawenburg, a division afterwards took place by 
mutual consent. Henry, fond of retirement, accepted the small 
territory of Danneberg, and William had the dutchies of Celle 
and Luneburg. Henry had several children; and at his death, 
in 1596, was succeeded by his eldest son, Julius-Ernest. 

This prince married, first, a countess of East Friesland, by 
whom he had one daughter ; and, secondly, he married Sibylla, 
the daughter of his uncle William ; but, leaving no male issue, 
his states were inherited by his brother Augustus, who also 
succeeded to the states of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttle, in 1634, on 
the death of Frederick- Ulrick, the last prince of that branch. 
Augustus of Daimeberg, and, as he was afterwards styled, duke 
of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttle, was a prince of great learning, and 
the patron of learned men. He travelled much in his younger 
days, and resided for some time at the courts of England and 
France. On succeeding to his cousin, Frederick-Ulrick, he 
made Wolfenbuttle his place of residence. There he formed 
a magnificent library, which still exists, and is a noble monument 
of the zeal with which he cultivated literature and the sciences. 
It contains many scarce and valuable manuscripts and produc- 
tions of the first ages of printing, and several treatises of con- 
siderable interest that were composed by the prince himself. His 
great object seems to have been the improvement of the German 
language, and to inculcate a purity and correctness of expression 


CHAP. IV. in speaking as well as in writing. He died in 1666; and by his 
'■^^"'■^^^^ second dutchess, Dorothea, daughter of Randolph, prince of 
Anhalt, he left three sons and two daughters. By his third 
dutchess, Sophia-Elizabeth, princess of Mecklenburg, he left 
one son and one daughter. Rudolphus-Augustus, the eldest 
son by the second marriage, succeeded him at Brunswick. 
Anthony- Ulrick, the other brother by the same mother, obtained 
Wolfenbuttle ; and Ferdinand-Albert, the only son of the third 
marriage, had the principality of Bevern. 

Though the city of Brunswick had been stripped of its 
freedom in a great measure by duke Frederick-Ulrick, in 1596, 
it still possessed many immunities, which were considered 
derogatory of the authority vested in the sovereign. In 1671, 
Rudolph collected a force, and besieging the city, compelled it 
to renounce all connexion with the Hanseatic league, and to 
content itself with the title of capital of his country. This 
conduct is said to have been the ruin of its commerce, and to 
have reduced it from being one of the richest and most flourishing 
cities in Germany, to a state of great poverty and wretchedness. 
It was much favoured, however, by succeeding princes, and, 
possessing many of its ancient rights, Brunswick still holds a 
very distinguished rank among the commercial cities of the 
continent. Its situation on the Ocker river, which communicates 
with the Weser, and in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Elbe, gives it great facilities for trade ; and while it continues 
unshackled by restrictive imposts, it will always form the central 
mart for the introduction of British and foreign merchandise 
into the continent. * 


Rudolph, duke of Brunswick, was twice married, but left chap. iv. 
no male issue. During his reign the troops of Brunswick were '^^^^'^^^^ 
united with the imperial army, and he served several campaigns 
against the king of Sweden and Louis the Fourteenth of France. 
At his death, in 1704, he was succeeded by his brother, Anthony- 
Ulrick, who had been joined with him in the government for 
several years. 

Anthony-UIrick was fond of the sciences. He was a candidate 
for the bishoprick of Hallerstadt ; but that having been ceded 
to the elector of Brandenburg, by the peace of Westphalia, 
he was named a prebend of Strasburg, a:id director of the 
protestant convents : but the troubles of the times prevented his 
enjoying either. He married Elizabeth-Julianna, princess of Hol- 
stein, and left a family of eleven children. Augustus-William, 
his eldest son, succeeded him in 1711, at Wolfenbuttle ; and 
Louis-Rudolphus, his youngest son, in the principality of Blanken- 
burg. Augustus married his cousin, Christina-Sophia, daughter 
of his uncle Rudolph, but left no male issue : he was therefore 
succeeded by his brother Louis, who, in his latter years, became 
a Roman catholic. Louis was married to Christina, daughter of 
the prince of Oetingen, and left a family of four daughters. 
Ehzabeth, the eldest, married Charles the Third of Spain, after- 
wards emperor, and was the mother of the celebrated Maria- 

Ferdinand-Albert, the only son of duke Augustus, by Sophia 
of Mecklenburg, now succeeded to the whole of this part of 
the Brunswick states. He makes some figure as a scholar and 
a traveller; but there are few incidents in his life that merit a 


CHAP. IV. place in general history. He was married to Christina, daughter 
^^^^^^^ of Frederick, landgrave of Hesse, and left a family of nine 
children. His sons, Ferdinand, Albert, and Ernest-Ferdinand, 
succeeded him in 1657. Albert had Brunswick and Wolfen- 
buttle, and Ernest the territory of Bevern. The present reign- 
ing duke of Brunswick and Wolfenbuttle is the fourth genera- 
tion in lineal descent from the former, but the latter branch 
became extinct in 1800*. 

* Vide Rethmeyri Chronicon. 
TiiAUNi et Fabricii Chronica. 
Robertson'-;. History of Charles the Fifth, passim. 
Hume's History of England. 

Memoirs of the House of Brunswick, London, 1716. 
Origin Guelf. Prsefation, vol. iv. 
Leibnitz Scriptor. Brunswicens. torn. iii. p. 676. 
Beiirens, Acta German. Eruditor. p. 95 — 83"2. 





MAGNUS TORQUATUS, killed in 137S 

1, Frederick, duke of Briins- 
wick-Lmiebiirg, elected em- 
peror of Germany ; assassi- 
nated 1400. 

RNHARD, dnkeofLmie- 3, Henry, duke of Wolfen- 

burg, died in 1431. bnttic, died in 1416. This 

I Iwanch became extinct in 


Beknharo, diike of Lune- 2, Otho, diike of Liinebnrg, 
l)urg, died, witliont issue, after liis brother's decease, 

1464. died in 1471. 

Otho, dukeofHarbnig.died 
in 1549. This branch became 
extinct in 164-2. 

2, Ernest, duke of Ccllc, 
styled the Confessor, born 
in 1497, died in 1546. 


Francis, duke of Giffor 
died in 1549, without issue 

N'cis-Otho, died, with- 2, Henry, dukeofDanneberg, 3, William, duke of Lune- 
out issue, 1559. ancestor of the present reign- burg, ancestor of George 

ing duke of Brunswick- the Fourth, king of Great 

Luneburg-Wolfenbuttlc,died Britain, &c. died in 1592. 

in 1598. 



Having brought to a conclusion the history of the various 
collateral branches, we have now^ to follow that which gave 
a sovereign to Great Britain ; and being the branch of this 
illustrious house in which we are chiefly interested, it must 
naturally occupy a greater share of our attention. 

William, the youngest of the four sons of Ernest the Confessor, 
had the dutchy of Luneburg, including Celle, as his portion of 
the general states, and fixed his residence in the magnificent 
and almost impregnable castle of Celle. The failure of male 
issue in the baronial houses of Hoy and Deipholz, added greatly 
to his possessions ; and, in regard to territory and power, he 
was much superior to the other branches of his house. 

His aUiance, by marriage with the king of Denmark*, gave 
him considerable weight in the political affairs of Europe ; and 
when he died, in 1592, he was the father of fifteen children, 
seven of them sons. On his death-bed the prince called his 
sons around him, and explaining to them the fable of the bundle 
of sticks, he exhorted them to reign in union ; and, in the 
history of their own family, pointed out the disadvantages which 
had arisen from the frequent division of the country into petty 
sovereignties, and the impossibility of their either acquiring 
power or influence, or even of maintaining their hereditary 

* William married Dorothea, daughter of Christian the Third. 


dignity, unless they governed the country as one state. The chap. v. 
advice of the aged father had a povi^erful effect upon his gallant ^^^^^^^ 
sons. They agreed that the sovereign pow^er should be vested, 
without restriction, in the elder brother; vvfho, on his death, 
should be succeeded by the next in seniority. To prevent 
any future division, they bound themselves, by a solemn oath, 
that only one should marry ; and that they should leave it to 
the determination of chance which of them should be that om. 
The lot was cast, and it fell upon George, the sixth son. 

On the death of William, in 1592, Ernest, his eldest son, 
as had been agreed upon, succeeded him in the government, 
and lived and reigned till 1611. At his death. Christian, the 
second brother, who was bishop of Halberstadt, assumed the 
government; and by the decision of the imperial chamber in 
regard to the principality of Grubenhagen, which had been 
usurped by Henry-Julius of Brunswick, another valuable posses- 
sion was added to the dutchy of Luneburg. In 1615 he was 
elected bishop of Minden, which also gave him the command 
of the states of that see ; so that, in point of wealth and power, 
he had few superiors among the princes of Germany. 

When the states of Bohemia determined, in 1616, to throw 
off the Austrian yoke, and asserted their independence by electing 
their own king, their choice fell on Frederick the Fifth, elector 
palatine of the Rhine. This prince hesitated for some time to 
accept a dignity which was beset with difficulties, and attended 
with danger. The ambition, however, of the electress, Elizabeth 
Stuart, overcame all his scruples ; and he assumed a title which 
led to a destructive war, and ended in the suppression, for a time. 


CHAP. V. of his hereditary rank. Elizabeth of England, and, as she was 
^-'^^•^^^'^ now called, queen of Bohemia, and Christian of Luneburg, were 
near relations. Their mothers were sisters, and both daughters 
of Frederick the Second, of Denmark: he therefore entered 
warmly into her cause, and supported the new elected king 
with all the resources of the dutchy of Brunswick. " A reign- 
ing prince (says Schiller) abandoned his territories, which he 
ruled in peace, in order to try the uncertain fortune of war for a 
stranger. And after him, a new knight errant, poor in estate, 
but rich in ancestry, undertook the defence of a cause in which 
the former despaired of success. Christian duke of Brunswick- 
Luneburg fancied he had learnt from count Mansfeldt the secret 
of maintaining twenty thousand men without money. Urged on 
by youthful impetuosity, and burning with the eager desire to 
create himself riches, and a name in war, at the expense of the 
catholic clergy, whom he detested, he drew together a consider- 
able army in Lower Saxony ; to which the defence of the king of 
Bohemia and German liberty must lend an excuse*." His army 
was augmented by the disbanded troops of Denmark; and by 
attacking the states of Westphalia, belonging to the emperor, he 
was able to make a powerful diversion in favour of the elector. 
He took the town of Paderborne, and coined the costly orna- 
ments of the cathedral into money, for the pay of his troops. 
" God's friend and the enemy of priests," was the motto which 
this money bore. 

He afterwards attempted to join count Mansfeldt ; but being 

* Vide Schiller's History of the Thirty Years' War, vol. i. p. 143. 


pursued by the imperialists under Tilly, an action took place chap. v. 
near Hoechst, on the banks of the Mayne, in which he suffered 
the loss of nearly the whole of his infantry, by the breaking- 
down of the bridge over which they were attempting to pass 
that river: and it was only by having found a ford, that he 
escaped with his cavalry, and joined the elector at Darmstadt. 

The desertion of England and Denmark obliging Frederick 
to lay down his arms, the duke of Brunswick and count Mansfeldt 
withdrew from his service. But they felt no further embarrass- 
ment on this account, than the necessity of an excuse for keeping 
their troops together. War was their end, no matter in whose cause. 
Mansfeldt tried to get into the service of the emperor, but in this 
he failed : they then offered their forces to the states general of 
Holland, and were accepted. In crossing the dutchy of Luxemburg, 
to join the army of the prince of Orange, and to relieve the fortress 
of Bergen-op-Zoom, then besieged by the duke of Spinola, they 
were attacked, in the plain of Fleurus, by the Spaniards under 
Gonsalves de Cordova, and defeated with a loss of three thousand 
men. This defeat was owing in a great measure to the mutiny of 
their troops, many of whom had refused to join them in this 
service. The duke of Brunswick had his right arm shot off in 
this action : he therefore retired to Celle, for the recovery of 
his health, and occupied himself in reorganizing his army. 
Though suffering from the effects of his wound, duke Christian 
headed his army on its return to Luneburg. He had become 
personally acquainted with his cousin in Holland, and was so 
enamoured of her charms, that he wore her glove in his hat, and 
bore on his colours " Alles fur Gott und sie." 


CHAP. V. As soon as his wounds were healed, he again took the field, 

^^^^^'^^^^ -writh a force amounting to sixteen thousand infantry, five thou- 
sand cavalry, and a large train of artillery. His design was to 
join the prince of Orange : and William duke of Weimar served as 
the lieutenant-general under him. Count Sturme was his general 
of cavalry, and count Isemberg commanded the ordnance. 

In his march to the low countries Christian endeavoured to 
avoid the army of the emperor under Tilly, which had been 
directed to watch his motions ; and, in order that his army might 
be the better supplied on its march, he divided it into three corps. 
He gave the command of one, which was the advanced guard, 
to the duke of Weimar; general Kneiphusen commanded the 
centre division ; and the marquess de la Tour, a Frenchman, 
the rear guard. These generals, we are sorry to add, had been 
purchased by Tilly : they therefore deceived him as to the 
movements of his enemy ; his orders were disobeyed, and, 
through their cowardice and treachery, he was surprised and 
beaten in the passes near Newburg. 

Christian joined prince Maurice near Cleves with a small 
remnant of his army, and endeavoured, but in vain, to bring 
his cowardly generals to condign punishment. For his gallant 
conduct in the Dutch wars, as well as his zeal in the cause 
of the queen of Bohemia, James the First rewarded him with 
the order of the Garter; an honour then but seldom bestowed 
upon the highest princes in Christendom. 

In 1626, Christian the Fourth of Denmark undertook to vin- 
dicate the liberties of Germany, and for that purpose marched 
a large army into the heart of Westphalia. He was supported 


by Christian duke of Luneburg ; but that prince being seized with chap. v. 
a fever at Wolfenbuttle, when on his way to unite with the ^^"^^^^ 
Danish army, expired on the 10th of June of this year, at the 
age of thirty-six, leaving the government of Luneburg, and the 
command of the army, to his next brother, Augustus. 

The Luneburg troops having united with those of Denmark, 
they were attacked by the imperialists under Tilly, at a 
village called Luther, in the territories of Brunswick. This was 
one of the hardest fought actions during the thirty years' war. 
The protestants, by the fierceness of their onset, routed and put 
to flight four regiments of the imperial guard, and got possession 
of the enemy's cannon. The greater part of Tilly's army was 
thrown into disorder and retreating ; but the victors having 
become scattered in their pursuit, they were attacked by a 
column of veterans which had kept its ground ; and some of 
the fugitives having rallied, the contest was renewed. The 
Danish cavalry unfortunately got involved with their own- 
infantry, and before the confusion which this had caused could 
be remedied, they were attacked, and in their turn routed; so 
that the victory remained with the imperialists. The king of Den- 
mark had three horses killed under him. The duke of Lune- 
burg displayed much gallantry, and with his cavalry covered 
the retreat of the Danes. 

The elector of Saxony having seceded from the protestant 
cause, a peace was concluded between him and the emperor 
at Prague. Duke Augustus, from the misery which the con- 
tinuance of the war had produced in his country, was inclined' 
to accede to that treaty ; but in this he was opposed by 


CHAP. V, his brothers and the other princes of his house. Much time 
^"^"^^^"^^ was spent in canvassing the matter, and on all occasions he 
seems to have acted as a general mediator. He met the ministers 
of the emperor at Goslar, where it was proposed to him that 
he should accept of the peace of Prague, and accede to the 
decree of the diet at Ratisbon ; that he should withdraw from 
the emperor's enemies, and renounce all treaties and commu- 
nication with them ; that he should recall his forces from their 
army, and unite them with that of Ferdinand ; that the city and 
bishoprick of Hildesheim should be restored to the elector of 
Cologne, and that he should bear a share in the contributions 
and common burdens of the war. Augustus demanded, on his 
part, that he should be excused from contributing to the expenses 
of the war, and that a neutrality should be granted to his states ; 
that the decree of the states of Lower Saxony, in 1628, should 
be the basis upon which they negotiated; and that the treaty 
of Prague should be no further binding, than as it was in con- 
formity to the laws of the empire. He declined to acknowledge 
the decision of the diet at Ratisbon; but agreed at once to 
withdraw his troops from the Swedish army, provided all foreign 
garrisons were removed from his cities and towns : and he stated, 
that as soon as these demands were agreed to, the affairs of 
Hildesheim should be settled in an amicable manner. 

These terms were further agitated at Vienna, and afterwards 
at Brunswick ; and at length settled and ratified by the emperor. 
The landgrave of Hesse, and the whole of the princes of Bruns- 
wick, were included in this treaty. 

The obstinacy of the Swedish generals, who refused to eva- 


cuate the places in which they had garrisons, prevented the chap. v. 
country for some time from enjoying the fruits of its neu- '^^'^^'^^^ 
trality. The princes of Brunswick sent an embassy to Christina 
of Sweden, on her succeeding to the government, to implore 
her to withdraw her troops, and deliver up the garrisons which 
they occupied in Brunswick and Luneburg, as the country was 
ruined by their demands of contributions, and unable to support 
them longer. The queen returned a friendly answer ; stating, 
that as the circumstances of the war did not permit her to 
withdraw her force, she had given strict command to her generals 
to avoid injuring the country or the people, and to refrain from 
all imjust exactions. She agreed to the demolition of the forti- 
fications of Hoy, from which she ordered her troops to be with- 
drawn; and, as some compensation for their sufferings, she 
allowed the duke of Luneburg's subjects to trade on the Weser 
without paying custom, and to import their merchandise duty 

We have thought it right to state these particulars in the 
life of duke Augustus, though some of them occurred after his 
decease ; because, as the senior and most powerful prince of the 
house of Brunswick, he took the lead in all the political discus- 
sions of the day — a rank to which he was entitled, not more 
by his influence as a sovereign, than by his knowledge and 
abilities as a statesman. Augustus died on the 1st of October, 
1636, and was succeeded by his next brother, Frederick, 

Of the history of Frederick of Luneburg we know little. 
He adopted the politics of his brother Augustus, and managed 


CHAP. V. the negotiations which ended in the treaty already mentioned. 
^"■^^-^^^ He died in 1648, without legitimate issue. 

George duke of Luneburg, who had married, in December 1617, 
a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, was sent, in 1631, with two 
regiments of infantry, and four of cavalry, to join the army of 
Gustavus-Adolphus of Sweden at Wurtzburg. He was afterwards 
intrusted with a separate command, and his first campaign was 
in Lower Saxony. At the siege of Calenburg he defeated the 
imperial general Groensfeldt, and would have taken his whole 
force prisoners, had they not destroyed the bridge on the river 
Leine, and prevented his pursuit. He took possession of the city 
of Hildesheim, and defended it against the attacks of Papenheim ; 
and on the retreat of the imperialists he put garrisons into Peina 
and Steinbrucke. He also took Duderstadt, a place of some 
consequence ; but was foiled in an attempt to surprise Wolfen- 
buttle. After these affairs he was ordered to unite with the 
main body of the Swedish army ; but being unable to force his 
way through the enemy's posts, he was not at the memorable 
battle of Lutzen, where Gustavus fell. 

In 1633 he took the castle of Pyrmont, and afterwards 
laid siege to Hildesheim, which was now in the hands of the 
emperor. Waldeck attempted to relieve this city, but was 
attacked and beaten ; chiefly through the gallantry of the duke 
of Luneburg and a colonel Frank, who commanded his cavalry. 
Hildesheim soon surrendered, as did the town and castle of 
Minden. In the convention concluded at Pirnaw, between the 
emperor and elector of Saxony, the duke of Luneburg and 


his troops were included ; but being guided by the advice of chap. v. 
the landgrave of Hesse, he remained firm to the cause of Sweden, ^■^^'^^^ 
or rather to the protestant interest. 

In a consultation between him and the landgrave, at which 
"William duke of Weimar assisted, it was agreed, that if a peace 
could be negotiated which included all parties, they would not 
object to it; but if the elector of Saxony attempted to force 
upon them the terms which he had acceded to, and which they 
considered prejudicial to the common cause, they pledged them- 
selves to adhere firmly to one another until they had obtained 
a sufficient security for the protestants. This meeting of the 
princes created some jealousy on the part of the Swedish generals, 
and they began to tamper with the officers and troops of the duke 
of Luneburg. These officers held a meeting at Brunswick, and 
came to a resolution to continue in the service of the king of 
Sweden until a peace was concluded advantageous to them- 
selves and to the Swedish nation. When the duke of Luneburg 
was made acquainted with this determination of the chiefs of 
the corps under his command, he called them together, and 
explained to them the folly of their conduct. He assured them 
that he had no intention of taking part against the Swedes, but 
wished, by an appearance of withdrawing from their cause, to 
induce them to listen the more easily to terms. 

In those days of mercenary warfare, a regiment was the 
property of its /-colonel; the soldiers sold their services to him 
for a certain pay; and he was at perfect liberty to dispose 
of those services to the highest bidder. There was, therefore, 
nothing incompatible with the usages of such a service in this 


CHAP. V. resolution of a part of the duke's army to withdraw from 
'"'^"^^^^^ under his command. 

Fourteen regiments left his standard ; and in his letters to 
the Swedish general Oxensteirn, he made this a pretext for 
seceding from their cause. But, in fact, he was tired of the 
war, and accepted of the treaty of Prague, from a conviction that 
peace, even on unfavourable terms, was preferable to interminable 
hostilities. He now desired that his letter of adherence to the party 
of Gustavus might be returned to him, and that the town of 
Neinburg should be evacuated by the Swedes, and Stoltenau 
left without fortifications. Oxensteirn replied, that the letter 
of adherence had been sent to Stockholm, and could not be re- 
turned ; and that the exigences of the war did not admit of his 
complying with his request in regard to Neinburg and Stoltenau. 
But he used every argument in his power to induce the duke 
to remain with the army, and even tempted him with the offer 
of the supreme command. 

The duke of Luneburg replied, that by withdrawing so 
great a body of his troops from his standard, the Swedish com- 
mander had forced him to accept of the peace of Prague, from 
which he could not then recede ; that although he must decline 
taking the command of the army, he should always retain a sincere 
regard for the Swedish people; and if it became evident that 
the emperor had other views than a fair and honourable peace, 
he should take such measures as would be conducive to the 
general interests of that nation^ He further engaged to defend 
the passage of the Weser against the imperialists ; but required 
that the Swedish army might not enter his territory, as by 


their doing so his enemies would have an excuse for doing chap. v. 
the same. 

Oxensteirn did not approve of these terms ; and he sent the 
Scottish general Lesley with a force across the Weser, who took 
Minden; and Banier, with another division, took possession of 
Luneburg; so that the country suffered as severely while he 
remained neuter as it had done during the war. 

George met the king of Denmark and the duke of Holstein 
at Stade, where they had a long conference on the subject of 
a general peace, and more particularly on the best manner of 
obtaining an efficient neutrality for the states of Luneburg; 
but nothing definitive resulted from this conference. The duke, 
therefore, with the other princes of his house, continued to act 
with the utmost caution, in order that neither party might have 
cause of complaint. 

When a convention of the German states was held at a. d. i639. 
Nuremburg, to consult on the affairs of the empire, George 
attended that meeting; but that Sweden might have no cause 
of jealousy, he communicated his intentions, and explained his 
sentiments very fully to general Banier, who commanded in 
Lower Saxony. Finding, however, that the opinions expressed 
by the members of the Nuremburg convention were in opposition 
to tlie general wishes of the protestants, duke George returned 
to the cause of Sweden, and openly espoused it. He took the 
field towards the end of the year 1640, and laid siege to Wolfen- 
buttle, which was in the hands of the imperialists ; but, in con- 
sequence of the fatigues which he underwent before that city, 
he caught a fever, of which he died, on the 2d of April, 1641. 


CHAP. V. His death was considered a great loss to the protestants. 
His brothers had long confided to him the arrangement of the 
military affairs of the dutchy ; and his talents as a general were 
held in the highest estimation by his enemies, and were of the 
utmost importance to his allies. 

Previous to his death he had entered into an alliance with 
France, and concluded a treaty with the duke of Longueville, 
by which it was stipulated, that Louis the Fourteenth and the 
princes of Luneburg should join their forces, and unite with 
Sweden and her allies against the house of Austria. France 
was to agree to no peace or truce in which the hou^ of 
Luneburg was not included, and in which the independence 
of their states was not secured ; and the supreme command 
of the army was vested in duke George. 

By Anne-Eleanora, of Hesse Darmstadt, this prince left 
four sons and four daughters; and by an agreement with his 
brothers, it was settled that the states should be divided into 
two dutchies after their decease : that the eldest of his surviving 
sons should have Luneburg or Celle ; and the second, Calemburg, 
then called the dutchy of Hanover : but this arrangement did not 
take place till after the death of Frederick, the last of the seven 
brothers, in 1648. 

Christian-Louis, the eldest son of George, resided during 
his uncle's lifetime in the castle of Herzberg ; but, on succeeding 
to the sovereignty of his portion of Luneburg, he removed to 
Celle. He was a party to the treaty of peace concluded in 1642, 
though not then a sovereign prince ; and was one of those who 
applied to the queen of Sweden in 1646 : and it was in a great 


measure through his influence, that the very favourable treaty chap. v. 
of Osnaburg was obtained. v^^^ 

In that treaty it was stipulated, that in consideration of the 
house of Brunswick and Luneburg having resigned their claims 
upon the archbishopricks of Magdeburg and Bremen, and the 
bishopricks of Halberstadt and Ratzburg, the alternate nomi- 
nation to the bishoprick of Osnaburg should be in the catholic 
bishops and in the protestant branches of the house of Luneburg. 
The following conditions are copied from this treaty : — " Gustavus, 
count of Wasseburg, senator of Sweden, being willing to renounce 
all the right he had obtained by conquest to the bishoprick of 
Osnaburg, Francis- William, the then bishop, and his successors, 
were to pay him the sum of eighty thousand rix dollars annually, 
for four years. All things connected with religion were to remain 
upon the same footing as they were in 1624; and, upon the 
decease of the then bishop, Ernest-Augustus, the youngest son 
of George, duke of Luneburg, should succeed him in the govern- 
ment of Osnaburg ; but in case of his death before the existing 
bishop, the chapter should choose another prince of the same 
family for their bishop. After the death or voluntary re- 
signation of prince Ernest, or the other member of this family 
that should be chosen, they were to elect a Roman catholic 
prelate." It was further provided, that if there were more 
than one prince descendants of duke George of Luneburg, the 
chapter should choose one of the younger sons ; but if only one, 
he was to be chosen, though a reigning prince : and also on the 
failure of issue of duke George, the princes of the other branch 
of the Brunswick family should have the alternate nomination. 


CHAP. V. It was in terms of this treaty, that Ernest- Augustus, the father 
^-^"^^^^^ of George the First; Ernest- Augustus, brother of George the 
First ; and Frederick, duke of York, son of George the Third ; 
have reigned as sovereign bishops of Osnaburg. But in terms 
of the treaty of Vienna, 1815, this bishoprick now forms an 
integral part of the kingdom of Hanover, 

The same treaty declared that the property of the monastery 
of Walhenreid, of which Frederick-Lewis was administrator, 
should be transferred by the emperor and empire, as a perpetual 
fief, to the dukes of Brunswick and Luneburg ; as also the monas- 
tery of Groeningen, then in the possession of the bishop of Halber- 
stadt. A debt, contracted by Frederick-Ulrick of Brunswick, with 
the king of Denmark, was cancelled : and it was further settled, 
that the prebendaries of the bishoprick of Strasburg should be 
given to Anthony-Ulrick and Ferdinand-Albert, the younger 
sons of duke Augustus of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttle. Christian- 
Louis was married to Dorothea, princess of Holstein-Glucksburg, 
but left no issue. On his death, therefore, in 1665, George- 
William, who had resided at Hanover, was to remove to Celle, and 
to be succeeded in the latter dutchy by his next brother, John- 
Frederick; and Ernest-Augustus, the younger brother, suc- 
ceeded, in terms of the treaty of Osnaburg, to the government 
of that see. 

George- William was absent in France when his elder brother 
died : John, his next brother, therefore seized upon the dutchy of 
Celle, in defiance of the family compact, and for some time refused 
to give it up : but the matter was settled amicably ; and the 
arrangement, as it had been settled, took effect. 


France and England having entered into a secret league chaf. v. 
against the states of Holland, Louis the Fourteenth sounded ^"^'^^■^^ 
the princes of Germany on the subject; and in 1671, prevailed 
upon the dukes of Brunswick and Luneburg to remain neuter 
for two years ; and a treaty was signed, by which they engaged 
not to allow any troops to be levied in their territories, or to 
furnish any force to the enemies of the king during that period. 
The king of France agreed to pay the bishop of Osnaburg a 
subsidy of five thousand crowns per month ; and in the event 
of his troops being obliged to march through the states of the 
bishoprick, they were to pay for their supplies in ready money, 
but on no account to remain in winter quarters in these states. 
Ill case the bishop was attacked on account of this treaty, the 
king of France further engaged to support him with men and 
money, and to conclude no peace or truce until he was fully 
indemnified for any injury he might have sustained. 

Nothing contained in that treaty was to be construed as 
infringing upon the bishop's fidelity to the emperor and empire, 
and he was to be at liberty to join with any of the princes 
of the house of Brunswick that might be attacked by any power 
whatsoever, during the continuance of the agreement. In a 
separate article, Ernest- Augustus reserved to himself the liberty 
of furnishing to the quadruple league a force of two hundred 
horse and four hundred infantry, in terms of the treaty of 1666. 

In 1672, the war was carried on with great vigour against 
Holland; and as the elector of Brandenburg had taken part 
with the states, the duke of Hanover was bought over to France, 


CHAP. V. and engaged to levy a force of ten thousand men, to act as a 
^"■^^^"^^ diversion, and watch the motions of the elector. 

Though the other princes of Brunswick endeavoured as much 
as possible to maintain their neutrality, the war at last became 
too general to admit of their continuing in that state. The dukes 
of Celle and Wolfenbuttle joined the states of Holland, or, as 
it was called, the confederate army, with a force of fifteen or 
sixteen thousand men. The duke of Celle commanded this 
force ; and having united with the grand army under the duke 
of Lorraine, they had a severe action with the French near 
Strasburg, 1674. 

The troops of Luneburg were engaged singly for a con- 
siderable time, and suffered severely ; but, as night put an 
end to the battle, neither side could claim a victory. In 1675, 
the bishop of Osnaburg also joined the allies, and took the field 
in person, with a force of five thousand men. This campaign 
was more successful than the last. The French were beaten 
on every point ; and the marshal de Crequey with difficulty saved 
himself, and got into Treves. 

When the duke of Celle sent one of his officers (count Lippe) 
to make a report to the emperor at the end of the campaign, 
he transmitted at the same time seventeen standards and colours, 
out of seventy-two, which his troops had captured from the 
enemy. The eldest son of the bishop of Osnaburg, George- 
Louis, afterwards king George the First of England, served 
under his father during this campaign; and though only fifteen 
years of age, his gallantry was conspicuous in every action. 


The allies besieged Treves ; and pressed it so hard, that the chap. v. 
town and garrison capitulated, in opposition to the wishes of "-^^"^ 
the marshal commanding, and contrary to his' orders. In 1676, 
the duke of Celle and his allies were chiefly occupied in the 
siege of Philipsburg. This place was defended with great 
spirit, and the garrison made several desperate sallies, during 
one of which, Augustus-Frederick, the eldest son of the duke 
of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttle, was killed. Philipsburg, though 
bravely defended, was obliged at last to surrender, and the allied 
army marched against Maestricht ; but, though the siege of that 
city was ably conducted by the prince of Orange, afterwards 
William the Third, supported by the forces of Brunswick and 
Luneburg, they were unable to take it. 

During these campaigns, the king of Sweden, who was in 
alliance with France, attacked and took the fortress of Stade, 
and overran the dutchy of Bremen. The duke of Celle, therefore, 
returned to the north, and uniting his forces with the elector 
of Brandenburg, not only drove the Swedes from Stade and 
Bremen, but followed them into Pomerania, and took the city 
of Stetin. 

This destructive war was brought to a conclusion in 1679, 
by the peace agreed upon at Nimeguen ; and the dukes of 
Celle and Wolfenbuttle, with the bishop of Osnaburg, dis- 
banded their forces. 

John-Frederick, duke of Hanover, having adopted the Roman a. d. i679. 
catholic religion, found his residence in a protestant country 
rather unpleasant. He set out on a journey to Rome, where 
he intended to remain, but died at Augsburg; and his body 
was brought back, and interred in his capital. As he left no 



CHAP. V. male issue, Ernest- Augustus succeeded him, and immediately 
^^^''^^^^ assumed the government of the states of Hanover, in conjunction 
with the bishoprick of Osnaburg. Europe was now in profound 
peace ; but William, prince of Orange, aware of the political state 
of England, had already formed his plans in regard to that 
kingdom. In 1680, he paid a visit to the princes of Brunswick, 
with whom he lived in strict friendship. At Celle he was enter- 
tained in a magnificent manner, and waited upon by all the 
nobles of the country. He afterwards visited the elector of 
Brandenburg, and his niece, the dutchess of Hanover. 

The eldest son of Ernest-Augustus availed himself of the 
peace to visit the courts of France and England. It is reported 
that he paid his addresses to the princess Anne, but met with 
a refusal. On the 25th of February, 1680, he visited Oxford, 
and was made a doctor of laws of that university. Anthony 
Wood, in his Fasti, has recorded the ceremony that took place 
in the following terms: — 

" This person, who was now commonly called prince of 
Hanover, and had come to Whitehall on the 16th of November 
going before, purposely to pay his respects to the lady Anne, 
daughter of James, duke of York, was, the day before he was 
created, received in the university with solemnity at his coming 
thereunto ; and being lodged in Christchurch, he with his retinue 
were conducted the next day by the bishop. Dr. Fell, to the 
public schools ; and being habited in scarlet, in the apodyterium, 
was thence conducted by three of the beadles, with the king's 
professor of laws, to the theatre, where the convocation was 
then held ; jind coming near the vice-chancellor's seat, the pro- 
fessor presented him, (the prince being then bare) ; which done. 


the vice-chancellor then standing bare, as the doctors and masters chap. v. 
did, he created him doctor of laws. v^^V^k/ 

" This being done, the prince went up to his chair of state, 
provided for him on the right hand of the vice-chancellor's seat ; 
and when three of his retinue were created doctors, the orator 
complimented him in the name of the university. He left Oxford 
the next day ; at which time was presented to him, in the name 
thereof, ' Historia et Antiquitates Universitatis Oxoniensis,' with 
the cuts belonging thereto." 

George, duke of Celle, during his travels in France had fallen 
in love with a lady of that country, and married her ; but as she 
was not of princely rank, the marriage, according to the laws of the 
empire, was not considered legal, and her children were debarred 
from the succession. The ceremony of marriage, which was per- 
formed, was what is called in Germany, a " left handed contract." 
The merits of this lady, however, were so considerable, and the 
affections of her husband so sincere, that he prevailed upon the 
emperor to raise her to an equality with himself; and they were 
afterwards married in a regular manner. The issue of this 
marriage was an only daughter, in whom it was known the 
possessions of her father would ultimately centre. She was, 
therefore, an object of some consequence; and several princes 
had solicited the honour of her hand. 

The duke and dutchess of Hanover were aware of the injury 
that would be done to their house if these states were con- 
veyed to a foreigner; and, to prevent this, it was settled with 
the father of the young princess, that she should be united 
with their eldest son; a measure by no means agreeable to 


CHAP. V. the parties more immediately concerned. They however sub- 
mitted, and their marriage took place in 1682, and was cele- 
brated with great solemnity. In 1683 they had a son, and in 
1687 a daughter. But as they had been brought together 
from state policy rather than affection, they lived most unhap- 
pily, and were accordingly separated in 1688. These circum- 
stances we have thought it proper to state here, that they might 
not interrupt our future narrative. 

In the memorable campaign of 1683, when the Turks were 
driven with disgrace from the siege of Vienna, George-Louis, 
prince of Hanover, commanded the troops of Luneburg in the 
imperial army, and was greatly distinguished for his gallantry. 
In 1684, a force of ten thousand men, furnished by the states 
of Luneburg and bishoprick of Osnaburg, joined the army of 
the emperor, under the command of Frederick-Augustus, the 
second son of the duke of Hanover. These troops served in 
Hungary during the campaign of 1685 ; and this prince and 
his brother Philip continued in the Austrian service, and were 
both killed in action while serving with the imperial army. 

Ernestr Augustus, duke of Hanover and bishop of Osnaburg, 
had married, in 1658, Sophia, the youngest daughter of Frederick, 
king of Bohemia, and elector palatine, by Elizabeth, daughter 
of James the First of England. This princess possessed all 
the ambition of her family. She was endowed with a very 
superior understanding, and no small share of political sagacity. 
She had been educated in the strictest principles of the protestant 
religion, and was the chosen favourite of the prince and princess 
of Orange, (her uncle and aunt). Their accession to the crown of 



England opened new prospects of aggrandizement, which were chap. v. 
most gratifying to her aspiring mind. Her husband was a '"^"^^^^ 
protestant bishop, and their eldest son had already distinguished 
himself in the protestant cause. It was therefore probable, that, 
on the failure of issue in the more direct line, he might be called 
to the crown ; and the whole tenor of the duke's political conduct 
shows, that he had calculated upon this as almost certain. 

While his troops, under the command of his gallant sons, 
were serving with the army of Austria, or maintaining the in- 
dependence of the Venetian states, Ernest- Augustus spent his 
time in travelling with his dutchess. He visited Rome and the 
other cities of Italy, where he was every where treated as a 
sovereign, and received as the equal of kings. The powerful 
interest of William the Third, who had already fixed upon his 
family as the heirs of the crown of England, and the commanding 
influence which he had himself obtained in the Germanic body, 
induced the emperor, in 1692, to raise him above his kindred, 
and to confer upon him the dignity of elector; to which was 
attached the hereditary office of great standard-bearer of the 

This promotion was strongly opposed by some of those who 
already enjoyed that rank, and also by the princes of his own 
house. It was carried by a majority in the electoral college ; 
but it was asserted, in the second college, that the emperor had no 
power to create a new elector without the unanimous consent of the 
princes of the empire, as it was in direct opposition to the esta- 
blished form of the German constitution. The princes of Bruns- 
wick- Wolfenbuttle, who considered themselves the elder branch of 


CHAP. V. the house of Guelph, were amongst the most strenuous opposers 
^-^'^■•'^^^ that the new elector had to contend with; but he had the 
countenance and support of his elder brother, the duke of Celle, 
whose grandchildren were to succeed to this regal dignity. 

In 1692, we find that the elector of Hanover had a force 
of six thousand men serving with Austria in Hungary, and 
between nine and ten thousand in the low countries ; an army 
which, considering the extent and resources of his dominions 
in those days, cannot fail to excite our astonishment. At the 
sieges of Steinkirk, Laudau, and Namur, the troops of Luneburg 
were greatly distinguished for their bravery and discipline ; and 
their conduct on the field of Waterloo, in the same country, is 
a proof that they have not degenerated. 

When the treaty of Ryswick was negotiated, the elector of 
Hanover assisted, by his minister, at the conferences, and was 
allowed to treat as a separate power. Though almost always 
engaged in war, and obliged to keep large armies in the field, 
he found time and sufficient funds to adorn the capital of 
his states with several magnificent and princely buildings. 
Indeed the city of Hanover owes all that remains of splendour 
to the taste and munificence of Ernest-Augustus. 

He improved and enlarged the castle that had been built 
for his uncle and brother in the city, and built the palace of 
Hernhausen in the suburbs*. The latter was the favourite 

* The palace of Hernhausen was left in a most ruinous state when the French 
army evacuated Hanover; but, through the representation of his royal highness the 
duke of Clarence, who took great delight in visiting this favourite residence of his 
great ancestress, the electress Sophia, it has been completely repaired, and is now a 
magnificent building. 


residence of the electress. It was built by the architect of chap. v. 
Hampton Court, and much after the same manner; and the ""^^■^^ 
gardens and pleasure grounds are equal to those of any palace 
in England. 

No court in Germany, nor indeed in Europe, was more 
splendid than that of Hanover; and the courtiers of Ernest- 
Augustus may be said lo have rivalled those of Louis the Four- 
teenth in the politeness of their manners, and also in their 
vices. The old duke of Luneburg lived in great retirement 
in his castle at Celle, and seldom appeared in the splendid 
circle of his younger brother. 

The elector died at Hanover, on the 23d of January, 1698. 
He had never been allowed to take his seat in the college of 
electors, on account of the opposition which was continued 
against his being raised to that dignity ; but his title had been 
acknowledged by all the courts of Europe, and he had been 
allowed the precedence due to that rank. His son, George-Lewis, 
succeeded him in his titles and estates, and continued to reside 
with his mother at Hanover. 

In 1698, king William paid a second visit to his old friend 
and ally the duke of Celle ; and at the castle of Goerde he 
had a meeting with the electress Sophia and her son, where, 
there is reason to believe, their future measures with regard 
to the succession in England were determined upon. A 
constant intercourse was ever afterwards kept up ; and the duke 
of Celle, or his nephew and son-in-law, always met the king 
on his visits to Holland. 

In 1700, the elector and duke of Celle were obliged to take 


CHAP. V. the field, with a considerable force, to preserve their states from 
^*~^~*~ the ravages of the Danes, who had invaded Holstein, then 
belonging to the crown of Sweden, and governed by a prince 
of that family, with the title of duke of Holstein-Gottorp. 
They obliged the Danes to raise the siege of Tonningen ; and 
though the armies continued in sight of each other for sevefal 
days, they retired without coming to action. The only affair 
in which they were engaged during that year, was the dis- 
persion of ten thousand Saxons that were on their march to 
join the king of Denmark. But the peace of Travendale allowed 
them to disband their troops, and to give theit undivided atten- 
tion to a subject, which, from being merely possible, had now 
become almost certain. 

The death of the young duke of Gloucester, the son of prince 
George of Denmark and the princess Anne, which happened in 
July 1700, while king William was in Holland, attended, as usual, 
by the old duke of Celle and the electress Sophia, afforded them 
an opportunity of pressing upon his majesty their claims, as the 
next protestant branch of the royal family, in the event of no 
issue being left by him or his sister-in-law. The king was hearty 
in their cause ; and at the meeting of the first parliament in 
1701, the subject was introduced in the speech from the throne. 
" Our present misfortune," says king William, " in the death 
of the duke of Gloucester, hath made it absolutely necessary 
that there should be a further provision for the succession of 
the crown in the protestant line after me and the princess. The 
happiness of the nation, and the security of our religion, which 
is our chiefest concern, seems so much to depend upon this. 


that I cannot doubt but it will meet with a general concurrence ; chap. v. 
and I earnestly recommend it to your early care and effectual ^'^^''^^^ 

The subject, though new in parliament, was not new to 
the nation; and the friends of the house of Hanover were not 
only ready to propose, but able to carry the measure in their 
favour. They knew that it was the wish of the king, and they were 
certain of the support of the true friends of the constitution. On 
the 3d of March the house of commons resolved, " That for a. d. 1701. 
preserving the peace and happiness of the kingdom, and the 
security of the protestant religion, as by law established, it was 
absolutely necessary that a further declaration should be made 
of the limitation and succession of the crown in the protestant 
line, after his majesty and the princess, and the heirs of their 
bodies respectively ; and that a further security should be made 
for the rights and liberties of the people." This resolution called 
forth the remonstrances of all the branches of the house of Stuart. 
The dutchess of Savoy, grand-daughter of Charles the First, being 
the nearest in blood, appealed to the nation, and protested against 
her claims being injured by any decision of the lower house. 

There were about forty descendants of James the First alive 
at this period; but all of them, with the exception of the 
electress Sophia of Hanover, were Roman catholics. Their 
claims, therefore, passed unheeded; and on the 12th of June, 
the act for the further limitation of the crown, and better 
securing the rights and liberties of the people, received the 
royal assent. 

In this act it is declared, " That the most excellent princess 


CHAP. V. Sophia, electress and dutchess dowager of Hanover, daughter 
"-^^■^'^ of the princess Elizabeth, late queen of Bohemia, daughter to 
James the First, should be next in succession to the crown of 
Great Britain," The earl of Macclesfield was deputed by the 
king to carry this act to Hanover. He was received by a 
deputation of the nobles of that country on the frontiers, and 
conducted in great state to the capital. One of the best houses 
in the city was allotted to him as his residence, and his retinue 
were lodged and maintained at the expense of the elector. 
" They were entertained," says the Chronicle, " with balls and 
plays; and every person made it his business to oblige them." 
The earl visited the veteran of Celle in his strong hold ; and, 
on taking leave of the electress, he was presented with her 
picture set in diamonds; and the elector bestowed on him a 
basin and ewer of massy gold. 

On the death of James the Second, the declaration of the 
court of France in favour of his son caused some alarm among the 
friends of the protestant succession ; but it united the adherents of 
the king in defence of the measure recommended by him, and which 
they had sanctioned ; and, upon the whole, was beneficial to the 
cause of the electress. When his majesty again met his par- 
liament, he told them, " That he need not press them to lay 
seriously to heart and to consider what further means might 
be used for securing the succession to the crown in the pro- 
testant line, and extinguishing the hopes of all pretenders, and 
their secret and open abettors." 

An act was immediately passed, declaring the attainder of 
the pretended prince of Wales ; and further provision was made 


for the better security of his majesty's person and government, chap. v. 
This was the last act of king William's reign. He died on the ^^^*^^^ 
29th of March, 1702; and was succeeded by his sister-in-law, 
the princess Anne. 

When England declared war against France, at the com- 
mencement of queen Anne's reign, the duke of Celle, who was 
still alive, and the elector of Hanover, raised a large body of 
troops, for the avowed purpose of supporting Great Britain ; but 
it was necessary, in the first instance, to employ them against 
the princes of their own house, the dukes of Brunswick- Wolfen- 
buttle, who, contrary to their engagements to the emperor, 
had entered iiito an alliance with France. The elector surprised 
and took Peyna, one of the Brunswick fortresses ; and blockading 
Brunswick and Wolfenbuttle, compelled them to renounce that 
alliance, and to join the emperor. 

Parties now ran high in England. The deposed house of 
Stuart had many supporters, particularly in Scotland, where a great 
proportion of the nobility were Jacobites : the act of succession, 
therefore, did not pass so easily in the parliament of that king- 
dom. In the first parliament of queen Anne it could not be 
carried, from the opposition of the duke of Hamilton and his 
party, who protested against their compatibility to sit and act 
as a parliament : and, even in a subsequent one, an attempt was 
made by the earl of Roxburgh to have it declared, " That the 
successor to be named by the meeting of estates, on the demise 
of her majesty, should not be the successor to the crown of 
England, unless there were such conditions settled and enacted 
in that session of parliament, as would secure the honour and 


CHAP. V. independency of the kingdom of Scotland, the freedom, fre- 
'^^^^^"'^^ quency, and power of its parliament, and the religion, liberty, 
and trade of the nation, from the English or any foreign 

This proposition was rejected : upon which the earl of March- 
mont brought in an act, to declare the electress Sophia, and 
her heirs, to have a right to the crown of Scotland, after the 
demise of the queen, without heirs of her body. This bill was 
passed ; but in consequence of the many and absurd limitations 
which it imposed upon the heirs of the crown, it did not receive 
the royal assent. 
A. D. 1704. When the parliament met, in 1704, lord Tweedale was 

appointed high commissioner ; and we observe that the queen, 
in her letter to the assembled states, says, " The main thing 
that we recompiend to you, and which we recommend with 
all the earnestness we are capable of, is the settling of the suc- 
cession in the protestant line ; as that which is absolutely neces- 
sary for your own peace and happiness, as well as our quiet 
and security in all our dominions, and for the reputation of our 
affairs abroad ; and, consequently, for the strengthening the 
protestant interest every where. 

" This has been our fixed judgment and resolution," says 
her majesty, " ever since we came to the crown; and, though 
hitherto opportunities have not answered our intention, matters 
are now come to that pass, by the undoubted evidence of the 
designs of our enemies, that a longer delay of settling the suc- 
cession in the protestant line may have very dangerous conse- 
quences ; and a disappointment of it would infallibly make that 


our kingdom the seat of war, and expose it to devastation and 
ruin. As to terms and conditions of government, v^^ith regard 
to the succession, w^e have empowered our commissioner to give 
the royal assent to whatever can in reason be demanded, and 
is in our power to grant, for securing the sovereignty and Uberties 
of our ancient kingdom." These sentiments were enforced 
by the commissioner, and supported by the lord chancellor 

The duke of Hamilton and the earl of Rothes were again 
the leaders of the opposition ; and on their suggestion it was 
resolved, 1st, " That the parliament would not proceed to the 
nomination of a successor, unless they had a previous treaty 
with England for regulating their commerce, and other concerns 
with that nation. Secondly, That the parliament would proceed 
to make such limitations and conditions of government, for the 
ratification of their constitution, as might secure the religion, 
liberty, and independence of the nation, before they proceeded 
to the said nomination." 

As it was found impossible to carry this ziieasure in the 
separate parliament of Scotland — a measure which, notwith- 
standing the language of the queen, it is well known she never 
had seriously at heart — the whole influence of the court, and 
the friends of the protestant religion, was brought to bear upon 
the union of the two kingdoms. The act of security was passed 
and agreed to, but the subject of the succession was dropped. 
In 1707 the union was carried; and in the second article of 
that treaty it is expressly declared, " That the succession to 
the monarchy of the united kingdom of Great Britain, and the 



CHAP. V. dominions thereunto belonging, after her most sacred majesty, 
'^"^'^''^^ and in default of issue of her majesty, be, remain, and continue 
to the most excellent princess Sophia, electress and dutchess 
dowager of Hanover, and the heirs of her body, being protestants ; 
upon whom the crown of England is settled, by an act of parlia- 
ment made in England in the twelfth year of the reign of his 
late majesty, king William the Third, entitled, ' An act for the 
further limitation of the crown, and better securing the rights 
and liberties of the subject,' That all papists, and persons marry- 
ing papists, shall be excluded from, and for ever incapable to 
inherit, possess, or enjoy, the imperial crown of Great Britain, 
and the dominions thereunto belonging, or any part thereof: and 
in every such case the crown and government shall, from time 
to time, descend to, and be enjoyed by, such person being a 
protestant, the same as if such papist, or person marrying a 
papist, was naturally dead, according to the provision for the 
descent of the crown of England, made by another act of parlia- 
ment in England, in the first year of the reign of their late 
majesties, king William and queen Mary, entitled, ' An act 
declaring the rights and liberties of the subjects, and settling 
the succession of the crown.'" The queen, on giving her assent 
to the union of the two kingdoms, said, " That she could not 
but look upon it as a peculiar happiness, that in her reign so 
full a provision was made for the peace and quiet of her people, 
and for the security of their religion, by so firm an establishment 
of the protestant succession throughout Great Britain." 

We have entered into these particulars of a more general 
nature, because we considered them intimately connected with 


this part of our subject : but we return to the personal history chap. v. 
of the house of Hanover. 

At the commencement of the war with France, in conse- a. d. 1704. 
quence of the Spanish succession, the elector of Hanover joined 
cordially with Great Britain and her allies ; and from his own 
states, and those of his uncle and father-in-law, the old duke 
of Celle, a subsidiary force of ten thousand men was furnished 
to the army under Marlborough in the low countries, besides 
his quota as a prince of the empire. 

Prince Maximilian of Hanover, the elector's brother, com- 
manded the cavalry of the right wing of Marlborough's army at 
the ever memorable battle of Blenheim, and was greatly dis- 
tinguished for his judgment and gallantry. He afterwards entered 
the Austrian service, rose to the rank of a general field-marshal, 
was colonel of a regiment of horse, and a knight of the Golden 
Fleece. He died at Vienna in 1726, a member of the Roman 
catholic church. 

The jealousies which prevailed about this time between the a. d. 1706. 
courts of England and Hanover prevented the active co-opera- 
tion of the electoral troops during the campaign which led to 
the battle of. Ramillies, and they were not present in that great 
action; a circumstance which seems to have been keenly felt 
by George-Louis, who was a prince not only ambitious of 
military fame in his own person, but also justly proud of the 
well-merited laurels of the troops of Luneburg. From that 
moment he rose above the petty cabals of the cabinet, and 
evinced the same cordiality as formerly to the common cause. 
His contingent with the allied army was considerably augmented ; 


CHAP. V. and he sent his eldest son, the electoral prince, to learn the 
^"^'^''"'^ art of war under the great Marlborough. At the hard fought 
A. D. 1707. battle of Oudenarde this young prince charged the enemy 
several times at the head of a squadron of dragoons. One of 
his aides-de-camp was killed at his side, and he had a horse 
shot under him. The English general had such confidence in 
the firmness of the Hanoverian infantry, that he often placed 
himself at their head, and led them to the charge against the 
troops of France ; and it was allowed by all parties, that their 
steady bravery contributed, in no small degree, to the victory 
A. D. 1709. of Malplaquet. Few officers stood higher in the opinion of the 
duke of Marlborough than the Hanoverian general, count Schu- 
lemburg, who commanded the electoral troops during the cam- 
paigns in the Netherlands. 

The success which attended the campaigns of Marlborough 
and prince Eugene during this war, had little effect upon 
what was called the army of the empire, which was scarcely 
ever in a condition to keep the field. The margrave of Bareyth, 
who succeeded to the command on the death of Louis duke of 
Baden, had neither the talents as a general, nor that influence as a 
prince, to preserve that unanimity and confidence in a force, 
composed of so many independent corps, which were necessary 
to render it in any measure efficient; and therefore it became 
requisite to select a leader more fitted for so important a 
trust. Marlborough had long fixed upon the elector of Hanover, 
whose talents as a commander were very great, and whose 
experience in war had been considerable ; and as his services 
in the allied cause had given him a claim to be heard, he 


endeavoured to impress upon the emperor the propriety, if not chap. v. 
the necessity, of offering the command of his army to George- ^■^"^'■^"^^ 
Louis. But, notwithstanding the elector's thirst for military 
fame, he was too well convinced of the badness of the materials 
he had to work upon, to undertake with pleasure such a charge. 
After the command was offered to him, Marlborough had 
great difficulty in persuading him to accept it; and it was 
only in consequence of a pledge that all opposition to his 
taking his seat in the college of electors should be with- 
drawn, that he consented. The margrave of Bareyth left the a. d. 1707. 
army on the 3d of September, and the elector of Hanover arrived 
at Philipsburg on the 13th. On the 15th he joined the army 
at Etlingen, and assumed the command. His first care was to 
issue such orders as were necessary to restore the troops to some 
degree of discipline, and correct the licentious habits which had 
so long prevailed. His next was to hold a council of war, to 
ascertain whether it was advisable to attack the enemy in the 
then state of the army, or to wait for the expected reinforce- 
ments and improved discipline of the troops. It was suggested 
by the elector that the Rhine might be crossed, and the enemy's 
lines of Lauterberg threatened, with the view of inducing them to 
recross that river ; or, if this should be considered impracticable, 
he proposed the securing of various convenient posts, with 
the intention of covering the country from the invasion of the 

As the French were superior in numbers to the imperialists, 
and as the latter were destitute of magazines for their subsistence 


CHAP. V. on tlie opposite side of the Rhine, it was decided that a general 
^■^"^"^^^^ attack could not be ventured upon ; but it was resolved to form 

A. D. 1707. '■ 

a line of posts from Daxlant to Etlingen, and that the enemy 
should be harassed as much as possible in his several canton- 
ments, while orders were sent to hasten up the reinforcements 
from Franconia and the other states. 

The elector having ascertained that the French had a con- 
siderable force in a camp near OfFenburg, under general Vivans, 
and that a body of infantry was on its march to join them, for 
the avowed purpose of retaking Homburg, he detached count 
Mercy, with a small corps, to surprise their camp before it was 
reinforced. Mercy was an officer of great experience, and had 
often distinguished himself; and, from his intimate knowledge of 
the country, was well fitted for this duty. His detachment left 
the army, with great secrecy, on the evening of the 19th of Sep- 
tember ; and at the same time a movement was made in a different 
direction, with the view of deceiving the enemy's spies. Count 
Mercy conducted this affair with great judgment ; and marched 
with so much expedition, that he surprised the enemy on the 
morning of the 24th, when a considerable body of their troops 
were detached on a foraging party. Their entrenchments were 
attacked and carried, and they lost upwards of a thousand men, 
and several of their best officers. General Vivans found great 
difficulty in making his escape, and his force was completely 
routed and dispersed. 

The victors were rewarded with four standards, a number 
of prisoners and horses, a large quantity of specie, and the 


whole booty of the camp. The affair was scarcely ended, when chap. v. 
the advance of the infantry, which was to have joined that day, ^^^^"^^ 
appeared in sight. 

The French were unwilling to acknowledge their loss on this 
occasion ; but it was sufficient to inspire the Germans with fresh 
spirit, and augured well for their future success under the com- 
mand of the elector. Marshal Villars recalled the detachments 
which had been sent towards Provence ; but, though his army 
was greatly superior to that of the empire, he was not able to 
obtain any advantage which could compensate for his severe 
loss at Offenburg. 

When the armies went into winter quarters, the duke of 
Marlborough joined the electors of Mentz and Hanover, at 
Frankfort; where, with the deputies of the states of Holland, 
and the imperial plenipotentiary, count Wratislaw, a conference 
was held on the arrangements necessary for the- ensuing cam- 
paign. The elector of Hanover, as generalissimo, laid before 
the deputies of the imperial circles the following propositions, 
which had been sanctioned and approved of by the English 

In the first place, he recommended, " That the whole body 
of the army, during the winter, should be quartered as near as 
possible to their present camp, and by that means remain in readi- 
ness to oppose any sudden irruption of the enemy ; and that for 
this end, quarters, subsistence, and forage, with the necessary 
magazines, should be provided for the next year; as from the 
want of these they had suffered much inconvenience during the 
last campaign. Secondly; " That new lines of defence should 


CHAP. V. be immediately commenced ; and that four thousand pioneers 
^^^^^^ should be placed at his disposal, for the purpose of carrying 
on these operations during the winter." Thirdly ; " That the 
states should provide, at their joint expense, for the support of 
the troops of Saxony, a regiment of horse belonging to the king 
of Prussia, and one belonging to the duke of Brunswick-Wolfen- 
buttle ; as also for a regiment of infantry, furnished by the bishop 
of Munster ; and two regiments of horse, and one of infantry,- 
furnished by his electoral highness ; as these troops had been 
furnished by the respective princes, for the good of the common 
cause, in addition to their stipulated quota : and he suggested 
the expediency of appropriating for this service, a part of the 
Roman taxes." Fourthly ; " It was earnestly recommended to 
the circles, to contract for all supplies with persons who were 
capable of furnishing them in proper quantities, and at the times 
and places they might be required. He further recommended 
to the circles, the necessity of having the recruits for the army 
raised in time to join the head quarters by the month of February, 
and that the regiments might be completed, as it was of the 
last importance that the campaign should be opened early in 
next spring : and, as a concluding demand, " he requested that 
the military chest might be furnished with two hundred thousand 
rix dollars, as it was then almost in a state of bankruptcy." 

The diet was well disposed to carry on the war with that 
vigour which suited the temper of their new general. They 
acceded to the demands of the elector ; and, with regard to the 
money he required, they resolved that the circles of the empire 
should each furnish their due proportion of the said sum of 


two hundred thousand rix-dollars, and send it to the imperial chap. v. 
city of Frankfort within a month after the imperial ratification """^^^y^ 
of their present resolution. The disposal of that sum was left 
to the discretion of his electoral highness, and the imperial city 
had only to issue the money according to his orders, and to 
keep a regular account of the disbursements. 

His imperial majesty was most humbly entreated, on the 
part of the empire, as the affair would admit of no delay, to 
issue with all expedition the requisite orders to the several 
circles, to the end that within the prescribed period of four 
weeks, each might pay in their proportion to the city of Frank- 
fort, and receive a discharge for the same; and, in as much 
as this was a pressing affair, that no state of the empire should 
be exempted from contributing its proper contingent. 

Among the papers which have been preserved, as connected 
with the history of this period, we find a letter from the elector 
to the diet, dated the 6th of November; in which he informs 
that body, that he had regulated, with his imperial majesty's 
consent, the winter quarters for the army, and given the com- 
mand to field-marshal baron Thunegen ; that he had caused 
necessary lines to be made for covering the troops in their winter 
quarters ; and that the present circumstances of his affairs in 
his own dominions not admitting his longer absence, he had 
resolved to begin his journey on the 8th. " We could have 
wished," says the elector, " that the disposition of the affairs 
of the army of the empire put under our command, had been 
such, that this campaign might have been ended with greater 
advantage to our country, and the war have been carried into 


CHAP. V. the enemies' territories. And we hope that all the electors, 
princes, and states of the empire, being inspired with zeal for 
the honour, welfare, and prosperity of their country in general, 
and of every member in particular, will not be wanting to put 
the said army early in a condition to act offensively against 
the enemy, who pretend to reinforce theirs, and to drive them 
within their due limits. 

" We desire you to make urgent instances on this subject 
to your principals ; to recommend it to them on our part ; and, 
especially, to represent to them the necessity there is that the 
military chest should be well supplied, and that what has been 
granted by the empire to that end, may be effectually paid in 
the manner prescribed, without abatement or delay. For the 
rest, we refer you to what we have formerly written, and to 
what we have caused our envoy to represent by word of mouth, 
and remain with constant good will to serve you. 

(Signed) " GEORGE-LOUIS, Elector." 

The minister of the elector of Mentz, who presided in the 
diet, earnestly exhorted all the other representatives to send 
copies of this letter to their several courts, and to press their 
masters, on the part of the diet, to comply with all diligence 
with what the elector had desired of them. 

The change for the better, which had taken place in the manage- 
ment of the affairs of the imperial army, was considered of suffi- 
cient importance to be noticed in England in the speech from the 
throne : and queen Anne, on meeting her parliament in November, 
observes, that " the weakness and ill posture of affairs upon 


the Rhine in the beginning of the year, has given an opportunity chap. v. 
to the Fi'ench to make themselves stronger in all other parts ; ^^'^'^^ 
but this defect seems in a very promising vi^ay of being fully 
remedied against next campaign, by the conduct and authority 
of the elector of Hanover, whose seasonable acceptance of that 
command has strengthened and obliged the whole confederacy." 

The elector returned to Hanover to regulate the aflfairs of 
his own states during the winter; and, in conformity to the — 

promise which had been given to him the preceding year, we 
find that the imperial decree, by which his father had been 
raised to the dignity of elector, dated iOth December, 1692; 
and another decree, establishing a ninth electorate in the house 
of Hanover, dated 21st July, 1706; were taken into consideration 
in the college of princes in the month of February. After being a.u. nnB. 
read, examined, and their full tenor debated in the accustomed 
forms, it was unanimously agreed and concluded, " that, in con- 
sideration of the special reasons alleged in these decrees, and 
other important motives, the college consented, on the part of 
the whole princes of the empire, without any reserve, to the 
new electoral dignity conferred by his late imperial majesty, 
Leopold ; and to the establishment of a ninth electorate, in the 
most ancient, powerful, and of the holy Roman empire, so well 
deserving house of Brunswick, Luneburg, Hanover; that is to 
say, in the first line of that house in the order of primogeniture :" 
but it was not until the 30th of June that the elector was 
permitted to take his seat and to vote in the electoral college. 
Notwithstanding the fair promises of the princes, and the exact 
decrees of the German diet, their army was slowly reinforced, 


GHAP. V. badly supplied, and ill paid. The elector, therefore, was obliged 
^^^^^"^^^ to commence the campaign with a very inadequate force, and 
with a total incapability of entering upon offensive operations. 
Yet, in spite of the difficulties which he had to contend with, 
he found means to keep the enemy in check, and to prevent 
his detaching any considerable numbers to the low countries, 
or to Dauphiny. He kept the elector of Bavaria, with ten thousand 
men, inactive upon the Rhine ; and prevented his either marching 
into Brabant, or even returning to his own territory. But, 
upon the whole, he had every reason to be disgusted with 
the conduct of the states of the empire, as to the manner in 
which his army was recruited and supplied. It was ill calcu- 
lated to give satisfaction to a general, whose ambition was to 
attack his enemies, and not to wait to be attacked. 

When the army went into winter quarters, the elector returned 
to Hanover, where he found the court of his mother in alarm 
on account of the death of prince George of Denmark ; and the 
probability of queen Anne being induced to marry again, in 
consequence of the addresses of parliament. The elector rather 
shunned the bustle and intrigues of the electress and her courtiers, 
and gave himself little concern about an event which had long 
been paramount to every other, in the anxious mind of his mother. 
It is believed that he left the army this season with the in- 
tention of resigning the chief command ; but as the period for 
taking the field drew near, he was prevailed upon to continue 
for another campaign. Marshal Thunegen had been inde- 
fatigable during the winter and spring ; and his exertions 
were crowned with success; as the army was in a much 


better condition this year, than it had been in the two preceding chap. v. 
campaigns. ^.Q^ 

The elector did not join the army till the end of July, when 
he detached count Mercy, his favourite general, with a strong 
corps, towards the Black Forest, and with orders to pass the 
Rhine and execute a concerted attack upon the enemy's posts 
in that direction. 

The count left the army on the 12th of August, at Villingen ; 
on the 19th he was at AUesvied; and, by continuing his march 
through Switzerland, he arrived on the morning of the 21st at 
Otmersheim. The 22d and 23d were occupied in forming a 
bridge, in passing the river, and in throwing up works for their 
protection ; and for the security of the bridge of boats which 
he had formed. These works were continued during the 24th 
and 25th ; but on the 26th he was attacked by the enemy, under 
count de Bourg, and routed, with the loss of all his infantry, 
the bridge, baggage, and almost all the material of his little 
army. The account of this defeat was brought to the elector 
when he was marching to support the count, and had advanced 
beyond Rastadt ; but, dreading an attack from the enemy under 
marshal Harcourt, who was hanging upon his flanks, he returned 
to Meckensturm, and took up a position on the other side of the 
Murg. The armies continued to watch each other during the rest 
of the autumn ; and, when the time for going into winter quarters 
arrived, the elector took his final leave of the imperial army, 
and was succeeded in the chief command by prince Eugene, 
duke of Savoy 

. As it is not our intention to enter into the intrigues and cabals 


CHAP. V. which agitated the courts of England and Hanover during the 
^-■^'^^'^^^ four years which intervened between this period and the acces- 
sion of the elector of Hanover to the crown of Great Britain, 
we shall hasten to the conclusion of this genealogical history. 
His highness did not live on good terms either with his mother 
or his son, and seemed to view with indifference the splendid 
prospects which the former had secured for him. He was 
attached to his native country, and contented with the rank 
which he held as a sovereign prince of the empire, and a member 
of the electoral college. His lukewarmness, therefore, was dis- 
couraging to his friends in England, and gave serious offence 
to his aged parent. She, however, did not relax in her endeavours 
to secure the succession. Her name was inserted in the liturgy, 
and she was regularly prayed for after the queen of England. 
Her grandson was created duke of Cambridge, and invested 
with the order of the garter; and it became a favourite part 
of her politics to have his residence established in England. 

The residence of the electoral prince was a circumstance 
equally desired by the whigs and friends of the protestant succes- 
A.D. 1714. sion in England. They succeeded in obtaining a writ for his being 
summoned to parliament as duke of Cambridge, and the same 
was transmitted to Hanover with all expedition. But these 
transactions gave great offence to the queen, whose mind had 
long vacillated between a wish to relieve her conscience from 
a load of ingratitude to her injured father, and what she con- 
sidered her duty to her God and the nation. To her last moment 
it is believed that she sincerely wished for the restoration of 
her brother, while all her public conduct and royal declarations 


held forth a very different language. But the idea of having chap. v. 
a prince of the house she so thoroughly detested near her person, 
was a subject to her, of all others, the most distressing. 

Lord Paget was selected to follow the messenger that carried out 
the writ, and by him she wrote to the electress in these terms : — 
" Madam, sister, aunt; Since the right of succession to my 
kingdoms has been declared to belong to you and your family, 
there have always been disaffected persons, who, by particular 
views of their own interest, have entered into measures to fix 
a prince of your blood in my dominions, even whilst I am yet 
living. I never thought till now that this project would have 
gone so far as to have made the least impression on your mind. 
But, as I have lately perceived by public rumours, which are 
industriously spread, that your electoral highness is come into 
this sentiment, it is of importance, with respect to the succession 
of your family, that I should tell you that such a proceeding 
will infallibly draw along with it some consequences that will 
be dangerous to that succession itself; which is not secure any 
other way, than as the prince, who actually wears the crown, 
maintains her authority and prerogative. There are here (such 
is our misfortune) a great many people who are seditiously dis- 
posed; so I leave you to judge what tumults they may be able 
to raise, if they should have a pretext to begin a commotion. 
I persuade myself, therefore, you will never consent that the 
least thing will be done that may disturb the repose of me 
and my subjects. 

" Open yourself to me with the same freedom I do to you, 
and propose whatever you may think will contribute to the 


CHAP. V. security of the succession : I will come into it with zeal, pro- 
''''^^^■^^'*^ vided it do not derogate from my dignity, which I am resolved 
to maintain; and I am, with a great deal of affection," &c. 

To the prince she addressed herself also, by the same mes- 
senger, as follows : — " Cousin; An accident which has happened 
in my lord Paget's family having hindered him from setting 
forward so soon as he thought to have done, I cannot defer any 
longer lettmg you know my thoughts with respect to the design 
you have of coming into my kingdoms. As the opening of this 
matter ought to have been first to me, so I expected you would 
not have given ear to it without knowing my thoughts about 
it. However ; this is what I owe to my own dignity, the friend- 
ship I have for you, and the electoral house to which you belong, 
and the true desire I have that it may succeed to my kingdoms ; 
and this requires of me that I should tell you, that nothing can 
be more dangerous to the tranquillity of my dominions, and 
the right of succession in your line, and, consequently, more 
disagreeable to me, than such a proceeding at this juncture. I 
am, with a great deal of friendship, your affectionate cousin, 

" ANNE, R." 

These letters made a powerful impression upon the aged 
electress, whose feelings were not in a state to be thwarted 
in any of her political arrangements, particularly in this which 
she had so much at heart. She directed copies of them to be 
sent to the duke of Marlborough, with whom she had constantly 
corresponded, and who was then at Antwerp: and we learn 
from the letters of Mr. Molyneux, who was at that time his 


grace's political agent at the court of Hanover, that the result chap. v. 
was more fatal than was at first apprehended. The electress ^^'^^'^^ 
was so deeply affected with the anxiety of the moment, that 
her feeble frame sunk under contending passions. 

The letters were delivered on Wednesday, the 6th of June, at a. d. i714. 
noon ; and although she continued her usual occupations, and con- 
versed on indifferent subjects, she complained of being unwell on 
Thursday, and was confined to bed. On Friday she was able 
to dress and dine with the elector, and in the evening took 
her accustomed walk in the orangery, behind the palace; but 
being caught in a shower of rain, she walked rather quickly 
to get under cover. Her attendants remarked to her, that she 
was walking too fast: she answered, " I believe I do;" and 
immediately dropped down in uttering these words, which 
were her last. Thus died Sophia, electress and dutchess-dowager 
of Brunswick-Luneburg and Hanover, on the 8th of June, 1714, 
in the 84th year of her age. 

Sophia, princess palatine of the Rhine and princess of 
Bohemia, was the youngest daughter of Frederick the Fifth, 
elector Palatine, aad Elizabeth Stuart, princess royal of 
England, and only daughter of James the First. She was 
born on the 13th of October, 1630. Her unfortunate father 
died when she was three years old, and her early days were 
spent in misery and in exile. Though many of her family were 
rigid members of the Roman catholic church, she was educated 
a protestant, under the care of her cousin, the princess of Orange, 
and remained firmly attached to the doctrines and principles 
of that faith. At the age of twenty- eight she married Ernest- 


CHAP. V. Augustus, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, and sovereign bishop 
^-'^^'^^ of Osnaburg ; and became a sharer in the prosperous fortunes 
of that illustrious prince. 

She was a woman of uncommon beauty, and of a mas- 
culine understanding. A cotemporary writer relates, that at 
the age of seventy-three she possessed all the beauty and 
vigour of youth, stept as firm and erect as any young lady, 
and had not a wrinkle in her face, nor one tooth out of 
her head; she read without spectacles, and was constantly 
employed. The chairs of the presence chamber were all em- 
broidered with her own hands, as also the ornaments for the 
altar of the electoral chapel. She was a great walker, and 
generally spent two or three hours daily in perambulating the 
garden and pleasure grounds about Hernhausen. She possessed 
great general knowledge, and was the firm friend and protector 
of the learned men of her day. She was the first to discover 
the genius of the immortal Leibnitz ; and her munificence and 
condescension attached that philosopher to her court during the 
greater part of his life. Her most happy hours were spent in 
his society; and she took a warm interest in the success of 
his discoveries in science, and in the promulgation of his well 
merited fame. She spoke five languages so well, that, by 
her accent, it was doubtful which of them was her native 
tongue. The low Dutch, the German, the Italian, French, 
and English, were all equally familiar ; and she would discourse 
in the last with an ease and fluency that few foreigners have 
ever attained. She made the laws and constitution of England 
her peculiar study, from the moment it became probable that 


she might be called to the throne, and none understood them chap. v. 
better. ^.^^,'-^• 

She had a genius, says her biographer, equally turned 
for conversation and business, that rendered her not only the 
delight and ornament of a court, but able to manage and sup- 
port its highest interests. The greatness of her soul bore equal 
proportion to her illustrious birth, and the exalted station which 
she filled ; but withal was tempered with so much sweetness 
and affability, that the duty of those below her became all one 
with their pleasure. The knowledge of her virtues added to 
the lustre of her titles, and respect grew upon familiarity. No 
one ever gave liberties with a better grace, or could act without 
reserve to greater advantage ; and she acted her part to admira- 
tion, as a daughter of England and mother of Germany. 

Her wit was sprightly, curious, and surprising ; her judgment 
solid and penetrating, founded upon the best maxims of reading and 
study, and corrected by observation and experience. Nothing 
could exceed the brilliancy and beauty of her conversation but 
her letters ; and both were easy, entertaining, and instructive. 
She had a fund of happiness within herself which made retire- 
ment pleasant ; but her care in her domestic economy, and in 
the general government of the country, showed that she had 
a just sense of her being born for the good of others. 

Her piety was exemplary, without affectation ; and her religious 
sentiments were neither perplexed with doubts nor enslaved by 
superstition. She was studious to prevent, sedulous to oppose, and 
active to suppress, every little quarrel or party intrigue, that grew 
up or ripened where she had any influence. No one had a higher 


CHAP. V. idea of what was due to birth and majesty, or maintained better 

^-^^^''''^^ lliQ dignity of the royal lineage from which she was descended. 

She had experienced, when young, the misfortunes of her own 

and her mother's house; and no temptations could weaken her 

attachment to the blood of the Stuarts. 

It may be objected to this princess, that ambition made her 
prefer her own aggrandizement to the claims of her exiled 
relations : but when we find that the children forgot their duty to 
their father and their sovereign, we have a sufficient excuse 
for the conduct of the electress Sophia in urging her claims to 
the throne which they had forfeited. 

The death of the electress made a considerable alteration 
in the state of parties in England, and gave new vigour and 
firmness to the friends of the elector, now the presumptive heir 
to the crown. Her death also relieved him from considerable 
difficulties ; being no longer controlled by her authority, he was 
able to adopt an uniform and consistent plan of conduct. 
" Although he placed his principal reliance on the Whigs, (says 
Mr. Coxe*,) yet, being of a prudent and cautious temper, he 
did not neglect the Tories. Declining to irritate the queen, 
by permitting his son to accept the invitation to England, refusing 
to spend his treasure in strengthening his interest, or to interfere 
in factious cabals, he appeared almost too indifferent to stretch 
out his hand to the sceptre that was within his grasp, and 
adroitly left his interests to the management of his adherents 
and agents." When the queen transmitted her letters to the 
electress and prince, the earl of Oxford also addressed the 

* Vide Coxe's Memoirs of John Duke of Marlborough, vol. vi. p. 284. 


elector ; and the reader will find in a note his letter on that chap. v. 
occasion*. " Oxford, by his artful duplicity, (continues the '-^^•^^^ 
author already quoted,) in paying court successively to every 
party, had rendered himself equally contemptible to all. He 
had offended the queen by his overtures to the electoral family, 
and had not succeeded in obtaining their confidence." But what- 
ever may have been the political maxims of this minister, it 


" Though I expect Mr. Harley every moment in return from 
your court, and thereby shall have another opportunity of doing myself the honour 
to present your royal highness with my most humble duty, and the assurance 
of my utmost service ; yet I cannot slip this occasion of the queen's messenger 
attending your royal highness with her majesty's letter, to lay myself at your feet. 
I have no enemy that knows me who is not just enough to allow me to be inviolably 
attached to your succession, nothing coming into competition with that; because 
I know I please the queen when I am zealous for the service of your serene house. 
I hope, therefore, I shall find credit with your royal highness when I humbly lay 
my sincere opinion before you. The queen is most heartily for your succession : if 
there be any thing which may render it more secure, which is consistent with 
her majesty's safety, it will be accomplished. It is not the eager desires of 
some, nor what flows from the advice of others, whose discontents, perhaps, ani- 
mate their zeal, can balance the security you have in the queen's friendship, and 
the dutiful affection of her faithful subjects; for, as I am sure your royal high- 
ness's great wisdom would not choose to rule by a party, so you will not let 
their narrow measures be the standard of your government. I doubt not but the 
accident that happened about the writ, may be improved to increase the most 
perfect friendship between the queen and your most serene family. I still study 
to do every thing to demonstrate the profound veneration and respect wherewith 
I am, 

" May it please your Royal Highness, 

" Your Royal Highness's 

" Most dutiful, most humble, and most obedient servant, 

--' OXFORD." 


CHAP. V. is certain that the cabinet of queen Anne never became alto- 
^■^^^^^ gather Jacobitkal till after his dismissal. 

It was fortunate for this country that the lord Bolingbroke and 
his party had not time to organize the measures they had in 
contemplation. The queen, on the 27th of July, was a witness 
to the disgraceful scene which took place between him and lord 
Oxford. Her feelings were deeply affected, and she retired in 
great agitation. This agitation was considerably increased on the 
29th ; and it began to affect the discharge from the sore on her leg, 
which M^as checked. Her constitutional gout flew to her brain, 
and she sunk into a state of stupefaction, broken by occasional fits 
of delirium. 

Bolingbroke employed this awful interval of suspense in 
accelerating his political arrangements, and the most alarming 
apprehensions seized upon all the well-wishers to the pro- 
testant succession. The Whigs, however, were not inactive. 
They had already entered into a formal association, nominated 
officers, collected arms and ammunition ; and were preparing to 
take the necessary precautions, on the death of the queen, to 
obtain possession of the fortresses and out ports of the kingdom, 
to seize the tower, and adopt every possible precaution for pro- 
claiming the constitutional king. In the midst of these mutual 
exertions the indisposition of the queen increased ; and a com- 
mittee of the privy council were sitting in a chamber of the royal 
palace at Kensington, to make the most prompt and effectual 
arrangements on the event. Fortunately, as Mr. Coxe observes, 
the duke of Shrewsbury was among the members present ; and 
his patriotic conduct at that important crisis compensated for 
his former duplicity. 


In the quarrels between the rival ministers he had often chap. v. 
acted with indecision, though he adhered generally to lord ^-^^^"^^ 
Oxford, whom he considered the least dangerous. But he 
now saw that the moment was arrived when he must adopt 
a decided line of conduct. The Hanoverian party astonished 
this assembly of the privy council by their firmness and promp- 
titude. In the midst of their discussions the dukes of Argyll 
and Somerset suddenly entered the council-chamber, and said, 
that understanding the danger of the queen, they had hastened 
to offer their assistance. In the pause of surprise which ensued, 
the duke of Shrewsbury rose and thanked them for their offer ; 
and having taken their seats, they proposed an examination of 
the physicians. The report was, that her majesty was in immi- 
nent danger ; and it was resolved that the post of lord treasurer 
should be filled without delay. The duke of Shrewsbury was 
recommended to that office. 

Bolingbroke and his partisans were thunderstruck, and made 
no opposition ; and, with the approbation of the medical at- 
tendants, a committee waited upon the queen, and declared the 
unanimous opinion of her council. Her majesty was incapable 
of exertion ; faintly approving the choice, she delivered the 
staff to the duke, and bade him use it for the good of her 
people. The same afternoon lord Somers shook off his bodily 
infirmities and repaired to Kensington. He was accompanied, 
or followed, by many privy councillors of the same party ; and 
by their impulse a sudden revolution took place in the counsels 
of government. Troops were ordered to march to the metro- 
polis. Ten battalions were recalled from Flanders, an embargo 


CHAP. V. was laid on the ports, and a fleet sent to sea, under the com- 
'^^^ mand of the earl of Berkeley, and strong measures adopted 
to maintain the public tranquillity in every part of the empire. 

A request was sent to the states of Holland to guarantee 
the protestant succession ; and an express was sent to the elector 
of Hanover, entreating him to repair, without delay, to the Hague, 
where a fleet would be ready to convey him to England, should 
it please God to call the queen to his mercy. 

The queen having relapsed into a lethargy, and the physicians 
despairing of her life, the hei-alds at arms, and a troop of the life 
guards, were then summoned on duty ; and by these and other 
judicious arrangements, the death of the sovereign, which hap- 
pened at seven o'clock in the morning of the 1st of August, was 
instantly followed by the proclamation of the elector of Hanover 
as king, under the title of George the First. Thus, observes the 
author we have followed, by the blessing of divine Providence, 
the protestant succession was secured*. 

* Vide Annal. German, apud Struv. passim. 
Eichorn's History of Brunswick. 
Robertson's History of Charles the Fifth. 
Schiller's Thirty Years' War. 
History of the Revolutions in Holland. 
Coxe's Memoirs of John Duke of Marlhorough. 
The Life of Queen Anne. 
Debates of the Scottish Parliament. 
Journals of the House of Commons. 
M'Pherson's Hanover Papers. 




ERNEST, duke of Celle, styled the Confessor, died 1546. 

Henry, duke of Brunswick, 3, William, duke of Luneburg, 
ancestor of the present died 1592. 

reigning duke, died at I 

Danneberg 1598. | 

Ernest, 2,Christian, 3,Augustus, 4, Frederick, 5, Magnus, 6, George, 7, John, 
duke of duke of duke of dukeofLune- died died died 

Luneburg, Luneburg, Luneburg, burg, died 1632. 1641. 16'28. 

died 1611, died 1633, died 1636, 

without without without issue. | 

issue. issue. issue. | 

Christian-Lewis, 2, George-William, 3, John-Frederick, 4, Ernest-Augustus, 
duke of Celle, died duke of Celle, died duke of Hanover, bishop of Osnabura, 

1665. 1705. died 1679. duke of Hanover, 

elector of Hanover, 
1692, died 1698. 

George-Lewis, elector of 
Hanover, king of England, 
1714, died 1727. 




HENRY, duke of Danneberg, died 1598. 

^ A ^ 

Augustus, duke of Wolfenbuttle, died 1666. 

Ferdinand-Albert, duke of Bevern, died 1667. 

Ferdinand-Aleert, duke of Wolfenbuttle, died 1735. 


Charles, duke of Wolfenbuttle, died 1780. 


Charles-William-Ferdinand, duke of Wolfenbuttle, died of the wounds lie received in the 

battle of Jena, 1806. 

J ^ 

Frederick-William, duke of Wolfenbuttle-Oels, killed at Quatre-bras, 16th June, 1815. 


Chahles-Wilham-Ferdinand, the present reigning duke. 



The history of the most ancient and illustrious house of 
Guelph, in as far as it is separated from that of England, naturally 
finishes with George the First. He added the crown of Great 
Britain to the sovereignty of their hereditary states in Germany ; 
and became king of England as well as elector of Hanover, and 
duke of Brunswick and Luneburg. We shall, therefore, conclude 
this part of our undertaking with some account of their con- 
tinental possessions, and endeavour to give a general view of 
the past and present state of the people and kingdom of Hanover. 

It is, however, a difficult task to ascertain with certainty the 
inhabitants of any particular district of Germany, during the 
first years of the Christian era, as the successive hordes of 
barbarians who descended from the unknown north, and who, 
in the first instance, narrowed the limits, and afterwards effected 
the ruin of the Roman power, may be said to have made this 
country only a halting place. They continued to advance to 
the south, and their place was occupied by a new tribe or nation 
of the same people. The exterminating warfare which was too 
often carried on among these savages themselves, was also suffi- 
cient to change the face of the country, with respect to its 
inhabitants, in a very few years ; and hence it is that we find 
in the ancient writers so many differences of opinions with 
regard to the names and numbers of the tribes who inhabited 
the north of Europe. 


CHAP. VI. About the period when Ccesar conquered Gaul, and advanced 

^"^'^"'''^ beyond the Rhine, the sea coast between the Elbe, the Weser, 
and the Ems, was occupied by a people called Chauci and 
Cherusci. The Chamavi and Longabardi dwelt more inland, and 
divided amongst them the greater part of the country about 
Hanover and Brunswick. The Angli are placed in that district 
now known as the dutchy of Lawenburg. The Hessians are 
said to be the descendants of the Catti or Chassi of that time. 
And what constitutes the kingdom and country of the present 
Saxons was then possessed by the Suevi, Hermunduri, Ubii, 
and Sedusii. 

In the interval between the time of Caesar and the reign 
of Trajan, many of these nations had changed their position, 
but in general they retained their ancient names. As a whole 
people, they had obtained the appellation of Goths and Vandals. 
The former were established towards the mouth of the Vistula, 
and in that fertile province where the commercial cities of Thorn, 
Elbing, Konningsberg, and Dantzic, were long afterwards 
founded ; while the more numerous tribes of the latter ex- 
tended to the westward. But a striking similarity of manners, 
' complexion, religion, and language, clearly indicated that they 
were originally one great nation. 

In the age of the Antonines the Goths were still seated in 
Prussia ; and in the reign of Alexander- Severus the Roman pro- 
vince of Dacia began to experience their proximity, by frequent 
and destructive inroads. It was about the year 240 that the inha- 
bitants of the Lower Rhine and the Weser formed a confederacy, 
under the title of Franks, or freemen. This union, which was 


effected, in the first instance, by tacit consent and mutual advantage, ch ap. vi. 
was gradually cemented by habit and experience. The Franks ■'-'*^'"'*^ 
were no sooner aware of their combined strength, than they 
entered upon foreign conquest. They encroached upon the pro- 
vinces of Gaul ; and, though often repulsed, were at last able to 
take and to retain possession of these provinces ; and their leaders 
laid the foundation of the present French monarchy. Similar con- 
federacies were formed, and other conquests made, by various of . 
the German nations. Their names have been perpetuated in the 
countries which they subdued, and their descendants have reigned 
as sovereigns in almost every state in Europe. 

The accounts which we have of the first Gothic tribes, are 
such as are common to all savages. They were a warlike people, 
without either cities, letters, arts, or money. They carried with 
them what they most valued, their arms, their cattle, and their 
women. Among some an hereditary monarchy was established ; 
but the greater number obeyed a leader of their own choice. 
In the dull intervals of peace, they were immoderately addicted to 
deep gaming and excessive drinking ; and they gloried in jaassing 
whole days and nights at table. Their habitations were nothing 
more than low huts of a circular figure, built of rough timber, 
thatched with straw, and pierced at the top, to allow the light 
to enter and the smoke to go out; and " each barbarian," says 
Gibbon, " fixed his independent dwelling on the spot to which 
a plain, a wood, or a stream of fresh water, had induced him 
to give the preference." In war they were early renowned ; and 
many of the German tribes, from their numbers and improved 
state of military discipline, were formidable rivals of their Roman 
invaders. Varus, with the best troops of Augustus, was defeated 


CHAP. VI. near Pyrmont, by Arminius, the leader of the savage Cheruscians, 
""■■^^^^^^ about the beginning of the first century (A. D. 9) ; and when, 
in the process of time, they had learned from their invaders the 
more perfect use of arms, and accident had convinced them of 
the power of union and numbers, these savages ravaged Italy 
and the south ; they marched boldly to the attack of the imperial 
city itself, and Attila the Hun was able to dictate terms to the 
mistress of the world. But there is a long period of darkness 
between the fifth and the ninth century, which is but rarely 
illumined with the light of historical truth; and our principal 
sources of information respecting persons and places in those 
unsettled ages, are from the collections of miracles and traditions, 
made by the credulous monks of the tenth century ; and which, 
fortunately for the world, escaped the sword of the destroyer 
in the sanctified seclusion of the privileged convent. 

The historian of the present day owes much to these pious 
recluses ; and when they treat of the transactions of their own 
time, or of the generation immediately preceding them, the 
outlines of their detail, and also the greater part of their specific 
statements, may be taken, when divested of their superstition, 
as generally correct. 

Meroveus, the leader of the Franks, was the first of their 
kings in the newly acquired provinces of Gaul, and must have 
lived about the year 400. The country was often divided into 
separate kingdoms, but his descendants continued to reign in 
France for more than three centuries and a half. 

The grand master of the palace had, previous to the end of the 
Merovingean race, enjoyed much of the power of the sovereign, and 
was at last able to usurp the crown, Pepin, the son of Charles 


Martel, the master of the palace to Childeric the Third, was chap. vi. 
crowned king of France in 752 ; and his son Charles, animated by "-^^ "^-^ 
a desire of conquest and zeal for the true religion, overran the 
greater part of Germany, and compelled its pagan inhabitants to 
submit to Christianity or death. 

When Charlemagne began his reign, the north-west part of 
Germany had obtained the general appellation of Saxony, and 
the people were united under one sovereign. Wittikend, their 
king at this period, was a prince of no ordinary talents, and was 
well entitled to rank as the rival of Charlemagne. The war 
between these sovereigns was carried on with various success 
for many years, but at last the Christian arms prevailed ; 
Wittikend was converted, and acknowledged the authority of 
the king of France ; and his states were merged in the western 
empire. Monks and military governors were spread over the 
country, and religion and strict discipline went hand in hand 
in civilizing the people. 

The cathedral churches of Paderborne, Minden, Osnaburg, 
Bremen, Verden, and others, were built, by command of the 
emperor ; and bishops were appointed to these sees. The tem- 
poral welfare of the people was equally consulted, and freedom 
of commerce was granted to Bardewich and Celle, towns of 
some consideration in that part of the country which constitutes 
the present dutchy of Luneburg. Wittikend, though conquered, 
was still allowed, as duke of Saxony, to retain the government 
of his country. It comprehended the whole of the present 
kingdom of Hanover and circle of Westphalia ; but as we believe 
we follow the best authorities when we state that he left no male 


CHAP. VI. issue, the greater part of his possessions passed into tbs 
hands of the nobles who had been left by Charlemagne as the 
military governors or protectors of the frontiers, and who were 
either the descendants of the ancient families of the country, 
or strangers transferred from a distant part of the empire. 

A small portion, however, must have remained to Gisela, the 
daughter of Wittikend, who married Bruno, one of her father's 
generals, as their grandson, Ludolph, had a conspicuous rank 
in the empire, as duke of Saxony, in the reign of Lewis the Second 
and Charles the Bald. The counts of Supplingenburg and Nord- 
heim were amongst the most ancient of the Saxon nobles, and held 
some of the finest provinces in the present kingdom of Hanover. 
The country on the Ocker belonged to the Brunones, the descend- 
ants of a brother or son of the first Bruno ; and Luneburg was the 
property of the family of the Billungs. Gertrude, the only sister of 
Eckbert, the last margrave of Brunswick of the line of Bruno, con- 
veyed that territory to Otho the Fat, count of Nordheim, whom 
she married in 1092 ; and their only daughter and heiress, Richenza, 
married Lothaire, count of Supplingenburg, whose female ancestor, 
it is believed, was the daughter of the emperor Otho the Second. 

Gebhard, the father of Lothaire, who is styled count of Sup- 
plingenburg and count of Blankenburg, also count palatine, fell 
in battle in 1075; and Lothaire, in 1106, got, in addition to these 
honours, the investiture of the dutchy of Saxony from Henry the 
Fourth, on the death of Magnus Billung without male heirs ; but 
the greater part of the hereditary states of the Billung family 
were conveyed to Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria, as the 
marriage portion of Wulfilda, the eldest daughter of duke Magnus. 


Henry the Proud, duke of Bavaria, the son of Henry the chap. vi. 
Black and Wulfilda of Bilking, married Gertrude, the only "^^^-^^^ 
daughter and heiress of Lothaire, now emperor of Germany, and 
of Richenza, heiress of Nordheim ; and having been invested with 
the dutchy of Saxony, his only son, Henry the Lion, in right of his 
mother and grandmother, became sovereign of the united posses- 
sions of Brunswick, Luneburg, Supplingenburg, and Nordheim ; 
and is the first of the Guelphs of Bavaria who made Brunswick his 
fixed place of residence. Henry's dominions, we have seen, were 
too extensive for a subordinate sovereign, and his power too 
great for a subject of the empire. In 1180, he was deprived 
of his hereditary titles of duke of Bavaria and duke of Saxony. 
These countries were conferred on other princes ; and he was 
compelled to be content with the possessions that had belonged 
to his ancestor, Wittikend, and which were not of greater extent 
than the present Hanoverian kingdom and Brunswick dutchy. 
The sons of Henry the Lion enjoyed the nominal title of dukes of 
Saxony, but possessed only that portion of the country which 
had belonged to their female ancestors ; and in 1235, the states of 
Brunswick and Luneburg were erected into a feudal dutchy, 
and conferred upon Otho the Infant, his grandson. 

The divisions and subdivisions of their property, which so 
generally took place among the descendants of this Otho, were 
not only ruinous to the Guelphic power, but most injurious to the 
country which they governed. The princes of Brunswick and 
Luneburg were very frequently engaged in civil wars and domestic 
broils ; and the glory of their name and lineage was too often 
sacrificed to the petty ambition of possessing a town or a princi- 


CHAP. VI. pality that belonged to a brother or a cousin. It was not till a very 
^^ late period that minor considerations w^ere allowed to give place to 

what was obviously for the general good ; and Ernest- Augustus, 
elector and duke of Hanover, in the 17th century, was the first to 
establish the right of primogeniture in his family ; and to unite in 
his own person, and in that of his descendants, the greater part 
of the Guelphic possessions in Germany. Since his day these 
possessions have been considerably augmented ; and for the future 
we shall treat of the kingdom of Hanover, as it was established by 
the treaty of Vienna, in 1815. 

Hanover, as a kingdom, contains about eight hundred and 
twenty German (eighteen thousand English) square miles*, and is 
divided into the following provinces : — Calemberg, Grubenhagen, 
Luneburg, Gottingen, Lawenburg, Osnaburg, Hildesheim, and 
East Friesland; all of which have occasionally been sovereign 
principalities ; Bremen and Verden are dutchies ; Hoya, Diep- 
holz, Lingen, Danneberg, Hohnstein, Bentheim, and Spiegelberg, 
are counties. It also comprehends the circle of Meppen, the 
district of Emsbiihren, with the land Hadeln, and Upper and Lower 
Harz. The population amounts to nearly a million and a half. 

To the north of the city of Hanover, the present capital, 
the country in general is low, with immense tracts of sandy 
plain, and a number of impenetrable marshes ; but to the south 
and east of the city the soil is better, and well cultivated. 
Agriculture and the breeding of cattle are the chief employ- 
ment of the people. 

* The German miles are now established at fifteen to a degree. 


The mountains of the Deister, Soiling, Siintell, and innumerable chap. vi. 
hills of lesser note, give a diversified appearance to the face '"^ 

of the country ; and are, for the most part, covered with rich 
and extensive forests of oak, beech, and pine. These forests are a 
source of never-failing wealth to the king, from the superior 
manner in which they are managed, and of great comfort and 
convenience to the inhabitants of the kingdom. The rivers afford 
many facilities for trade and manufactures; and although the 
natives of this kingdom are more an agricultural than a commercial 
people, they are not deficient in a spirit for speculation. Osna- 
burg has long been celebrated for its manufacture of linens ; 
particularly for a species which has obtained the name of Os)ia- 
bargs, and of which more than a million of ells are annually 
exported. The wool of the country, which is abundant in quan- 
tity, and some of it of excellent quality, is also manufactured 
into broad and other cloths, which in durability, though not in 
fineness, rival the produce of England. They are chiefly used for 
home consumption. 

The produce of the Harz mines, including the gold and 
silver coined into money, may be taken at an average of two 
millions of dollars annually ; but the greater part of that sum 
is spent in the district, in improving the works of the mines, 
and in supporting a population of thirty thousand souls, who 
are connected with the different mining establishments. Lead 
and copper are the principal metals exported ; to which may 
be added a small quantity of cast and wrought iron. But when 
the iron foundries now building at Rottfe Hiitte are finished, 
the construction of which does so much credit to baron Meding, 
the director-general of the mines, and his deputy, baron de 


CHAP. VI. Redeii, there will be a considerable increase in the quantity 
''■'^'*^^^^^ of this metal for exportation, and some improvement also in its 

There is a very extensive and well-conducted manufactory of 
fire-arms in the town of Hertzberg ; and while the proprietor con- 
tinues, as at present, by the superior quality of the article brought 
to market, to merit the support of the government and the public, 
it cannot fail to be a profitable concern. There is a large esta- 
blishment near Celle for the dressing and spinning of flax ; and 
the peasants of that province have a profitable trade in the 
rearing of bees, and supply a great part of the continent 
with bees' wax, for candles, &c. There is a large glass manu- 
factory in the Soiling mountains, established by a private 
individual; and the government also carry on a similar establish- 
ment at Osterwald. There are several extensive salt springs 
in different parts of the kingdom ; and the manufacture of salt 
is a source of great profit to individuals and to the public revenue. 
Earthenware, and even china of tolerable fineness are manu- 
factured at Duingen ; and gunpowder, of the very best quality, is 
made at Aerzen and Bomlitz. Cattle and sheep are in great 
abundance in the kingdom, the horses are in general good ; and 
the king's stud is one of the finest in Germany. Last year a 
hundred and seventeen stallions, of the best blood, were sent 
from his majesty's stables into the different provinces of the 
kingdom, for the purpose of improving the breed. The farmers 
understand the cultivation of the soil ; and have, in general, most 
abundant crops of corn, hemp, flax, and tobacco, which are their 
chief articles of growth. The taxes, in the present times of 
peace and plenty, are, comparatively speaking, very trifling. 


and scarcely felt. But the people are still, in some measure, chap. vi. 
suffering from the horrors and oppressions of the late war. Un- ^-^"^^^^^ 
fortunately for the country, it had to endure more than its common 
share of the evils inflicted upon the continent by the armed 
robbers of Europe ; and it is more than a century since it has 
been blessed with the presence of its sovereign. But his present 
majesty, from the moment he became the ruler of their destinies, 
has devoted his attention, in no ordinary degree, to the 
welfare of the ancient vassals of his house. In the Count de 
Miinster*, a nobleman of enlarged mind and sound judgment, his 
majesty has had an able assistant, and Hanover an enlightened 
minister ; and, could the improved system of government he has 
introduced be completed by the residence of the king even 
for a short period, this kingdom, if peace continues, would rank, 
in no long time, as the third state in Germany. 

The government is at present carried on by a committee of 
five of the king's ministers, with his royal highness the duke 
of Cambridge as president. Three of these ministers, with his 
royal highness, reside constantly in Hanover. One of them is 
ambassador at the court of Vienna, and the other (count Miinster) 
resides in London. 

The property of the soil is vested, for the most part, in the king 
and the nobles ; and, independent of his being sovereign of the 
country, his majesty is bonil fide proprietor of about two thirds of 
the whole landed property of the kingdom. Part of this property 
hfeued out to the peasants, and part of it let to regular tenants. 

* This nobleman is the member of the cabinet resident in London ; consequently 
the king's confidential adviser. 


CHAP. VI. The country is divided into districts or ampts, which are 

"^^^^^^ superintended by a magistrate. If a commoner, this magistrate 
is called the amptman ; if a noble, he has the title of drost or 
landrost. The king's domains were in general let wholesale to 
the amptman or drost, and by him subset to the peasantry. This, 
which was one of the great sources of mismanagement, or rather 
of bad government, has now been done away ; and, as the leases 
of the different ampts fall in, they are let to the person who gives 
the best offer for the land. 

it was no uncommon occurrence, in former times, for the 
person who was the favourite of the minister of the day to get 
a lease of a large district of country at an annual rent of half a 
dollar per acre, which he would immediately subset in small farms 
to the peasants, at six, eight, or ten dollars. The whole of the 
kings property, whether in land, woods, or mines, is managed 
by what is called the king's chamber ; and each of these depart- 
ments is superintended by a privy counsellor, who has the title of 

The court consists of a grand marshal of the palace, a lord 
chamberlain, and several chamberlains ; a master and vice-master 
of the horse, a lord treasurer, master of the hunt, and all the 
minor officers of state. Thc.-e, and all the civil judges, are 
appointed by the crown, and paid from the king's revenues; 
and his majesty also contributes to the other expenses of the 
state the ordinary taxes which are levied upon every subject. 

By the last account which has been made public, the revenue 
of the sovereign amounted only to a million and a half of dollars, 
(two hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling), while the 


charges exceeded that revenue by about forty-eight thousand chap. vi. 
dollars, or eight thousand pounds per annum. But, as leases ^^^^"^^ 
are rapidly falling in, and the value of land has greatly increased, 
the income, it is to be hoped, will soon exceed the annual ex- 

In 1819, the king granted a new constitution to the country, 
by which the nation in future is to be represented by two 
chambers, forming a legislature in some measure similar to that 
of Great Britain. In each province the former local government 
is continued; and its affairs are managed by a legislative 
assembly of its own, consisting of representatives chosen from 
the clergy, nobles, and towns of the district ; and it is a certain 
number of deputies from these provincial assemblies, that form 
what are called the general states of the kingdom. 

The first chamber of the Allgememe-landstande, or states 
general, is similar to the British house of peers, and consists 
of the mediatized princes of the kingdom; the earl marshal, 
and postmaster-general, whose offices are hereditary ; the catholic 
bishops of the kingdom ; three protestant clergymen, who are 
the heads of reformed abbeys, or members of the consistory ; 
and the directors of the king's chamber, or treasury, who have 
seats as a matter of right; of such peers as the king may 
create, who possess an entailed property to a certain extent, 
(six thousand dollars per annum) ; and the deputies limited to 
a fixed number, who are returned by the nobles of the several 
provincial states, and who are members only by favour or 
election. The second chamber, or house of commons, consists 
of the representatives of the clergy ; the reformed convents ; 
the university of Gottingen ; and of the large towns ; to which a 


CHAP. VI. third class has been added, the representatives of the Feuars, 
^^^^'^^ or free boors of the kingdom. All laws or regulations are to 
be debated in the two chambers separately; but if they shall 
differ on any point, they are to be formed into one assembly, 
and the opinion of the majority is to be considered as the 
decision of the two houses. 

With regard to the civil and criminal courts it is difficult 
to give any distinct account. Hanover has no national code 
of civil law, and the Roman and canon law, modified in certain 
instances by particular or local statutes, is that by which the 
judges are guided in their decisions ; but much depends upon 
the still prevailing maxims of the feudal system. A creditor 
can sequestrate and sell the goods of his debtor, but cannot 
incarcerate his person, unless he makes it appear that he is 
about to fly from justice. 

In criminal matters the code of Charles the Fifth, called the 
Carolina, forms the basis of the law of Hanover. When a person 
is suspected or accused of a crime, he is immediately taken up 
and thrown into prison; and the magistrate of the district in 
which the crime was committed, or the prisoner apprehended, 
is charged with the duty of taking a precognition. He examines 
witnesses upon oath, and procures all the information possible 
against the accused ; and when this investigation is concluded, 
the documents are transmitted to the high court of criminal 
justice at Hanover, which either proceeds to the trial at once, 
or orders a further investigation before the provincial court. 

Cases of civil action, in most instances, commence before 
the amptman, or judge of the district; from which an appeal 
lies to the court of chancery, the supreme civil court of each 


province. Should its sentence not be satisfactory, the cause chap. vi. 
may be carried, by either party, before the high court of ^^^^'^^ 
appeal, which sits at Celle, and whose decision can be executed 
with effect in any part of the kingdom. In matters of great 
interest, an appeal from the high court may be made to the 
king in council ; but in general the sentence of the court of 
Celle is considered final. The whole of the proceedings are 
carried on in written pleadings, and the courts are piyvate. 
The supreme criminal court sits in Hanover; but there is in 
every province a supreme court of civil and criminal justice, 
besides the dominial ampts, public ampts, courts of the nobles, 
and courts of the cities and towns ; which are all courts of the 
first instance, and exist in every district. 

The nobles, or freyhern, formerly claimed many exceptions 
from the ordinary proceedings in courts of law, and were 
excused from many of the general imposts ; but few of their 
ancient privileges are now either claimed or allowed, as by 
the new constitution all subjects are equal in the eye of the 
law. The proceedings in the civil courts of law are often 
extended to an indefinite length: but we must add, that we 
have heard of no instance where justice, though delayed, was 
not fairly administered. 

In most of the states in Germany there are as yet only two 
classes of the people, the nobles and the peasants, or what 
the language of the country more truly implies, the freemen 
and the vassals. But in Hanover, a third class of opulent 
merchants is springing up in many of the cities and towns; 
and the king's vassals, and free boors of the kingdom, having 


cHAF. VI. been admitted to a share in the national representation, may 
''■■^^^ justly be compared to the yeomanry of England. The great 
body of the nobility of Germany are the descendants of those 
vassals, who, for their distinguished services, or by special favour, 
obtained their freedom from their immediate chiefs, and vv^ere 
ennobled by the emperor. They are extremely numerous, because 
all the male descendants of a count, or a baron, are entitled in 
society to the rank of their ancestor, though the legal rights of the 
title are restricted to his lineal representative, in as far as the 
empire is concerned. 

The holy Roman empire consisted of the head of the state, 
the emperor; and three political bodies: the college of electors, 
the college of princes, and the college of the free imperial cities. 

The emperor was elected ; and his chief powers were the 
granting the investiture of their dominions to the sovereign 
princes, but which he was bound to do as the law directed ; the 
conferring of titles of nobility ; but here again he had to promise 
that they should be bestowed only on such persons as would 
maintain their dignity, and could support their rank; and, after 
all, he could merely give the title, as the power and privileges 
of a prince or a count must be allowed by their respective bodies 
before they could be exercised. He had, of course, all the 
privileges that belonged to the sovereign authority; yet he was 
not considered above the law, as the same body that elected 
him to the throne had the power, or occasionally assumed the 
right, of deposing him from it. 

The college of electors was that body in which the power 
of electing the head of the state resided. This was a privilege 


which in early times belonged to every prince of the empire ; chap. vi. 
and we have seen how the many were excluded by the manoeuvre 
of the archbishop of Mentz, at the election of Lothaire, in 1125 
The great officers of the household gradually usurped this power 
which they were allowed to exercise without any regular autho 
rity, till the famous golden bull of Charles the Fourth, in 1356 
The electoral college, as then organized, consisted of the arch 
bishop of Mentz, the grand chancellor of the empire ; the arch 
bishop of Cologne, as grand chancellor for the kingdom of Italy 
and the archbishop of Treves, as grand chancellor of France 
and Burgundy, or Aries. The king of Bohemia, as grand cup- 
bearer of the empire, was the first lay member; the count 
palatine of the Rhine, as high steward, the second ; the duke 
of Saxony, as grand marshal, the third; and the margrave of 
Brandenburg, as grand chamberlain, the fourth. When Fre- 
derick the Fifth, count palatine, forfeited his honours in his 
contest for the crown of Bohemia, his electoral dignity was 
granted to the duke of Bavaria; but, on the honours of the 
county palatine being restored to the son of Frederick, an eighth 
electorate was created for the duke of Bavaria, in 1648 ; and, 
in 1692, Hanover and Luneburg were made a ninth electorate; 
to which was first attached the office of great standard-bearer, 
and latterly that of grand treasurer. In the golden bull the forms 
of procedure in the election of an emperor are fully detailed. 

The college of princes consisted of all the sovereign princes of 
the empire, whether laymen or prelates ; and also of the bishops, 
abbots, and lords of counties, who were not sovereign princes. 
The third college was formed of the representatives of the free 


CHAP. vr. cities of the empire. All the civil and military affairs of the 
empire were regulated in what were called general diets, at 
which the emperor, when present, presided; but the archbishop 
of Mentz presided in the college of electors; the archduke of 
Austria, and the archbishop of Saltzburg, alternately, in the 
college of princes; and the representative of the city where 
the diet sat, -in the college of representatives. The two first 
colleges were called superior, and in effect constituted the diet; 
but, by the peace of Westphalia, a decisive vote was recognized 
as the right of the imperial cities, which the two superior colleges 
should not infringe upon ; their vote by the fundamental law being 
declared of equal weight with that of the electors and princes. 

All matters for discussion at the diet were generally first 
deliberated upon in the college of electors, and passed from 
that to the college of princes. In each college the sentiments 
of the majority were conclusive ; except in what had respect 
to fundamental laws, that affected the whole empire; or in 
matters of religion, when they must be unanimous. Every 
sovereign prince had a vote in the second college : but the 
votes for the whole of the bishops and abbots who were not 
sovereigns were reduced to two ; and the counts and nobles of 
the whole empire who had no. sovereign rights had only four 
votes. The princes, therefore, voted individually, but the prelates 
and nobles by benches. 

After a measure was adopted by the colleges, it was submitted 
to the emperor, who could confirm or reject it; but when it 
received his sanction, it was binding upon every member of 
the empire. 


Hildesheim and Osnaburg are both catholic provinces, and chap. vi. 
were formerly sovereign bishopricks ; but they too have been ^-^^^^^ 
mediatized. The duke of York receives an equivalent for the 
sovereign power and revenues of which he has been deprived ; 
and the prince bishop of Hildesheim, a veteran nearly in his 
hundredth year, has given up the sovereignty, and been allowed 
to retain the revenues during his life. The catholic bishop of 
Osnaburg is merely a spiritual dignitary; and the successor of 
the present prince bishop of Hildesheim will become the same, 
with a revenue adequate to the duties of his spiritual office. 
Both these prelates have seats in the first chamber of the 

Education is much attended to in the kingdom of Hanover. 
Almost every parish has its public school ; and there is a richly 
endowed establishment in the city of Hanover, for the gratuitous 
and liberal education of all such as are desirous of becoming 
teachers of youth. The peasantry therefore are, in general, 
well informed, as the schools are properly conducted and 
numerously attended ; and the clergy, much to their credit, 
take a lively interest in the improvement and discipline of the 
seminaries of education. 

As a seat of learning, Gottingen, the principal university 
of the kingdom, has long ranked high in the republic of letters. 
It was founded by George the Second, in 1737; and its fame 
has been established by a succession of illustrious men, whose 
names will be held in respect while literature and the sciences 
continue to be cultivated. As a philosopher and natural histo- 
rian, few have equalled the venerable Blumenbach, who still 


CHAP. VI. exists : and Haller, the prince of physiologists, taught in the 

^"^''^''^^'^ schools of this seminary. 

The Hanoverians are amongst the most loyal people on 
earth. We speak of the great body of the population ; not of 
the half Frenchified infidel few, who basked in the sunshine 
of Westphalian favour, and were the slaves and sycophants of 
a Buonapartean usurper. Of these the country does not contain 
many; and we will venture to say, that ninety-nine out of 
every hundred of the whole population are devotedly loyal, and 
most sincerely attached to the person and government of their 
king. It stands upon record, that no oppression on the 
part of the tyrant of Europe, even when his power was the 
greatest, could check the expression of their loyalty and attach- 
ment, when the return of the king's birth-day, or any national 
feast, led the Hanoverians to reflect on the days of old. 

The public revenue of the kingdom arises from the rents 
of the public domains ; which consist of part of the unclaimed 
property of the monasteries suppressed at the reformation, and 
from an income tax, a poll tax, with the duties of custom* and 
excise on all goods imported for home consumption. It amounted, 
in 1818, to the sum of three millions one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, or five hundred and twenty-five thousand 
pounds sterling; but the expenses of the year exceeded that 
income by seven hundred thousand dollars, or one hundred and 
sixteen thousand pounds ; and, to make up for the deficiency, a 
loan of eight hundred thousand dollars was necessary. The public 

* All kinds of dry goods pay a duty of half a dollar per cwt. on entering the 
kingdom ; wine twelve dollars, brandy and spirits thirty-two per hogshead. 


debt of the kingdom amounts to about nine million of dollars ; chap. vi. 

and the public revenue is expended in paying the interest of 

this debt, and in maintaining the army, in supporting public 

and charitable institutions, and the public officers of the state. 

The poll tax is, perhaps, unequally imposed, as the richest 

noble only pays twelve pence, while the poorest servant must 

pay three pence ; and, respecting the income tax, we have been 

assured that no merchant in the capital returns his profits at 

more than fifty pounds per annum. 

Public begging is prohibited in Hanover, and in most of 
the other towns of the kingdom. The poor are supported 
from funds contributed by the state; and, in particular places, 
by a tax or fine upon all persons who enter the town or go 
out of it after a certain hour in the evening. The concerns 
of the poor are in general well managed, and the English system 
of saving banks has been introduced with good effect into several 

The system of prison discipline in this country is most 
excellent, and in our opinion much superior to that in England. 
Whatever may be the cruelty and barbarism of the existing criminal 
law, it is mildly executed by the present government. The 
prisoners and the convicted criminals are treated with great 
judgment and humanity. 

The house of correction at Celle, and the house of industry 
at Hildesheim, are establishments that would do honour to any 
countiy ; and, when the asylum for lunatics is removed from 
the former, it may, with much truth, be pronounced a model 
for similar institutions. The latter establishment, the house of 
industry at Hildesheim, certainly merits every commendation. 


CHAP. VI. The convicts employed on the public v^^orks at Stade and 

^■•^^^^*^ Hameln, are also judiciously managed ; and, when their services 
are not required by the government, they are allow^ed to work 
for the inhabitants, and are regularly paid a fixed sum per day. 

Hanover, as a kingdom, is open on all sides to an invading 
enemy ; and, when negotiation fails, its independence can only 
be maintained by a well organized military force, and a close 
and cordial alliance with England. 

The duke of Cambridge, with the title of governor-general 
of the kingdom, is also commander-in-chief of the army; but 
the military, as well as the civil concerns of Hanover, are directed 
by the cabinet ministers, who, as a body, represent the absent 

The present military force consists of a regiment of foot and 
two brigades of horse artillery, with a corps of engineers ; four 
regiments of hussars, and four of heavy cavalry ; two regiments of 
foot guards, and ten of regular infantry, besides the landwehr ; 
and forms a very efficient and well drilled body of troops. 
This force was maintained at an expense considered rather burden- 
some to the nation. The subject has been much discussed 
in the meetings of the general states, and it is only lately 
that the army was placed on a permanent footing. 

In the general history we have often had occasion to allude 
to the gallantry and good conduct of the armies of Brunswick 
and Luneburg ; and we can state with confidence, that they have 
not degenerated since the accession of the sovereign of these 
states to the crown of Britain. In the seven years' war, the 
Brunswick troops, and a Brunswick prince, were the saviours 
of the liberties of Germany, if not of Europe ; and in every 


war in which England has been engaged since the succession, chap. vi. 
the Hanoverians have been ready to shed their best blood in ^^^^^"^ 
her cause. At Gibraltar, and in the East Indies, their fame 
has been established ; and while valour in the field and strict 
discipline in the camp continue to be esteemed the characteristics 
of good soldiers, the name of the king's German legion may be 
held up as a pattern for future armies. 

When the revolutionary hordes of France had overwhelmed the 
greater part of the continent of Europe, and occupied Hanover as a 
conquered country, the good and loyal inhabitants of that kingdom 
were peculiarly obnoxious to the usurper, on account of their 
connexion with England. Death, with a complication of horrors, 
was denounced as the fate of every one taken in an attempt 
to leave the country ; and although many were taken, and most 
barbarously executed ; such was the attachment of this people 
for their legitimate sovereign, and the English nation, that fortune 
was forsaken, family ties severed, and death, with all its terrors, 
braved by thousands, rather than they would enter the service, 
or continue under the authority of the enemy of their king. From 
these bands of patriots a legion was formed, under the auspices 
of his royal highness the duke of Cambridge, which, during the 
whole of the last war, was always to be found in the foremost 
ranks of the British army. We have been witnesses of their 
gallant conduct from Talavera to Waterloo ; and when the future 
historian shall treat of the glorious deeds of the king's German 
legion, we beg of him to remember, that it consisted of a body 
of patriots who had sacrificed the dearest ties of human nature 
from a pure and disinterested loyalty to their sovereign. 


CHAP. VI. These general remarks, we have to observe, apply equally to the 
^"'^^^^ dutchy of Brunswick ; which, though in every respect a separate 
state, is still an integral part of the Guelphic possessions in 
Germany. The vassals of Brunswick owe allegiance to the 
king of Hanover, while those of Hanover swear fealty to the 
dukes of Brunswick. Both sovereigns are descended from one 
common father* ; and in the event of either branch becoming 
extinct in the male line, the other succeeds as a matter of course. 
The city of Brunswick, since the days of Henry the Lion, has 
always been considered the capital of the country, though not 
always possessed by the eldest branch of the house. It there- 
fore contains many remains of ancient splendour, and more of 
modern improvement, than the city of Hanover, which only rose 
into notice at the end of the 17th century. Ernest- Augustus was 
able to form a new dynasty in his house : he raised the states 
of Luneburg to the rank of an electorate; and with him the 
title of duke of Brunswick and Luneburg became second to that 
of elector of Hanover. This city, therefore, which now gives 
a name to the kingdom, owes its first rank, as well as its 
splendour, to that prince. 

The dutchy of Brunswick contains about two hundred and 
twenty thousand inhabitants ; and of these about forty thousand 
are in the capital. The soil of the dutchy is, in general, good ; 
and we think we have remarked that the peasantry are, in some 
districts, a more industrious and more opulent class than those 
of Hanover. 

This state suffered equally from the oppressions of the French 

* Ernest, duke of Celle, who died in 1546. 


rulers, during its occupation by the usurper ; but as Brunswick chap. vi. 
was in a great measure a rival of Cassel, it enjoyed a share of the "'^^^^'^^^ 
favour and protection of Jerome Buonaparte. The ducal palace 
was fitted up for his residence, and it was his intention to have 
made it the occasional seat of his government. 

Brunswick became, at a very early period, a member of the 
Hanseatic league ; and, in point of wealth and power, had few 
equals in that confederacy. We have noticed its frequent rebel- 
lions against the sovereign of the country; and the pride and 
insolence of the burghers were often the cause of civil wars. 
It was strongly fortified in former times ; but the father of the 
late duke, in 1800, destroyed all the ramparts, and converted 
them into public walks ; a circumstance which, in all probability, 
saved the city from the ruin that awaited almost all the fortified 
places that fell into the hands of the French, during their revo- 
lutionary campaigns in Germany. Its commercial intercourse 
is still kept up with the world by means of a great fair, or messe, 
held annually in the old town house. 

Besides the old cathedral of St. Blaze, built by Henry the 
Lion in 1172, Brunswick still possesses many fine specimens of 
Gothic architecture. The present palace was built early in the 
last century, and is a magnificent modern edifice. The front is 
ornamented with columns of the Ionic order ; it is finished with 
great taste in the interior ; and as this state has always enjoyed 
the presence of its sovereign, the capital, as well as the country, 
has kept pace with the improvements of the age. 

Wolfenbuttle, which was often the capital of a separate state, 
is the city next in rank to Brunswick; but its palaces are now 


CHAP.vi. in ruins; and the principal object of attraction is the magnificent 
s.rf»^,^'**=y library, founded by duke Augustus, previous to 1666. This 
library contains about two hundred thousand printed books, 
besides a large and valuable collection of ancient manuscripts. 
Many of the books, it has been already observed, are fine 
specimens of the first ages of printing, particularly an edition 
of Plutarch's Lives, and Livy's History, printed in 1478. There 
is also a curious collection of bibles in all languages, amounting to 
above a thousand, which were deposited here by one of the 
dutchesses of Brunswick. But there have been no additions to 
any part of this library since the middle of last century. 

The high courts of appeal, in civil and criminal matters, for 
the dutchy of Brunswick, are held at Wolfenbuttle ; as also 
those for the petty states of Lippe, Waldeck, and others. The 
laws, religion, and constitution, are essentially the same as in 
Hanover. During the minority of the duke, the king of England 
is regent of the country ; and the Hanoverian minister in London 
is the official organ of communication with the regent in all 
matters of government. The revenue of the dutchy amounts 
to about a million and a half of dollars ; and it has been managed 
with so much care and attention, that we believe there is no 
public debt. The state maintains an armed force of about 
five thousand men, including the landwehr. 

What we have said of the troops of Hanover applies with 
equal propriety to those of Brunswick ; and the corps of Bruns- 
wick-Oels, another gallant band of patriots who followed their 
prince into exile, were not less distinguished for their good 
conduct during the late war, than theii' countrymen of the king's 


German legion. It is the pride and the boast of this branch of chap. vi. 
the illustrious house of Guelph, that it has produced some of ^-^'^^^ 
the greatest generals the world ever saw; and the two last 
sovereigns of Brunswick, like many of their ancestors, fell 
covered with glory in the field of battle, and while engaged 
in the defence of the liberties of Europe. The great duke 
Charles-William-Ferdinand was mortally wounded in the unfor- 
tunate, but ever memorable battle of Jena, 1806; and his no 
less distinguished son, Frederick-William, was killed at the head 
of his brave Brunswick cavalry at Quatre Bras, on the 16th of 
June, 1815, while acting with the British army under the com- 
mand of the duke of Wellington. The present reigning duke, 
Charles- William- Ferdinand, born on the 30th of October, 1804, 
and his brother, duke Augustus- William, born the 25th of 
April, 1806, are the only remaining issue of the brave Fre- 
derick-William. Their mother was a princess of Baden ; but 
dying in 1808, they were left orphans at the court of their 
grandfather, while their gallant father was an exile in England. 
The tyrant of Europe, irritated at the conduct of the duke of 
Brunswick, in retiring to England with his unconquered patriots, 
was determined to take revenge upon his innocent children ; 
and a plan was laid to carry them off from the court of 
Baden. It was happily discovered ; and they were saved, and 
conveyed to England, where they remained till the peace of 
1814. They then returned to their own capital. Since the 
death of their father they have been under the guardianship of 
our gracious king ; who, as we have stated, is also regent of 
the country. 

202 THE HISTORY, &c. 

CHAP. VI. From what we have seen and known of these young princes, 

^•■^"^^^^^•^ -vve may venture to assert that they will do honour to their 
illustrious lineage. Their education has been such as becomes 
their rank ; and their acquirements are not only creditable to 
their own talents, but honourable to the diligence and attention 
of their instructors. Their serene highnesses are at present travel- 
ling in Switzerland, and are expected in England in the course 
of the next summer. 




1, EGBERT, king of England, died in 837. 

2, Ethelwolf, king, died 858. 

3, Alfred the Great, died 900. 

4, Edward the First, died 924. 

5, Edmund the First, died 948. 

6, Edgar, king of England, died 975. 

7, Ethelred the Second, died 1016. 
8, Edmund the Second, died 1017. 

9, Edward, crown prince of England. 

10, Margaret, queen of Scotland, sister of Edgar 
Atheling, died 1093. 

11, Matilda, queen of Henry the First of England, 
died 1118. 

12, Matilda, dowager-empress of Germany 
and Dutchess of Anjou, died 1167. 

13, Henry the Second, king of England, died 1189. 

14, Matilda, dutchess of Saxony and Bavaria, died 1189. 

15, William of Winchester, duke of Saxony, died 1213. 

16, Otho the Infant, duke of Brunswick and Lune- 

burg, died 1252. 

17, Albert the First, duke of Brunswick, died 1279. 

18, Albert the Second, duke of Brunswick, died 1313. 

19, Magnus the First, duke of Brunswick, died 1368. 

20, Magnus tire Second, duke of Brunswick andLune- 

burg, killJd 1373. 

21, Bernhard, duke of Luneburg, died 1400. 

22, Frederick, duke of Brunswick, died 1478. 

23, Otho, duke of Brunswick, died 1471. 

24, Henrv, duke of Brunswick, died 1532. 

25, Ernest the Confessor, duke of Celle, died 1546. 

26, William, duke of Lnneburg, died 159-'. 

27, George, duke of Luneburg, died 1641. 

28, Ernest-Augustus, elector of Hanover, died 1698. _ 

ALPIN, king of Scotland, died 833. 

2, Kenneth the First, died 853. 
3, Donald the Second, died 903. 

4, Malcolm the First, died 958. 
5, Kenneth the Second, died 994. 

6, Malcolm the Second, died 1033. 

7, Beatrice, princess of Scotland. 

8, Duncan, diedl040. 

9, Malcolm the Third, died 1093. 


10, David the First, died 1153. 

11, Henry, earl of Huntingdon, died 1152. 

12, David, earl of Hnntingaon, died 1219. 
13, Isabella, countess of Aunandale, died 1267. 

14, Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale, died 1290. 

15, Robert Bruce, king of Scotland, died 1329. 

16, Marjory, princess of Scotland, married to 
Vi^alter Stuart. 

7, Robert Stuart II., king of ScotUind, died 1390. 

18, Robert the Third, died 1406. 

19, James the First, mnrdered 1437. 

20, James the Second, died 1460. 

21, James the Third, died 1488. 
22, James the Fourth, killed 1513. 

23, James the Fifth, died 1542. 
24, Mary, queen of Scotland, beheaded 1587. 

25, James the Sixth, died 1625. 

■-'6, Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, died 1662. 

5:7, Sophia, dectrcss and dutchess of Hanover, 
died 1714. 

George the First, king of England, died 1721-2. 

George the Second, died 1760. 

Frederick, prince of Wales, died 1751. 

George the Third, died IS.'O. 

George the Fourth, whom God long preserve! 

[With regard to the foregoing Table, which we consider not the least interesting 
in the work, we have to remark, that the descent is direct and regular, without doubt 
or interruption. Each succeeding king or queen, prince or princess, is the son 
or daughter of the one immediately preceding. 

Margaret, princess of England, and sister to Edgar Atheling, was the grand- 
daughter of Edmund Ironside, who was crowned king in 1016. She married 
Malcolm the Third, king of Scotland; and their daughter, Matilda, married Henry 
the First, (Norman,) king of England. The only daughter of this marriage was 
Matilda, (known as the empress Maud,) who married, first, 1114, Henry the Fifth, 
emperor of Germany; and secondly, 1127, Godfrey Plantageuet, duke of Anjou. 
Her only son by the last marriage was Henry the Second, who succeeded to the 
crown of England on the death of Stephen, in 1154. 

From Matilda, the eldest daughter of Henry the Second, the dukes of Brunswick 
and Luneburg are lineally descended, as stated in the first column of the Table ; 
and George the First and James the Second stood exactly in the same degree 
of relationship (the 16th in descent) to their common ancestor, Henry the Second. 

We have traced the descent of the electress Sophia through the same period, as 
it was her union with Ernest-Augustus that gave their heirs an immediate claim to 
the crown of Great Britain, and placed them before the elder branch of the house 
of Brunswick. 

We would further observe, that Matilda, dutchess of Saxony and Bavaria, was 
also the grand-daughter of the empress Maud, and consequently the great grand- 
daughter of Malcolm the Third, of Scotland. Robert Bruce, and Otho the Infant, 
first duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, were related in the same degree (the 6th in 
descent) to Malcolm ; and had Otho been a Scotsman, his claim to the crown was 
as good as that of either Bruce or Baliol. 

The young duke of Brunswick might claim a nearer alliance to the crown of 
England, as the descendant of an elder brother of the Plantagenct blood ; and 
the king of Sardinia, as the representative of Henrietta, dutchess of Orleans, 
daughter of Charles the First, is, perhaps, the more direct representative of the 
Stuart race. But the union of both bloods in the present royal family, renders their 
claim superior to every other, although the act of succession had never existed.] 







Records and Original Documents of the House of Guelph. 


At the time when the genius of Charlemagne forcibly united chap. i. 
the German tribes into a great political body, and raised an 
universal monarchy, (such as mankind most fortunately have not 
seen frequently,) two of the illustrious race of the Guelphs appear 
distinctly, to the eye of the historian, on the grand stage of 
Europe. At this period we behold a Guelph of Altdorf, in Suabia, 
as the father of the beautiful and accomplished empress Judith ; 
and at the same time Boniface, another of the same family, as 
count of Lucca. The former became the patriarch of the Guelphs 
in Gennanj/, and the latter that of the Guelphs in Italy. From 
that period the Guelphic family has constantly occupied the 
pen of the historian ; and hence have been preserved its genea- 
logical connexions. 

If we behold at this time a Guelph in Germany, in posses- The Gneiphs 
sion of such extensive territories, in the Julian Alps and in Suabia, 
that they procured him from some historians the title of count, 
and from others that of duke, and numbered him among the 


CHAP. 1. first and best of the German dynasties* ; if we further look 
^■^^'''^^ upon the settled state of his government, and the many establish- 
ments, in church and state, which bear the character of Guelphic 
origin, we must confess that the wealth and power of this Guelph 
could not be the work of few generations, nor even of cen- 
turies ; we must therefore suppose, that a long line of noble 
ancestors had handed down to him the nobility and glory of 
their racef. 

The reason why the anonymous monk of Weingarten, who 
lived in the middle of the 12th centuryj, begins his chronicle 
with the Guelph who lived in the time of Charlemagne, is easily 
to be accounted for, if we consider that thp darkness in which 
the history of Germany was involved, and the want of authentic 
records, did really not permit him to inquire deeper into tlie 
origin of this family || ; and that besides, having no other aim 
in writing than to erect a grateful monument to those illustrious 
persons to whom his convent owed its foundation and riches, 
he thought it sufficient to begin his records with Guelph, the 
first benefactor of the convent, and the father of the pious Judith ; 
and consequently put him at the head of that illustrious family, 

* Tbegan, choir-bishop of Treves, his cotemporary, (de Gestis Ludov. Pii, apud 
Pithocum, Ann. et Hist. Fr. S. S. XH. Tcf. 1594, 8vo. p. 308,) calls him " Dux," 
and " de nobilissima stirpe Bavarorutn:" also, p. 373, " nobilissimum comitem." 

t Anon. Weing. in Mon. Guelph. aut Hess. p. 2. " Scinuis tamen ex plurimis 
circumstantiis et alios ante ipsum fuisse, qui hanc domum, etiam ante susceptam 
Christianitatis fidem, niagnis divitiis et honoribus gubernarunt, et nomen suum per 
diversas provincias, utpote per longa tempera alii alios succedentes, magna industria 

: Mon. Guelf. aut Hess. Prcef. iv. 

■II Anon. Weing. in Mon. Guelf. aut Hess. sect. 1. 


whose piety, glory, and greatness, he wished to hand down to chap. i. 
posterity. ''"^'^ 

But what the monk of Weingarten was not inclined, or not 
able to do, was reserved for the genius of Leibnitz, and the 
indefatigable researches of Muratori ; who, in the 17th century, 
threw a true light over the history of the Guelphs. According 
to the opinion of these writers, the illustrious family of the 
Guelphs ascends up to the middle of the 5th century, to Eticho 
and Wulf, two chiefs of the Scyrri, who came from the Baltic, 
and joined Attilas immense hordes*. This, though in some 
measure an hypothesis, is so well grounded, as appears from 
the reasoning of Lei blitz and Eccard, supported by Eichhoni-\, 
that we may take it as certain. But it does not become an 
historian to begin a history with conjectures ; it supports its 
dignity better to take hold of that which is sufficiently proved 
by ancient records. We put therefore, in our genealogical tables, 
at the head of the most ancient and illustrious family of the 
German Guelphs, the count Guelph of Altdorf, the father of 
the empress Judith; of whom we know for certain, that he 
resided, in the beginning of the 9th century, as an independent 
sovereign, at Altdorf, in Suabia. 

A short time before the Guelphic house of Altdorf, in Suabia, ofitaiy. 
became renowned, as giving birth to the empress Judith, Charle- 

* Orig. Guelf. I. p. 10—14, sequ. 

t The Aulic-counsellor, and knight of the Guelphic order, Mr. Eichhorn, at 
Gbttingen, in his Urgeschichte des Erlauchten Hauses der Welfen. Hannover, 


CHAP. I. magne had appointed Boniface, of Bajoaria, his comes of Lucca, in 
Italy ; it being a political maxim with that monarch to strengthen 
his government by appointing German princes as governors 
over the distant districts of his immense empire. The immediate 
ancestors of this Boniface have hitherto puzzled the anti- 
quaries ; but Leibnitz, Eccard, and Eichhorn, have, with great 
ingenuity, proved that he must have been one of the branches 
of the Guelphs of Bavaria and Suabia*. He was by birth a 
Bavarian f ; of course a prince of that part of Germany where 
the original seat or cradle of the Guelphs was. His name, as well 
as the names used in his family, the family title, and the ardour 
with which he supported the family honours, are circumstances 
which speak so clearly for a Guelphic origin, that we may build 
upon this conjecture the historical fact, that the illustrious 
ancestor of the house of Brunswick, Azo H., was the male 
representative of a younger brother of the same house, of which 
Cunigunda was the female heiress, and therefore of true Guelphic 
origin. But the ancestors of Boniface most probably were 
separated from the parent stem before the Guelphs were settled 
at Altdorf, and his branch had its seat in the Julian Alps ; and 

* Origin. Guelf. torn. i. p. 1, sequ. Urgschichte des Erlauchten Hauses der 
Welfen, by Eichhorn, p. 59, sequ. 

t In a document of the year 823 the abbess of Lucca Richilda is called " filia 
b. m. Bonif'acii comiti, natio Bajovariorum;" and in the signature of this document 
it is said, " signum manus Bonifacii coraitis Germanius supra dictse abbatissse, 
per cujus licentiam hoc factum est." Cosm. della Rena Scrie de Duchidi Toscana, 
p. 95. A. L. Muratori della Antichita Estensi ed Toscana, P. i. p. 207. 



from this branch likewise the Guelphic dukes of Alsace took chap. i. 
their origin, as the family of Boniface of Lucca had the """^^^^^ 
very same peculiarity with the dukes of Alsace, in that they 
changed Welf into Boniface, and Eticho into Adalbert. This 
well-supported conjecture of Leibnitz and Eichhorn must gain 
historical truth with every one who will allow of conjectural 



The principal Monasteries founded, endoived, and enriched by 
Guelphic Princes, previous to Henry the Lion. 

Some of the principal deeds and achievements, by which 
princes and families of the middle ages were sure to acquire 
fame, and to secure their memory from oblivion, were those of 
piety and devotion. By erecting and founding churches and 
monasteries, and by endowing them with liberal grants of land 
and peasants, they gained the favour of the monks ; who, in 
those dark ages, were the sole annalists of the time, and recorded 
principally the lives and deeds of their benefactors. The ancient 
Guelphs acted in the spirit of their age, and added to their warlike 
and other noble deeds those of piety and good works. Altmunster, 
Altorf, and in particular Weingarten, Hof, and Steingaden, were 
the principal monuments of Guelphic liberality. The history 
of these monasteries is, therefore, closely connected with that 
of this illustrious and ancient family, previous to the 12th 
century. Some of them are the places where the remains of 
the ancient Guelphs were deposited ; and a short account of their 
foundation and subsequent alterations and increase may, with 
propriety, be inserted in the records of the burial places of the 
ancestors of the illustrious house of Brunswick. 



Or, Altonis Monasterium, was the oldest monastery founded chap. i. 
by the Guelphs of Bajovaria. It is said, that about the middle 
of the 8th century, Alto, descended of a Scotch noble family, 
came into Germany, collected some monks, and retired with 
them into a solitary place between Augsburg and Frisingen ; 
and established there a monastery for Benedictines, which was 
called St. Altonis Monasterium, or Altmunster*. Some of the 
ancient chronicles say, that Alto received the ground on which 
he built the monastery from king Pepin: but this assertion is 
erroneous, as Altmunster was built a long time before the reigri 
of this king. It is more probable that one of the Guelphic princes, 
in whose dominions it was situated, and by whose liberality it was 
afterwards supported, was the first founder : and this opinion is 
corroborated by several ancient writers, of whom some even men- 
tion Utich, Etico, or Eticho, an ancestor of Guelph the First, to be 
the builder of itf. From the time of its foundation, to the period 
of Henry, sumamed with the Golden Chariot, we know nothing 
of its increase or alterations. Henry, in order to sooth the 
spirit of his departed father, Eticho, turned his mind to what 

* Vide Mabillonii Annal. Bened. torn. ii. p. 122, ad annum 743. " Hoc fere 
tempore in Bojariam venit St. Alto, nobilissima Scotorum gente progenitus, secessit 
in quandam Frisinginii Pagi silvam, ubi Monasterium ex ejus nomine postea 
nuncup'dtum sedificavit." 

t Vide Prodromus Monumentorum Guelficorum, ed. k Ger. Hess. 1781, 
p. 4 et 5. 


CHAP. I. were called pious works. He rebuilt, and enriched by considerable 
donations, the monastery of Altmunster, which he found in a 
rather ruinous state ; and transported hither the few companions 
of his father which were still in life, as also the monks which 
he found at Ambirgau*. 

After this, the frequent invasions of the Hungarians were 
very injurious to the abbey, and most probably the cause that 
Itha, the wife of Rudolph the Second, found it, about twenty 
years after Henry had repaired it, again in a very dilapidated state. 
The observation, that the lives of the Guelphs were becoming 
shorter, and the untimely and accidental death of her son, Henry, 
made a deep impression upon her mind. She, therefore, fixed her 
thoughts upon restoring the family abbey of Altmunster to its 
former splendour ; and succeeded at last, by her incessant prayers, 
in getting her son, Guelph, to enrich it by new donations. She 
revived the discipline of the monks, and instituted a new abbot t- 
Count Guelph the Second decided on transferring the monastery 
of Altmunster to Altdorf in Suabia; which plan was executed 

* Monum. Guelph. Pars. Hist, aut Ger. Hess. 1784, p. 8, sec. 3. Orig. Guelf. 
torn. ii. p. 144. 

t Vide Auctorem Vitee St. Altonis, sec. 6. " Commemorandum est, quod 
venerabllis Itha, scilicet mater preenominati, (Catulis Welfi, obiit 1030,) pro 
institutioni tali, devotione tanta apud ipsum intercendo laboravit, ut pro divini officii 
augmento suas dilicias suamque famillam minui gauderet, et in eodem St. Altonis 
monasterio sepulturam suam decerneret dixisse quaque fertur : quia ideo forsitan 
genus omne parentum et propinquonim instabile minusque longacoum hactenus 
fuit, quod St. Altonis monasterium sub tanta negligentia relinqueretur. Emendemus 
ergo in melius, quod ignoranter peccavimus." Wolhard, or Guelph, fulfilled the wish 
of his mother. " Prsediis nonnullis donatione pubUca traditis monachisque etiam 
congregatis abbatem venerandum nomine Rudolfum his omnibus regulariter preelatum 


by Guelph the Third, duke of Carinthia, his son, in the chap. i. 
year 1047. ^^^V^ 

The monks of Altmunster, with their abbot Henricus, took 
possession of the new built monastery of Altdorf ; and the nuns 
of Altdorf went to Altmunster*. These nuns were Benedictines, 
and remained so till the year 1487, when George, duke of Bavaria, 
introduced the order of St. Bridget, to which they have adhered 
to the present timef. 

It is not certain that the first Guelphs were buried at Alt- 
munster; though it is very probable, as this was at that time 
the only family monastery, and monasteries were the places 
where people wished to be buried. 

Of some of this family it is expressly mentioned, that they 
selected their places of rest in Altmunster. 

1, Itha, the wife of Rudolph the Second, who died 1020 J. 

2, Imiza, or Irmengard, the wife of Guelph the Second, who 
died 1036 1|. 

Altmunster is situated between Munich and Frisingen. 


Contracted from Etichs-Thal, is the present name of that place 
near Arbemgau, to which Eticho, the father of Henry with the 

* Vide Prodrom. Mon. Guelf. p. 15. The remarks about some erroneous narrations 
in Anonym. Weing. cap. vi. 

t Vide Hundii Metropol. Salisburg. torn. ii. p. 55, and Origin, torn. ii. p. 202. 
t Vide Auct. Vitse St. Altonis, sec. 6, p. 4. 
il Vide Origin, torn. ii. p. 228. 


CHAP. I Golden Chariot, when disgusted with the conduct of his son, retired 
''■'^^■^^*^ with twelve of his friends, in order to hide himself from the world . 
Here he built thirteen cells amidst the mountains of Ambirgo, and 
ended his days without seeing or forgiving his son; and here, 
likewise, rest his remains*. He died about the year 910, after 
having lived ten years in this solitary place, overwhelmed with 
grief for the supposed loss of the dignity of his housef. 

It was after the death of his injured father, that Henry 
ventured to visit this place of mournful solitude. Moved by 
the sight of its miserable condition, he determined to honour 
the memory of his father, by providing a more comfortable abode 
for the remaining partakers of his solitude. There was no time 
for building a new monastery. He therefore removed them for 
the present to Altmunster, between 915 and 920; and began the 

* Vide Chron. Weingart. e. iii. " Hie Heinricus, cum ad militares annos per- 
venisset, et suae voluntatis compos fieret, ignorante patre, ad imperatorem se contulit. 
Cumque illi summa familiaritate sociaretur, et totius imperii vires, terminos ejus cir- 
cumeundo et pertranseundo, cognosceret, tandem concilio principum et maxime 
ipsius imperatoris instinctu homagium ei et subjectionem fecit, et in beneficio 
iv. millia mansuum in superioribus partibus Bajoarie ab eo suscepit. Quod cum 
pater ejus percepisset, ratus nobilitatem suara et libertatem nimis esse decli- 
natam, ultra quam credi possit, consternatus animo, dolorem suum omnibus caris suis 
exposuit, et assumptis xii. ex illis, infra montana ad villam, quae dicitur Ambirgow, 
regalibus edificiis et possessionibus ditissimis relictis, secessit, et ibi non amodo 
visurus filium suum consenuit. Cepit et ibidem coUectis monachis cellam construere, 
in qua etiara postmodum cum xii. suis humatus requiescif. Henricus autem volens 
omnimodis dolorem patris mitigare, prsesentiam ejus fugit, nee tamen solatium necessi- 
tudinis ei subtraxit; omnia enim sua illi corifinia ex integro ad ministrandum ei 

t Vide Prodromus Monum. Guelf. p. 12. 


building of a new abbey at Altdorf, between 920 and 925*, in chap. i. 
order to have the faithful friends of his late father near him. ^^^n^^^ 

The solitary place which Eticho retired to was near Am- 
mergau, or Arbemgaii, in the neighbourhood of Scharnitz, on the 
frontiers of Bavaria and the Tyrol. There was a monastery there, 
built in the middle of the 8th century, but removed by the bishop 
Aribo, of Frisingen, to Schlachdorf. Most probably it was the 
intention of Eticho to use the ruins of it for erecting a new 
building I , Etthal is the place where the remains of Eticho, 
the pride of the ancient Guelphs, were interred. In the 1 2th 
century, Henry the Black searched in the forest for his tomb, 
and built, 1121, a church over his remains J. Louis of Bavaria, 
the patriarch of the united house of the palatine and Bavaria, 
by Agnes, the grand-daughter of Henry the Lion, two hundred 
years later, 1350, built there a monastery, and called it Ettal, 
(vallis Ettonis s. Etichonis,) in memory of Eticho ; in which he 

* Vide Chron. Weing. e. iii. " Deinde comperta morte patris, Henricus, con- 
siderans locum ubi cella suscepta fuerat, incommodum et difficilem claustralibus, 
ad villain, quae dicitur Altmunster, ubi sanctus Alto confessor requiescit, supra dictos 
monachos cum omnibus suis transvexit, et abbatiam ibi satis religiosam et divitem 
perfecit. Postea in Altorfensi villa abbatiam cum sanctimonialibus, in loco ubi 
nunc parochialis ecclesia est constructa." 

t Meichelbeckii Historia Prising, torn. i. cap. iii. sec. iii. p. 60 ; Monumenta 
Boica, vol. ix. p. 7. 

I Annalista Saxo, p. 661. " Henricus a longsevis audiens ea, quee superius 
dicta sunt de Etichone veniens ad loca montana, in quibus a filio recedens habitaverat, 
ubi quoque sepultus fuerat, causa experiendse jussit sepulcrum illius et eorum, 
qui cum eo tumulati fuerant, aperiri, veraque esse comprobans ecclesiam in eodem 
loco super ossa illorum fabricari jussit." This is repeated in Monument. " Vet. 
in Ludewigii Reliquiis MSS. tom. viii. or torn, ii, Thessari Suevici, p. 155, sec. 10. 


CHAP. I. caused to be constructed thirteen cells, for twelve knights and 
^"■^^^ one master ; in order to renew in this establishment the thirteen 

cells which Eticho and his twelve companions once inhabited 


Ettal is at present an abbey for monks of the order of St. 



Was so named from being so old that its origin could not be 
traced. It was a village under the walls of the castle of the ancient 
Guelphs, the cradle of all the most illustrious reigning houses of 
Europe. The lords of this castle called themselves, therefore, 
counts of Altdorf. Here was an abbey, or monastery, which 
would be one of the oldest, if we could give any credit to Buelin, 
who asserted, but without any authority, that the parents of 
Guelph the First, Isambart and Irmentrud, were its founders. 
There can be no doubt that Henry with the Golden Chariot 
began (920) the building of this monastery, in order to have 
the companions of his father near him ; and that his wife, Beata 
of Holienwarth, assisted by her son, Conrad bishop of Constanz, 
finished it I. 

But, as the companions of Eticho had become comfortably 

* Monumenta EUalensia, in Prsef. torn. vii. Moiuimentoruin Boicorum. 
t Vide Hess. Prodromus Mon. Guelf. p. 13, et supra, p. 'i , ami. 1 !. 


settled at Altmunster, Beata altered the destination of the new 
built monastery at Altdorf, and made it a nunnery; which it 
remained, till Guelph the Third transferred the monks of Alt- 
munster to Altdorf, and the Benedictine nuns of Altdorf to 
Altmunster, in the year 1047*. It continued to exist till the 
whole abbey was consumed by fire, in the year 1053. 

In this abbey of Altdorf, were buried the following illustrious 
persons of the Guelphic family : — 

1, Henry with the Golden Chariot, who died 920-925.-) 

2, Beata, his wife. (^ 

3, Rudolph the First, his son, who died 940. J 

4, Rudolph the Second, who died 995 ^ 

5, Henry, his son. who was acc.dentally / ,Z' It^X™! 

killed when hunting, 1014. C raised, and deposited in 

6, Guelph the Second, who died 1030. J ^'^'"S^'^t^'^I- 


The old abbey of Weingarten (Vinea), of the order of Bene- 
dictines, is situated on the river Schussen, close to Altdorf, 
at a short distance from the town of Ravensberg; and is at 
present the residence of the prefect, or landvoigt, of a district 
belonging to the king of Wurtemburg. This abbey, with its 

* Vide supra, p. 5. f Prodromus Monum. Guelf. p. 14. 

t Monum. Guelf. Pars. Hist, k Hessio, p. 14, 



CHAP. I. former greatness and celebrity, is one of the chief monuments of 
''""^^''^^ Guelphic liberality and piety, as it owes its foundation, increase, 
and riches, entirely to the Guelphs of Altdorf and Ravensberg. 
Being built on the very spot where the ancient castle of the 
Guelphs was situated, and enclosing the sacred remains of many 
of the ancestors of this family, it will always remain a place 
of great celebrity, and attract the attention of those who love 
to behold the classical ground of the illustrious house of 

When the monastery in Altdorf was consumed by fire, in the 
year 1053, Guelph the Third delivered to the monks the ancient 
castle of the family, and made in it the necessary alterations for 
their reception; so that the whole fraternity took possession of 
it in the year 1055, when it was dedicated to St. Martin, and 
received the name of Weingarten (Vinea)*. 

It was soon enriched by frequent and very liberal donations, 
among which in particular that of Guelph the Fifth deserves to 
be mentioned. He bestowed on the monastery of Weingarten 
the cell of St. Ponteleon of Burchorn, which his father had 
received from count Otho of Burchorn : by which donation they 
gained so much land, that they were able to build another monas- 
tery, to which they gave the name of Hof, or Hovence-f. 

The church of this monastery, which is still a very handsome 
building, encloses the remains of the following Guelphs : — 

1, Rudolph the Second, who died 995. 

* Anon. Weing. cap. vii. in Mon. Guelf. Aut. Hess. p. 14. Prodrom. Aut. 
Hess. p. 18. 

t Orig. torn. ii. p. 313. 


2, Henry, his son, who lost his life by falling from a rock chap. i. 
when hunting, before 1014*. ^s^^V'^k^ 

3, Guelph the Second, or Wolfrud, son of Rudolph the 
Second, who died 1030. 

The remains of these three were first deposited in Altdorf, 
and afterwards transferred by Guelph the Third to Weingarten. 

4, Guelph the Third, duke of Carinthia, the founder of the 
abbey of Weingarten, who died lOSSf. 

5, Guelph the Fourth, son of Cunegunda and Azo, who died 

6, Judith, his wife, the widow of Fostus, titular king of 
England, who died 1094 1|. 

7, Guelph the Fifth, or the Fat, his son, who died 1120§. 

* Echchardus junior de Casibus St, Galli : " Accidit autem, ut in vigiliarum 
St. Othmari diei, fratres ambo, capreum venantes, in cacumen quoddam rupis ducti, 
lassi cum consedissent, repent^ petra, super quern Henricus sedit, collapsa, 
adolescens ills magnse indolis, proh dolor! in profundissimas valles rueret et 

t Orig. torn. ii. p. 233. 

I Anon, de Guelf. says, " Deinde, ad reversionem se parans, Cyprum adiit, ubi de 
hac vita decedens, sepultus est; ossa tamen ejus postea indesublata, ad Altorfense 
Monasterium translata, et reposita sunt." — Op. C/iroiiicon Augmt. ad A. 1101. 

II Orig. torn. ii. p. 277. " Eodem anno (1094), ut Berthil verbis utar, Indueta, 
uxor Ducis Welphonis Bajoarise, jam diu infirmata, diem clausit extremum, quarto 
Non. Martii, et apud monasterium quod maritus ejus in honorem St. Martini in 
proprio allodio construxit, a Gebhardo Constantiensi episcopo honorific^ sepelitur." 
— Vide sequ. 

§ Anon, de Guelfis : " Denique, omnibus suis ben^ compositis, raorbo correptus in 
villa Chufringen, diem clausit extremum, et in Altdorf deportatus, juxta patrem et 
matrem sepultus est." The year of his death has been disputed ; but vide Orig. 
torn. ii. p. 312. " Nos tamen eum A. 1120 decessisse ex vetusto de Fundatione 
Monast. Bigang. libello, apud Maderum in Opisc. Chron. p. 255, eliscimus ; sub eo 
enim anno ibi legitur, ' Welpho dux Bavarise obiit.'" 


CHAP. I. 8, Henry the Black, who died 1127*. 

'^^*^ 9, Wulfilda, his wife, and daughter of Magnus duke of 
Saxony, who died 1127. 

10, Sophia, their daughter, married, first, to Berthold the 
Third, duke of Zahringen ; and, secondly, to Leopold margrave 
of Stiria. 

The remains of these ten persons of the Guelphic family 
were buried in the abbey church of Weingarten. This is proved 
by the narrative of P. Bucelini, in his EpWemeris, ad diem 
17 Maii : " Evocor ipso die h Altdorf, ubi parochi vices alternatim 
cum P. Francisco egeram, h R.mo ad elevationem corporum 
serenissimorum fundatorum nostrorum. Transfero cum sociis 
ossa in sportas excepta, ut in loco conventus quodam de novo 
abluerentur, csemento obsita, cum sacrilego ansu a Suecis tumulus 
apertus fuisset. Miror omnium integritatem. In calvaria 
cujusvis ne macula quidem uUa in ullo dente apparujt. Sedecim 
dentes cujusvis inferior mandibula habuit, praeter unum caput, 
quod quatuordecim solum suo ordine conclusit," Ad diem 
19 Maii, he observes: " Totus sum in lustrandis et colendis 
serenissimorum fundatorum nostrorum sacris corporibus. Com- 
putatis calvariis, et coUatis ossibus, non duodecim, sed solum- 
modo decem deprehendimus ; cum tamen duodecim eorum effigies 
in sacello fundatorum exprimantur. Mihi certum fuit, estque 
hodife, Heinricum et Hattam, parentes S. Conradi, hos inter decem 

* Anon, de Guelfis : " Circa idem tempus, (quo fillus Conradus mortuus est,) 
pater quoque ejus et mater ; pater monaehus professus in extremis suis, in castro 
Ravensberg, mater in Altdorf, xvi. die post mortem mariti, obierunt, et in Monasterio 
St. Martini sepulti sunt." 


conditos non esse, eo quod vetustissimo nostro Guelficae Historiae chap. i. 
auctore, et monacho nostro horum in translatione, nulla mentio ^^^'^^ 
habeatur. In omnibus enim vetustis MStis de Guelfone duce 
Carinthiae, haec solum legatur. Hie ossa patris sui Guelf, patrui 
Henrici, et avi Rudolfi, in montem transtulit. Ut si his quatuor, 
— Guelfoni Carinthio et tribus quos transtulit, sex reliquos, 
Guelfonem IV, Juditham Regiam, Guelfonem Pinguem, Heinricum 
Nigrum, Wulfildem eonjugem, et Sophiam Zaringensem addamus, 
decern, non duodecim, principum numerum deprehendamus. 

Anno Christi 1647, 30 Maji, k prandio, sub 

horam secundam, silenti processione, sed religiosissima et devo- 
tissima, sacra fundatorum nostrorum ossa, cum thure cereis et 
cruce ex hypocausto S. P. N. Benedicti, per ambulacra infirmi- 
torii et conventus ad expurgatum de novo mausoleeum retulimus. 
Prsetiosis illis Lypsanis non atri sed purpurei coloris panno 
praetioso co-opertis, candidisque in formam crucis desuper stolis 
compositis. Subii et ego gratiosissimum onus, et capita quidem 
separatim, ut et separatim alia ossa a patribus delata sunt, 
professis etiam junioribus praesentibus. Recitatae sunt vesperae 
defunctorum, dum in noviter ad id factis sacrophagis, cum 
inscriptione in plumbo deponerentur." 

The last time the sacred vaults of the Guelphs, which are in 
the abbey church and in the small chapel of St. Oswald, were 
opened, was 1751. 

Among the different monuments and inscriptions of the church 
of Weingarten, are in particular to be remarked the figures of 
some of the Guelphs, and the inscriptions under them. They 


CHAP. I. are to be seen in the Origines Guelphicae, torn. ii. and the inscrip- 
^"^^^^^ tions are as follow : — 

Under the Figure o/'Guelph the Fourth. 

GuELPHo Quartus,filius Chunizae, Dux Noricoum, Confirmat Weingartensem 
ftindationem Uteris Germanice scriptis, anno cIdXC, moritur anno claCI. 

Uiider that o/" Henry the Black. 

Henricus, Guelphonis Quarti filius, dictus Niger, Dux NoricorQ. sedificavit 
de novo hoc Monasteriu. moritur anno cIoCXXVII. 

Under that o/" Henry the Proud. 
Henricus, Dux Bavariae et Saxonise, dictus Superbus. 

Under that q/" Henry the Lion. 
Henricus, dictus Leo, Henrici Superbi filius. Dux Bavariae et Saxoniae. 


Is a monastery of monks of the Praemonstratian order, and 
situated on the river Lech, not far from Raitenbasch, in the 
diocese of Augsburg. It was founded in the year 1147, and richly 
endowed by Guelph the Sixth, duke of Spoleto and Tus- 
cany, the brother of Henry the Proud ; and must, therefore, be 


considered as one of the splendid monuments of Guelphic libe- chap. 
rality. These are buried at Steingaden*: — ^^"V^ 

1, Guelph, the son of Guelph the Sixth, who died in Italy, 

2, Guelph the Sixth, who died 14th January, 1191, at the 
age of seventy-six years J. 

The monument in the abbey church of Steingaden, which was 

* Orig. Guelf. torn. ii. 379. Hund. Metropol. Salisb. torn. iii. p. 243. Monum. 
Boica, vol. vi, Steingadensia, p. 477. " Steingadena, nobile canonicorum, quos 
Praemonstratenses vocant, monasterium, in ipsis terh limitibus, qui Bajoariam, Suevi- 
amque atque Tyrolin partiuntur, situm, tetrachise monacensis accensetur. Autorem 
Steingadina sacra veneratur Welfonem, Spoleti ducem, Heinrici magnanimi Bajoarias, 
Saxonumque duels fratrem atque patrimonii Guelfici, in hisce quidem oris ex asse 
haeredem. Posuit ipse fundamenta asceterii celeberrimi anno MCXLVH. illudque, 
quod sibi dum viveret carissima cura fuerat, cineribus suis filiique Welfonis tumulum 
elegit. Monumentum utrique labente saeculo XV. positum erat." 

t Anon. Guelph. et Hessio, p. 40 : " Translata autem sunt ossa Guelfonis nostri, 
et in Monasterio Steingaden a patre suo fundato reposita sunt." 

i This and his son are the last who have been recorded in history by the 
name Guelph. Anon, de Guelph. et Hessio, p. 53. " Uxori quoque suae Utta, 
nobilissimae et castissimee feminse, a Transalpinis partibus ad se vocatee, reconciliatus 
est: et sic demum Memmingai, ubi frequentius morabatur, infirmitate gravi tempore 
correptus, anno setatis suae LXXVI. plenarie penitens, diem clausit extremum. Inde 
sublatus a suls mlnlsterlalibus, quos ipse ad hoc fide data constrinxerat, versus 
Steingaden deportatur." The same chronologist relates, that the emperor Henry, 
full of hatred against Henry the Lion, and disappointed in all his plans, on his 
return from Italy, passing through Suabia, met the funeral procession of Guelph 
at Bewren (Kaufbewren or Berenbewren, uncertain) ; and, after examining the 
corpse, paid to the memory of the deceased all possible honour: and then the 
writer adds : " Imperatore verb iter suum aggrediente, corpus venerabile cum 
multo comitatu abbatum, prepositorum clericorum, hominum noblllum, et milltum, 
tam suorura quam provinclalium, ad prescriptum locum deducitur, ubi ab Augustensi 
Episcopo Udalscalco, amicorum ejus Intirao, honore condigno juxta fillum sepultus 
quiescit. Amen." 


CHAP. I. erected to the memory of these two Giielphs, is most probably 
^-^"^^^^ ytill in existence. A print of it is to be seen in Monum. Boic. 
vol. vi. tab. 4. The father and son, in full armour, are kneeling, 
and support a model of the monastery with their /eft hands ; 
but their right hands take hold of their shield, on which is the 
wolf or catulus ; and their swords lean towards the shield. 
Under these figures are the following inscriptions : — 

Under the Father. Under the Son. 

GuELFO duxfundavit monasterium 
istud an. 1147, obiit an. 1191, indie 

GuELFO,filius ejus, in Italiam peste 
interiit, an. 1167; sed hie ossa sig. 
translata et reposita. 



The Sepulchres of the Guelphs previous to Henry the Liox. 


Called in ancient times Csesarodunum, or Turoni, was the ^'^^^- ^■ 
capital of the government of Touraine, in France, and is now 
the principal town in the department of the Indre and Loire. It 
is situated in a plain, which, from the beauty of the country, is 
called the garden of France. 

The cathedral of Tours is remarkable in the history of the 
Guelphs, as the burying place of the empress Judith. This 
beautiful and accomplished princess, daughter of count Guelph 
the First, of Altdorf, by whom the ancient Guelphs were 
brought, in some measure, upon the grand theatre of the world, 
and to whose character many writers of her time have not 
done impartial justice, chose Tours as her favourite place of 
abode, where in peaceable times she resided, where, in par- 
ticular, the monastery of St. Martin received many proofs of 
her liberality, and where she therefore chose to be buried. 
She died, after a very troublesome life, and after many changes 
of fortune, in the year 843. All that ancient writers have 


CHAP. I. recorded about her marriage, death, and sepulture, is collected 
^^^^^^*^ in the Origin. Guelf. torn. ii. p. 14, sequ. It has not yet 
been ascertained if her monument is still preserved in the 
cathedral of St. Martin, in Tours. 


Is most probably the burying place of the first Guelphic 
counts of Lucca; of Boniface the First, Boniface the Second, 
and Adalbert the First. It was their residence ; and the 
monastery of Benedictine nuns in Lucca (of which Richildis, 
the daughter of Boniface the First, was abbess *) was an object 
of their liberality, if not entirely founded by them. But we only 
know for certain, that Adalbert the Second, or the Rich, and 
Berta, his consort, are deposited in the cathedral of Lucca, as 
their epitaphs are still in existence, and may be seen close to the 
chief door of the church. 

Inscription on the Tomb q/" Adalbert the Second. 

Hie populi leges saxi sub mole sepulchri, 
Hie jus paxque jacent, hie patriae auxilium. 

Hie cubat ala, scutum, dolor, lacrymseque repostse. 
Hie oculos coeci, hie pietas viduse. 

Pes elaudi, vestis nudi, solamen egeni, 

Noster Adalbertus Dux, plus atque bonus, 

• See note, p. 210. 


Gentibus extemis tiraor atque pavor minitandus, CHAP. i. 

Militibus propriis gloria summa suis. v^^v^^/ 

Quam fortis fuerit, noverunt ultima Tilse; 

Qua bonitate fuit, dicere lingua nequit; 
In sexto decimo Septembre notante Calendas, 

Hie posuit membra funereo gemitu. 
Quisquis legis tumulum, culparum facta suarum 

Ante Deum recita, in precibusque juva. 

Inscription on the Tomb of Bert a. 

Hoc legitur tumulo Comitissse corpus humatum, 

Inclyta progenies Beeta benigna, pia 
Uxor Adalberti Ducis, Italise fuit ipsa, 

Regalis generis, quse fuit omne decus. 
Nobilis ex alto Francorum germine Regum, 

Carolus ipse pius Rex fuit ejus avus. 
Qua specie speciosa, bono speciosior actu, 

Filia LoTHAEii, pulchrior ex meritis. 
Permansit felix seculo dum vixit in isto, 

Non inimicus eam vincere prsevaluit. 
Concilio docto moderabat regimina multa. 

Semper erat secum gratia magni Dei. 
Partibus ex multis multi Comites veniebant, 

Mellifluum cujus quaerere colloquium. 
Exulibus miseris mater carissima mansit, 

Atque peregrinis semper opus tribuit. 
Claruit hsec mulier fortis sapiensque columna, 

Totius virtus gloria lux patrias. 


CHAP. I. Idibus octavis Martis migravit ab ista 

^■^^^^^^ Vita, cum Domino vivat ut in requie. 

Mors ejus multos contristat, proh dolor ! et heu ! 

Eous populus plangit et occiduus. 
Nunc Europa gemit, nunc luget Francia tota, 

Corsica, Sardinia, Grsecia, et Italia. 
Qui legitis versus istos, vos dicite cuncti 
Perpetuam lucem donato Dominus. Amen. 
Anno Dominicse incarnationis DCCCCXXV. 
Indict. XIII. obiit de mundo. 


Is a small place in Italy, not far from Rovigo and Este ; 
and in the monastery of St. Maria de Vangadicia, Ord. Camald, 
was interred the body of Cunignnde (Cimiza), the consort of Azo 
the Second, the sister of Guelph the Third, and the heiress of all 
the Guelphic territories in Germany. The year of the death of 
this princess, so celebrated, as the mother of Guelph the Fourth, 
in whom the two branches of the Guelphic family became again 
united, is not quite certain ; but it is very probable that she 
was living in the year 1050, but died before 1055; when, after 
the death of Guelph her brother, her son went to Ger- 
many, in order to take possession of his mother's inheritance, 
preserved by the prudent and spirited behaviour of his grand- 
mother, Irmangard. That she was buried in this abbey is suf- 


ficiently proved. The celebrated Leibnitz found there a codex, chap. i. 
in manuscript, from which he took the following epitaph : — \^^r^^ 

Dicta GuNiGULDis, regali stemmate falsi; 

Indole nobilior nullis in orbe fuit. 
Germine Wulfontis, magni sum nata Hemani [leg. xllemanni], 

Induperatorum iste fuit titulus. 
Vir meus egregius, populis locupletior ullis 

Haud manet, Italia baud similem peperit. 
Azzo, vir prudens, magnus qui Marchio fulget, 

Quem credo memoreni semper adesse mei. 
In terra coelestis sobolem concessit utrique, 

Qui Welfons dictus Duxque, potensque, plus. 
Hunc violare nefas loculum, nee inde recedam, 

Donee vera came illo resurgam die. 

The codex, written on parchment, from which this was taken, is 
called Regula Monasterii Abbatiae Vangadicensis ; composed, as it 
is said, by Dominus Hippolitus Lollius, Ferrariensis, utriusque 
Juris Doctor celeberrimus.. and in the year 1546 : and to the 
above epitaph, the following remarks are added: — " Supra- 
scripta carmina inventa fuerunt in archa lapidea, quse est revoluta 
cum fundo superius in hac ecclesia Beatae Marise de Vangaditia 
Policinii Rodigini, et erant sculpta in quodam Matono lapideo, 
sen, ut aiunt, de petra cocta. Et super ipso matono erat quoddam 
caput. Et a pedibus seu ab alio capite fere erat similiter quod- 
dam caput. Et videbantur ossa duarum personarum. Et adhuc 
videbatur fuisse pannus seu drapus deauratus intus, in quantum 
videri poterat, quia valde diminutus, fractusque erat pannus ille. 


CHAP. I. Et fuit Anno Domini 1 334, de mensi Augusti, quia oportuit operire 

^^^^'^^"'^ archam prsedictam, et removeri propter reparationem ecclesiae 

praedictae, quod murus totus erat fractus tempore Domini Scuni, 

Dei et apostolica gratia venerabilis abbatis Monasterii prsedicti 


By this it appears, that in the tomb, which was removed in 
the year 1334, two persons had been deposited. Who the second 
was besides Cuniza, cannot be ascertained, as nothing is recorded 
about the burying place of her husband Azo. But, shortly before 
his death, (he died one hundred years old,) he made a very liberal 
donation to the monastery where Cunigunde was deposited *. 


Near Mantua, is the monastery in which the celebrated 
Matilda, dutchess of Tuscany, is buried. It is one of the richest 
and most splendid in Italy, in consequence of the unlimited 
liberality of this princess. She died at a place called Bundino, 
on the 14th of July, in the year 1115, after seven months' 
illness, aged sixty-nine years. 

Domizo, her chaplain, had just finished a work, in two vols, in 
which he narrates in verse her life and deeds, and was on his way 
to present it to her, when he received the news of her death. He 
then added, that her remains, according to her will, were depo- 

• Orig. Guelf. torn. i. p. 208, sequ. 


sited in the church of St. Benedict! ad Padoleronem. An ano- chap. i. 
nymous writer, who has composed the Life of Matilda in prose, ^^"^^^^^ 
after Domizo's poetical work, says : " Ostendi in monasterium 
St. Benedict! de Padolerone Mantuanae diocesis, quod a Mantua 
decern milliariis distet, sepulchrum in quo dicatur et credatur 
sepulta esse; enim grandem arcam lapideam ex candidissimo 
et iimpidissimo alabastro, quae ob ejus memoriam in magna reve- 
rentia servetur." 

In the year 1445 the monument of Matilda began to 
fall down ; it was therefore removed into another part of 
the church, after the tomb had been opened, and the corpse 

The following three epitaphs of Matilda are recorded * ; 
but the third was the only one in the monastery of Saint 
Benedict -f-. 


Quae meruit Matildis nomina vide, 

Pro qua Pontifici reddita Roma fuit, 
Et tunc disposuit turmas invicta Virago : 

Quails Amazonides Tentesilia solet. 
Qua mmquam saevi per tot discrimina belli 

Mors potuit veri vincere jura Dei. 
Hsec igitur, tanto belli defuncta labore, 

Hoc niveo tandem marmore clausa jacet. 

* Mellinus de Rebus Gestis Mathildis, torn. ii. p. 103; and Leander Albertus 
Descriptione Italise. 
t Florentinius testatur. 


Ut genere, ut forma, ac regno prsedivite, sic et 
Virtutum mpritis, pietatisque inclyta laude. 

Hoc sua, dum vitse immortali restituantur, 
Ossa adservari voluit Matilda sepulcro. 

Stirpe, opibus, forma gesti et nomine quon. 
Inclyta Mathildis, hie jacet, astra tenens 

CHAP. I. At last, in 1635, Urbanus the Eighth, in gratitude for all the 

benefits the papal see had formerly received from Matilda, 
caused her remains to be transferred to Rome, and placed in 
the cathedral of St. Peter. A magnificent monument was erected 
over them, with the following inscription : — 

Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. 
Comitissae Mathildi, virilis animee foeminsp, 

Sedis Apostolicae propugnatrici, 
Pietate insigni, liberalitate celeberrima, 

Hue ex Matunae Sancti Benedicti 
Coenobio translatis promeritum. 

Mon. Pos. Anno MDCXXXV. 



The capital of a province in the kingdom of Naples, and 
a town of some historical celebrity. Here we have to notice 
that it is the place where Conrad, a son of Henry the Black, was 
buried. Conrad, as an ecclesiastic, gave some splendour to the 
order of Cistercians. He died, after his return from the Holy 
Land, at Bari, and was buried there in St. Nicholas's church. 
It is remarked that he died in the same year, or nearly at 
the same time with his father and mother, 1126. He was 
afterwards canonized, and considered as a powerful saint *. It 
is probable that his remains were afterwards transferred to 
Malfetta, in the same province; for in the year 1722 it is men- 
tioned in the journals of the day, that his remains were carried 
in procession, and with religious ceremony, and exposed to the 
adoration of the people, in order to implore rain for the fields f- 


A town on the banks of the Donau, not far from Vienna, 
which owes its origin to the rich convent of Augustines, founded 
here in the year 1114. Gertrud, the mother of Henry the Lion, 

* Anon, de Guelfis. t Orig. Guelf. torn. ii. p. 329. 


CHAP. I. did not live long after her marriage with Henry of Austria : she 
""■^^^^^ (jied on the 14th of April, in the year 1143, and, as reported, in 
childbed. She was undoubtedly buried in Kloster Neuburg, as 
at that time it was the burying place of the Austrian family ; 
though some of the ancient writers mention other places. The 
different opinions on this subject, as well as the proofs for Kloster 
Neuburg being the place where the illustrious mother of Henry 
the Lion is deposited, are to be found in the Orig. Guelf. tom. ii. 
p. 358 ; Heinrich der Lowe auf. Bottiger, p. 90. 


According to the answer received from that place, no record 
of any members of the house of Brunswick being buried there 
can be found. 


Is stated in the Chronicle as the place where bishop Lewis, of 
the house of Bavaria, was buried ; but by a letter from the 
Rev. Mr. Mannes, it appears that no traces of the sepulture 
of the bishop are to be found there 



The Saxon Ancestors of the Guelphs previous to Henry 
the Lion. 

The genealogies of all ancient families are traced with great chap. ii. 
difficulty, and have always been an object on which historians ^^*n^^^ 
have exercised their ingenuity. This has been particularly the 
case with the Saxons and Brunones, the ancestors of Ludolf the 
First, duke of Saxony. That he was the patriarch of the Saxon 
imperial family there is no doubt; but who was the father or 
grandfather of this duke of Saxony, or how he was connected 
with the family of Wittikend, the last Saxon king, has always 
been much disputed, both among ancient and modem chrono- 

The close family connexion, and frequent intermarriages, 
which undoubtedly took place between the descendants of Witti- 
kend and a count Eckbert, who flourished at the time of Charle- 
magne, have rendered the genealogy of these original Saxon 
families very difficult. But all seem to agree in the opinion, that 
Ludolf, in one way or other, was the descendant of these two 
great Saxons, who were of the same faith, and closely united 
by the ties of friendship. Without deciding in one way or the 


CHAP. II. other, it will answer the purpose of these remarks to give the 
^^^^^^ different principal opinions in the following Tables : — 


Vide Origin. Giielf. IV. p. 364. 


WiTTiKEND. * Bruno. 

I . I 

WiGBERT, Gisela.;i:=Bruno. 

LuDOi.F I. duke of Saxony. 


Vide Origin. Guelf. IV. p. 368. 


I I 




Vide Hardcnberg. Hist. Gandersh. p. in, seqii. 
U'lTTiKEND, who died 807, buried at Engern, Charlemagne, wlio died gotli Jan. 811 

married to Geva, daugliter of Siegfrieij, buried at Aix-la-Cliapelle. 

king of Denmark. | 

Hi.s daughter, 

BRUN0.^3i=:GiESEr,A. Bertha, married to Engelhard. 

Heii.wig, married to Guelph, count of Bajoaria. Eckeert, or Wigbert. ~ Vda. 


I ■ ' '" 

Adj)ITA, abbess of Heresford. Warrin, abbot of Corvey. Cobbo, count. Ludolfh 


Vide Ventnrini Handbuch der Vsterlandiscben Gcscliirlite, I. p. 283. 


1 I 

WiTTiKEND, WicKBERT. LuDOLPH, married Warin, abbot Adela, abbess Cobbo, cent 
without issue. ' to Oda. of Corvey. ot Heresford. 

WoiBERT. Bruno. Bruno. Otho, illustris. Kathambnda. 

, I 


I ! 

Mathilde. — — Henry the Fowler. 


This is not the place to examine the reasons and arguments chap. n. 
of the authors of these different genealogical tables. But the ^"^^^^^ 
third, or that of Hardenberg, appears to be the best grounded, 
and is supported by historical facts. 

Ludolph is the first of the Saxon dukes who appears 
distinctly before the eyes of the historian ; and, therefore, it 
is proper to begin the line of the Saxon ancestors of the 
illustrious house of Brunswick with him*. 

Bruno, a brother's son of Otho the First, emperor, made choice Tiie iions^ uf 


of a village which had been founded by Charlemagne, and as 
he made it his constant residence, it became known as the 
" Vicus Brunonis," now Brunswick. Bruno, a descendant of 
Ludolph the First, became the first margrave of Brunswick. 

A long time before the era of the Saxon Othos, a powerful race of Noniiieim. 
of free lords commanded in the country round Gottingen and 
Nordheim,and resided in an ancient castle called Bomeneburg; but 
their origin is lost in a northern horde, and we can only suppose 
that their family was already known at the time of Charlemagne f. 

History mentions an Otho, a count of Bomeneburg and 
Nordheim, who flourished in the reign of Otho the Great; but 
there is more certain information of a count Herman, who lived at 
the time of Otho the Second, and was either the son of the above- 
mentioned count Otho, or the third son of Henry Rixosus J. 

* See Table I. B. 

t Mabillon de Re Diplom. torn. iv. n. 64 ; and Do. Joacli. Meyer in Grig, et 
Antiq. Hess. 

X Zeit und Geschichtsbeschreibung der Stadt Gottingen, turn. i. p. 43. Orig. 
Guelf. torn. iv. p. 414. 



This most powerful race of Saxon lords, who commanded in the 
woody county of Darlington, and were in possession of the castles 
of Sommerschenburg, Walbeck, and Supplingenburg, derived their 
origin from Albin, the famous commander of the Ostphals against 
Charlemagne ; and were nearly related to Affic, who governed the 
country round Wolfenbuttle. Woody, but not uncultivated, were 
the countries over which these lords held sway. Many of the 
villages which the ancient records mention as having belonged 
to the dominions of these counts or sovereigns; Walbeck, 
Schoningen, (Seaningen,) and the domain of Ketil, are still in 
existence, and remind us of the Othos and the holy Henry, 
who frequently resided there. To give a complete pedigree 
of this powerful family, to which belonged several bishops, 
provosts, burgraves of Magdeburg, counts palatine, and dukes, 
would be impossible. It is sufficient to observe, that the houses of 
Supplingenburg, Walbeck, and Sommerschenburg, belonged to 
one family; that after the extinction of the elder branch of 
Supplingenburg, the castle came to the lords of Haldensleben ; 
and after the extinction of these, to the margrave Conrad, of 
Brandenburg, who gave it, with all its dominions, as a dowry 
to his daughter, Gertrud, the wife of Frederick, burgrave of 
Nurnberg. The only daughter of this Frederick married Gevekard 
the Second, count of Ouerfurt*, and became the mother of Lothaire, 
the emperor. 

* There are different opinions among historians about the mother of Lothaire. 
The first opinion is expressed in the table ; but the second I have added in this 
record, as it appears to me as probable as the first. The arguments for both opinions 
are to be found in Orig. Guelf. torn. iii. prsef. 10. Venturini, in his Handbook, &c. 
has adopted the last opinion. — Gundell. 


The ancestors of Herman Billung were Saxon barons and chap. ii. 

commanders on the Aller and Elbe, and possessed of great property 
at Stubekeshom, Soltau, Luneburg, and Bardewick ; and they 
could rank, in respect of antiquity and nobility, with any of the 
Saxon lords. Leibnitz and Meibom have sufficiently proved 
the antiquity of this family*; and it is astonishing that many 
chronologists, and even modern historians, follow Adam of 
Bremenf, in his assertion that Herman Billung was of a less 
noble extraction J. Billung of Luneburg, the husband of Aeda, 
a Franconian countess, and the father of Oda, the wife of 
Ludolph the First, duke of Saxony ; Wigman, who was killed, 
880, at EbstorfF, and married to a sister of the empress Matilda, 
of the Wittekind family, were the ancestors of Billung, of 
Stubekeshorn ; and are sufficient proofs of the celebrity and 
greatness of this family. 

* Orig. Guelf. torn. iv. p. 549. 1 jusdem Iiitrod. Sc. B. No. 29. Meibom 
Vindiciae Billungianae. 

t Hist. Eccl. tcfm. ii. p. 4. Adam was a most partial chronologist, as he took 
his historical notices from the records of Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, who was 
an enemy of the Billung family. 

I Among the modern historians, particularly, Venturini Handbuch, &c. torn. i. 
p. 401. 

Of Billung. 



Sepulchres of the Sa.von Ancestors of the Guelphs, previous to 
Henry the Lion. 


Is a small town in the county of Ravensberg, in Westphalia, 
belonging to the king of Prussia. It is remarkable for having been 
the usual place of residence of Wittikend the Great. It is said, 
likewise, that he was buried here, after being killed, 807, in the 
war against Gerold of Suabia. His tomb, which was erected 
by the emperor Charles the Fourth in the year 1377, is still 
to be seen in the parish church ; but his bones, as the common 
report bears, were carried to Herford by the chanoines or monks, 
and deposited there in St. John's Church. 

Upon his tomb was his figure, and the following in- 
scription : — 

Ossa viri fortis, cujus sors nescia mortis 
Iste locus munit, Euge bone Spiritus audit 
Omnis mundatur, hunc Regem qui veneratur 
iEgros hie morbis cceli Rex salvat et orbis. 


There was likewise an ancient monument, it is said, in the chap. ii. 
same church, with the following inscription : — 's^^^^to/ 



Angrivorum primi Regis Saxonise in Vuestphalia, conversi ad fidem Christianam 

a Carolo Magno et baptizati, teste baptismatis ipso Carolo, Anno 

Christi 773, incisum lapidi super fores veteris Templi 

in Engeren in Westphalia*. 

In the beginning of the 18th century they repaired 
his tomb, built it of stone, and added the following in- 
scription : — 

Monumentum Witikindi, Warnechini filii, Agrivariorum Regis XII. 
Saxonise procerum Ducis fortissimi. 

Hoc Collegium Dionysianum, in Dei Opt. Max. honorem, privilegiis 

reditibusque donatum, fundavit et confirnaavit, A. C. 807, 

relicto filio, et regni hserede, Wigberto. 

It is easily to be seen that this inscription is modern, and 
has been made with very little historical knowledge. 

* Vide Lucse Lossii Epidi. Princip. Due. de anno 1580, p. 271. Rethm. Chron. 
p. 51. 



Copy of a Letter received from the Rev. Mr. Zerbst, concerning 
the Burying Places at Gander shenn. 

" In reference to the wished for notices, there is very little 
or nothing to be found here ; and undoubtedly for this reason, 
that in former times princesses of the house of Brunswick, perhaps 
from jealousy, were seldom chosen as abbesses or deanesses of 
Gandersheim, till a rescript obliged the chapter to give the 
preference to that house, if any of its princesses should wish to 
be elected. But these, after their decease, were generally carried 
to Brunswick, and interred in the vaults of their ancestors." 

" Only the founder of this renowned, but now, to the great 
grief of the town, abolished establishment, Ludolph, duke of 
Saxony, and his dutchess, have their sepulture here; and his 
statue of wood, which lies on a wooden coffin, points out the 
place where his remains rest. This simple and rude figure is 
undoubtedly the work of a late period ; as well as a table 
which hangs in the church, and on which the two founders, 
Ludolph and his wife Oda, carrying the model of the cathedral 
in their arms, are represented with the following verses : " — 

Als man that sehreiben 800 Fahr, 
Und 53 die Fahrszahl war, 
Ludolph und sein Gemahl Oda Lobesan, 
Dies lijbhche Stift erbauethan. 


It is really astonishing, that according to the above account chap. ii. 
there are no traces of other ancestors of the illustrious house of ^'•^'^"■'^^^ 
Brunswick being buried at Gandersheim, as by the report of many 
writers it appears to be quite certain, that, besides the founders of 
the abbey, several persons of the family have found their rest there. 
This cannot be accounted for, unless the cathedral has been 
stripped on some occasion of its monuments, and the library 
of the abbey, with all its documents, removed or shut up from 
the inspection of the friends of historical research. It may be 
necessary to add the following statement : — 

In the cathedral of Gandersheim were buried*, 

1, Ludolph the First, duke of Saxony, died 859. 

2, Oda, his wife, born 806, died 913. 

3, Hathamunda, their daughter, abbess of Gandersheim, born 
840, died 29th November, 874. 

4, Gerberdis, sister of Ludolph, abbess, born 841, died 886. 

5, Christine, her sister, abbess, died 919 f. 

6, Otho the Illustrious, died 912. 

7, Hedwig, his consort, died 903. 

8, Sophia, daughter of Otho the Second, emperor, and abbess 
of Gandersheim. 

9, Gerbergis, daughter of Henry Rixosus, abbess of Gan- 

10, Sophia, daughter of Erich of Grubenhagen, abbess, died 
after 1483. 

• Vide Gobelin Person. Cosmodr. act vi. c. 46. Chron. Panegyr. in Berengar. 
torn. i. a. 894. 

t Vide Guelf. Orig. iv. p. 374. 


CHAP. II. 11, Agnes, her sister, abbess, born 1396, died 1452. 

^'^^''^^^ 12, Sophia, daughter of Albert of Grubenhagen, abbess of 
Gandersheim, died 1481. 

13, Elizabeth, daughter of William the Younger, died 1519. 


Copy of an Account from the Rev. Mr. Borchers. 

" According to all historical records, there can be no doubt 
that in the year 880, or as some others think, 876, Bruno, duke of 
Brunswick, or duke of Saxony, perished with his whole army in 
a battle with the Norwegians near Ebstorf ; and with him twelve 
counts, among whom was count Wichman, the son of Billung 
of Luneburg, who also belongs to the family of our princes : 
and the bishops of Minden and Hildesheim were buried here. 
In the church of Ebstorf, in the choir, there is a tombstone, 
upon which is cut out (but without the least sign of the year, 
or of any inscription) the figure of a man in full length, 
and in armour; who, according to oral tradition, is duke Bruno. 
On the four corners of the tombstone are some emblems, of 
which one is a lamb, the other a pelican ; but the others cannot 
be made out. 

" Perhaps if this tomb was opened, the armour would be 
found, or some other insignia. A trial might be made, but who 
would pay the expenses ? 


" Not far from this tombstone is another, which covers un- chap. ii. 
doubtedly a distinguished ecclesiastic, as a cup and the figure 
of a church, &c. are to be seen on it. This is, perhaps, the tomb 
of the bishop of Hildesheim, or of Minden, or of both, as the stone 
is very large. But it is likewise without a date, or any other 
inscription. This is all that I have to report." 


Copy of a Letter received from Mr. Mayer. 

" Otho the Third died in the year 1002, in Paterna, in Italy. 
His remains were brought, according to his own direction, by 
Verona, through Bavaria. Many bishops accompanied them from 
Italy : duke Henry of Bavaria, with some other bishops, met 
them in Germany. At Augsburg his intestines were buried, in 
the cathedral of St. Afra, near the grave of the Waldrichs, with 
this inscription: — 

" Romani Imperii decus amplum, Tertius Otho, ossa in Aquirgrani, 
hie viscera clausa tenentur. 

" The body of the emperor was conveyed by Cologne to 
Aix-la-Chapelle, and solemnly deposited, on Easter Sunday, in 
the Minster, in the middle of the choir. Upon the elevated tomb 


CHAP. II. stood the emperor's statue of brass. Both are removed, in order 
^■^^ to have a better view of the high altar. The inscription which 

was on the monument, and is now preserved in the vestry, 

is as follows : — 

" Romani Imperii decus amplum, Tertius Otto, corpus Aquisgranum, 
Augusta sed exta tenet. 

" The emperor Otho is the third and last emperor buried at 

(Signed) J. F. MAYER. 


Translation of the Account which the Rev. Dr. Fritsch trans- 
mitted of the Tombs of Henry the Fowler, and his Fa mi I j/, 
in the Minster or Cathedral at Quedlinburg. 

In the minster, which was the old cathedral, and is still in 
the castle, are the following tombs of the family of Henry the 
Fowler, from whom a place close under the castle bears still 
the name Finkenherd : — 

1, The tomb of Henry the Fowler himself; and, 

2, That of his consort, the empress Matilda. 


Both not close to each Other. A plam stone of marble covers chap. ii. 
the tomb of each of them : they are sunk in the earth, and cannot ^"^"^^^^^ 
be seen. It is said that Henry's tomb had an inscription ; but 
of this there are no traces. 

According to Winnigsted's Chronicle, from which it is taken, 
and inserted in Kettner's Kirchen und Reformations Geschichte 
des Stiftes Quedlinburg, 1710, p. 289, it was as follows : 

Auceps Henricus primus, celeberrimus inter 
Imperii proceres Saxoniaeque Duces. 
Fortiter Hercynise populos cim subderet omnes, 
Construit summo templa dicata Deo. 
Virginibus castis banc fundavitque Saregtam, 
Ut Christum virgo rebgiosa colat. 
Mechtildam gnatam primo prsefecit in ilia, 
Quse castum coluit filia casta Deum. 
Csesaris hie magni sepelivit membra parentis. 
Ante aram Petri corporis ossa tegens, 
lUius hie placide sub saxo membra quieseunt, 
Sed mens seterna vivit in arce Dei, 
Optat et expectat cum eorpore ccelica regna, 
Cim venient summo regna beata die. 

It is very much doubted if this inscription was ever on the 
tombstone, as the contents and the style of it seem not at all 
to correspond with the tenth century ; and if it was genuine, 
there never could have been a difference among the ancient 
writers in respect of the first abbess of Quedlinburg; as it is 

K K 


CHAP. II. distinctly said here that Matilda, the daughter of Henry, was 
' the first abbess. 

It is not probable that any of the old writers had perused 
this inscription, otherwise they would have had no doubt 
about the place where Henry was buried — a subject which is 
much disputed. 

3, On the other side rests Mechtild, Henry's daughter, the 
first or the second abbess. 

4, Before her, across Mechtild Second, Otho the First's 
second daughter, and Otho the Second's sister. 

5, Adelheid, daughter of Otho the Second, buried in the 
year 1042; the fourth or fifth abbess. 

6, Beatrix, the fifth or sixth ; and, 

7, Adelheid Second or Third, sixth or seventh abbess. 
Both daughters of Henry HI. 


Past. prim. 


One of the most ancient and remarkable towns in Germany, 
which owes the foundation of its splendour to Otho the Great. 
The first cathedral, built by him in the year 950, was destroyed 


by fire in the year 1210. The present was erected in the year chai'. n. 
1211 ; and is a very handsome building, in, the Gothic style, ^'^■^^'^ 
though not quite finished in the manner the first plan indicated. 
They say that the building was continued for IIG years, and 
that it was consecrated about the year 1363. Of all the 
curiosities and ancient monuments, the sepulchral monument 
of Otho the Great* is, in respect of history, the most 

It stands in the choir before the high altar. Its riches (for 
they say that all the ornamental parts, which are now of wood, 
were formerly of silver) were stolen by the imperial soldiers 
in the year 1550. A large stone of marble still covers the 
tomb ; on which formerly the following lines, in gold letters, 
were to be seen : — 

Tres luctus causae sunt hoc sub marmore clausse, 
Rex, decus Ecclesise, summus honor patriae. 

In this cathedral rests likewise Editha, first consort of Otho, 
and the grand-daughter of king Edward of England, who died 
946 f. She was deposited in the church of the convent, founded 

* It is well known that this great emperor died, soon after his victorious return 
from Italy, at Memleben, at the same place where his father breathed his last. His 
intestines were buried in the church of Memleben ; but his body was conducted to 
Magdeburg, and deposited in the catliedral, of which he was the founder. After 
its destruction, his remains, with the monument, were brought into the new church, 
and deposited in the manner described. 

t All the chronologists speak of her in the highest terms, and also of her son, 
Ludolph. There is no difference about the year of her death : they all mention the 


CHAP. II. by the emperor for Benedictines, at the same place where the 
^■^"^'''^ present cathedral stands ; so that her sepulchre remained undis- 
turbed. It is to be seen behind the choir, made of stone, and 
with the figure of the empress in full dress on it, and with 
the following inscription : — 

Divoe Reginse Romanorum Editta;, Angliae Regis Edmundi filise, hie 

ossa conduntur, cujus religiosi amoiis impulsu hoc Templum 

ab Ottone Magno Divo Csesare conjuge fundatum est. 

Obiit Anno Christi DCCCCXLVII. 

This monument, but not the inscription, is certainly one of 
the most ancient; for the place where it stands shows that it 
belonged to the church of the convent ; which convent was 
removed to the hill where it is at present, under the name 
" Kloster Bergen," about twenty years after the empress's death. 
Vide Eigentliche Beschreibung der Weltberuhmten Dom-Kirche 
zu Magdeburg, 1689. 

year 946; so that we must take this as the right one, notwithstanding that the 
epitaph mentions 947. There is no doubt the inscription is of a modern date, as it 
calls her " regina Romanorum," and as she was not " filia Edmundi," but liis sister. 
Vide Orig. Guelf. torn. iv. p. 440. 



Is a small town near Helmstaedt and Brunswick, remarkable 
as the burying place of three of the distinguished ancestors of 
the house of Brunswick. For in the church, which belonged 
to the former convent of Benedictines, founded, or rather new 
organized, by Lothaire and Richenza, in the year 1135, are the 
places where found their rest, 

1, Lothaire, emperor, duke of Saxony, &c. who died 1137*. 

2, Richenza, empress, his consort, who died 1141|. 

* Rethmyer, in his Chronicle, says, and not without some reason, that Lothaire 
was born in the year 1075, a few days before his father was killed, the 9th of June, 
in the battle near Negelstadt. 

About the year of his marriage to Richenza the annalists differ greatly. Of 
the ancients, Albert of Stade is the only one who mentions it, viz. 1113; whom 
Hoffman follows in his genealogical work, p. 1. cap. ii. sec. 46; and adds, 
that Lothaire was thirty-eight years old when he married. Of the modern authorities, 
Lezner, in his Chronicle of Dassel, lib. i. cap. vii. says : " Dass. Grav. Dethmar, 
A. 1100, nebst vielen andern Herni zuNordheim auff dem Graflichen Schloss auf der 
Hochzeit, als Lotharius daselbst mit Fraidein Richsen, Grav. Heinrichs Tochter 
Beylager hielt, gewesen sey." Others mention the year 1101 ; but Lezner is right, 
as is proved in Orig. Guelf. torn. iv. p. 521. In the year 1 137, on his return from 
Italy, he felt indisposed at Verona; which indisposition increased fast, so that he 
died between the 3d and 4th of December, at the age of sixty-two, in a miserable 
place called Brettin, between Verona and Trident, in the arms of archbishop Conrad, 
of Magdeburg, who was a near relation of his. His remains were brought to his 
hereditary dominions of Brunswick, and deposited in the convent of Konigs-Lutter. 

t About her, vide Schirach Biographien der Deutschen, torn. i. p. 72—86. 
She died most probably at Brunswick, and was deposited at Konigs-Lutter, by the 
side of the emperor, and Henry, her son-in-law. Vide Botho, Chron. Pictur. apud 
Leibnitz, torn. iii. p. 341. Chron. Petr. V. Erfurt, apud Menken, torn. iii. p. 216, 
ad Ann. 1141. 


CHAP. II. 3, Henry the Proud, who died 1139*. 

^"'**^'^^^ Of the tombs of these illustrious persons Leibnitz says, that 

in his time they were much decayed ; and only on a part of 
the tombstones could be traced the under part of Henry the 
duke, with the sword leaning sideways. When the tomb of 
Lothaire was opened, in the year 1618 or 1620, only one of 
the leaden tables, (plumbeis laminis,) of which Olho of Fri- 
singen, Chron. vii. c. 20, speaks, was found with the following 
inscription : — 

LoTHAEius, Dei Gratia Romanorura Imperator augustus, regnavit 

Annos XII. Menses III. Dies XII. obiit autem II. Nonas Decembris. 

Vir in Xo. fidelissimus, verax, constans, pacificus; miles 

imi>erterritus, vediens ab Apulia, Saracensis 

occisis et ejectisf. 

Lothaire, the emperor, was found lying with his sword in 
Ms right hand, and in his left the imperial globe, of lead and 

* Henry was engaged to Gertrade, the only daughter of Lothaire, in the year 
1126, at Merseburg; but the marriage ceremony was performed in the year 1127, 
at Gunziclech, (Concio Legum,) in Suabia, when the bride was about eleven years 
old. The duke brought then his young dutchess to Ravensburg. He died most 
suddenly at Leuedlinburg, the 20th of October, 1139, most probably by pois 
Vide Chron. Mont. Ser. ad 1139, apud Menken, SS. rr. Germ, et Sax. torn. 
p. 177. Annal. Sax. ad. 1139, apud Eccard. torn. i. p. 682. Chron. Saxo. apud 
Leibn. access. Hist. 295. He was buried at Kbnigs Lutter, by the side of Lothaire, 
the author of his greatness, as also of his misfortunes. The circumstance that 
the bishop of Freisingen does not mention a word about Henry being poisoned, does 
not prove any thing against the truth of it. Vid. Heinrich der Lowe, auf Bottiger, 
18!9, p. 54. 

t Orig. Guelf. torn. ii. p. 350. 



gilded. Besides, there was found in the sarcophagus a plate chap. u. 

of silver, with a hand and a cross, and the inscription, " Patris ^^^^'^^ 

dextera sum mei ;" and likewise a cup. When Leibnitz was at 

Konigs-Lutter, in the year 1720, he saw all these things, except 

the plate and the cup, which are not there, but at Wolfenbuttle, 

where an engraving of them has been made, which is to be seen 

in the Orig. Guelf. torn. ii. p. 352. The abbot, Dr. John Fabricius, 

had erected, in the year 1708, to the memory of these illustrious 

princes, a beautiful monument of marble, on which the figures 

of the three deceased are cut. On a pillar opposite, to the 

right, is the following inscription : — 

Fortissimus Imperator 


Conditor hujus Templi et Ccenobii, 

cum RicHESA conjuge, 

Et Henrico Superbo, seu Magnanimo, 

suo genero, 

hie quiescit, resurrectionem 


Monumentum Csesareum 

sub felice reginiine 

Sereniss. Antonii Ulrici, 

Duels Brunsv. ae Luneb. 

ex integro 

restaurabatur, A. C. MDCCIIX. 

a Johanne Fabricio, Abbate. 



Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Bauermeister, 
of Nordheim. 

" Of monuments, tombstones, and inscriptions, I have met 
with none in the principal church of this place, nor in the chapel 
of the ancient convent ; in the latter of which, some years ago, 
the laying of a new floor caused the destruction of all the 
tombstones which were found. By searching in old chronicles 
for notices on the subject, I have found that Otho, duke of 
Saxony and Bavaria, lord of the Weser, and count of Nordheim 
and Bomenenburg, who died the 11th of January, 1083, was depo- 
sited in the convent church of Nordheim, before the St. Nicholas's 
altar ; and that, likewise, more of his family were buried there. 
See Leukfield's Ant. Nordh. p. 234 ; ejusd. Antiq. Walkenrid. 
p. 217; Antiq. Pless. p. 137; and Gotting. Beschr. tom. i. p. 44. 
The last count of Plessen, Christoph, died in the year 1566, 
and was buried at Hockelheim, near Nordheim. See Groten's 
Geschichte der Stadt Nordheim, herausgegeben von Reddessen, 
p. 120. Perhaps our church library contains some further notices. 
"With pleasure I shall search for them, and communicate to you 
what I find." 


Extract of a Letter of Mr. Reddessen, Magistrate and 
Garnison Auditor at Nordheim. 

" In the Antiquitat. Plessensibus, p. 137, is published an chap. ii. 
ancient writing ; in which, among other notices, a list of all 
princes of our illustrious reigning house who have been buried 
in the still existing chapel of this convent, has been given. I 
myself have seen, in my youth, a stone, upon which notices on 
this subject were cut. Also in the Gottingischen Zeit und 
Geschicht. Beschrieb. torn. i. lib. i. chap. ii. p. 43, seq. are given 
more notices. The authors of both works were very well 
acquainted with the archives, and the history of this town. 
And likewise Kotzebue, in his Antiq. Ccenobii D. Bias. Nord- 
heim, has given us some light on the subject. 

Count Volkmarus, of Nordheim and Bomenenburg, must have 
been buried most probably at Correy, as he was abbot there. 
Who is buried in the chapel of Wiebrechthausen, you un- 
doubtedly know already. I myself have seen, some years ago, 
a tombstone with the sickle. The late counsellor Ruling men- 
tions, in a Supplement to his Description of Nordheim, that 
Otho the Strong, who died 1394, was buried in the convent church 
of Wiebrechthausen ; and that likewise the intestines of duke 
Frederick of Brunswick, who, after having been elected emperor 
on the 25th of May, 1400, at Frankfort, was attacked the 5th of 
June, on his return, between Arentsberg and Fritzlar, by count 
Henry, of Waldeck, and murdered by Frederick of Harding- 
hausen, were interred in the same church." 



Letter from the Rev. Mr, Schilling, Counsellor of the Consistory. 

CHAP. II. "I shall exert myself to give you, if possible, some notices 

about the princess Agnes, consort of Henry the Long. There 
is no monument in our churches which could be referred to 
her; but I will search the archives, in order to find, perhaps 
in the documents of the sequestered convents, some notices on 
the subject. These researches will occupy some time; as the 
papers of the four or five convents, which were formerly here, 
are very much dispersed. The result I shall communicate to 
you as soon as possible. 


Inscription on the Tomb o/" Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne. 

Fundite corde pieces, lachrymosas fundite voces. 

Ecce pater patria conditus in silice. 
Regis progenies terras memoranda per omnes, 

Bruno pacificus, vir bonus atque plus. 
Archos Antistes, cui clara Colonia sedes, 

Visus erat, cunctis charus ubique fuit. 


Offendit tenebras lux vivacissima terras, 

Invida lingua tacet, laus modo vera placet: 
Non fiiit in mundo tarn raro munere dignus, 

Raptus ab hoc sevo jam fruitur Domino. 
Idus Octobris quinto prsesul duodenus 

Vitae concessit, spes comes alma fuit. 


Is situated in the principality of Gdttingen, on the banks chap. ii. 
of the Weser, under the ruins of that once famous castle, 
called Otten, or Bramburg. Here was a convent for Benedictines, 
founded and endowed by Otho, count of Nordheim, in the year 
1098, and enriched successively by his family. In the year 1429 
it became famous by the Bursfeld Union, for the reformation, 
or the better discipline of seventy-five monasteries of the order 
of St. Benedict ; which union was confirmed at Basil, in the 
year 1440. 

In the church of this convent was buried the warlike count 
of Nordheim, Henry the Gross, the husband of Gertrude, heiress 
of Brunswick, and father-in-law of the emperor Lothaire. In 
the year 1101 he was created margrave of Friesland, and soon 
after killed by the Frisii. His remains were conveyed to Burs- 
felde, and deposited there. His tomb is still to be seen ; and 

260 THE RECORDS, &c. 

CHAP. II. an engraving of his tombstone, or sepulchral monument, is to 
be found in the Orig. Guelf. tom. iv. p. 536. It has the following 
inscription round it: — 

Anno Domini MCCI. IIII. Idus Aprilis, sepultus hie est generosus 

Comes Henricus, filius Ottonis Ducis, Fundator 

hujus Coenobii. 



Sepulchres of the Guelphs about the Time of Henry the Lion, 
and subsequent to that Period. 


In the cathedral of St. Blase, the burying place of many of chap. hi. 
the ancestors, princes and princesses, of the illustrious house of ^^^"^^^"^^ 
Guelph, is the following inscription on the door of the ducal 
sepulchral vault : — 

" Erbbegz'abniss des Durchlauchtigsten, Hochwlirdigsten, Fiirsten und Herrn, 

Herrn Ferdinand Albrecht, Herzoge zu Braunschweig und 

Luneburg, der Evangelischen Stiftskirche zu Strasburg 

Senior. 1681." 

" Hie finis invidiae, persecutionis, et querelse." 

Henry the Lion, the patriarch of the house of Brunswick, 
after his happy return from the Holy Land, while yet full of 
the pious impressions which he had received there, thought 


CHAP. in. earnestly on the execution of his plan for erecting a magnificent 
cathedral in his then metropolis. In the very same year of his 
return, 1172, he caused the St, Peter and St. Paul church, 
which stood near his castle Dankwarderode, and had been erected 
in the year 868, by duke Dankward, (most probably the son 
of duke Ludolph,) to be pulled down, and began the building 
of the new cathedral *. This magnificent church was finished 
in the year 1194; and consecrated by bishop Herman, of Hilde- 
sheim, (ad honorem Blasii et Johannis,) in the presence of many 
prelates, and with great splendour. Henry presented his new- 
built cathedral with all the rich and splendid relics which he 
had brought from Palestine, Constantinople, and Italy. Immense 
sums were spent upon the ornamental clothings of the altars 
and their ministers. But all those riches and precious things 
are now lost. This then was the origin of St. Blase's cathedral, 
so celebrated for its antiquity, and still more interesting to us, 
as it encloses the sacred remains of a great number of persons 
of our illustrious house ; as the following list sufiiciently indicates, 
and which is partly taken from Beschreibung des St. Blasii Doms 
Braunschweig bei Lucius. 1815. 

* An old table, which was still (1707) in the vestry, contained the following 
notice : " Anno dusent hundert twei unde sebentig hefft Hertzog Heinrich de Lauwe 
de olden kerken up Dankwarderode in de Ere St. Peters iin Pauls gewiget, laten 
afbreken unde einen nigen Dohm in de Ere St. Blasius unde St. Johannes Baptisten 
laten uprichten." 

This old table, a most remarkable document, has shared the same fate as many 
other things. No one knows where it is at present. 


List of the illust7-ious Persons interred in St. Blast's Church, at 
Brunswick, received from the Rev. Air. Wolff, and accompanied 
with some Genealogical and Necrological Remarks. 

Eckbert the Second, margrave of Brunswick, died 1090*. chap. in. 

Gertrud, his sister and heiress, and great-grandmother of oid Bmnones. 
Henry the Lion, died lllSf. (Both rest in the chief vault.) 

Henry the Lion, who died 1195. Henry shared the fate of Gueiphic 
so many distinguished persons of former times, that little can saxony" 
be ascertained about the place and time of his birth, and the 
events of his first youth. But most probably he was born at 

* The death of this gallant prince is one of the principal stains in the life of 
Henry the Fourth. For, not being able to conquer him in open war, he bribed 
some assassins to enter into his service, and to assassinate him ; which dreadful deed 
was perpetrated in the said year, one night, when Eckbert arrived late before Bruns- 
wick, and was obliged to sleep in a mill at Eisenbuttel. They say that the abbess 
Adelheid, of Quedlingburg, the sister of the emperor, was the principal agent in this 
foul murder. He was buried in St. Syriacin church, which he had founded and 
built. But when this church was pulled down, in the siege of 1542, Eckbert's 
coffin of stone was brought into that of St. Blase's. It was opened on this occasion, 
and they observed distinctly in the skull the mortal wound inflicted with a hatchet. 
In the year 1 689 his coffin was sunk into the ground, on the spot where it is now, 
under the sarcophagus of prince Albert, who died 1745. The tombstone has the 
following inscription : — 

Hie jacet Eckbertus II. March. Saxon, obiit 1090. 1689. 

t It is said that she had been married to Theodoric, count of Callenburg, 
previous to her marriage to Henry the Gross, in the year 1092. 

The year of her death is not certain; some say 1117, others 1118. 
Her coffin of stone stood formerly under one of the altars in the chief vault. It 
stands now on the north side of Rudolph's chapel. 



CHAP. III. Ravensberg, in Suabia, in the year 1129 ; for, immediately after 
^"^^''^^ their marriage, the young dutchess of Henry the Proud was 
brought to this residence of the Guelphs, and most likely 
remained there till her confinement. He died in the year 1195, 
aged sixty-six years. (Vide Gerhard of Steterburg, in Leibn. 
ss. i. 867.) He must therefore have been born in the year 1129. 
(Of Meibom. SS. rr. Germ. torn. iii. p. 166). But some are of 
opinion that he was born 1135 (Erath. Consp. Hist. Lun.), and 
they are led into this error most probably by the singular circum- 
stance that Henry was baptized on Whitsunday, 1136. (Vide 
Chron. Ursp. p. 219, and Vit. Arenp. apud Leibn. tom. iii. p. 665). 
About the time of his death there is no difference of opinion. 
(Vide Gerhard of Steterburg's Chron. Seterb. 866). He died 
the 6th of August, 1195, on a Sunday; and was deposited in 
the tomb built for his exalted dutchess, according to the direc- 
tions which he had given. Chronologists state, that there 
were to be seen in the vault three coffins of stone ; that of 
Henry, Matilda, and a small one of his son Otho, who died 
very young. The tomb stands before the altar, and before the 
great cross. (The cross is now removed). It is elevated ; and 
on the top of it are figures of the duke and dutchess, cut in 
stone, in full length. The duke holds in his right hand the 
model of the cathedral, and in his left the sword. The dutchess 
in a devotional attitude, with her hands folded. The vault itself 
forms a square, eight feet three inches and a half long, and 
five feet three inches wide. The entrance is shut by the two 
large stones, on which the said figures are cut. This vault was 
opened some years ago ; and it was found that the inundation 


of the year 1808 had done great mischief, as the coffin of Henry chap. iu. 
was sunk very much, and covered vv^ith rubbish. It is desirable ^'^^^^^^ 
that this coffin should be raised again, and preserved. 

At the sides of this vault stood formerly two statues : one 
of them representing Henry the Lion, of stone ; the other repre- 
senting a bishop, (probably bishop Ulrich of Halberstadt,) and of 
alabaster. Both have been removed, and put in the ducal vault. 
There was likewise a wooden table fixed on the first pillar, 
on which Henry and his consort, with Otho the Fourth and 
his consort, were represented in miniature, and the following 
inscription : — 

Hie jacet Henricus, quondam Dux, conditor hujus 

Ecclesise, dignus nobilitate pius. 
Moribus ornata sibi conjux est sociata, 

Pauperibus larga, simplicitate bona, 
Inclyta Mechtildis, Anglonim filia Regis, 

Nutriat angelicis hos Deus ipse cibis. 
Adjacet optatus, horum sanguine natus, 

Otto coronatus, vermibus esca datus. 
Hujus erat sponsa Philippi stirps generosa, 

Filia formosa, nunc cinis, ant^ rosa. 
Qui legis haec metra, memor borum sis peto, pensa! 
Quid caro, quid vita, quid res, nisi mors, cinis, umbra! 

This table is said to be of the 13th century, and is now 
in the chapter house. (Vide Heinrich der Lowe, Herz. d. Sachs, 
ii Bayem ein Biogr. Versucho B.W. Bottiger. 1819. Hanover). 

Matilda, his dutchess, who died 1189, 

Otho, their son, who died in his infancy. 

M M 


CHAP. III. Otho the Fourth, emperor, also their son, who died 1218*. 
^"^"'''^'^^ Beatrix, empress, his consort, who died 12121. 
Henry the Long, who died 1227 J. 
Dukes of Otho the Infant, who died 1252||. 

Brunswickand . ,, , „ , t i -.^^r^e 

Lunebnrg. Albert the Great, who died 1279§. 

William, who died 1292^. 
Albert the Fat, who died 1318**. 
Richenza, his consort, who died 1314. 
Albert, bishop of Halberstadt, who died 1358 ft- 
Otho the Liberal, who died 1334:}:$. 

* He died at Harzburg, but was buried at Brunswick, by the side of his 
consort. G. 

t She was the daughter of Philip the emperor, and gave her hand to Otlio, 
after the murder of her father, but died four days after the marriage. 

t He died 28th of April. G. 

II There is some difference of opinion about the burying place of this duke. 
Both Luneburg and Brunswick claim that honour, and the ancient writers are 

The most probable reason for such difference is, that the duke's remains were 
first deposited at Luneburg, but afterwards transported to Brunswick. Vide Ge- 
schichte des Herzogs Otto I. von Oesterley. 1786. 

§ It is very probable that Elizabeth, the first wife of Albert the First, was like- 
wise deposited in Brunswick. Rethmeyer's Chronicle, p. 511. 

H The third son of Albert the Great. 

He resided at Brunswick, and died unmarried. G. 

** He resided very often at Gottingen, in the Burg, or on the Ballruz. Vide 
Gottingens Geschichtbeschreibung, tom. i. p. 70. 

tt Was first Dora-Provost of Einbeck, and 1325 elected bishop of Halberstadt. 

II It is erroneous what some writers mention, that the year 1 334 was the 
year of his death. There was formerly this inscription in the cathedral of St. Blase, 
in Brunswick, over the door southwards : — 

Anno Dom. MCCCXLIIII. ob. Dux Otto felicis. et adhuc M. Agnes, conthoralis 

sua, ob. MCCCXXXIIII. V. Kal. Dec. k quibus fundata est haec capella. 

Anno Incarnationis Dominicae MCCCXLVI. 

Vide Pfeffing, tom. i. p. 185. If he was first married to Tutta of Hesse, cannot be 


Agnes of Brandenburg, his second consort, who died 1334. chap, m 

Ernest, youngest son of Albert the Fat, who died 1367. ^^^^/"^ 

Magnus the Pious, who died 1369. 

Magnus Torquatus, who died 1373*. 

Frederick, emperor elect, who died 1400 f. 

William the Victorious, who died 1482:{;. 

Cecilia of Brandenburg, his first consort, who died 1427 1|. 

Matilda of Schaumburg, his second consort, who died 1462 §. 

Henry the Elder, who died 1514^. 

Helena, his consort, who died 1470**. 

These thirteen illustrious persons are deposited in what is 
called the old vault, which is in the nave of the church before the 
choir. This vault is most probably that which was opened in 

* He was the son of Magnus Pius, who died 1369, and of whom it cannot be 
ascertained where he is buried, but most probably at Brunswick. Magnus Torquatus 
was killed in an engagement with Otho, count of Schaumburg, by one of the latter's 
soldiers, near Leveste, on the Deister. 

t He was assassinated on his journey to Frankfort. 

I This surname he undoubtedly received in consequence of the seven battles which 
he fought, and in which he gained the victory. Another surname, " Gotteskuhe," 
which is sometimes given to him, cannot be accounted for. A proverb which he 
used may perhaps have been the cause. Vide StefFens Anszug aus der Ge- 
schichte, &c. p. 315. Pfeffing, p. 453. 

II This year of her death is erroneous; for it is said that in the year 1431, when 
Henry, her brother-in-law, took possession of Wolfenbuttle, she went with her two 
sons to Schoningen. She was therefore alive in the year 1431. Vide PfeflSng, 
p. 455. Rethmeyer, p. 703. 

^ She died 1468, soon after the birth of her son, Otho, the 22d July. Her first 
husband died 1464. She was married to William, 1466. 

IT He was killed at the siege of Leer-Orz, in East Friesland, in the war against 
Ezard, count of East Friesland. 

** She was not the consort of Henry the Elder, but that of Henry the Pacific, and 
died 1471. 


CHAP. III. the year 1C06, by the supposed earthquake, and repaired and 
^"^^^"^"^^ covered with a brass plate, 1707, by order of Anthony Ulrich. 
On this plate is an inscription, composed by Eberhard Finen, 
minister of St. Blase's cathedral, as follows: — 

Adesdum, Viator, paucis te volo ! 

Hie tu veneraberis ossa, quibus usi 

Imperatores, Electores, Duces. 

Saxonum, Atestinorum, et Angliae Reguni antiqua progenies, 

Electorum et Ducum Brunsvicensium et Luneb. stirps indubia. 

A tergo cryptam babes, in qua 

LoTHAEii Imp. socrus Gertrudis, Henrici Leonis avia, 

requiescit, ab A. C. MCXVII. 

A fronte ipse Heneicus Leo recubat, 

CathedraUs hujus stmctor, heros inter tot bella pius, 

Invisus nuUi prseterquam invidis, in utraque fortuna invictus, 

A morte devictus A. MCXCV. 

Ex tali digna conjux conjuge, 

Angliae Regis filia, Mechtildis, duorum Regum soror. 

Homo tamen humo cessit A. MCLXXXIX. 

Hos inter, qui sequuntur, sepulturam nacti sunt promiscuam, 

Memoriam habebis, singulis propriam. 

Prima ad soceri tumulum, thalamum vix ingressa, delata est 
Philippi Imp. filia, Beatrix, Frederici Barb, neptis, A. MCCVIII. 
Cujus maritus. Otto IV. Imperator, 
Injuste rapta papae erepturus, 
Innocens ab Innocentio III. excommunicatus, 
Regno privatus, non gloria, terram subiit KICCXVIII. 
Prater Henricus, Comes Palatinus Rheni, et Elector, 
Fratris haeres, et in sepulchro comes, A. MCCXXVII. 
Horum ex fratre uepos Otto, Puer vel Parvus dictus. 


Magna agendo virum egit, chap. hi. 

Titulum Ducis Brunsv. et Luneb. suffragante imperio, primus gessit, '■'■^^^^^-^ 
Hie terram gessit ab A. MCCLII. 
Filius Albektus Magnus, princeps pius et mansuetus, 

Bella non movit, submovit strenue, 

Morti succumbens, hie decubuit A. MCCLXXVIII. 

Decumbunt una filius Wilhelmus ab A. MCCXCII. 

Et pronepos Magnus Torquatus, 

In pugna qua victor erat caesus, MCCCLXXIII. 

Hinc abnepos Fredericus, Imperator electus, 

Quern ne imperaret (heu nefas !) Electorum unus occidi fecit MCCCC. 

Et adnepos Wilhelmus Bellicosus, 

Septies in bello victor, 

Nonagenarius demum in sepulchre bigamus, 

quippe conjugum bigae, 

C^ciLi^ Brand, m. MCCCCXXVII. 


eodem junctus cubiculo MCCCCLXXXII. 

Decennio, post Helenam, Henrici fratris conjugem, 

Agmen claudit Henricus Senior, 

Qui, post plures expeditiones non expeditas feliciter. 

In Frisia, caput et vitam perdidit MCCCCCXIV. 

Hoc te volebam. Viator, 
Ubi sis et acclama feliciter. 
Serenissimo Anthonio Ulrico, Brunsv. et Luneb. Duci, 

Qui, antiqua virtute et fide Princeps, 
Ciim Basilicas huic novo ornatu antiquum redderet, 
Majorum memoriam restauravit, 
Suam reddidit seternam, 




Rudolph-Augustus, who died 1704*. 

Christine- Elizabeth, of Barby and Oldenburg, his first consort, 
who died 16811. 

Rosine- Elizabeth Men ton, his second consort, who died 1701. 

Their tombs are in Rudolph's chapel J, and have the following 
inscriptions : — 

Quo respicis, 

lector ? 

Terram geris qui terrain 

deposuit quicquid terreni 


parte tamen meliori sui 

in Deo 


Sereniss. Princeps et Domina, 

• He died at Hedwigsburg. 

t She died at Sondershausen, the 2d of May, 1681 ; and the duke was married, 
on the 7th July, of the same year, to Rosine-Elizabeth Menton, called Madame 
Rudolphine, of a Plebeian family of Minden, who died in Gravenhof. The coffin 
of the dutchess stands on his right, and on his left hand that of Rudolphine; both 
have inscriptions. G. 

t The duke had this vault fitted up on purpose for himself and his consorts. 
It is connected with the chief vault, and is twenty-four feet long, sixteen feet and 
a half wide, and fourteen feet high. On the floor are three large stones, which cover 
the tombs. The chronicle says, that when the diggers met with a large stone, and 
asked the duke's command if they should lift it, he answered, " No ; as it may 
cover a prince who has sunk so deep that they ought not to dig him up again, do 
not touch him." 

After Ferdinand's death, his coffin, made of wood, and covered with black cloth, 
was most quietly put on this stone, and covered with earth. 


Domina CHAP. in. 

Christina Elisabetha, '^.^•v'^^ 

Ducissa Brunsv. et Luneb. 

ex antiqua 

Domuum de Barby et Oldenburg 


Regum Ducumque 

mixta prosapia. 

Serenissimi Principis ac Domini, 



Ducis Brunsv. et Luneb. 

pie et feliciter regentis, 


per triginta annos 

et unum. 

Ex assa fida, integerrima, 

rarescentis hodie 

Pietatis, castitatis, rectique pectoris 

exemplar rarissimum. 

Ab omni fastu mundanisque vanitatibus 

Suis tantum provida rebus, 

Fascibus baud unquam implicita, 

Nutritia pauperum, 

Orphanorum mater, 

Amor et dulcedo patriae, 


mortalitatis orbem est ingressa 

A. MDCXXXIV. XXVI. Octobris. 


CHAP. in. Eandem egressa 

^-'^•^^-' A. MDCLXXXI. d. II. Maii 

certissimam resurrectionem 


fEternae beatitudinis 

absolutam consummationem 


Ex morte vita, 

vitam ex morte lucratus, 

beata inetamorphosi, 

Princeps et Dominus, Dominiis 

RxjDOLPHUs Augustus, 

Dux Bruns\ncensium et Luneburgensium, 

juxta legem domus magni Augusti, 

optimi parentis. 

Successor primogenitus, 

Patrias ditiones primum solus 


associato sibi fratre germane, 

Magnse et infractae mentis Principe, 

junctim rexit. 

Regimine ultra septem et triginta annos 

feliciter transacto, 

Segregati olim Brunonis-vici 

Magnorum avorum, Imperatorum et Ducum 

sedis antiquissimae, 

felix reductor. 


atque CHAP. III. 

ex successu isto plurimis majorum v^^ -^w/ 

Veritatis evangelicae pius assertor, 
Ecclesiarum structor ac benefactor, 
Asylum aflaictorum, 
Egenorum nutritor benignus. 
Bellum usque quaque aversando, 
Pacis studium 
ad extremum usque habitum 
enix^ prosecutus. 
die XXXVI. mensis Januar. anni MDCCIV. 
terram terras, spiritum vero immortalem 
Deo, commendasset, 
placide obdormivit, 
futuram corporis et animse re-unionem 
ad seternam beatitudinem 
certo certius expectans. 
Implevit a natali suo, 


erat d. XVI. Maii, MDCXXVII. 

setatis annos septuaginta sex, 

menses VIII. et X. dies. 


aeternsB memorise 



CHAP. III. Terrain 

^^^''^^ quam gessit 



postquam immortale suum 

Deo reddidisset, 


RosiNA Elisabetha Menten, 



a Seren. Principe, Domino 


Brunovic. et Luneburgensium 


in secundo thoro socia 


Vixit in prBeclarum 

modestise et pietatis exemplum, 

Obiit die XXI. Maii, anno MDCCI. 

Ferdinand-Albert the First, duke of Brimswick-Bevern, who 
died 1687*. 

* He was the founder of this vault. His coffin is of tin, and has the following 
inscriptions : — 

Ferdinandus Albertus, 

Dei gratia 

Bruns. Dux Lunebq. 

Capituli Cathedral. Evangel. 

argentoratens. praesul fil. 
AuGUSTi D. Br. Luneb. ac 
Sophia Elisabeth^;, D 

Christine of Hesse, who died 1702. 

Megapolit. Natus est 


A. MDCXXXVI. d. 22 Maii. 

Sol. hor. 9 vespert. 

Renat. d. 17 Jul. 

Perlustravit Germaniam, 

Galliam, Ital. Belgium, 

Angliatn, Maltam, Polon. 

Curlandiam, Daniam, 

Sueciam, Alsaciamq. 

Conjugatus A. 1667. 

d. 23 Novembr. Eschwegse, 

in Hassia, cum Christina, 

Principe H assise, 

ex qua 

Leopoldus Carolus, 

Fredericus Albertus, 

et Claudia Eleonora, 

nati sunt, sed in juventute 

denati; ulterius 

Sophia Eleonora, 

Augustus Ferdinandus, 


Ferdinand Christian, 


Ernest Ferdinand, 

gemelli et Henric. Ferdinand; 

in arce Beveree resedit, 

et obiit d. XXIII. April. 



Opt. Max. Sacrum. 

Quiescit hie sequiore parte 

sua Serenissima Prlnceps 


die XXX. Octobr. anni pacifici 



CHAP. III. Their children : 

""-^^•^"^^ 1, Leopold-Charles, three months old, who died 1670. 

2, Frederick- Albert, one year old, who died 1673. 

3, Claudia- Eleonore, one year old, who died 1676. 

Palre Friderico III. Landgravio 

Hassio, Matre 

Eleonora Catharina, 

ex domo palatino Bipontina, 

nupta A. MDCLXVII. 

Ferdinando Alberto, 

Duci Brunsv. et Luneb. 

ex eoque mater facta novem 

liberorum, tribus praemissis, 

ipso etiam conjuge orbata, qui 

nam relinquens prolem masculam, 

unam fceminam, 

A. MDCCII. d. XIIX. Martii, 

vitae hujus satura, ex sede 

Beverana transmisit animam, 

beatorum sedi Princeps de- 

vota, in quosvis benigna : 

hoc est 




non poterat 

^ aliter finire. 

Es ist genung! 

* These three children were the first who were deposited in this vault, on the 
20th of March, 1681. Their coflSns stood formerly in the choir. 

Leopoldus • 

Carolus, Dux 
Brun. et Luneb. 
natus est Beverse 
ad Visurgim, 
d. 30 Jan. Septuag. 
h. 3 mat. 1670. 


Patre Ferdinando CHAP III 

Alberto, D. B. et 'v^^V'^^ 

matre Christina, 

D. B. et Lun. 
natee Principissse 

renatus a. 15 Febr. 
$ denatus ibidem, 
d. 3 Martii, h. 7. 

vesp. It setatis 

m. 1. d. 1. h. 16. 

Requiescat in pace 


expectans mortuorum, 



cum corpore, et 

plenariam beatitudinem. 


Fridericus Albertus, 

secundo genitus 

Ferdinandi Alberti, 

Due. Brun. et Luneb. 

et Christin*, D. Br. et Lun. 

Natse Hassise Principissse, 

Natus Eschwegse in Hassia 

d. 5 Jan. et Veneris h. 7. 

mat. 1672. 

Baptizatus in festo 

Epiphan. 6 Jan. 

extinctus phthisi, 

Beverae ad Visurgim, 

d. 27 Jan. et Lun. h. 10. 

Vesp. 1673, 

setatis Anno 1. 

d. 23. 


CHAP. III. 4, Augustus-Ferdinand, who died 1704*. 

Claudia Eleonora, 

Ducissa Brunsv. et 

Luneb. nata est Eschwege 

in Hassia, d. 22 Novb. 

> h. 6. mat. 1675. 


Ferdinando Alberto, 

D. B. et Lun. Matre 


D. B. et Lun. nata 



renata d. 3 Decembris, 


denata Blekenrode, 

> 30 Jul. h. 9 vesp. 

1676. setat. mens VIII. 

in Eichsfeldi. 

Iterum jungemus amantes. 

Flos generosus eram, cinerem 

mors invida fecit, fine 

cinis, rursus flos generosus 

Ich war ein Bliimlein voller 

Der Tod hat mich zu Asch 


Doch diese Asch foil warden 


Ein Bliimlein wieder wol- 


Actor XXI. 14. 

FaCtUM est ut VoLUIt. 


He was born 29th December, 1677, at Bevern; made his first campaign 
, under the king of Great Britain, in the Spanish Netherlands, when he was 


seventeen years old, and was at the siege of Namur. He served as a volunteer CHAP. III. 

against the Turks, under duke Eugene of Savoy; and was, in the year 1702, at ^^^V'^^' 

the siege of Landau. In the year 1704 he commanded the contingent corps of 

the states of Lower Saxony ; received, on the 2d of July, an order to take the Schel- 

lenberg, near Donauwerth, by storm ; and leading his troops most gallantly to the 

charge, he was killed by a musquet ball. He is buried in Brunswick. His coffin is 

of tin, and has the following inscription : — 

D. 0. M. S. 
Conditum hie quicquid 
condi potuit Serenissimi 


AuGUSTi Ferdinandi, 

Ducis Brunsvic. et Luneburg. 


Ferdinaxdo Alberto, 

Duce Brunsv. et Luneb. 



Principe Hassiaca, 


in arce Beverana, 


d. XXIX. Dec. 

Brevem is vita, sed laudibusque 

multo longissimum 

exegit cursum, ad omne 

principale regiumque decus 

eum natura optima, 

educatio exquisita, studium 

acre, itinera provida, usus 

amplus finxerant; hinc 

exstitit supra quam dici potest, 

generosus, alacer, fortis, 
doctus, sapiens, plus, clemens, 
humanus, artibus pacis 
bellique instructissimus. 
Voluit in bellis ad pacera 
aliquid conferre, contulit 
quoque plurimum, adfuit 


CHAP. III. 5, Ferdinand-Christian, who died 1706*. 

ubi theatra maxime aperiebantur, 

in Belgio ad Rhenum, 

ad Danubium stetit pro 

communi salute sub heroibus 

progloriosissimis : 

WiLHELMO rege, 

LuDovico Badensi^ 

EuGENio Sabaudo, 

par futurus, tantis 

luminibus ac fulminibus, 

si vita suppetiisset: imperator 

copiarum circuli Saxonici 

inferioris, duxit eas 

ad hostes h Scliellenbergico 

ad Donauwerdam munimento 

pellendos, et triumphans 

jam in capite ictus, 

pro I 

desiit imperare, desiit 


d. 11 Julii, 

A. MDCCIV. atatis 


Animam reddidit coelo, 

gloriam liquit 

super orbs terrarum 

dispersam ; 


hue remisit, hac tumba 

inclusum, ubi quiescit 

suaviter ad diem usque 


Died at Brunswick, twenty-five years old. His coffin is of tin, with the 
following inscription : — 


D. O. M. S. CHAP. III. 

Quiescit hie ea parte ' _^ ^ -^ 

quae tali quiete 


Serenissimus Princeps 

Ferdinandus Christianus, 

Dux Brunsvic. et Luneb. 

editus in lucem 

d. IV. Mart. A. MDCLXXXII. 

parentibus Sereniss. 

Ferdinando Alberto, 

Duce Brunsv, et Luneb. 


Principe Hassiaca, 

horum filius ille natus, 

factusque erat ad 

omnes res genere tanto 

dignas, sen belli, seu pacis, 

etiam utrisque inteutus 

aliquatndiu fuit, sed deinde, 

corporis imbecillitate 

servire coactus, 

quietis studiis porro invigilavit 

et donii et 

foris, late peragrans terras 

florentissimas, ita rarani 

eruditionem inhibit, 

eamque hoc gratiorem 

et utiliorem, 

quod stipata erat raoribus 


virtutibus gemmeis. 


optiraus hie Princeps, 

superatis omnibus aliis, 

superatus tandem est 

vi diuturni morbi, quo 

hac urbe decubuit, ast ea 

tantura parte quae hie 
quiescit, altera enim semper 


CHAP. III. superior transcendit astra, 

^^V'-i^^ d. XII. Dec. A. MDCCVI. 

eetatis XXV. 

duos fratres 

maximum atque minimum 

eodem secutus. 

Bene ergo est animBe, 

in manibus Dei, bene 

est corpori, hie inter 

suorum ossa sub Dei 

manibus, bene etiam 

nomini, in animis 

ore scriptis 


6, Henry- Ferdinand, who was present at the Schellenberg, 
and afterwards killed before Turin, 7th September, 1706, in his 
22d year. His epitaph is as follows : — 

D. O. M. S. 

Sacrae iterum memoriae 

ac ossibus Serenissimi Princ. 

Henrici Ferdinandi, 

Duels Brunsv. et Luneb. 

nati Bremae, 



Ferdinando Alberto, 

Duce Br. et Luneb. 



Principe Hassiaca. 

Hie fratrum minimum 

aetate, citissime maturavit 


mente, beneficio indolis, 

educationis, itinerum; 

sic corpore adolescens 

raaturavit animo, scientia, 

virtutibus, experientia, 

cito etiam militavit 

patriae generoso instinctu 

ac spiritu vere martio, 

sed tamen pio, prsecipue 

cilm pro Chiliarcha 

transiit Alpes, et Turini 

graviter obsessi liberationem 

adivit, ubi aliis externaeq. 

quo ardentius ibi 

canones observavit, 


hostibus pulsis, alios 

alicubi haerentes adoriens, 

id sinistro pectore vulnexatus 

cecidit, simul expiravit, 

d. VII. Sept. A. MDCCVII. 

aetatis XXII. 

Quo minor annis, 

eo major gloria; 

viderat in monte 

Schella morientem 

ita fratrem, huic 

par factus maximo 

minimus, non loco 

ac munere, tamen 

anno, spe, meritis. 


ipsoque fato. 

Hei quantum in hoc 

quoque heroe perdidit 

Germania! et coelestis 

patria hunc etiam 

dilectissimi cives, 

terris invidens, sibi 

cito voluit 


7, Sophia- Eleonora, who died, 1711, of the small-pox, at 
Gandersheim. Her coffin has the following inscription : — 

D. O. M. 

Conditur hie ex parte 

Sereniss. Princeps 

Sophia Eleonora, 

nata V. Martii, MDCLXXIV. 

pietatis utriusq. 


habilem se alteri 

vitsE fecit, 

eo citius 

illud est traducta, 




occurrisset morbo 

ac morti 

et vires ejus 


lobusta fide fregisset, 

expiravit placidissime 





Ferdinando Albf.rto, 

Duce Br. et Lun. 



Principe Hassiaca, vere Princeps ; 

gessit enim perpetuo 

principem curam principis 

suae partis, nempe 

animse, imo earn cum 

corpore penitus sacravit Deo, 

Monasterium Gandesiense 

ingrediens MDCXCIV. 

8, Ferdinand-Albert the Second, second son of Ferdinand- 
Albert the First, who died 1735*. 

* Died in the same year in which he succeeded Louis-Rudolph in the govern- 
ment. A large sarcophagus of copper, which is the whole breadth of the middle 
hall, covers the coffin of the duke and his dutchess. As a warrior, he was in seven 
teen campaigns against the Turks and the French, as the following inscription 
shows : — 

Resurrectionem heic expectant 

Serenissimus Princeps ac Dominus, 


Ferdinandus Albertus, 

Brunsvicens. et Luneburgens. Dux, 

in XVn. contra Gallos et Turcas expeditionib. 


heros imperterritus, 
' ■ , d. XIX. Mail, An. ClOlOCLXXX. natus, 

pie d. III. Sept. An. CIOloCCXXXV. defunctus, 

VI. tantum, eheu! menses, 

Brunsv. Wolfenb. terras gloriose moderatus. ; 


serenissima ejus conjux, 

Princeps ac Domina 

Antonetta Amalia, 

Brunsv. et Luneb. Dux, 

felicissima IX. filiorum et VI. filiarum mater, 

d. XXII. April. CIOIOCXCVI. nata, 

serenissimum conjugem suum 

in seternam beatitudinem secuta, 

d. VI. Mart. CIOloCCLXII. 

Antoinette-Amalia, daughter of duke Louis-Rudolph, who 
died 1762. 

Their children : — 

9, Ernest -Ferdinand, brother of Ferdinand- Albert the^ 
Second, who died 1746. V 

Eleonora-Charlotte, of Curland, who died 1748. 7 


loculo deposuit, quicquid 

terreni habebat, 

parte tamen meliore sui 

in Deo superstes, 

serenissimus quondam Princeps, 


Ernestus Ferdinandus, 

Dux Brunsvicensis et Luneburgensis, 


Sanctorum Blasii et Cyriaci 

prsepositus hsereditarius, 



oidinis regii Damci elephantini 


natus Osterholzi, in ducatu Bremensi, 

A. MDCLXXXII. d. IV. Martii, 

conjugatus A. MDCCXIV. d. V. Aug. Baruthi, 


Eleonora Charlotta, 

Duce Curlandise et SemigalliaB, 

ex hoc matrimonio relictis VII. superstitibus, 

et prsemissis VI. liberis, 

denatus Brunsv. d. XIV. Aprilis, A. MDCCXXXXVI. 

ffitatis annor. LXIV. mens. I. et XXI. dierum. 

All these, above mentioned, are deposited in what is called 
the hereditary vault, under the choir, and vs^hich was fitted up 
by Ferdinand- Albert, 1681. The entrance is shut by a large 
folding door, to which a staircase of six steps leads. The vault 
is supported by eight pillars, in two rows, which thereby divide 
it into three halls. Six windows give sufficient light. This 
sacred place was robbed in the year 1811. 

Louis-Rudolph, who died 1735*, and 

Christine-Ludowicke, of Oettingen-Wallerstein, his dutchess, 
who died 1747, are also interred in this cathedral. 

The tomb and monuments of these two illustrious persons 
were built and erected in the middle of the nave, by order of 

* He was wounded and taken prisoner in the battle of Fleury, 1690. After his 
release, duke Rudolph-Augustus, his uncle, ceded to him the county of Blankenburg, 
which was soon raised into a principality. By it he got a vote at the diet of the 
German empire, and George the First ceded to him the principality of Gruben- 
hagen. He followed his brother in the government of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle, 
celebrated the anniversary of the Reformation 1717, and died 1735. 


CHAP. III. the duke, for him and his consort only. The tomb is of 
marble, and forms a sarcophagus. The statues of the deceased, 
cast in tin, are lying on it. The duke, in complete armour, 
in a reclining position, with his legs crossed, rests his arm on 
a cannon, and lays his left hand on the marshal's baton. That 
of the dutchess is also of tin. The whole group has a great 
deal of animation. The faces of both are turned outwards. At 
the head of the sarcophagus are the Brunswick arms, with a 
prince's coronet. At the foot, two genii are sitting, leaning their 
hands on an urn, with much expression in their faces, and 
their eyes full of tears. At the foot of the sarcophagus are the 
arms of Gottingen, and on both sides an inscription * : — 

' Tegit potius quam monstrat dextra hsec tumuli facies 

Serenissimura quondam Principem, Ludovicum Rudoi.phum, 

Brunsvicensium ac Luneburgensium Ducem, 

AuGusTi et Antonii Ulrici, 

Qui senio, doctrina, prudentia, Nestores erant Germaniae, 

Nepotem ac Filium utrique non nisi annis disparem, 

Imperatorum Caeoli Sexti Augusti socerum, divi Petri Secundi avum, 

Populi sui Patrem magis quam Dominum, ultra laudes moderatum, pium, 


Quern certe neque maxima gentis suae nomina, 

neque plurimse CBesarum et regum imagines tantum illustrarunt, 

quantum propriis enituit virtutum exemplis ac beneficiorum meritis, 

qui denique ex prosapia Henkici Leonis ortus, 

* According to an old ground-plate of the vaults of this church, an unknown 
subterranean vault is connected with this sepulchral monument and tomb of Louis- 


sepeliri proximus illi voluit, chai*. hi. 

et ita sibi aliisque imperavit, ita mortuus est, '^^'-\^^^ 

ut nee vivere nee mori potuisset gloriosius. 

Condendis reliquiis suis, sinistram hujus sepuleri partem destinat 

Augustas mater, Imperantium avia, 

Serenissima Princeps Christina Ludovica, Princeps ^ stirpe Oettingiaca, 

optimi olim Ducis Ludovici Rudolphi, 

cum quo felicissimum aeque ac diutumum coluit matrimonium. 

Vidua infelicissima, et doloris ex tanto funere vix superstes, 

exstruxit eadem quale eumque quod vides monumentum, 

ex voluntate conjugis, dum vivebat, incomparabilis 

nunc sanetissimi, desideratissimi, 

et novam cum illo conjunetionem, 

unicum jacturse non nisi morte reparandse solatium; 

quod ad animam in coelis inque eelebranda summi Numinis gloria; 

quod ad corpus in communi hoc conditorio, 

et miscendis utriusque dum reviviseant cineribus, 

tarn avide optat, quam eerte expectat. 

Composui felieem, nunc ergo resto. 

Children of Ferdinand- Albert the Second : 

1, Charles (see below). 

2, Frederick- William, eleven months old, who died 1732*. 

* His coffin is of tin, and stands at the feet of duke Charles, with the following 
inscription : — 


CHAP. III. 3, Augustus, five months old, who died 1720' 


loculo hoc quiesclt 

Seren. Princeps 

Fridericus Gulielmus, 

Serenissimi Principis ac Domini 

Ferdinandi Alberti, 

Serenissimae Principis ac Dominse, 


Antonett^ Amali*, 

Brunsvic. et Luneburg. Ducum, 

filius Septimus, 

d. XVII. Jan. CIoIoCCXXXI. natus, 


coelestem spiritum coelo reddidit. 

* This coffin has this inscription : — 

Vix ostens. aperit. 

D. O. M. S. 

Adservantur hie 



Due. Brun. et Luneb. 

Ferdinandi Alberti, 


Antonio; Amali;e, 

D. D. Brunsvic. et Luneb. 

filio quarto geniti, 

nati d. XXIII. Nov. 



denati d. XXIV. Martii, 


sicque celeriter 

k mundi labyrintho 

in coelestem paradisum 



4, A still-born prince, 1733*. chap. in. 

5, Ferdinand, the field-marshal, who died 1792|. v^'V^ 

* The coffin has this inscription : — 

At the head are the Brunswick arms. At the feet is a bunch of roses; of which 
one drops, with the following epigram : — 

Exaruit priusquam vernavit. 

Serenissimi Principis ac 

Domini, Domini 

Ferdinandi Alberti, 


Serenissimte Principis ac Dominse, 



Brunsvic. et Luneburg. Ducum, 
filii noni, natu minimi, 


in loculo hoc conduntur, 

auima in ccelum jam erat recepta, 

quum d. XIV. Decemb. 1733, 

in lucem ederetur. 

t Suffi;ciently known as the great commander in chief in the seven years' war, 
and as the conquering hero of Crefeld and Minden. 

In his last will he had ordered his remains to be interred in the garden of 
his country seat, Vechelde ; which was done as soon as a vault could be finished. 
But finding that the coffin was standing always in water in this vault, the reigning 
duke brought it to Brunswick. His coffin is of oak, and has the following in- 
scription : — • 

At the head is written upon a table : 
Ferdinand, Guthsherr von Vechelde vomlahre, 1746, an bis den 3'^° Julius, 1792; 
geboren auf dem Mosthofe zu Braunschweig, d. 12 Januar. 17-21 ; 
gest. d. 3"° Julius, 1792. 


CHAP. III. 6, Albert, twenty years old, who died 1745*. 

7, Frederick-Francis, twenty-six years old, who died 1758t. 

8, Louis-Ernest, who died 1788 J. 

9, Therese-Natalia, who died 1778 1|. 

10, Christine-Charlotte-Ludowicka, who died ]766§. 

11, Anthony-Ulrich. He was the husband of the empress 
Anne of Russia, and died 1781, at Kolmogory, near Archangel. 

12, Juliana-Maria, queen of Denmark. 

The two last are not buried at Brunswick. All the others 
are deposited in the chief ducal vault. 

At the feet stands the following inscription : 

Grosser, aber durch das Blut Jesu Christi, seines Heilandes und Erlbsers begnadigter 
SUnder vos Gott. " Hier nur seine irrdische Hiille." 

On the cover of the coffin are to be seen some air-holes : likewise it is asserted, 
that the outer cover was furnished with a lock, of which the deceased held the key 
in his hand. 

* He was killed by a musket ball in the battle of Sovi, near Trautenau, in 
Silesia. A sarcophagus, most beautifully worked, of alabaster and marble, encloses 
his coffin. The place where it stands is not in its favour, as the workmanship 
cannot be seen well. At the fore part are the Brunswick arms, which are to 
be seen ; a lion's skin covers the upper part ; and on the upper part are warlike 
weapons, and an open helmet. There was no room for the inscription. 

t He was killed by a cannon ball in the attack at Hoehkirchen, serving as 
major-general in the Prussian army. His coffin, of tin, and excellent workmanship, 
was made by the order of duke Ferdinand, his brother. 

I He died at Eisenach, in his 70th year; was an imperial field-marshal, com- 
mander of the order of Malta at Supplingenburg, and knight of the Prussian order of 
St. Andrew, and of the Polish order of the Wliite Eagle. His coffin is of wood, 
covered with red velvet. On the top is an urn, which contains his heart. 

II Elected abbess of Gandersheim, on the 4th of June, 1767. 
^ She died at Brunswick. Her coffin without an inscription. 


Children of Ernest Ferdinand; 

1, Maria-Anna, who died 1754*. 

2, Frederick- George, who died 1766 t- 

3, George- Lewis-Frederick, who died 1747;};. 

4, Frederica-Albertina, who died 1772 1|. 

• She died at Bevern; and her coffin has no inscription. 

t He died at Bevern. His coffin, of tin, has no inscription. 

I He made the campaign of 1747, in the Netherlands, under the command 
of field-marshal Bathyan ; got a fever, of which he died, at Bernau, a village two 
miles from Maestricht. He was solemnly deposited in the town where he died; 
but, according to his last will, his remains were brought to Brunswick, in the 
year 1748, and deposited on the 11th of February. His coffin, of tin, was made 
about the year 1765, and has the following inscription : — 

In hoc dormitorio quiescunt 

ossa in pace 

Serenissimi Principis ac 


Georgii LuDovici Friderici, 

Ducis Brunsvicensis et Luneburgensis, 

nati Beverae, 

d. 11 Januarii, MDCCXXI. 


Ernesto Ferdinando, 


Brunsvicensi et Luneburgensi, 


Eleonora Charlotta, 


Curlandise et Semigalliae, 

Trajecti ad Mosam pia morte 

d. VI. Sept. MDCCXLVII. defuncti. 

II She became, on the 4th of July, 1765, abbess of Steterburg, at which place 
she died. 


cHAF. III. 5, Augustus- William, governor of Stettin, who died 1781 

^^^ 6 and 7, Twin sisters, of whom one, Ernestine, lived 

only four hours, who died 1721. 

8, Amalia-Christine, two years old, who died 1726. 

9, Charles- William, four months old, who died 1725. ^ ' 

10, Frederick-Augustus, three years old, who died 1729. 

11, John- Anthony, one year old, who died 1732. 
These last six are deposited in the Rudolph's chapel. 

* This duke was dom. -provost of St. Blase's and St. Cyriac's, major-general in 
the Prussian service, and governor of Stettin. He died at Stettin. His coffin is of 
wood, covered with velvet. At the feet are the Brunswick arms, very neatly worked 
in brass. When this vault and the cathedral were robbed, in the year 1811, the 
villains broke open this coffin ; but none of its ornaments were missing. After 
having been deposited more than thirty years, the features of the deceased could be 
recognised. He was lying in the coffin, dressed in full regimentals. G. 

■f- The following inscriptions record the few days of these infants : — 

Principes Gemellx Septismestres, 

ex thoro Ducum Brunsvicensium, 

Ernesti Ferdinandi, et 


h dome ducali Curland, 

quarum altera jam ante exitum decesserat, 

media fere nocte, die Amali«, 

altera quideni viva nata sc. MDCCXXI. d. VII. Octobr. 

patris nomine 


baptismo renata, sed 

denata die charitatis, vita hie 

ad quartam horam vix 




fragilitatis humanse ! 


0"ente (,„AP. in. 

pulcherrima facie V^^v*^^/ 

Carolo Guilielmo, 

Due. Bruns. et Luneb. 

natae ducissae Curlandiae 

septimo genito 



d. XXVH. Junii, MDCCXXV. 


d. Xn. Septembris ejusd. anni, 

breve hoc 

vitse curriculum 

spatio LXXVn. dierum 


aeterna domicilia 


patria ccelesti 


Primi amoris candore 

audivit Salvatorem : 

sinire ad me venire, 

promptissime venit 


Amalia Christiana, 

nata serenissimis 


D. B. L. 

die 11 Junii, 


supremum obiit 


XXV. Junii, 


chara Salvatori, 

amore coronatur 


regnum possidet 



CHAP. III. Corruptibile 

\,^^-^^ expectat diem reditionis 

in summa gloria. 

D. O. M. S. 


S. condita 

heic ossicula 

brevi tempore 

pulcherrimi Principis 

Friderici Augusti, 

Seren. Ducis 

Ernesti Ferdinandi, 

D. B. L. 

superst. quarti nati 


in hanc lucem editi 

d. III. August. 


denati XXX. Mart. 


Augustus, augusto natus, 

augustissima petiit. 



Deo charissimus Princeps 

Johannes Antonius, 

sanguine Christi emundatus, 

filius serenissimorum parentum, 

Ernesti Ferdinandi, 

et ELEONORa; Carolina;, 

D. D. Brunsv. et Luneb. 

natus d. XVI. Febr. MDCCXXXI. 

et denatus d. XVI. Junii, MDCCXXXII. 

Expectat hoc in tumulo 

resurrectionem justorum, 

quos inter fulgebit ut 
sol in regione patris sui. 


Charles, son of Ferdinand- Albert the Second, who died 1780*. chap. m. 
Philippine-Charlotte, princess of Prussia, who died 1801f. ^-^^''^^ 

Their children were : 

1, George-Francis, one year old, who died 1737. 

2, Christian-Louis, four years old, who died 1742. 

3, Ludowicka-Fredericka, one year old, who died 1744. 

4, Albert-Henry, nineteen years old, who died 1761];. 

5, William- Adolphus, twenty-five years old, who died 1770||. 

6, Fredericka-Wilhelmina, ten years old, who died 1758. 

7, Maximilian-Julius-Leopold, thirty-three years old, drowned 
in the river Oder, near Franckfurth, 1785§. 

* Succeeded to the government the 5th September, 1735, and died at Brunswick. 
His coffin is of wood, covered with velvet: the golden fringes of it were stolen. 

t She was the sister of Frederick the Second, died eighty-five years old. Her 
coffin is of wood, covered with velvet; the fringes have been stolen. 

This coffin was likewise opened, and a gorget of Brussels lace taken away. Ten 
years after her death her features were still recognised. Close to the coffin, in a 
niche, is an urn of marble, and on a ring which encloses it, are engraved the following 
words : " La grace de Dieu me suive dans I'eternite." It is not known what this urn 
contains ; but it was shut in the presence of the deceased, and by her direction put on 
the coffin after her death. 

X Was wounded by a musket ball in the neck, in a skirmish which took place 
between the corps of the hereditary prince of Brunswick and the French army, near a 
village called Ruhne, four days after the glorious battle of Vellinghausen. The 
wounded prince was carried to Hamm, where he died, on the 8th of August. The 
coffin is of wood, covered with velvet. 

II He died while serving as volunteer in the Russian army, in the war between 
Ismael and Oczakow, of an inflammation of his breast. On his coffin there formerly 
stood a silver case with his heart. This was stolen 181) : the heart was found 
without its case, and is now preserved in a varnished urn. The coffin is of wood, 
covered with velvet. 

§ At the inundation of the Oder, near Franckfurth, in the year 1783, several 
unfortunate beings were surrounded, and struggling with the raging flood, calling in 
despair for help. Every one, on account of the danger, was afraid of trusting his hfe 
Q Q 


CHAP. III. 8, Augusta-Dorothea, of Gandersheim, who died 1810. 

""""^^^^"^^ Duke Charles-William-Ferdinand, who died 1806*. 

Amalia-Charlotte-Ludowicka-Dorothea, who died 1773. 

Charles-George- Augustus, hereditary prince, who died 1 806. 

Frederick-William, who died ISlSf. 

The windows of the west side of the church, and those 
of the grand hall, contained formerly, in coloured glass, the 
portraits of the princes and princesses in full length, with some 

The windows are broken or removed, but the inscriptions 
are preserved in the chronicle, as follows : — 

Von Gottes Gnaden Maria, geborene von Wirtemberg, Herzoginn 

von Braunschweig und Luneburg. 

Von Gottes Gnaden Heineich der Jungere, Herzog zu Braunschweig 

und Liineburg. 

to the merciless waves, when all at once a noble son of the Guelphs came forward. 
His fellow-creatures were to be saved — he saw no danger — he dashed into the 
water; — but, alas! the waves overwhelmed him, and he sunk to rise no more! He 
perished on the 28th of April, 1785. He was a major-general in the Prussian 
service, and knight of the order of Malta. His noble heart was preserved in a silver 
case formed in the shape of a heart, and with the following inscription: — 

In hac capsa conditum est cor Serenissimi et Celsissirai Principis 

Maximiliani Julii Leopoldi, cujus non ultima 

laus erat, cor habuisse. 

This case was also stolen in the year 181 1 , but the heart afterwards found. It is 
now enclosed in a vase of tin, varnished black. 

* He died the 10th November, 1806, at Ottensen, near Altona, in consequence 
of the wounds which he had received in the battle of Jena. His remains have lately 
been brought from Ottensen to Brunswick, and are deposited in the ducal vault of 
his ancestors. 
. t This gallant duke was killed at Quatre-Bras, the 17th June, 1815. 


Von Gottes Gnaden Sophie, geborene aus Kbniglichem Stamm zu chap III. 

Polen, Herzoginn zu Braunschweig ^und Liineburg. ^^^V^^'' 

Von Gottes Gnaden Wolfgang, Herzog zu Braunschweig und 
Nee, WoLFGANGE, latet pietas tua et inclyta virtus; 
Te clarum heroem Gallica bella canunt. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Philippus, Herzog zu Braunschweig und 
Ingenti studio fraterna exempla Philippus, 
Dum sequitur, laudis non habet ille minus. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Ernst, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Liineburg. 
Constans assertor fidei, bellator et acris, 
Ernestus sese nomina digna gerit. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Sidonia, Herzoginn zu Braunschweig und 
Liineburg, geborene Herzoginn zu Sachsen. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Erich der Jiingere, Herzog zu Braunschweig und 
En tibi beUipotens subhmia pectora Mavors, 
Queis tua fama, diu vivet, Erice dedit. 
Von Gottes Gnaden, Erich der Aeltere, Herzog zu Braunschweig und 
Qua jacet uberibus prselustris Hagonia terris. 
Imperii acta gerens clams Ericus obit. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Wilhelm, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Liineburg. 
Sanguis avitus inest tibi. Dux generose, Wilhelme, 
Laude igitur dignus, dignus es eiUogio. 
Von Gottes Gnaden, Heinrich, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Liineburg. 
Heroum soboles, heros clarissime magnum, 
De te. Hen rice, sibi patria spondet humus. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Franz Otto, Herzog zu Braunschweig und 


CHAP. III. Vix Sprea Francisco nupta piscosus Othoni, 

^^'V^^ Junxerat, ilia pio nunc regit orba viro. 

Von Gottes Gnaden Julius, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Luneburg. 
Ex Fabiis Fabium Mars texerat omnibus unum, 
Fratribus extinctis Julius esto super. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Philippus, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Luneburg. 
Bella sequi belloque mori tua strenua virtus 
Te juvit, clara stirps quoque clari patris. 
Von Gottes Gnaden Caeolus, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Luneburg. 
Labitur ex ssevo bombardae Carolus ictu, 
Quando fugat patriae bella cruenta. 


Extract from Christoph Wolteueck's Begrabnissbuch der 
Kirche B. M. V. zu Wolfenbiittd. Vide Chronicon der Stadt 
ii/id Vestung Wolfenbilttel, auf. Rud. Aug. Noltenio, Hto. 1747. 

This church had for many years no other sepulchral vault, 
but that which is called the old ducal vault. This was situated 
before the pulpit, but was built up by order of the duke Augustus, 
in the year 1654. In it are enclosed the following princely 
corpses, resting on iron grates * : — 

1, Henry the Younger. 

2, His first consort, of Wirtemberg. 

* It is also observed, that there were four figures cut in stone, in full length, 
and painted and gilded. The men in armour, and with poll-axes in their right 


3, Duke Henry's second consort, of the royal family of chap. hi. 
Poland. ^^^^^ 

4, Duke Julius of Brunswick and Luneburg. 

5, His consort, of the electoral family of Brandenburg, depo- 
sited anno 1602. 

6, Her serene highness Margaret, dutchess of Brunswick and 
Luneburg, dutchess of Munsterberg, in Silesia, &c., deposited 
anno 1580. 

7, Her serene highness Dorothea, of Saxony, dutchess of 
Brunswick and Luneburg, died 1587, aged twenty-three years. 

8, Duke Henry- Julius the Younger, died 1606, aged eight 

9, Sabina-Catharina, dutchess of Brunswick and Luneburg, 
a young child when she died. 

10, Sabina-Cathai-ina, dutchess of Brunswick and Luneburg, 
died 1590, aged sixteen years. 

Another extract of the church register, written 1654, adds 
two more, viz. 

1, Charles-Victor, and 2, Philip-Magnus, both killed in the 
battle of Silvershausen. 

hands, but the heads uncovered. Who they were, the following inscriptions 
show : — 

1, Von Gottes Gnaden Sopiua, gebohren aus Koniglichen Staram Pohlen, 

Herzoginn zii Braunschweig und Luneburg. 

2, Von Gottes Gnaden Heinricii, der Jlingere, Herzog zu Braunschweig 

und LUneburg. 

3, Von Gottes Gnaden Carl Victor, Herzog zu Braunschweig und LUneburg. 

4, Von Gottes Gnaden Philip Magnus, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Luneburg. 

Before these four princely persons is an iron grate-work. 


CHAP. III. Their remains rest on both sides of the subterranean 
'""^'^''^^ staircases. 

The first account is certified by a churchwarden, as follows : — 
" I, the undersigned, have found it so on the 18th August, 
1654 ; have examined the coffins, cleaned the inscriptions, and 
read them myself. I have written this list by order of his 
serene highness the duke Augustus, and delivered it to his 
serene highness. 

" Michael Hugo, Churchwarden." 

It happened afterwards, at the building of a church pillar, 
that the vault was opened again ; and a churchwarden, Anthony 
Henke, related that he found the before-mentioned coffins of 
tin resting upon iron grates, but twisted in such a manner that 
they had lost their proper shape. 

The new ducal vault is situated under the choir between 
the great and small altar. It was built about the year 1605, 
and has two entrances. Over one are the words: — 

Memento mori. 
Sepulchrorum memoria magis vivorum est consolatio quam defunctorum 
Over the other : 

Omnia transibunt, transibimus, ibitis, ibunt. 
Unus post alium, tandem discedimus omnes. 

Transivere patres, simul hinc transibimus omnes. 
In Codo patriam, qui bene transit, habet. 
Ergo, O homo! memento mori. 


In this ducal sepulchre are buried, since 1613, those who chap. hi. 
are mentioned in the following list : — v.^^v'^h^ 

List of the Corpses deposited in the Ducal Vault, in the Church 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, at Wolfenbuttle, received from the 
Rev. Mr. Wittekop. 

1, Henry -Julius, reigning duke, eldest son of duke Julius, 
born the 15th October, 1564, died the 20th July, 1613 ; deposited 
the 4th October, of the same year. He built the church of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, 1604, the large school-house, 1596, 
and called the Heinrichs and Julius Friedensstadt by his 

2, Charles-Henry, the fifth son of duke Henry-Julius, born 
the 3d September, 1609; elected, 1613, bishop of Halberstadt ; 
died of the small-pox at Helmstaedt, the 11th June, 1615, in 
his sixth year; and was deposited the 7th July. 

3, Duke Julius- Augustus, the fourth son of duke Julius, abbot of 
Michaelstein, in the county of Reinstein, born the 9th February, 
1573, died the 31st August, 1617; deposited .28th September, 
of the same year. 

4, Dorothea- Augusta, the sixth daughter of duke Julius, born 
the 12th February, 1577; was elected abbess of Gandersheim, 
the 14th November, 1611; died at Wolfenbuttle, the 23d 
December, 1625, aged forty-eight years ; and deposited in 
March, 1626. 

5, Elizabeth, second consort of duke Henry-Julius, daughter 
of king Frederick of Denmark, born the 26th August, 1573; 


CHAP. III. married the 19th April, 1590; died at Schoningen, the 19th July, 
""•^^^^ 1626; deposited the 15th October, 1628. 

6, Duke Christian, third son of duke Henry-Julius, bishop 
of Halberstadt, knight of the order of the Garter, born the 
10th September, 1599, died the 6th July, 1626; deposited the 
15th October, 1628. He made a great figure in the thirty 
years' war. 

7, Frederick, elector palatine of the Rhine, born the 19th 
October, 1594, died 10th July, 1626; deposited 15th Oct. 1628. 

8, The reigning duke, Frederick-Ulrich, eldest son of duke 
Henry-Julius, born the 5th April, 1591, died 1 1th August, 1634; 
deposited here the 20th September, 1676, after his remains had 
been in the cathedral of Brunswick forty-one years and five 

9, Christian-Francis, eldest son of duke Augustus, born the 
31st July, 1639; died 7th December, the same year, four months 
and seven days old. 

10, Eleonora- Sophia, daughter of duke Rudolph- Augustus, 
born the 5th August, 1655, died the 7th January, 1656. 

11, Leopold-Augustus, second son of duke Anthony-Ulrich, 
born the 27th February, 1661, died the 5th March, 1662; de- 
posited the 6th June, of the same year. 

12, Augustus-Henry, fourth son of duke Anthony-Ulrich, 
born the 14th August, 1663, died the 21st December, 1664 ; 
deposited the 20th March, of the same year. 

13, Augustus-Charles, fifth son of duke Anthony-Ulrich, born 
the 4th August, 1664, died the 21st December, of the same year ; 
deposited the 9th January, 1665. 


14, Christiana-Margaret, dutchess of Mecklenburg-Scliwerin ; chap. m. 
born at Gustrow, the 31st March, 1615; married, the 14th ^-^^'^^^ 
February, 1640, to duke Frederick- Albert, of Engern and West- 
phalia; became a widow the 10th July, 1642; married again, 
duke Christian, of Mecklenburg, whom she left after two years, 
in consequence of his behaviour to her, and went to her brother- 
in-law, duke Augustus; where she died, the 16th August, 1666: 
and was deposited the 13th December, of the same year. 

15, Augustus, reigning duke, son of Henry of Danneberg: 
born the 10th April, 1579; died the 17th September, 1666; and 
deposited the 11th December, of the same year. He was a 
religious prince ; builder of the Augustus Town, of the library, 
and of the Duke's Gate. 

16, Augustus-Francis, sixth son of Anthony-Ulrich ; born 
the 7th October, 1665; died the 14th December, 1666; depo- 
sited the 17th December, of the same year. 

17, Amalia-Antonia, the fourth daughter of duke Anthony- 
Ulrich; born the 7th June, 1668; deceased the 1st November, 
of the same year. 

18, Sybilla-Ursula, the sixth daughter of duke Anthony- 
Ulrich; born the 10th September, 1672; died the 1st April, 1673. 

19, Sophia- Elizabeth, the third consort of duke Augustus, 
daughter of John- Albert, of Mecklenburg; born the 20th of 
August, 1612; died the 12th July, 1676; deposited the 4th 
October, 1676. 

20, Duke Augustus-Frederick, first son of duke Anthony- 
Ulrich; born the 24th August, 1657; died on the 22d August, 
1676, in the 19th year of his age, in consequence of a wound 

R R 


CHAP. III. on his head, received by a musket ball, at the fortress Philipsburg. 
^"^^'''^^ His skull was trepanned, and he lingered in great agony for 

thirteen days. His remains were deposited the 5th October, 

of the same year. 

21, Charlotte-Augusta, second daughter of duke Louis- 
Rudolphus ; born the 23d July, 1692 ; died the 6th August, 1692 ,- 
deposited the 7th August, of the same year. 

22, Christiana-Sophia, first consort of duke Augustus-William, 
and daughter of duke Rudolphus-Augustus, of Brunswick ; born 
the 4th of April, 1654; died the 26th January, 1695; deposited 
the 8th March, of the same year. 

23, Elizabeth-Juliane, consort of duke Anthony- Ulrich, 
daughter of duke Frederick, of Holstein-Nordburg ; born the 
24th May, 1634; married 19th August, 1656; deceased the 
4th February, 1704; deposited the 6th April, of the same year. 
She left, at her death, thirteen children, thirteen grandchildren, 
and four great-grandchildren ; and was the foundress of the poor 
widows' and orphans' chapel, and also of the convent in this 

24, Sophia- Amalia, second consort of duke Augustus-William, 
daughter of duke Christian- Albert, of Holstein-Gottorp ; born 
the 18th January, 1670; died the 27th February, 1710; deposited 
between the 4th and 5th of March, of the same year. 

25, The reigning duke, Anthony-Ulrich, third son of duke 
Augustus; born the 4th October, 1633; deceased the 27th 
March, 1714; deposited in March of the same year. He turned 
catholic ; in consequence of which he built the St. Nicolai church 
at Brunswick, and erected the palace at Salzdahlum. 


26, Ernest-Leopold, son of duke Rudolphus-Frederick, of chap. m. 
Holstein-Nordburg ; born the 11th August, 1685. He spent some ''^^'^^^^ 
years in military service at Brussels, and died the 7th August, 

1722, at Wesel, when he was on the road to visit his sister, 
the dutchess of Augustus-William. His remains were conveyed 
from thence to Wolfenbuttle, and deposited the 13th August, 
of the same year. 

27, The reigning duke, Augustus-William, third son of duke 
Anthony-Ulrich ; born the 8th March, 1662; died the 23d 
March, 1731 ; and most solemnly deposited the 25th of May, 
of the same year. He rebuilt, 1718, the Trinity church, which 
was struck by lightning, and burnt down, the 18th August, 1705. 
He likewise repaired the Gravenhof at Brunswick. 

28, Anne-Sophia, second daughter of duke Anthony-Ulrich; 
born the 29th October, 1659 ; died the 28th June, 1742 ; deposited 
the 3d July, of the same year. In 1677 she was married to 
margrave Charles-Gustavus, of Baden, but died a widow. 

29, Elizabeth-Sophia-Maria, third consort of duke Augustus- 
William, daughter of duke Rudolphus-Frederick, of Holstein- 
Nordburg; born the Uth September, 1683; married the 12th 
September, 1710; and deceased the 3d April, 1767, at Brunswick; 
deposited at Wolfenbuttle, between the 8th and 9th April, of 
the same year. This is the last person of our illustrious 
house whose remains have been deposited in the ducal vault 
of this church. 

(Signed) Charles-William Wittekop, 

Provost of the Convent to the honour of God, first Minister of 
the Church of tlie Blessed Virgin Mary, and Senior of the 
Ecclesiastical Ministry at Wolfenbuttle. 



Account of the Sepulchral Monument of Duke Rudolph, 
Bishop of Halberstadt. 

CHAP. iir. The monument of the bishop of Halberstadt, in the choir of 
'^^'^ the church of St. George, in Tiibingen, is close to that of Anne, 
princess of Wurtemburg, and daughter of duke Ulrich. It 
consists of a plate of dark grey sandstone, seven feet three 
inches long, four feet wide, and six inches thick; upon the 
cornice of which is the following inscription : — 

RuDOLFUs, postul. Episcopus Halberstad. Dux Brunsvig. 
et Luneburg. hie quiescit. 

Upon this plate lies a figure of the deceased, formed of white 
marble, six feet long, with a cushion with two tassels under his 
head. He is dressed in his episcopal robes, with his head un- 
covered, and holds in his hand the pastoral crosier. On his right 
lies the mitre, and at his left stands an open helmet. The tomb 
is borne by four leopards, stretching out their heads above the 
corner of the plate, howling, and drawing back their tails between 
the hind legs. They are formed of the same kind of marble, 
three feet three inches long each; and stand upon a plate of 
grey sandstone, two feet six inches long, and one foot two inches 
wide : the whole, from the ground to the top of the tomb, three 
feet high. Upon the plate at the head of the bishop the arms 
of Brunswick-Luneburg, divided into twelve fields, are engraven. 


The upper half contains six shields in two rows. The centre chap. m. 

escutcheon is empty. In the first field, among many small hearts, ^'^^ 

a lion with a double tail, and in the third a lion with a single 

tail ; in the second two lions, in the fourth one lion, in the fifth 

is the centre escutcheon, in the sixth a lion. In the under half 

are again six shields ; in the first two beams crossed ; in the 

second two bears' claws ; in the third nine chequers, placed in 

three rows, and three beams ; in the fourth the horns of a stag ; 

in the fifth a stag; and in the sixth the horns of a stag. Over 

this coat of arms are five helmets : on the first is a peacock s 

feather, with two horns of a stag ; on the second two bears' claws ; 

on the third a crowned and wreathed column, upon which is 

fixed a peacock's feather, and before which is a jumping horse, 

between two sickles, which are turned against each other, and 

ornamented in five places with peacocks' feathers ; on the fourth 

two horns of a deer, and in the middle six small banners ; on 

the fifth two horns of a stag. 

At the feet is another coat of arms, the Danish, which is 
split in four by the cross of an order. In the centre escutcheon 
is a knight in armour riding into action. In the first field three 
lions, standing one over the other ; in the third a lion, and under 
him nine hearts; in the second a crowned lion, with a flagstaff" 
in his claws ; in the fourth a crowned basilisk. 

The under half contains eight fields : in the first three crowns ; 
in the second the pascal lamb, with the banner; in the third 
two lions; in the fourth a crowned head from behind; in the 
fifth a shield, with three crowns and three nails ; in the sixth a 
crowned swan ; in the seventh two beams ; in the eighth a cross. 
It has no helmets, but is ornamented with the prince's coronet. 


CHAP. III. Both coats of arms are standing erect, and are of the same 
^'^^'^^'^^ marble. 

The above description is made by Mr. Pertzchefeld, and 
fully corresponds with the original, which is certified. 

(Signed) D. Ernest-Gotthil Bengel, 

Tubingen, 3d Oct. 1819. Professor of Divinity, and Deacon of the Cathedral 

Church of St. George, at TUbingen. 

Upon a table on the wall, near the monument, is the following 
inscription : — 


Postul. Episcopo Halberstadensi, 

Duel Brunsuic. et Luneburg. 

Henrici Julii, postul. Epis. Halberst. 

Due. Bruns. et Luneb. et 

Elisabeths, Frideeici II. Dan. Reg. Filise, 

maximorum parentum 


in exemplum piissimo, 

Principi, bono reip. nato, 

sed malo ejusdem, heu! praemature denato, 

mater et fratres, afficti, 


contra votum pietatis posuerunt. 

Oritur WoIfenbUtelii, A.C. MDCII. 

Jun. die XV. 

Moritur in illustri Collegio, A.C. MDCXVI. 

Jun. die XIII. 

Sepelitur hie inter Principes cognatos, 

A.C. MDCXVI. Aug. die XXII. 



In the well-known Minster or cathedral of Strasburg are chap. hi. 
deposited, in a chapel called the Henneberg chapel, the remains 
of Francis, son of Henry, duke of Brunswick-Luneberg-Dannen- 
berg, and chanoine, or domherr of Strasburg. On his way from 
Rastadt to Strasburg, crossing the Rhine at Lichtenau, his horse, 
starting, fell with him from the bridge into the river, and he 
was unfortunately drowned. He was born at Dannenberg, the 
6th of June, 1572 ; sent with his brother, Julius-Ernest, to Stras- 
burg, in July 1585; served in the year 1596 against the Turks, 
and 1599 against the Spaniards, with great gallantry, both times 
as commander of 1000 horse, and lost his life the 24th December, 
1601. On the 3d of March, 1602, his remains were conveyed 
to the place of their rest with great solemnity. The chief 
mourner was his brother, duke Augustus the younger. A funeral 
oration was delivered by John Scheldt, and the funeral sermon 
by the Rev. John Pappus. 

The following two inscriptions are still to be seen ; the first 
on his tomb, the second on the wall : — 

D. O. M. S. 

Hospes, Viator, Spectator, 
Quisquis es, adsta et audi. 
Si bonis Fortuna faveret, aut seculi potius nostri vitiis non ofFensi, nos 
boni amarent caelites, viveret equidem. 
Franciscus, illustrissimus Brunsuicensium et Luneburgensium Dux, 


CHAP. III. Cathedral. Ecclesiarum, Coloniensis et Argitinensis, Canonicus, 

^^^^-''^^ dignissimus Princeps, summis animi corporisque dotibus 



Anno Christi 1572, die 6 Junii, Tannebergae natus. 


et Christiana religio, contra impietatem ac superstitionem, et Germania 

patria, adversus hostes externos, paratum in se aliquando haberet 

* preesidium, heroicse ductu naturae. 

Pueritiam liberalibus addiscendis artibus, adolescentiam parando rerum usui 

et experientise, juventutem bellicis reb. tractandis deditse devovit. 


anno a partu Virginis 1592, eetatis 20, gUscente in Alsatia propter 

Episcopatum Argent, discordia, Tyrocinio armorum insigni 

cum laude posito, 

quarto post anno, 

Inferiore Saxonia poscente, mille equitum laevis armaturae ductor 

constitutus, adversus immanitatem Turcicam prsehis ahquot 

fortiter depugnatis rem prseclare gessit in Ungaria. 

Nee vero minus 

anno Christi postea 1599, milite Hispano, imperii fines e Belgio 

transcendente, passim depopulante, totidem miUtum Saxicorum 

interum Dux dactus, laborantem patriam virtute, consiho 

manu fortissimfe constantissimeque juvit, 

magnanimitate, fide, comitate, viam sibi 

ad verum decus et immortalem 

gloriam, cum incredibili omnium 

bonorum applausu ac favore, 



O vanitatem rerum sperumque humanarum ! 


^""i CHAP. III. 

in medio virtutum honorumque cursu Princeps innocentissimus ^.^^^^^ 

optimusque impigre versatur, 
Nativitatis Christi vigilia, anno 1601, Rastadio Argentinum accelerans ad 
pontem Renchae torrentis, qui turn solito altior increverat repentino, 
proh dolor! et inevitabili quodam casu, in subjectam voraginem 
cum equo proturbatus, urgentibus fatis, indigno ac miserabili 
genere lethi occumbens, 
virtute ac pietate iiobilem coelesti Patri, a quo acceperat, reddidit : 
bonis omnibus accordatis viris summis, mediocrimis infimis, 
ingens ac moestum sui desiderium. 
Corporis vero exuvias hasce 
quinta demum a fatali casu die, repertas et undis exemptas. 
Matri pientissimae, 
McEstissimisque fratribus, 
Julio Ernesto, et Augusto Juniori, hoc sarcophago condendus, cum 
summo totius familiae, necnon publico subditorum moerore 
ac luctu, reliquit. 
Vixit annos 29, menses 6, dies 18. 
Hospes, Viator, Spectator, 
Quisquis es, 
Postquam hsec didicisti, bene praecatus abi. 
Princeps defunctus 
Qui per aquam aetemsB renovari ad gaudia vitse 
Me voluit meritis, Christe benigne, tuis, 
Idem si per aquam vitam finire educam 
Me voluit J num quid, quod quaerar, heic habeo? 
s s 


CHAP. III. Pro vita infelix fragili quam sustulit unda, 

^"^^"V^^ Parta est in cceUs vita mihi melior. 

Condolentes congratulamini, 

M. JosEPHUs Langius, Caesare Montanus, 
Mathematum Professor Argentinae. 

c. s. s. 


Henr. Jun. fil. Ernesti Nep. 


Bruns. et Lun. Eccl. Colon. 

et Argent, can. 

Pueritiam liberalibus artibus, 
Animum vera rell. studio, 
Adolescentiam peregrinando, 
Juventutera cont. comm. patriae 
Et rell. hostes militando. 
dum ma.jora sperat, pro dolor! torrentis RenchaB impetu absorptus, 
Meliorem sui partem summo Patri, 
Mortalitatis exuvias magnse matri 
set. suae anno XXIX. mens. VI. die XIIX. 
Salut. M.DCI. XXIV. Decsmb. . 


Dux August. Fr. in defuncti memor. CHAP. iii. 

Luctusque sui solat. nicest, posuit. ^>.^^n^^^^ 

Quern nee Turca ferox, nee tvux turbavit Iberus, 
Labente expirat Princeps torrente repente*. 


Is a town in Suabia. In its principal church, dedicated to 
St. George, the remains of the gallant duke Albert, who was 
the son of duke Philip of Brunswick, of the line of Grubenhagen, 
are deposited. He was severely wounded by a spear, which 
stuck in his neck. After being wounded, he killed four or five 
Spaniards ; and was brought to this town, where the spear was cut 
out. This wound was received in October, 1546, in a skirmish 
between the imperialists, commanded by Charles V., and the 
allies, under the command of Philip of Hesse, at Alerheim and 
Giengen. He died, in great agony, on the 21st of October; 
and was buried here. His tomb, which is erected on the left 
side of the choir, consists of an arch, with wall pillars, 
under which stands the statue of the duke, in armour; a half- 
length. He holds in his right hand a battle-axe, and rests 
his left on his sword. At the left of his feet, against one of 
the wall pillars, are the Brunswick arms ; and under the arch 

* Extracted from Dr. John Pappus's Funeral Sermon. 


CHAP. III. is the following inscription, which is extracted from Beytrage 
zur Nordlingischen Gesshechts Historic, auf. Beyschlag, 1801. 

Albertus, Brunsvigiee Dux, qui pro Principe suo, Philippo, Hassise 
Landgravio, etc. fortiter pugnando occubuit, hie situs est, 
, anno a nato Christo M.D.XLVI. atatis suse XXIIII. 


A place in the former county of Henneberg, which belongs 
at present to the king of Saxony. There was here formerly an 
abbey, founded, in the year 1131, by count Gothwala, of Henne- 
berg ; and, until the days of prince William the Fourth, it was 
the burying place of the family. The church of the abbey is 
still preserved. Here were buried, of the house of Guelph, — 

1, Anne-Elizabeth, daughter of Ernest, duke of Brunswick- 
Luneburg-Gdttingen, who died 1426, aged thirty-nine years. 
She was therefore born 1387; and she was married, 1414, to 
William the Third, count of Henneberg. 

It seems that in body and mind she felt her superiority ; for 
she is called haughty, but at the same time praised, as a good 
wife and mother. She died in childbed, from grief at the news 
of her husband's death, who died at Cyprus, on his return from 
the Holy Land, 7th June, 1426.— Vide Hennebergische Chronick 
von Spangenberg, tom. i. p. 385, ed. Heim, and tom. iii. p. 274. 


2, Margaret, daughter of Henry the Pacific, duke of Bruns- chap. m. 
wick-Luneburg, in Wolfenbuttle, died 1509. She was married, ^^'^^'^^ 
1466, at Brunswick, when she was not yet fifteen years old, 

but did not follow her husband to Henneberg before the year 
1469. She died at Mainberg, and was buried at Vesra, by the 
side of the count, her husband. 

3, Elizabeth, daughter of Joachim the First, elector of Bran- 
denburg, relict of Erich the Elder, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg- 
Calenberg ; and married, secondly, to Poppo the Eighteenth, count 
of Henneberg, in the year 1546. As the mother of Erich the 
Younger, and as a great promoter of the reformation in Hanover, 
she is of a blessed memory. Rethmeyer and other chronologists 
mention, that in St. George and Jacob's, or Marckt church, at 
Hanover, in the choir, a tomb was erected to her memory ; and 
they give the inscription, but it is not now to be found. She 
gave a cup and a wafer-plate to this church, with the following 
inscription : — 

Von Godts gnaden, wir Elisabet, geborne Marggrefin zu Brandenburck, 

l'^ hesten furst popen grafen und herm zu Hennenberch elich gemahlin 

ehrn aissen Kelch aus lieb uud vverth als man 1300 und 55 

schreb der Kirchgen zu sant jurgen. Einen Hanober 

vorereth als wir also lange alhir im ellenese bliber 

darbei unsser zu gedeneken Christus blut daraus 

zu schenken zu ewer aller selichert Godt wende 

alle mein hertzleid. Amen. 

She is buried at Vesra, and upon her tombstone is the follow- . 
ing inscription : — 


CHAP. III. Hier liegt die Durchlauchtigste Hochgebohrne FUrstin, Frau Elisabeth, 
^"^^^v^^^ geborne Marggrafin von Brandenburg, Grafin und Frau zu 

Henneberg. 1st zu Gott verschieden am 25 May, 1558. 

At Schleusingen is an inscription to her memory: — 

Von Gottes gnaden Elisabeth, geborne Marggrafin zu Henneberg 
starbihres Alters, 48 jahr nach Christi geburt 1558. 

It must likewise be observed, that there was prepared at 
Munden, in the tomb of her first husband, Erich the Elder, a 
place for her remains to rest. 


Was formerly the residence of the princes of Henneberg, and 
likewise, after William the Fourth's time, the burying place of 
the family. 

Here rest the remains of, 

1, Sophia, daughter of Ernest the Confessor, duke of Bruns- 
wick- Luneburg, at Celle, married to prince Poppo the Eighteenth, 
after Elizabeth's death, 1562. 

2, Elizabeth, daughter of Erich the Elder, duke of Bruns- 
wick-Luneburg-Calenberg, married to prince George-Ernest, of 
Henneburg, who died 19th August, 1566. 


Epitaph in the Parish Church. 

PrlnCIpIs eXtlnCtse eXVVIas LeVIs Vina Capessit, 
SpIrltVs at CceLo non MorltVrVs aglt. 


We have been furnished with an Account of this Place by 
Messrs. Bauer and Raspe. 

In the year 1639, the 14th of January, departed from this 
life Sophia, margravine of Brandenburg, at this place, who was 
deposited in the parish church of St. Lorenzo. The fine monu- 
ment, which is still to be seen near the Hirschvoglian window, 
and at the place where formerly the Hieronymus altar stood, 
was erected to her memory in the year 1649, 28th of May, 
and was built in the short space of four weeks. The figure 
of the princess is cut in stone. Below her are three smooth fields, 
and just in the middle is the following inscription : — 

Sophie, von Gottes gnaden geborne Herzogin von Braunschweig und 

Luneburg, Herk. Geokg Friedrichs, Markgrafens zu Brandenburg, 

Herzogs zu Pressen. Withwe. 1st geboren den 30"=" October, 

1563, seelig verstorben den 14""' Januarii, anno 1639. 

Wittib geblieben 36 jahr, altworden 75 jahr, 

2 monathe, 14 tage. 


CHAP. III. On the right side, in one field, is Phil. i. 23. 

" Ich habe lust abzuscheiden um bey Christo zu seyn." 

On the top of the monunaent is our Saviour, with the tri- 
umphal flag, as he is usually represented at his resurrection; 
and under this is, in a small field, " Tod wo ist dein Stachel ; '" 
and below this, in another field, Joh. xi. " Ich bin die Auferst- 
chung und das Leben." At the sides of this field are the two 
coats of arms, supported by two angels. Besides this, thirty 
small coats of arms of her respective ancestors. 

(Signed) Bauer and Raspe. 


Translation of the Report of the Rev. Mr. Jager, Counsellor of the 
Consisto7y, respecting the Burying Places and Sepulchral Monu- 
ments of the Bishops of Verden, who were Princes of the illustrious 
House o/'GuELPH, and the ancient Families connected with it. 

Among the bishops of Verden were the following : — 

Of the ancient House of Saxony and Luneburg. 

1, The fifteenth bishop, Armelungus Bilingk, brother of Her- 
man Billung, duke of Luneburg and Saxony, died the 5th of 
May, 960. 


The inscription on his tomb is — chap. in. 

XV. Episcopus Verdensis Amelungus Bilingk. 
eligitur 937. 
Prsesul Germanus fuit, hac quoque frater in urbe 

Herman Ni Billings, Celebris virtute perenni. 
Qui decus est meritus Magno sub Othoni Ducale, 

Contulit ob fratrem huic etiam benefacta cathedrae. 

Ein grosses Lob hat dieser Mann 
Erlangt dieweil er vorgestahn 
Hat seiner kirch, sein guth ihr liess. 
Von Kayser Otto hat ers preiss. 

2, The sixteenth bishop, Bruno, a son of Otho, duke of 
Bavaria and Suabia, margrave of Saxony, and lord of Brunswick, 
who was a grandson of Otho, the first emperor. By the power 
of Otho the Third he was raised to the papal see of Rome, 
under the name of Gregorius the Fifth. He was poisoned at 
Rome the 17th of May, 998, and buried in St. Peter's church, 
before the altar of St. Gregory. 

Inscription on the tomb at Verden, in the cathedral : — 

XVI. Episcopus Verdensis Bruno, Dux Saxonias, et Suevise eligitur, 
anno 960. 
Contulit iste suum sacros patrimonium ad usus, 

Ccenobiumque Ulsum Marise fundavit honor!. 
Ex hoc pontificem Romanum Tertius Otto 

Fecit, ut ejus ope acciperet septem viri honores. 
T T 


Das kloster Ulsen that er baun, 
Von seinem zu Ehren unser Fraun 
War Pabst vom kaiser Otten gemacht 
Welcher der Fiirsten Chur aufgebracht. 

Over the crosier, at the left, is a papal mitre, painted, with 
the words. Papa Gregorius, 995. 

Of the illustrious House of Brunsivick-Limebw^g. 

1, The thirty-fourth bishop, Conrad, son of Otho the Infant, 
duke of Brunswick and Luneburg; elected 1267, and died 1303; 
born at St. Andreas. Interred at Verden, under the high altar, 
without a tombstone. 

Inscription in the cathedral : — 

Episcopus Verdensis, Coneadus, Dux Brunsv. et Luneburg. eligitur, 
anno 1267. Redemit judicium seculare. 
Me ciim Bremensi excepit mox Prsesule bellum, 

Hostili periit quo nostra ecclesise flamma, 
Quam reparans, primum lapidem mea dextera jecit, 
ToUere damna studens, dederat quae plurima bellum. 
Dieser einen krieg fing an 
Mit dem (Archi. Episcop. Giselbertus, 1281, von 

Bremen, da verbrann, 
Die kirch zu Vehrden gar hernieder 
Den ersten Stein er legt da wieder. 

2, The forty-third bishop, Otto, son of duke Magnus Tor- 
quatus, elected 1388, died 1406 ; interred at Bremen. 


Insaiption in the Cathedral. 

Hie consecravit templum Cathedrale profanum. 

Quod fuerat multis annis, fatusque Bremensis, 
Praesul abit secum ex Rolenburg per plurima sumens 
Insuper banc arcem retinens per quatuor annos. 
Dieser den Thurn hat consecrirt 
Darnach zu Bremen Bischof wird, 
Beraubet Rothenburg, zichet bin, 
Beh'alt das Schloss vier Jahr noch in. 

On the wall, not far from what is called the catholic altar, 
is an inscription, cut in stone, relating to the last two bishops, 
viz. — 

Anno Domini MCCXC. 

CuNRADUs, hujus ecclesiffi episcopus, 

filiusque Otto n is, Ducis in Brunswick. 

posuit primum lapidem hujus basilicse, 

Anno Domini MCCCXC- 

Otto, hujus ecclesise episcopus, 

filius Ducis Magni in Brunswick. 

banc partem superiorem ecclesijs consecravit. 

3, The forty-eighth bishop, Christopher, son of Henry the 
Elder, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, archbishop of Bremen, and 
bishop of Verden, elected 1502; died 1558; buried at Verden, 
in the cathedral. 



XLVIII. Chkistophebus, Archiepiscopus Bremensis, administrator 
Verdensis, Dux Brunsw. et Luneburg, anno 1502. 
Archiepiscopus hie Bremensis, Prsesul in ista 

Urbe fit, ad cathedram selectus utramque regendum ; 
Sed fortuna dato non aspiravit honori 

Damna diocesis quia tunc per plurinia fecit. 
Dieser ein Erz-bischof zu Bremen 
Erwalt wird Vehrden auch zu nehrnen 
Das gliick die Ehre ihm gunta nicht 
Dem Stift gross Schad ward zugericht. 

4, The forty-ninth bishop, George, the brother of the former 
archbishop of Bremen, bishop of Minden and Verden; elected 
1558; died 1566; buried at Verden. 


XLIX. Geoegius, Archiepiscopus Brem. et Verden. Administrator, 
Dux Brunsvicensis et Luneburgensis, anno 1558. 
Hie quoque Verdensis simul Archiepiscopus aulas 

Proxima Verdensis, possedit, chimita terrse, 
Et satis attento studio tractavit habenas, 
Et tali senio, dum conficeretur honore. 
Zu Bremen, Minden und auch Verden, 
Muss dieser Erz und Bischof werden, 
Regiert mit Lob die Land und Laut 
Das hat er Ruhm und Preiss noch heut. 


5, The fifty-first bishop, Philip Sigismund, son of Julius, 
duke of Brunswick; elected 1586; died at Iburg, 1623; buried 
at Verden. He was likewise administrator of Osnabruck. 


Philippus Sigismundus, Dei gratia postulatus. Episcopus Osnbr. 

Verdens. Praepositus Halberst. Dux Brans, et Luneburgensis, etc. 

.Natus anno 1568, 1 Julii. Postulatus ad Episcopatum 

Verdensem in anno 86, ad Osnbr. in anno 91. 

The inscriptions, which are given, are found over the statues 
of the bishops, which hang in their order of succession around the 
choir. The first in the list of these statues of the bishops is that 
of Charlemagne, the founder of the bishoprick, in the year 786. 
The first bishop was Swibert. Of the first eight bishops, six 
were natives of England or Scotland. 



Sepulchral Monuments in the Cathedral of Verden. 

There are two most beautiful monuments in the choir, 
between the high altar and that which is now used as a com- 
munion table. The one next to the high altar is of stone, and 
was erected in memory of Christopher and George. On the 
top of the monument the two archbishops are lying in their 
pontificals, finely cut in stone. 

On one side, in front of the high altar, is inscribed : — 


CHAl^ III. Anno 1558, die 22 Januarii, obiit Christopherus, Archiepiscopus 

^■^^v^^^^ Bremensis, Administrator Verdensis, Brunsvicensis ac 

Luneburgensis Dux hie sepultus. Anno 1566, 

die 4 Decembris, obiit Georgius, 

Archiepiscopus Bremensis 


On the other side : — 

Hoc recubant tumulo sacratis sanguinis ossa. 

Qua; Deus ex tenebris mundi ad meliora, 
Illustris clarum generis vestigia nomen 

Dicet, et geternam memorabunt secula famam. 
Christopherum lacrymis et mcesto pectora fletu 

Possunt, ccelesti sed mens pia vescetur aura; 
Junctus et hoc tegitur frater, ter maximus herus, 

Gratse complevit vitaque Georgius annos. 


At the foot of the monument : — 

Praesul agnatos venerans in morte Philippus, 
Hoc SiGisMUNDUs dum renovavit opus, anno 1606. 

Near the alms box, and nearer to the altar, now in use, is 
a very fine elevated monument in memory of Philip Sigismund. 
It is of white marble, and enclosed with an iron grate. On 
the left Philip Sigismund is represented as kneeling before a 
crucifix: on each side of him stand Saints John and Mark. Two 
virtues. Piety and Justice, crown Philip with a wreath of 


The following inscription is still legible : — chap m 

Philippus Sicismundus, Dei gratia, postulatus Episcopus Osnabr. ^"^^^ 
et Verdens. Prsepositus Halberst. Dux Bmnsvic. et Luneburg. 
Natus in anno 1568, 1 Julii, postulatus ad Episcopatum 
Verdensem in anno 86, ad Osnbr. in anno 95. 

The following fourteen inscriptions are on various parts of 
the monument : — 

* Der Fall Adams. 

Factus homo, dum lapsus homo Patris excidit horto, 
Vita fuit, vitse mors subit atra loco. 
Das Adams aus des Leb ns Reich 
Verstossen wird und wir zugleich 
Gerathen sind ins Todes-Macht 
Hat dieser Fall zu wege bracht. 

Adams und Eveus Arbeit. 
Quisque suos manes, sua fata gemiscimus oranes, 
Et queritur spinas ille vel ille suas. 
Des Adams Schweiss und Evae Noth 
Smd noch der Menschen taglich Brodt, 
In jedem Stand ist MUh und Pein 
Werist, der nicht beklagt das sein. 

Die Himmels-Leiter. 
Scala soh atque poli Christus, qui nititur ilia 
Per mala monstra levi transit astra grada. 
Wer durch die Wiisten dieser Welt 
Will wandern und wenns Gott gefallt 
Abscheiden woll ohn all verdruss 
Christum zur Leiter haben muss. 


^^^;;5;_^ Der Sterbemk Jacob. 

Dum legit ipse locum, exequiis pia cura Jacobi est. 
Quisquis adhuc frueris luce, memento mori. 
An Jacob hoch zu riihmen ist 
Dass er beg Zeit und Lebens-Frist, 
Sein bedenkt, ihm selbst erw'ahlt 
Sein Ruhstatt und die Leich bestellt. 

Das Gesicht Ezechielis von den lebendig Werdenden Gebeinen. 
In cineres et huraum resoluta, cadavera quondam 
Viva redire solo vate probante vides. 
Die Leiclmam die verfaulet gar, 
Und in der erd gewest viel jahr, 
Zum Leben wieder einher gehen, 
Wie sie mit dem propheten sehn. 

Der Lebende Moses. 
Moses levante mannus votis victoria cedit. 
Versa retro palma, palma cadente cadit. 
So lang Moses die hand aufhebt, 
Sein volk im Streit auch oben schwebt 
Bald er dieselben sinken Idsst, 
Der Friede singen thut das best. 

Aufericeckiing Lazari. 
O vox digna Deo, Lazarus qua surgit, et ad quam 
Non retinet manes illius urna suos. 

Als Christus nuz ein Wortlein spricht 
Sich Lazarus oom Tod aufricht, 
Niemand im grab sich halten kann. 
Wenn dieser fangt zu rufen an. 


Christus im Oelgarten. ^.^^^^ ,jj 

Dum Patris ira premit, fluat ut cruor, condique membris ^-^^'-^^ 

Sola levant tristes vota in agone moras. 

Wenn Todes Noth und angst auficht 
Die SUnd und Gottes zorn sich regt, 
Ein staik gebet auch Christi Blut 
Zuletzt allein das beste thut. 

Christus am Creutz. 
Alter Adam in ligno ligni dispendia solvit, 
Venit ab arbore mors, arbore vita venit. 

Vom Baum die SUnd sich hebet an 
Am Baum dafUr ist genug gethan, 
Adam der erste bringt den Todt 
Der Ander hilft aus aller Noth. 

Christus votn Creutz genommen. 
Cum sacra sint Christi quoque condita membra sepulchro, 
Lecti non tumuli nomine terra venit. 

Die Erd, so war verflucht durehaus 
Der Schlangen und des Teufels Haus, 
Zur seelgen Ruhstatt ist gesegnt 
Weil Christi Leichnam drein gelegt. 

Christi Auferstchung. 
En ego sum reditus defunctis ! ipse daturas 
Me fretus media morte superstes erit. 

Die Auferstchung und das Leben 
Bin ich allein und wills auch geben, 
Wer an mich glaubt, ober gleich stirbt 
Mit nichten er drum gar verdirbt. 
u u 


CHAP. III. Christi Himmelfahrt . 

Quo caput ascendit succedere membra necesse est; 
Sed caput in ccelo est, membra sequentur eo. 
Ich bin ein Glied in Christo Leib 
Vondem ich ungeschieden bleib, 
Weil den das Haupt gen Himmel fahrt 
Werd ich der Heimfahrt auch gewehrt. 

Christi Gericht. 
Agnus ad astra, tremens ad tartara mittitur hircus, 
Nee recreari gradum Judicis urna sinit. 

Das Schaaf zu Gott, der Bock zur Gual 
Verwiesen wird, was nun einmahl, 
Der Richter hier zum Urtheil spricht 
Wirst nimmermehr verandern nicht. 

Das ewige Leben. 
Palma Sigismundi et serta feruntur ab astris ; 
Ante homines pietas vincit et ante Deum. 
Wer hier gesieget mit dem Mund 
Im Glauben fest vom Herzen Grund, 
Mit Woun und Palmen angethan, 
Zum Himmels Ritter wird geschlan. 



Translation of an Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Rother- 
MUND, JMinister of the Cathedral at Bremen. 

" Our cathedral has, by the many changes that have taken chap. hi. 
place, lost all its ancient monuments. In a tumult which the 
citizens raised in the year 1532, the catholic clergy were driven 
from the cathedral, and it was shut up for fifteen years. 

" The archbishop Christopher was obliged to submit, as 
the greater part of the chanoines were favourably inclined to 
the doctrine of Luther. These requested their senior, the count 
Christopher of Oldenburg, to procure for them an evangelical 
preacher. He sent them Dr. Albrecht Hardenberg, chaplain to 
the army which was employed against Erich, duke of Brunswick. 
This man, suspected of Calvinism, was declared by the assembly 
of the states of Lower Saxony, at Brunswick, to have forfeited 
his situation ; but his party got the ascendency after his removal, 
expelled all the Lutherans, and the inhabitants of Bremen 
embraced the doctrines of the reformed protestants. After 
Hardenberg's banishment, the chapter of the cathedral did not 
appoint another minister; and the church remained shut till the 
last archbishop, the Danish prince Frederick, a zealous Lutheran, 
nominated again a preacher; and procured, by force, to the 
adherents of Luther a free exercise of their religion, in the 
year 1639. During a period of seventy-seven years in which 
the cathedral was shut, a blind religious zeal destroyed all the 


CHAP. III. monuments of its former grandeur ; so that not a single one of 

^^^^'^"^ those of the archbishops is left, not even a tombstone to record 

the name of an archbishop. I have in my possession a correct 

catalogue of the existing epitaphs ; but they are only of chanoines, 

and the oldest is of the year 1499. 

" In a very rare catalogue, Episcoporum et Archiepiscoporum 
Bremensium, by one John Otho, (manuscript), I find it men- 
tioned, that Albert the Second, son of duke Magnus of Brunswick, 
after he had governed the church thirty-three years, vi^as buried, 
in the year 1395, in the centre of the cathedral. The same author 
observes, that the grandson of Albert's brother, the archbishop 
Otto the Second, died 1406, and w^as buried in the centre of 
the cathedral, on the right side of Albert. The archbishop 
Christopher, duke of Brunswick, died 1558, at Angermunde, 
and was buried in the cathedral of Verden." 


Account ixceivedfrom the Rev. Mr. Hantleman, Minister of the 
Cathedral at Hildesheim. 

In the year 1788 the cathedral was newly paved, and for 
that purpose all the tombstones, monuments, and inscriptions, 
were removed. I therefore applied to Mr. Zepperfeldt, who has 
charge of the archives, and is in possession of all the sepulchral 


inscriptions which were formerly in the cathedral. The following chap. hi. 
notices I have received from him : — ^.^"V^ 

Otho the First, bishop of Hildesheim, was a son of Otho 
the Infant, duke of Brunswick ; Albert the Great and John were 
his brothers. He received the bishoprick in the year 1261, when 
he was fourteen years old. He died in the year 1279, and was 
deposited in the cathedral of Hildesheim. His tombstone had 
the following inscription : — 

Anno Domini MCCLXXIX. 14 Julii, obiit, de Brunsvic. ortus, hie 

praesit nobilis Otto. 

Hie situs est Otto, coelum quod sit sibi portus, 

Hoc des, qui mitis est, fervens Wernerus, et orat 

Ut requies sit, plenaque spes tua pro nece plorat. 

This bishop left ^behind him many public documents. His 
seal, in wax, hangs on a string of red and yellow silk. The 
bishop is represented on it in the dress of a monk, with a monk's 
cap. He holds in his right hand a volume of the Gospel, before 
his breast, and supports it with the left. The inscription on the 
seal is the following : — 

Sigillum Ottonis, Dei gratia Episcopi Hildesheimensis ecclesiae. 

A crosier of ivory, which was found, 1788, in the tomb of 
this bishop, is to be seen in the treasury of the cathedral. 

A biography of this bishop is to be found in the Hildesheim 
Almenack, of Karthagen, aut. Petrus Schliiter. 

Henry the Third, bishop of Hildesheim, son of Albert the 


CHAP. III. Gross, duke of Brunswick, came to the government of the 
^"^^^'^^ bishoprick in 1331, and departed this life on the 6th of Feb. 1362. 
His remains were deposited in the cathedral of Hildesheim ; and 
on his tombstone was the following inscription : — 

Post M. post tria C. post sexaginta duoque, 
Hunc lux sexta necat Februi, qui pace quiescat. 
Creverat ecclesia per eum, praestante Maria. 
Praesul pacificus Henricus, honoris amicus. 
Hie est prostiatus, Brunswic. de Principe natus. 

His arms are represented in Hardenberg's Historia Diplomatica 
Gandersheimensis. In the tomb of this bishop were found, in the 
year 1788, parts of the crosier and his cap, which are preserved 
in the treasury of the cathedral. His biography is likewise in the 
above-mentioned almanack. Videatur quoque Schaten Annales 
Paderbornenses, tom. iii. p. 251. 

In the cathedral of Hildesheim rest likewise the remains of the 
consort of Otho, duke of Brunswick, at Einbeck. A sepulchral 
stone in the wall of the Three Kings' Chapel, which is still there, 
has the following inscription : — 

Anno Domini MCCCCXXXVI. die Sancti Marci Evangelistse, obiit 
ScHONETTA de Nassauwc, Ducissa Brunsvicensis, cujus 
anima requiescat in pace. 

There are no notices to be found of an Otho, duke of 
Brunswick, son of Albert the Great, and commander of the 
Teutonic order. 



Account by the Rev. Mr. Lupke, Minister at the Cathedral at 

In order to throw as much light as possible on this subject, chap. hi. 
I will mention all the princely persons of the house of Brunswick- '^ 

Luneburg, who have been bishops and governors of the country 
of Osnaburg. 

1, Melchior, the fortieth in the Hst of bishops of Osnaburg, 
governed the church and country for ten years ; was transferred, 
in the year 1376, to the episcopal see of Schwerin; and died, pro- 
bably by poison, in the year 1381. About the particulars of his 
sepulchral monument, inquiry ought to be made at Schwerin. 

2, Erich the Second, the fifty-first in the list of bishops of 
Osnaburg, governed the church and country for twenty-four years. 
He died in the year 1552, on the 14th of May, at Furstenau, 
a town and bailiwick in the country of Osnaburg ; and his 
remains were conducted to the capital, and deposited in the 
cathedral. His monument is not to be found now ; but it is 
said that several country people erected, by voluntary sub- 
scription, a tombstone to his memory ; and that a learned 
man of that time caused the following inscription to be cut 
upon it : — 

Principis hac tumba requiescit corpus Erici, 
Gloria Saxonidum quern tulit alma Ducum, 
Qui Cathedrae praesul geminse est moderatus habenas. 
Hie Osnabruga tuae, turn Paderborna tuae. 


CHAP III Hisce Monasterium dum tendit vita vocatus, 

\^^\'^^ Addere ; conanti talia fata negant. 

Virginis a partu numera ter ssecula quinque, 

Annos junge duos, ter quoque, lustra duo, 

His Mail est ter quinta super lux addita, quando 

Luminat Fiirstenane clausit, Erice, tib'- 

3, Philippus-Sigismundus, the fifty-seventh bishop of Osna- 
burg, had the administration of the country and the church 
for thirty-three years; but he never was properly instituted; 
and he died at Verden, the 19th of March, 1623, where his 
monument is to be seen. 

4, Ernestus-Augustus the First was the sixtieth of the bishops, 
and the patriarch of the present royal family. He came to the 
government of Osnaburg, in consequence of the articles of the 
peace of Westphalia, in the year 1662; and resided occasionally 
with his family, in the episcopal castle of Iburg, till the day of 
his death, the 28th of January, 1698. He governed the country 
thirty-six years ; and has erected to himself a lasting monument in 
the many wise and beneficial regulations which he left behind 
him. His remains were transferred to the sepulchre of his 
brother, at Hanover; and no monument exists in the cathedral. 

His eldest son, George-Louis, (George the First), died on 
his road from London to Hanover, the 22d June, 1727, at Osna- 
burg; but no monument is to be seen here. Of his brothers 
and sisters, of whom some were bom at Osnaburg, not one 
died here but the youngest. 

5, Ernestus-Augustus the Second, the sixty-second of the 
bishops of Osnaburg. He was born the 17th September, 1674, 
at Osnaburg; and governed the country from 1716 to 1728. 


He died here the 28th of August, 1728, fifty-five years old, chap. iii. 
after a reign of thirteen years. His remains were conducted to ^^^^^^^^^ 
Hanover, and deposited in the vault of his ancestors. 

These are all the notices on the subject, which I am able 
to give. 


By the reports received from the Rev. Mr. Trefurt, and 
from the first magistrate, Mr. Tuckermann, dated 20th of March, 
1819, no burying places of any of the princes of the house of 
Guelph can be found ; and there is no notice whatever of any 
having been buried at Gottingen. But several chronicles mention 
positively that, 

1, Bruno, son of Albert the Fat, 1303, 

2, Elizabeth, consort of duke Ernest, 1390, are buried in 
the church of the Franciscans, at Gottingen; and they give us 
even the following inscriptions : — 

Anno Domini MCCCIII. in vigilia omnium Sanctoriun obiit Illustris 
Princeps Domicellus Bruno in Brunswic. 

Anno MCCCXC. in Testo Petronellae et Feliciani obiit Illustris 
Domina Elisabeth, Ducissa in Brunswic. 

On the tombstone of the latter were sculptured a white 
horse, two leopards, and one lion. 

X X 



Extract of the Rev. Mr. Domeier's Topography of the 
Town of Hardegsen. 

In the church of Hardegsen are deposited the remains of 
two princely persons of the house of Brunswick-Luneburg : 
1st, those of Margaret, dowager of Otho the Strong, duke of 
Brunswick-Luneburg-Gottingen, who was a princess of Bergen ; 
and, 2dly, those of their eldest son, duke William. They rest 
in the choir before the altar. Their tombs were removed in 
the year 1768, and put into a corner of the church. These 
monuments were splendid, and presented the images of those, to 
the memory of whom they had been erected. Duke William died 
some time before his mother, in the twenty-first year of his 
age, in consequence of the bite of a dog; so at least says 
tradition; and the figures on his monument seem to indi- 
cate the same, unless the dog at his feet represents the 
catulus, in allusion to the fabulous history of the family of the 

On the border of the monument, in black letter, there is this 
inscription : — 

Anno MCCCXCI. obiit Wilhelmus Dux in Brunswic. hie sepultus 
aet. XXI. cujus anima requiescat in pace. Amen. 

The tomb of the dutchess is covered with linen, which is 
glued on, and her figure rests upon a blue cushion. The colour 


of her garment is blue and white. The coat of arms at her chap. hi. 
feet contains three golden spurs, in a red field. The inscription ^^'^"^'^ 
on the border in red, with yellow letters, but very much injured, 
so that the whole is not legible. 

Anno Domini MCCCCXLII. Ottonis Margaretha 

in die anima requiescat. 


Account and Description of the Tombs mid Monuments of Duke 
William the Younger, and Duke Erich the Elder, in St. Biases 
Church at Miinden, by the Rev. Mr. Wiehen. 

Tomb of Duke William the Younger. 

In the middle of the nave of St. Blase's church is a tomb 
and monument, of one large freestone, of the common kind. 
It rests upon a pedestal, about two feet high, and is entirely 
surrounded by seats. Its length is eight feet, and its breadth 
three feet and a half. Upon this plate of stone is worked in 
relief the figure of an harnessed knight, with an open helmet, 
and lying. He has, on his right, the arms of the ducal house 
of Brunswick, with the horse over the helmet; on his left a 
sword ; at the head, the head of the figure rests under a canopy, 
upon a cushion held by angels ; at the feet the watching lion. 


CHAP. in. Round the border of the stone is, in Gothic letters, the follow- 
ing inscription, scarcely legible : — 

Sepulcnim lUustrissimi Principis Wilhelmi, Filii Wilhelmi 
Brunswicensis et Luneburgensis. 1494. 

In a manuscript fragment of a chronicle of the town of Miinden, 
written by the late secretary of the town, Elard Biscamp, there 
are the following remarks respecting this monument : — 

" What the chronicle of Gdttingen says, that he, duke Wil- 
liam the Younger, was taken ill in Miinden, on a visit to his 
son Erich, does not correspond with what our annals relate. He 
ordered, nine years before his death, that this tomb should be 
made in St. Blase's church : he was often present at the work, but 
he died in the old castle of Hardegsen, 1503, and was brought 
here in a coffin of lead." 

Tomb of Duke Erich, Sen. and his first Consort CATHARi>fA. 

Near the great altar, on the north side of the choir, close 
to the wall, is a second tomb of freestone, on which lies a plate 
of brass, six feet long and two wide, and above which a plate 
of white marble is fixed in the wall. The brass plate of the 
tomb has the following inscription, made by Doctor Burchhard 
Mithol of that time : — 

Clauditur hoc cyppo peregre tumulatus Eeicus, 
Dux Brunsvicensis, gloria summa Domus. 


Pectore qui tumidos infracto contudit hostes, CHAP. III. 

Et variis auxit regna paterna locis. .^^fc^ 

Imprimis bellax erat Hildeshemia testis, 
Unde Patrem patriae jure vocare queas. 
Nomen et Augusti merito super addere tantum 
Quod dexter fausto marte peregit opus 
Tam bene de populo meritus regnoque paterno 
Summa sit ut Patriae, Lausque Decusque meae. 
Anno Domini MCCCCCXL. d. XXX Julii. 

Besides many ornaments, for instance, a head, with the names 
Mathseus and Johannes, there are, at the head and feet, two 
coats of arms, and under them this inscription : — " Elisabetha 
translulit et hoc donu dedit ; " and in a corner, " Cordt Menten 
hat mich gegossen." 

The monument in the wall is of white marble, of a beautiful 
lustre. It represents in relief, well executed, our Saviour on 
the cross, standing with Joseph and Mary. Under this is beauti- 
fully represented the duke Erich, in which the family countenance 
is well preserved. He is kneeling and praying. His two con- 
sorts, Catherine and Elizabeth, are turned towards him, kneeling 
likewise at the left of the crucifix. Under each of these three 
figures is a coat of arms and a small shield ; but only that under 
the dutchess is filled with the full inscription, by the same 
masterly hand which has worked the whole. The two others 
are filled by quite a different hand ; a sure proof that the duke 
himself caused this monument to be erected for his first consort, 
Catharine, and destined it at the same time for himself, and 
for his second dutchess. 


CHAP. III. The inscription under the figure of Catharine is as follows : — 

Anno Domini MDXXIIII. an X. Tag Februarii ist verschieden the 

Hochgeborne Fiirsten Frau Catharine Herzoginn zu Sachsen 

Zo. etwo Erzherzoginn Sigismunds von Esterich gemael 

Herzoginn zu Braunschweig und Liineburg zo der 

Gott genedig see der Hochlobligen Furstinn. 

The inscription under the duke : ; — 

Anno Domini (MDLX) am (XXX) Tag (Julii) ist verschieden der 

Durchleuchtig Hochgeborne Fiirst und Herr Herr Erich Herzog 

zu Braunschweigk und Luneburg Kay. Majest. Maximilianus 

Hochlobhcher Gedechtnus Getrewer Diener, dem Got 

genedig und barmherzig Sein wolt. 

The coat of arms and the shield, under the dutchess Elizabeth, 
are not filled up. This tomb contains, therefore, only the remains 
of the duke Erich and of the dutchess Catharine. 

With regard to the words peregre tumulatus, it must be 
observed, that the duke died the 30th July, 1540, during the 
imperial diet at Hagenau, and that his remains were brought 
to Miinden, a year and a month after his decease, on the 28th 
of September, 1541. 

There has never been the least doubt that duke Erich was 
buried here. Doctor Justinus Groblerus, in Miinden, preached 
the oratio funebris. 

The inscription upon the plate of brass concludes with the 
words, — 
Anno Domini M.CCCCCXL. die XXX Julii, Elisabetha transtuht 
et hoc dedit donu. 


Of the tomb of duke Frederick, who died at Miinden, 1494, chap. hi. 
cannot get the least notice or information. ^^^N^^^z 

(Signed) Friedrich Wiehen, Pastor primarius. 

MuNDEN, 13th Feb. 1819. 


We know very little of the lives of the three sons of Albert 
the Great, Conrad, Otho, and Luder, who are stated, in the 
genealogical tables of the house of Guelph, as having been 
knights of the ecclesiastical orders. There is likewise great 
doubt respecting the history of the sons of Albert the Fat, 
who entered those orders. But it appears now to be cer- 
tain, that Luder, the fifteenth grandmaster of the Teu- 
tonic order, was not the son of Albert the Great, but the 
son of Albert the Fat, and brother of Albert, bishop of Hal- 

In the " Leben, Wandel und Thaten Alberti II. Bischoff's 
zu Halberstadt," auf. Guillielmi Budari, M. D., 1624, of which 
only the first volume was published, and which is now very rare, 
the copy, in the king's library at Hanover, has notes written 
by Leibnitz, {scriptum r^ainssimmi.) In this book, p. 84, is 
given, from " Caspari Hennenbergeri Ertichensis : Erklarung der 


CHAP. III. Preussischen grossen Land TafFeln," anno 1595, in folio, p. 285, 
the following extract : — 

" Luder, Herzog von Braunschweig, ist anno 1331, zum 
15 Hoemeister erwehlet worden, als ehr Trapprer unnd comp- 
thur, zu Christburg war. Ein grosse herrliche person, from, 
andechtig, mild, und die Gerechtigkeit liebhabende, der den 
Richtern hart verbot Geschenk zu nehmen, sondern umbsonst 
Recht zuhelfFen, dann solches wehren sie pflichtig. Hielt seine 
Briider zu Gottessdienst und Geistlichen Zucht, doch war er mild, 
die noht turfFt ihnen zugeben, derhalben sic ihn auch lieb hatten 
und gehorsamb waren. 

" Er fing an die Thumbkirchen auff Pregelmunda so nu 
KneiphofF heist, zubawen, vom Ablass Gelde, so damals aufF 
die dritte Stelle verlegt ward. Im capitel, als er erwiihlet ward, 
da ward geoi'dned, dasz fiir und nach deni Hoemeister, soUten 
Herren und Knechte gehen, auch soUte der Hoemeister einen 
wehlen zum Compan, der Tag und Nacht aufF ihn wachtet, 
und durch den Compan solte der Hoemeister mit den Leuten 
reden, so fiir ihm zu thun hetten, auff dasz es ihne nicht ginge, 
wie Wernero von Urseln, und er erwehlet zum Compan Ser- 
vatium, Graffen von Hennenberg, Dieser ist der erste Compan 

" Dieser Hoemeister hat sich der Polen, so mit den Littawen 
einfielen, erwehren mussen, und hat gross Polen eingenommen, 
biss gen Calisch, da viel Stedte und Schlosser gebawet, als 
Briszze, Conyn, Calisch, Sytatz, Lanzitia, Spilenberg, Jungle- 
flawetz, das man 8 Comtures hinein satzte, Auch hat er Stolpe 


lassen einnehmen, und ein Comturampt da gemacht, daszman chap. hi. 
bisz zu RuszdorlFs zeiten innen gehabt. Hat regieret vier Fahr, ""^^ 
Und als er sich schwach befunden, hat er sich am Freytag nach 
Ostern (1335) in die Kirche lassen fiihren, eine Messe lassen 
lesen, nach welcher er darin verschieden, 1st zu Kdnigszberg 
in der Mawer des newen Thumbs im chor begraben, wie sein 
Berebnisz noch vorhanden ist. 

" Zur Zeit Liideri, Hertzogen von Braunschweig, Hoemeisters, 
ist alda gewesen ein Richter des Ordens, fur dem ein Gerich- 
thandbung ein wohlhabender Burgers (zu Salfeld in Preussen) 
wider eine Witwe. Der Burger hatte ein schones junges Weib, 
die vergunnet er dem, Richter, seinen Willen mit ihr zuthu, 
aufF dasz er die Sache, so er mit der Widwen hatte, nicht ver- 
liihre, die den auch lang vom Richter aufFgezogen ward. Da 
aber der Richter der Biirgerin miide ward, langet er die Widwe 
umb ihre Tochter an, dann sie hatte auch eine schone Tochter, 
so noch Jungfraw war, und wo sie das thun wurde, wolte er 
ihr helffen, dasz sic das Urthel gewiinne, Aber die Widwe 
sehlug es ihm abe, und saget. sic wolte dieber alle ihre 
Giiter, als Gottes Hulde, und ihrer Tochter Ehre verlihren. 
Derhalben sich der Richter erziirnet, und sprach der Widwen 
das Urthel ab, und dem Burger zu. Disz klaget die Widwe 
ihren Freundschaft't, die klagtens weiter dem Hoemeister 
Liidero, der fordert den Richter und beyde Parten vor sich, 
und befindet, dasz de Widwen unrecht geschehen war, Der 
halben er ihr fUr ihren erlittenen Schaden des Burgers Giiter 
die helfFte zusprach, Liesz der Ehbrecherschen Biirgerin ein 
Zeichen aufF der Backen brennen, und der Stadt verrocisen. 
y Y 


GHAP. III. Den Burger, als einen Verrehter seines ehlichen Weibes Zucht 
^^^"^^^'^ und Ehre, viertheilen. Den ungerechten Richter mit einem 
Pferde schleifFen, und zu Stiicken reissen." 


A very ancient but small town in the principality of Anhalt 
Gothen. The church, which belonged formerly to a very ancient 
convent, and is now called the Castle church, encloses the 
remains of Matilda, daughter of Magnus the Pious, duke of 
Brunswick, and consort of Bernhard the Third, prince of Anhalt. 
On the right of the choir, close to the entrance of the vestry, 
is a monument, on which the figures of prince Bernhard and 
his consort are cut in stone, with the following inscription: — 

M tria C anno quarter, deno simul octo, 
Dormiit in Christo, mox Bernhaedi quoque testo, 
Comes Beenhardus, ovitutum florida nardus. 
In Anhalt Princeps, cujus obitum doluit plebs. 
Hac pia Mechtildis sculptura providet 
illis Anhaldidis. 



This town is most remarkable, in our history, as it has been chap. hi. 
the regular burying place of the members of the new house of 
Brunswick-Luneburg, from Ernest the Confessor down to George- 
William. The ancient and very handsome parish church of 
Celle contains the sacred remains of many illustrious persons 
of this line of the family. The princely vault, in the choir of 
the church, has its entrance before the high altar, and runs 
under it. The high altar itself derives its greatest interest from 
the princely monuments which it contains. 

The following illustrious persons of the house of Brunswick- 
Luneburg have found their rest in Celle : — 

1, Duke Frederick the Pious, who died the 29th of March, 
1478. According to some ancient writers, he was buried in 
the convent of the Franciscans, which he had founded himself, 
and in which he had lived many years, retired from the world, 
until the death of his sons, and the minority of his grandson, 
Henry, obliged him to take the government again upon himself. 
In Jacob Korn's manuscript it is said that Frederick had planned 
and ordered the building of this vault in the parish church. 
If this had been the case, most probably his own remains would 
have been deposited there : but as this was not the case, the 
first opinion is therefore the most probable. There are now no 
traces of the convent alluded to. 

2, Margaret, daughter of Frederick the Pious, and wife of 


CHAP. III. Ulrich, duke of Mecklenburg Stargard. It is said, that after 
her husband's death she came back to Celle, finished the building 
of the convent of Franciscans, which her father had begun, resided 
and died in it, and was also buried in it. — See Pfeffinger Historia 
de Br. Lun. Hause, torn. ii. p. 38. 

3, Anne, wife of Otho the Magnanimous, and daughter of 
John, count of Nassau Dillenburg, died 1514. After Otho's 
death she was married again to count Philip, of Katzenellbegen ; 
but having likewise lost her second husband, she came back 
to Celle ; became one of the guardians of her son, Henry ; founded 
in the suburbs of the town the hospital of St. Anne, and died 
in it. It is said that she was buried in the parish church, in 
the choir : others say in Wienhausen. Her coffin is not in the 
vault of the church. — See StefFens Auszug der Geschichte, p. 394, 
and Historische Abhandl. p. 216. 

4, Ernest the Confessor, who died 1547. 

5, Sophia, his consort, who died 1541. 

6, Francis-Otho, their son, who died April 29, 1559. 

7, Frederick, also their son, died in consequence of the wounds 
which he had received in the battle of Silvershausen, on the 9th 
of July 1552; died 1553. 

All historical records assert, and their epitaphs in the choir 
leave no doubt of the fact, that these four princely persons are 
deposited in the choir of the church, but their coffins are not 
in the ducal vault. It is therefore probable, that, before the 
building of the vault, their remains were deposited singly some- 
where in the choir, or in the church ; or that, for want of room, 
their coffins were taken out agrain and sunk in the vault itself. 


or somewhere in the church. There are not the least traces chap. 
of any other ancient vaults, but it is very probable that the """^^ 
present one has been enlarged. 

List of the Coffins, with their Inscriptions, which are deposited in the 
Ducal Vault, under the Choir of the Town Church in Celie, 
received from the Rev. Mr. Hoppenstaedt, Cowisellor of the 

J, That of William the Younger, whose tomb is No. 6 in 
the list. On the upper plate of the copper coffin is the following 
inscription : — 

Der Durchlauchtiger Hochgeborner Furst undt Her Her Wilhelm der 

j linger Hertzog zu Braunschweig undt Liineburg ist den 20 Tag 

Augusti seliglich verstorben und den 20 September alhier christlich 

undt fiirstlich beg raben als Seine FUrstlich Gnaden sieben 

undt funfzig Jar gelebet 33 Jar christlich undt wohl regieret 

und 31 Jar uber im Ehestande 7 Sohne undt 8 Dochter 

erzeuget undt hinder sich im Leben verlassen hat. 


2, That of the dutchess Dorothea, his consort. On the copper 
coffin is the following inscription : — 

Die Durchleuchtige Hochgeborne Furst und Frawe Fraw Dorothea 

geboren aus Koniglichem Stamme zu Dennemarck Herzoo-in zu 

Brauns. und Llineburgk ist den 6 Januar zu Winsen an der 



CHAP. III. Luhe in Godt seliglich entschlafen undt den 19 Februar 

^'^'^^^^ alhier christich und Fiirstlich begraben als J. F. G. 

LXX Jar 6 Monath und 6 Tage im fiirstlichem 

Ehestande aberXXXI Jahr 10 Monath 8 Tage 

in Witwen Stande aber 25 Jahr christUch 

und furstUch IbbUch gelebet undt 

regieret der Almeihtige. 


3, That of princess Margaret, daughter of the foregoing, widow 
of .loachim Casimir, duke of Saxe-Coburg. Inscription : — 

Die Durchleuchtige Hochgeborne Fursten und Fraw Fraw Makgaretha 

Herzogin zu Sachsen Giilich Cleve undt Berg geborne Herzogin zu 

Braunschweig undt Liineburg Landgreffin in Turingen Marck 

greffin zu Meissen Greffin zu der Marck und Ravensberg 

Frau zu Ravenstein Witibe 

ist geboren auf der Fiirstlichen Residens Zelle am 5'^" April Anno 1573 

auch daselbst Todes verbhchen am 7 Augusti Anno 1643. und 

im selbigem Jar am 16 Novemb alhier mit christl. und 

fursthch solenniteten beigesetzet nachdem F. G. F. 

auf dieser Welt 70 Jar IV Wochen 5 Tage im 

Ehestande fast 54 Jar in Withiben Stande 

10 Jar zugebracht. Hiob 2. Abnz. 

ies unigs derbusniuzz. 

4, That of duke Ernest, eldest son of William the Younger, 
with the following inscription : — 

Der Durchleuchtiger Hochgeborner Furst u. Her Ernst Herzog zu 
Brunschw. u. Liineburg ist den 2. Tag Martii Selichlich verschieden 


und den 10. April alhier christlich und fiirstlich begraben als CHAF. iii 

S. F. G. 46 Jahr 2 Monat 2 Tage gelebet 14 Jahr ^-^N^'w 

christlich Ibblich und wohl regieret der 
Almeihtige. 1611. 

5, That of duke Christian, second son of duke William, with 
the following inscription : — 

Der Hochwurdige Durchleuchtige Furst und Herr Christian erwehlter 

Bischof des StiflPts Minden Herzog zu Brauns. u. Liineb. ist im 

Jahre 1566 d. 19 Nov. gebohren undt im Jahre 1633 zwischen 

den 7. undt 8. Novemb. 1 Uhr in der Nach selichlich 

entsehlafen folgends dom 8. Januar des 1634 Jahrs 

alhier beggesebt worden nach dein S. F. G. 

dem Stiffte Minden 34 und Jhren Erblanden ^ 

22 Jahr 6 Monathe 23 Tage loblich 

regieret und 67 Jahr weniger 

52 Tage erlebet. 

6, That of duke Augustus, the third son. His epitaph is 
as follows : — 

Der Hochwurdig Durchlauchtig und Hochgeborner Furste undt Herr 

Herr Augustus postulirter BischofF des Stiftes Ratzeburg Herzog 

zu Brauns. u. Luneburg ist im Jahr 1568 d. 19. Novemb. 

geboren undt im Jahr 1636 d. 1. Octob. zwischen 9. u. 10 

Uhr. Vormittages sehchlich entsehlafen folgends 

d. 6. Decemb. althier beygesetzt worden ~ 

nachdem S. F. G. Dero Stifft 

Ratzeburg 26 und Jhre ErbfUrstentumb u. Lande 3 Jahr 

loblich regieret u. 67 Jahr 10 Monath 

u. 12 Taare erlebet. 


CHAP. III. 7, That of duke Frederick, the fourth son. His epitaph, as 
"""^^ inscribed on the copper coffin, is as follows : — 

Der Durchlauchtiger Hochwurdiger Hochgeborne Furst undt Her Her 

Friedeeich Herzog zu Brauns. u. Luneb. postulirter Coadjutor des 

Stiffts Ratzeburg erwolter Dombprobst des Ertzsiffts Bremen ist 

Anno 1574 d. 28 Aug. Morgens Zwischen 2 und 3 Uhren 

off der Vestiing Zell in diese Welt geboren und hernacher 

daselbsten Anno 1648. d. 10 Decemb. Nachniettags 

gegen 3 Uhr in Godt sanft und Seelig entschdafen 

undt den folgenden 30 January des jetzt laufenden 

1649 Jars alhier beggesetzet worden nachdem 

J. F. G. Jhre Erblande in das dregtzehende 

Jahr regieret und 74 Jar 3 Monat u. 

12 Dage erlebet haben. 

Godt wolle, &c. 

8, That of duke Magnus, his fifth son, born 1577, died 1632. 
On the coffin, made of copper, is the following inscription : — 

Der Durchlauchtiger Hechgeborner Fiirst undt Her Her Magnus Hertzoo- 

zu Br. undt Luneb. am 30 Augusti, Anno 1577, zu Zell geboren 

undt 10 Febr. Anno 1632, daselbst gestorben undt allhie 

beigesetzt. Godt wolle S. F. G. an jenen grosen 

Tage eine frohliche Auferstehung vorleihen 

zum ewigen Leben. 

Symb. All mein Hoffnung zu Gott. 

9, Duke George, his sixth son. His epitaph, on a handsome 
coffin of copper, is as follows : — 


Der Durchlauchtiger Hochgeborner Fiiiste und Herr Georg. Herzog zu CHAI'. 111. 

Braunschweig u. Luneburg, des Nieder sachsisehen Creises Geneiall, ^-^^^.^^^~^ 

ist un Jahr. 1582, am 12 Februarii, zu zelle geboren, und 

im Jahr. 1641, d. 2 April, abendts 1 Viertel nach 

sieben Uhren zu Hildesheiin in Christo seliglich 

entschlafen. Seines Alters 59 Jahr 1 Monath 

13 Tage. Hat regieret das Fiirstenthumb 

Braunschw. Calenbergischen Theils 

5 Jahr 2 Monat und ist den 

16 May, 1643, allhier zu 

Zelle mit gehorigen 

Ceremonien beigesetzet worden. Gott, Sec. 

Symb. Auf Gott traue ich. 

10, That of prince John, the seventh son, born 1583; died 
1628. The inscription on the coffin is as follows: — 

Der Durchlauchtig Hochgeborner Furst undt Herr Herr Johanse Herzog 

zu Brunschweichs unt Luneburgg ist am 27 Novembris, Anno 1628, 

seliglich vorschieden und d. 14 Januarii, Anno 1629. alhier 

christhch und furstlich begraben als S. F. G. 45 Jar 

5 Monat 4 Tage gelebet. Der Almechtige ! 

11, That of dutchess Anne-Eleonora, consort of duke George. 
Her epitaph is as follows : — 

Die Durchleuchtigste Flirstin u Fraw Anna Eleonora, Herzogin zu 

Braunsweig u Liineburg, geborne Landgrafin zu Hessen, Grafin zu Catzen 

Elnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhain, u. Nidda Sec. Hochstlobluhen Angedenken 

ist ao. 1601, d. 30 Julii, Abendts zwisehen 6 u. 7 Uhr zu Darmstadt 

geborn, Ao. 1617, d. 14 Decembr. Herrn Hertzog Georgen zu 

Braunschweig u Luneburg glorwurdigster Memorise daselbst 


CHAP. III. verraalet. Ao. 1642. d. 2 April verwittibt. Ao. 1659, d. 6 May 

"^■^^V^^ zu Mittage um 12 Uhr auf ihren Furstlichen Durchl. 

Wittumbs fitz, zum Hertzberge in Gott dem Herrn 

•Sehlig entschlafen und selbigen Jahrs d. 31 

Augusti mit FUrstlichen Leich Ceremonien 

beigesetzet worden. Jhres Durehl. Alters 

57 Jahr 9 Monat 6 Tage gefuhrten : 

Ehestandes 23 Jahr 3 Monat 20 

Tage u. Wittumbs 18 Jahr 

4 Wochen 4 Tage. 

12, That of duke William, the last duke of the line of Mar- 
burg; bom 1564; died 1642*. Inscriptions as follow: — 

Jehovse aeterno, trino, et uni, semper sit laus et gloria in saecula 
sseculorum. Amen. 
Filius Ottonis, Wilhelmus parva pro pago, 
Viribus exhausta hie contumulata jacet. 

Hoc sat erit, si quis cupiet TUA facta notare 
An pius erga Deum fueras mentemque colebas, 
Haud fictum famam conservans semper honestam. 

Non timet mortem, qui vitam superat. 

Natus Ao. MDLXIV.XV. mensis Mart, circa horam quintam matutinam; 

obiit terrenorum pertsesus coelestium cupidus MDCXXXXII. 

d. XX. Martii hora quarta matutina, eum vixisset 

annos LXXVIII. dies XIlll. horas XXIII. 

• The remains of duke George, who died at Hildesheim on the 2d of April, 1641, 
were conveyed to this ducal vault two years after his death, 16th May, 1643. The 
reason for this delay must have been important. It is certain that his remains, and 
those of duke William, of Harburg, were deposited here at the same time. 


Esse, fuisse, fore tria florida sunt sine flore 
Nam simul omne perit, quod fuit est et erit. 

Anno MDCXVII Epicedium hoc ipse sibi composuit istudque incidii 
loculo stanneo mandavit, cujus num anima procul dubio in manu 
Dei est, et non tangit eum tormentum mortis. Sap. Ill, 
Veni, Jesu, veni, fac spem propagare tuorum. 

13, That of duke Christian-Lewis. Inscription in German :-^ 

Der Durchleuchtigste FUrst und Herr Christian Ludewig Hertzog zu 

Braunschweig und Luneburg, des Niedersachsischen Creises Obrister ist 

im Jahr 1622, d. 25 Februar. Abends Kurtz nach X Uhren zum 

Hertzberg gebohren und im Jahr 1665, d. 15 Mart Abends 

1 Viertel auf V. Uhr in Christo selig entschlafen. Seines 

Alters 43 Jahr 18 Tage; hat regieret das Furstenthum 

Kalenberg 8 Jahr 36 Wochen unde die Fiirstenthiimer 

Zell und Grubenhagen samt den Hoia und 

Diepholtz 16 Jahr 13 Wochen 5 Tage, und 

ist den 1 Nov. 1665, mit gehbrigen 

Ceremonien beygesetzet worden. 

Gott wolle ! 

14, That of duke George-William, last duke of Celle; born 
1624 ; died 1705. This is the most splendid and the handsomest 
of all the coffins, as well in respect of the metal, as of work- 
manship. Inscription: — 

Ser. Georgius. Guilielmus, Dux Brunsuic. et Luneb. nat. 
set. LXXXI. mens. VII. 



CHAP. III. On the emblematical decorations, which are very beautiful, 

^^^^'^^"^ is the following inscription : — 

Extincti non cessat amor 
Cinis aeternos servabit honores 
Stat fama superstes 
Nee morti gloria cedet 
Non demunt funera lucem 
Felices prsebuit umbras. 

15, That of Sophia-Dorothea, daughter of duke George- 
WiUiam; born 1666; died 1726, in the castle of Ahlden. 
Without an inscription. 

16, That of Eleonore, dutchess D'Olbreuse, consort of duke 
George- William, who married her in 1665. Without an in- 

17, 18, and 19, Those of three infants of duke George- 
William. They are of metal, without inscriptions. 

20, That of Caroline-Mathilda, queen of Denmark, princess 

of England, and sister of his majesty, George the Third. 

Inscription : — 

Mortale quod habuit 

hie deposuit 

Carolina Mathildis, 

* The two coffins, Nos. 15 and 16, are of tin, and were deposited here; the 
first in 1726, and the last in 1723. Besides these coffins, there is a box of tin, in 
which the heart of duke George-William is preserved. From many circumstances, 
it is evident that this ducal vault cannot be older than the time of William the 
Younger. His coffin is the oldest. Perhaps the vault was enlarged when the remains 
of duke Christian-Lewis were deposited. The coffins, Nos. 13, 14, 15, and 16, 
have trestles, which look newer than the others. And it is evident that some of the 
oldest coffins are not now in their first places, but have been moved into the corners, 
in order to make more room. 


Princeps Magnse Britanniae et Brunsvici Luneburgi, CHAP. III. 

Regina Danise et Norvagise, v^^v-^^./ 

Nata die XXII. Julii MDCCLI. 
Denata die X. Maii MDCCLXXV. 

List of the Epitaphs and Monuments in the High Choir of the 
principal Church of Celle. 

Behind the altar, south east to east, is, 

1, The figure of Ernest the Confessor, cut in stone, with 
the following inscription round it : — 

Anno a Virginis salulifero partu MDXLVI. ^tatis suae XLIX. Die 

vero XI. Mensis Januarii in Deo pie obiit lUustrissimus 

Princeps ac Dominus, Dnus Ernestus Brunsuicensium 

LUneburgensiumque Dux inclytus, cujus anima in 

Christo salvatore suo suavissime quiescit. 

At the feet: — 

Exigua Ernestus Dux hie requiescit in urna, Luneburgensis Fama 

decusque soli Aurea quo patrias duce pax est reddita 

nostrae et ccspit Christi notior esse Fidis. 

2, To his right is that of his consort Sophia, with the fol- 
lowing inscription round it : — 

Anno a Chro Salvatore nostro nato MDXLI, vero VIII Junii in 

Deo pie obdormivit illustrissima Dna Dna Sophia, Henrici 

Megapoliensis Ducis Filia: Eknesti, Brunsv. 

Lunasburgensiumque Ducis, Honestissima 

Conjux, cujus anima suaviter in 

Chro quiescit. 


CHAP. III. Below is written : — 

Hac tumba Sophi;e requiescit nobile corpus 
Quae chara Ernesti Principis uxor erat, 

Sponsaque iam Christi ccelesti gaudet in aula 
Spernens prae veris ista caduca bonis. 

3, To their right the figure of their eldest son, Francis- 
Otho, with the following inscription : — 

Anno a Chro unico salvatore nostro nato MDLIX. ^tatis Die vero 

XXIX, mensis Aprilis vita pie defunctus est lUustriss. 

Princeps ac Dns Dns Franciscxjs Otto 

Brunsvic. Lunaeburgensiumque Dux 

celeberrimus, cujus Anima 

in Deo suaviter quiescit. 

At his feet: — 

Hac etiam illustriss. Fkanz Otto conditur urna 
At mens ccelesti vivit in arce Dei 
' Cara quid extinctum conjux, quid patria luges, 

Non moritur, vitaque benefunctus erat. 

4, To his right stands his brother Frederick, killed in the 
battle of Silvershausen, with the following inscription: — 

Anno a natali Jesu Christi, unici Redemtoris nri. MDLIII. ^tatis suae 

XXI. et Mense altero die XX Julii ex hac mortali vita pie 

decessit Illustriss. Princeps ac Dns. Dns. Fredericus, 

Bruns, Lunaeburgensiumque Dux inclytus cujus 

Anima pacifice in Chro. Salvatore quiescit. 


At his feet: 

Hie etiam Frater posuit juvenilia membra 
Friedericus pacis nobile nomen habens. 

Qui tua dum sequitur, Maurici, castro decorum 
Accipiens vulnus fortiter occubuit. 

On the north side : — 

5, Another figure of duke Ernest the Confessor, and his 
consort Sophia, both kneeling before a crucifix*, with the fol- 
lowing inscription under it: — 

Illustriss. ac Dilectiss. suis Parentibus. 
Illustriss. princeps at Dnus. D. Guilielmos 
Junior, Dux. Bruns. et Lunasb. Filius, 
Hoc Monumentum, Pietatis Ergo, F, F. 
Anno 1576. 

Under the figure of the duke : — 

lUustrissimus Princeps Ernestus, Dux Bruns. et Luneb. Henrici Filius, 

natus A.C. MCCCCXCVII. die XXVII Junii. Cum apud avunculum 

Friedericum Saxonise, Ducem et Electorem prseclare educatus 

Witebergse bonis artibus felicem operam navasset atque in Gallia 

in Regis Francisci I. Aula ob eximias ingenii dotes ac 

summas virtutes magno in honore aliquot annos vixisset ; 

Administrationem suae ditionis suscepit et jam verae 

Religionis acerrimus vindex, quam optimus 

Reipub Gubernator, cum Carolo Imperatori 

Anno XXX, Augustee, comitia celebranti, 

confessionem, quam Augustanam vocant, 

cum paucis aliis principibus ac civitatibus Imperii, obtulisset ; suique 

* This epitaph, cut on marble, was inscribed by duke William the Younger, in 
the year 1576, to the memory of his illustrious parents. 


CH\F. III. ducatus ecclesias sinceiae religioni restituisset; tandem 

'''"^^'^'^'^ Anno Christi MDCXLVI. die Januarii XI. 

ex hac vita in seternam migravit. 
Anno fetatis 49. 

Under that of the dutchess Sophia: — 

iUustrissima Princeps Sophia nata illustrissimis parentibus D. Henrico, 

Duce Megapolensi et D. Ursula, Filia D. Johannis, Marchionis 

Brandenburgensium Imperii Romani Archi Camerarii et Electoris 

A.C. MDVII. In verae pietatis et omnium virtutum studiis 

fideliter educata nupsit illustrissimo Principi Ernesto, 

Duci Bruns. et Lunseburg, Anno Christo MDXXVUI. 

in feriis pentecostes, cum quo verse religioni 

addicta pie et honeste annos tredecim aetatem 

agens, tandem duodecim liberorum mater 

ex difScili partu in vera nominis divini 

' invocatione. Anno Christi MDXLI. 

die Junii XVI II. in Christo 

suaviter obdormivit. 

1 Timoth. ii. 

Mulier saluabitur per fihorum generationem, si permanserit in fide 

et dilectione cum sobrietate. 

6, Not far from the altar is a figure of duke Augustus, third 
son of William, and bishop of Ratzeburg, with this inscription : — 

Reverendissimus ac Serenissimus Princeps ac Dominus, Dominus 

Augustus postulatus Episcopus Ratzeburgensis Dux Brunsuic. 

et Luneburg. natus XXVIII Novemb. anno Christi MDLXVIII 

ex hac miseriarum valle 1 Octob. anno MDCXXXVI pie ac 

placide in ccelestem patriam migravit, postquam vixisset 

LXVII menses undecim, dies tredecim. 


7, The epitaphs of duke William, youngest son of Ernest the chap. hi. 
Confessor, with his consort, Dorothea of Denmark, and their ^■^^^^^ 
two eldest sons. 

Under the statues of duke William and his consort : — 

Illustrissimus Princeps ac Dominus, Dominus Wilhelmus, dux Brunsvic. 

et Lunseburg. Ernesti Ducis, ex Sophia Megapolensi Filius; natus 

anno Christi MDXXXVI. IV Julii, (defuncto Fratre Francisco 

Ottone anno MDLIX) Ducatum pacifice rexit annos XXXIII 

ecclesia et politia bene constituta ; uxorem duxit 

DoROTHEAM, Christiani III. Danise Regis 

Filiam, anno MDLXI. XII Octob. Quam 

viduam cum septeni filiis, et octo 

jfiliabus relinquens pie obiit, anno 

MDXCII. XX Augusti, anno 

setatis LVII mens. I. 

die XVI. hor XI. 

Dorothea, Christiani III Danorum Regis et DoROTHE.a: Saxonia. 

inferioris Ducissse Filia, Friederici II Regis soror. A. Christi 

MDXLVI. die XIX nata, Wilhelmo Juniori Ducis Brunsvic. 

et Luneburg. anno salutis MDLXI die XII Octob. feliciter 

nupta; illustrissimorum filiorum septem et filiarum octo 

mater, annis in conjugio XXXI, viduitate XXVI, 

menses VI, et totidem dies denata in arce Winsen 

VI Jan. anno MDCXVII et XIX Febr. 

ejusdem anni hie sepulta in spem laetse 

resurrectionis conquiescit. 

8, At the right, under Ernest the Younger : — 
Illustrissimus Princeps ac Dominus, Dominus Ernestus Dux Brunsvic. 

et Lunaeburg. Ducis Wilhelmi ex Dorothea, Christiani III 

Daniae Regis filia, Alius: natus anno Christi redemptoris nostri 

3 A 


CHAP. HI. MDLXIIII ultimo die Decembris, defuncto patre anno MDXCII, 

\^^\^^^ gubernationem jure hsereditario suscepit, ac ducatum annos XIX 

pacifice, clementer et juste rexit; anno autem MDCXI. 

II die Martii intra horam IIII et V. vespertinam ex 

hisce mundi procellis ad Eeternam salutis partem 

appellens, Princeps verae religionis, pietatis 

observantissimus, placide in Christo 

obdormivit. Vixit annos LXVI, 

menses II, dies II, horas VII. 

9, At the left, under duke Christian : — 

Reverendissimus aque Illustrissimus Princeps ac Dominus, Dominus 

Cheistianus, WiLHELMi Filius, electus Episcopus Mindens. Dux 

Brunsvic. et Luneburg. Natus anno Christi MDLXVI 

die XIX. Novemb. Postquam episcopatum 

Mindensem annos XXXIV haereditarias 

autem provincias annos XXII et ultra 

summa cum pietatis et justitise laude 

rexisset, optimus Patriae in Christo 

placide obdormivit VIII Novemb. 


Vixit annos LXVIl. deductis XI diebus. 

On the south side : — 

10, Duke Frederick, fourth son of duke William, with the 
following inscription : — 

iEternse Memorise Serenissimi Principis Frederici, Ducis Brunsvic. et 

Luneburg. patriee patris, conservatoris et amplificatoris, qui natus V. 

Kalend Sept. cIdIcLXXIV cum ditiones suas annos XII gubernasset, 

pietate Deum, justitia et amore subditos, beneficentiaque pauperes 

demeruisset, die X. Decemb. anno cIoIdCXLVIII, 

aetat. suae LXXIV. 


11, A handsome monument of black marble, representing chap. m. 
duke George, sixth son of duke William ; his consort, Anna- ^^ 
Eleonore ; and their two sons, Christian-Lewis and George- 

Under duke George : — 

Serenissimus Princeps Georgius, Brunsuicensium ac Luneburgensium 

Dux, cum ab ineunte aetate militiam exercuisset; fatalibus Germaniae 

bellis, implicitus labantem pene libertatem ac religionem auctam 

invicto animo et armis sustinuit, multis actis inclytus, 

veraeque pietatis, fortitudinis, fidei, ac prudentiae laude 

posteritate memorandus, vita decessit, 

d. IX. April. MDCCXLI. 

Under the dutchess Anne-Eleonora : — 

Serenissima Princeps Anna Eleonora, Ludovici, Hassiae Landgrav. filia, 

Georgii Bruns. uxor, pietate in Deum, in raaritum fide, dementia in 

inferiores nemini comparanda, obiit anno MDCLIX. VI. Maii. 

To the right, under duke Christian- Lewis * : — 

Serenissimus Princeps Christianus Ludovicus, Dux Brunsuic. ac 

Luneburg. etc. Geoegii filius, natus anno MDCXXII. die XXV 

Febr. Circuli inferioris Saxonias Dux generalis. Regimen ducatus 

Hannoverani anno MDCXLI, Cellensis anno MDCXLVIII, 

accessit. Princeps magnaniraus, et heroicis virtutibus pace 

et bello inclytus, pie obiit die XV Martii, aetatis suae 

anno XLIV, anno Christi MDCLXV, cujus 

animae aeternum bene fit. 

* As his widow, Dorothea, daughter of duke Philip, of Holstein-Glucksberg, 
married again, 1665, Frederick- William, elector of Brandenburg, her place by the 
side of duke Christian-Lewis is not filled up. 


CHAF. III. To the left, under duke George-William : — 

Seienissimus Princeps Georgius Wilhelmus, Biuns. et Luneb. Dux. 

Natus XVI Jan. MDCXXIV, celebratis ubique virtutibus, justitia, 

prudentia, fortitudine, constantia, beneficentia, comitate, dementia, 

suis exteris hostibusque ipsis commendatus Princeps, seterna 

vita ut laude dignus, suscepit regimen Hannover. MDCXLIX. 

Cellens, MDLXV. Obiit XXVIII Aug. MDCCV. 

setatis LXXXII, subditis patriae, sociis, ingens 

sui desiderium, illustre posteritali 

exemplum relinquens. 


An Account, transmitted by the Rev. Mr. Baring, of Sepulchral 
Monuments in the Church of the Convent of Wienhausen. 

According to the chronicle of our convent, several members 
of the illustrious house of Brunswick- Luneb urg have found 
their places of rest in the church of Wienhausen. 

1, St. Agnes, of Landsberg, second consort of Henry the 
Long, Henry the Lion's eldest son. She founded the convent 
of Wienhausen and Isenhagen. The chronicle of Isenhagen says, 
that she is buried at Wienhausen, before the altar, in a hanging 
coffin. She died 1266, aged eighty years. There is at present 
to be seen, four feet from the altar, an antique female figure. 


cut in stone, but much worn out by the walking on it. The chap. hi. 
dress and the crossing of the arms can be distinguished, but no ^^^''"^^ 
inscription. The common report is, that this is the holy Agnes. 

2, Duke Lewis, son of Magnus Pius, died here 1358 ; and 
was also buried here ; but his tomb cannot be found. Upon the 
choir, to the right of the stone of Agnes, is another large stone, 
upon which are cut two figures, a male and a female, with four 
shields at their feet ; but the whole inscription is illegible, except 
near the female figure the letters CRHI, which mean probably 
in the year of Christ. 

3, To the right, near the altar, I saw a place covered with 
boards. The boards run under the pews. I had both removed ; 
and when the sand was taken away, we found a beautiful tomb- 
stone. The whole is well preserved, except that the stone has 
a rent from head to foot. The stone is seven feet long and 
four feet wide. The duke is half armed ; in the right hand he 
has a battle-axe, and the left lies on his sword. On the right 
side are three coats of arms, with the horse on two of them. 
Under this is the following inscription : — 

Anno a Christo Salvatore nostro nato MDXXXII, Februarii die XIX, 

qui fuit dies Martis post reminiscere, pie in Christo obiit 

Henricus, Brunsv. et Luneb. Dux, Othonis filius, 

anni eetatis LXVI. 

Our chronicle says that he was, when on a hunting party, 
taken ill at Bockelscamp, half a mile from hence, and brought 
to the provost's mansion here, where he died. 

Our chronicle mentions further, that Matilda, daughter of 


CHAP. III. John of Luneburg, and consort of Henry of the Wends, died and 
was buried here. 

It also mentions a princess Elizabeth, whose grandmother, 
Anne of Nassau, and father, Henry of Brunswick, wished her 
to become a nun, and sent her for that purpose to Weinhausen 
to be educated. It is said that she became afterwards a very 
pious nun. Of her death and burial place no account is given ; 
but there is no doubt that she rests here; and also most probably 
her grandmother, who died 1518. 

A princess Apollonia, whom her brothers, the dukes Ernest 
and Francis, took from the convent at the time of the reformation, 
died, most probably unmarried, at Celle. 


Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Biermann, of Isenhagen. 

" With the greatest care and diligence I have searched in 
the church, in the convent, and in the vaults. I have examined 
the churchyard, the tombstones, and the inscriptions, and have 
also looked over the ancient papers in the archives of the convent ; 
but I am sorry to say that I did not find the smallest notice on 
the subject of the princes of Brunswick. There are only a 
few tombstones and inscriptions here, and the documents are 
very defective. The probable reason for this is, that at the time 


of the reformation the abbess of the convent, not inclined to chap. hi. 
turn a Lutheran, clandestinely absconded, and took with her 
all the ancient records and papers of the convent. If it could 
be found out vv^hat convent received her afterwards, most im- 
portant documents might be discovered." 


Account of the Rev. Air. Bornemann, Archdeacon at Uelzen. 

The town of Uelzen is poor in respect of monuments of 
antiquity. Those of which it perhaps was possessed, were 
destroyed by the great conflagration in the year 1646 ; by which 
also a part of the town church was burnt down. Of the 
ancestors of our royal family, the duke Ernest, of Brunswick- 
Luneburg, the great and active promoter of the reformation, 
was born here, the 26th of June, 1497. His sister, the princess 
ApoUonia, born in the year 1499, came from the convent of 
Wienhausen to this place; resided here constantly; died the 
31st of August, 1571, at the age of seventy-two years; and was 
deposited in the sepulchral vault, under the high altar of the 
St. Maria, our town church. This vault fell down the 27th 
of January, 1696, and could not be repaired again. A plain 
stone exists, six feet long and three feet wide, with the figure 


CHAP. III. of a nun, folding her hands, and with the following inscription 
round it : — 

Anno Domini 1571, d. 31 August, starb Frocichen Appolonia, geborne 
Hertegin von Brunswick und Luneborch. 

Fixed in the wall, not far from the eastern entrance of the 
church, there is a notice of some charitable institutions which 
bear her name ; the only monument that preserves the memory 
of the charitable life of this pious princess. 


Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Air. Kahler, at Obernkirchen . 

" On looking into Spangenberg's Chronicle, I found the fol- 
lowing notice : — 

" ' Conradus Borchdengus shreibt, alss F. Mechtild Mutter 
Frau Elisabeth gebohren Graffin von Hohnstein erfahren, dass 
ihre Tochter gestorben, habe sie das Kindlein so Otto genandt 
worden zu sich gen Stadthagen holen lassen da es aber nach 
3 Jahren auch gestorben und zu Obernkirchen in Creuzgang 
unter einem scRmalen steine begraben worden.' 

" I therefore went with some people to the crossway of 
the church, and examined every stone under which the child 
could have been deposited ; but found no vestige of a date or 


an inscription. I likewise searched in our church, where, in chap. iii. 
ancient times, many persons of distinction have been buried -''^^ 

under tombstones ; but met neither with a monument, nor with 
an inscription of the tenor alluded to. 


Letter of the Rev. 3Ir. Dassel, of Stadthagen. 

In order to fulfil the commands of his royal highness the 
duke of Clarence as much as it is in my power, I transmit to 
you two small pamphlets, in which are recorded some historical 
facts concerning the noble dutchess Ehzabeth-Ursula ; and I 
add to them two Latin inscriptions ; of which one is to be found 
in our princely mausoleum, and the other on a monument erected 
by the said Ursula, to the memory of her noble consort, Otho 
the Fourth. 

Extract from the Rev. Mr. Dassel's Historische Beschreikmg 
der St. Alartini Kirche zu Stadthagen. 

" A sublime and noble monument stands to the left of the 

altar. It forms an arch, and is sixteen feet wide. Arent Robin 

made it of a kind of stone found in the country. The many 

fields in the coats of arms, the emblematical representation from 

3 B 


CHAP. III. the life of our Saviour, and the many other ornaments, evince 
a great diligence and extraordinary precaution in w^orking a 
sandstone. A cornice rests upon four columns, between vv^hich 
are, in three separate arches, the figures of Otho and his two 
consorts in full length, cut out of stone. 

" Otho had two consorts; of whom that to his right was 
Maria, daughter of duke Barnim, of Pommerania ; and the second 
Elizabeth- Ursula, daughter of duke Ernest, of Luneburg, the 
foundress of this monument. The latter distinguished herself 
by an exalted improvement of her mind. She did a great deal 
of good to the poor, and particularly to the widows and orphans 
of the town. She superintended the education of the females, 
which was at that time most miserably neglected. She^ bore 
the greatest love to her husband, and esteemed him in particular 
for the pleasure which he gave her by embracing and introducing 
the reformation. At his death, which was occasioned by the 
infection of a malignant complaint received on a journey at 
Dulmcn, she was inconsolable ; and her only delight was in 
laying down the plan for the erection of the monument above- 
mentioned, and she had begun to execute it. The remains of the 
count, and those of his two consorts, rest in the vault of the 
mausoleum. This mausoleum was founded by prince Ernest; 
the building was begun 1620, and finished in the third year 
after his death, by his consort Heidewig, a princess of Hesse- 

Elizabeth-Ursula died the 3d September, 158G, at Detmold, 
and was buried in the St. Martini church at Stadthagen. 

Sepulchral Inscription q/" Elizabeth-Ursula. 

B. M. S. 
idem ille 

CHAP. in. 

genitiicem illustrissimam 

Elisabetham Ursulam, 


Ducis Brunsuicensis et 



niter sevi exempla 

memorabilis processit, 



evitati ante annos, 


novo concinnatae 



huic quoque conditorio 

pientissimo, id ita 

in vivis 

cavente filio, 

religiosa illatse sunt 


Ivit ad beatos a. LXXXVI. 

Lixcript'inn on the Statue of Elizabeth-Ursula. 

Pulcra quidem heec statua et matronae illustris imago est, 
Pulcra oculos, formosa genas digitosque tenellos; 


CHAP. III. Sed quee viva memor mortis sibi talia condi 

'^'^^\'^*>^ Ursula mandavit, longe formosior est illis. 

• Omina sunt mota hie, motuque hie et sensibus orba, 
Ilh autem pulero mens est in corpore longe 
Pulcrior, est sermo mentis pulcerrimus index, 
Est pietas grege castarum comitata sororum; 
Ergo illam vitam potius quam flebile marmor 
Ut liceat spectare omnes uno ore precemur. 


Translation of the Rev. Mr. Crome's Account of the Burying 
Places and Sepulchral Monuments of Persons of the most illus- 
trious House of the Guelphs, and other princely Families related 
to them, in the Church of the Coiwent St. Michael, at Luneburg. 

This church was first built upon the hill on the western 
side of the town called Kalkberg. The building of it, with that 
of the convent, was finished by Hermann Billung, in the year 955 : 
but the work must have been done very slightly; for, after the 
lapse of a century, they were obliged to pull it down, and to 
build a new church, which was finished in the year 1055. This 
was likewise, after a few hundred years, in such a state, that 
Otho the Second, or the Severe, had it pulled down, and a new 
one built, which was consecrated 1305. So it remained till 1371, 


when the convent on the Kalkberg was entirely given up. This chap. hi. 
church was therefore rebuilt three times on the same spot. ^-■^'\^^^ 

In this, called St. Michael's cliurch on the Kalkberg, were 
deposited, of the Billung family : — 

1, Hermann Billung, who died 973. 

2, Hildegard, his consort. Both in the centre of the church. 

3, Bernhard, or Brenno the First, duke, Billung's son, who 
died 9th February, 1011. In a vault. 

4, Lothaire, or Luder, his brother, who died 26th Feb. 1011. 
At the side of his brother. 

5, Ditmar, Bernhard the First's son, who died 1048. 

6, Bernhard, or Brenno the Second, duke, Bernhard the 
First's son, who died 1059. Before the altar of the holy cross. 

7, Ordulph, (Otho, or Rudolph,) duke Bernhard the Second's 
son, who died 1071. In the centre of the church, at the side 
of Billung. 

8, Wulfhilda, duke Ordulph's consort. At the side of her 

9, Herman, Bernhard the Second's son, who died 1086. 

10, Magnus, duke, Ordulph's son, who died 1106. In the 
centre of the church. 

There were also buried in this church, but in a place distant 
from the former, two foreign princes : 1 , Henry, king of the 
"Wends, who died 1126; 2, Prebislaus, prince of Mecklenburg, 
who died 1181. 

Of the illustrious family of Henry the Lion : — 

Henry, his son, by Clementia, who died young, 1167. Before 
the altar of the holy cross. 


CHAP. III. William, youngest son of Henry the Lion, built a new vault, 
^^^^^'^^ which remained perfect even when the church was rebuilt, at 
the end of the 13th century. This family vault, in which William 
himself and all the members of his family were deposited, until 
the church was built on another spot, was called after him 
William's Vault, and decorated on every 12th of December, 
the day of his death. In this vault were deposited : — 

1, William, Henry the Lion's son, who died 1213. 

2, Helena, his consort. 

3, Otho the Infant, William's son, who died 1252. 

4, Matilda, Otho's consort, who died 1261. 

5, John, Otho's son, who died 1276, or 1277. 

6, Luitgard, John's consort. 

7, Otho the Second, or the Severe, John's son, who died 1330. 

8, Matilda, Otho the Second's consort, who died 1319. 

9, Otho the Third, Otho the Second's son, who died 1353. 
10, Matilda, his consort, who died 1356. 

,11, William, Otho the Second's son, who died 1367. 

12, Hedwig, who died 1334,^ 

13, Maria, > William's consorts. 

14, Sophia, who died 1362, ^ 

Of the cotemporary sepulchral monuments of these princely 
persons, we know only, that over the tombs of Bernhard, 
(Brenno,) and Lothaire, (Luder,) in the subterraneous church, 
or the vault, the following inscription was to be seen : — 

Omne, quod hoc supera vivam dinoscitur aura. 
Vivere dum properat jamjam nihil esse laborat. 
Quod probat hie tumulus, qui claudit flebile funus. 


Eheu Bernhardi! quern plangant climate mundi. chap hi 

Quorsum vertuntur. que nocte dieque moventur. v^^-"V^ 

Dum viguit vita, dux perdius extitit ista. 

Ex atavis clarus ! sed clarior actibus ejus. 

Nunc cinis et pulvis! quo se caro deputat omnis. 

In quivis Februi; peisolvens debita morti. 

Idibus unde venit mox.spiritus astra subirit. 
Psychen Christe sui ; Celi fac arce locari. 

Aspice mortalis; Sumtus de pulvere pulvis. 
Quos ibi principium! revectros federe nostram. 
Hoc locus iste notat. qui fratrum pignora servat. 
Qui teget hos dominos. sub parvo cespite clausos. 
Hie quoque Luiderus. nam cernis nomen alius. 
Gloria gentis erat. dum flatus carne urgebat. 
Fratris prefectus virtutum calls secutus. 
Sed superesse viri populo solertia tanti 
Mors breviter sivit. que nulli parcere novit. 
Dum mors bis binos. renovasset sorte Kalendas. 
Deposuit Carmen, cui praesta Christi quietem. 

When this monument was afterwards renewed, they added 
the following verses : — 

Hie fratrum numero memorantur nomina sacro, 
Rite ferunt domino, qui laudes quoque grates 
Promti servitio desudant Archiministro. 
Angelici proceres venerantur quem simul omnes, 
Hoc Herman templum cui vovit sedque locavit. 
Natus ubique bonus dux pollens atque triumphis. 
Huic erat in voto monachorum quo feret ordo. 
His servans regule Benedicti scripta magistri. 


CHAP. III. Sed raptus mundo complenda reliquerat almo. 

^^^"^^^ Bernhardo Duci claro viitute paterna. 

Ha det secus ac jussus. qui cuncta peregerat actu, 
Abbatum statuens Luidricum nomine dignum. 
Qui regeret monachos semper pietate magistra 
Scribitur imprimis Bernhardi nobile nomen. 
Conjugis inde pise, natorum et indolis altaB. 
Quique locum nobis meruerant namque sequantur 
Corpore quos mundus presentes denique servat 
Ast memorandorum merito post scribetur ordo 
Ipse pater pius precedit in ordine frater. 
Dux Herman paritor tiansuexa familia celo 
Et quoscunque facit socialis gratia caros 
Virentes pietate tua, tu Christe guberna. 
Defunctis veniam clemens concede benignam. 

To the memory of William, the son of Henry the Lion, 
(fifteen or twenty years after his death,) the abbot John, (who 
presided over the convent from the year 1225 to 1239,) had 
the following verses inscribed over his grave : — 

Ordulphus dux et dominus nostrse regionis 
Cunctos genericis fertur precellere donis. 
Attavus iste fuit. Friederici suscipientis 
Imperii sceptrum virtutum robur habentis. 
Huic ex Ungeria. conjux erat alma Sophia, 
Nata probi regis, divina; nuncia legis. 
Ex ilia magnum genuisse ducem memoratum 
Qui dicto magnus. simulet probitate probatus. 
Hie patri matrique suae. Conjunctus in isto 


Servatur tumulo, sint flamina reddita Christo, cHAP in 

Qui sanctus salvat animas dignetur et illas ^^^'^^ 

Salvari. tormentorum pellende favillas. 

O plange virum Saxonia. corrige mortem 

Quae cunctis vitae. finem dedit et sibi rite 

Maribus iste bonis, nomen roburque leonis. 
Henricus gessit dux. adversosque repressit. 
Ecclesiam fovit. terris pacem dare novit. 

Sargus erat multum. juris servans bene cultum. 
Tres genuit natos omni virtute probatos. 
Heineicus primus fuit; Otto secundus; et imus 
WiLHELMus. scimus quia vix tales reperiraus. 
Unus apud Rhenum comes in Stadio dominator. 
Alter erat flos imperii Bruneswic. habitator, 
Tertius in Luneborg. dux vitae tempore fixit. 
Came quidem crassus. sed mente pius bene vixit. 
Contentus propriis fuit. Stant rapiens aliena 
Uxor ei nata. Danorum regis Helena. 
Ex hac Ottonem fortem generasse Leonem 
Scribitur. invictum licet feritate relictum. 
Bello templatus. captus fuit et spoliatus. 
Sed cunctis tandem sortem reddebat eandem. 
Strenuus et dignus. actu vultuque benignus. 
Facta parens vidua sub multo tempore luxit. 
Mortem Willehelmi. ne sponsum postea duxit. 
Vermibus esca datum, paret hie corpus tumulatum. 
O, quod dominum gratum. sit spirit, soriatum. 
Si quod peccatum fecit, cedat at nihilatum. 
Cujus Christe statum. praesta sine fine beatum, 
Pacis solamen. ferat in celestibus. Amen. 



CHAP. III. Hos Ckahto versus abbate Johanne petente 

^""^'V^^ Composuit. Sancti Michaelis claustrum regente. 

These inscriptions, in the vulgar Latin, and with the ortho- 
graphy and inter-punctuation peculiar to those times, were most 
probably written only on parchment, and hung up near the grave. 
The originals were therefore lost very soon ; and we should know 
nothing of them, if they were not preserved in an old chronicle 
of the convent, written in the 13th century. 

More durable was the monument which was erected to 
the memory of duke Otho the Second, or the Severe, and Matilda, 
his consort, who died 1330 and 1319. 

The principal parts of it undoubtedly were the two plates 
of brass which are still in existence. The plate belonging to 
the monument of duke Otho is six feet high, three feet wide, 
and half an inch thick. On it is a figure, nearly in full length, 
which represents the duke in the attire in which princes used 
to appear in those times. The face, which is a front view, is 
not done well. The hair is combed neatly, and curls at the 
end. The light wreath, which the figure has round its head, 
is rather well done. In the right hand is a sword, resting on 
the ground ; in the left a shield, with the lion, and covered 
with hearts. In the border of the plate, which is about two 
inches and a half thick, is the following inscription : — 


Anno Domini MCCCXXX. 
Left side, 
Quinto Nonas Aprilis, in secunda feria post, diem Pascha. obiit serenu. 


Foot, CHAP. III. 

— s et pacificus princeps. v^^s,^^^ 

Right side, 

Dominus Otto, Dux de Brunswich et Luneborch, requiescat in pace. 

It is written in the old Gothic characters ; or, as we call 
them, monks' letters. The plate is cast metal. 

The plate which belonged to the monument of the dutchess 
Matilda is, in respect of materials, length, and workmanship, 
exactly the same as that of the duke. The figure, in the dress 
of the princesses of those times, has a crown on its head, a 
cap in her right hand, and a shield in her left. This shield is 
like the former, but much smaller, and surrounded with peacocks' 
feathers. From the shield, or coat of arms, falls a riband to 
the ground, with the words, — 

Soror LoDowici imperatoris. 

In the border of the plate is the following inscription, likewise 
in Gothic characters : — 


Anno Dni. millesimo. 

Trecentesimo. decimo. nono. in vigilia Palmarum. obiit. inclita. 

Dna. Me- 



sa. de. Brunswich. et. Luneborg. cujus anima. requiescat. in pace. Amen. 

These monuments were undoubtedly erected soon after the 
death of this illustrious couple. 


CHAP. III. Also, to the memory of the princely persons who were 

'"-^"^'^'^ buried in St. Michael's church after duke Otho, sepulchral 

inscriptions were made ; but the originals are lost. The chronicle 

of the convent has preserved the following : — 

Anno de mundo priit MC ter L que secundo 
Inclitus Otto, die magni. vas iste Sophie 
Cui conjux juncta Mechtildis honore percincta 
Sexto defuncta post hoc annalia cuncta 
Luce BoNiFACii quo corpora sit dato pace. 

Christe Sophia pia da matre precante Makia 
Ut haec scripta tria sint insita nomina diva 
In ierarchia Hedewic et Makia Sophia 
Obiit An. Dn. MCCCLXII. 

M. trecenteno sexageno que noveno 
Lux sacra dementis perit et Dux gloria gentis 
Wilhelmus quintus Brunswic Luueborg cyliarcha 
Hie soliatur virtutum nobilis area. 

It cannot be ascertained on what part of the hill the church 
stood. The buildings of the church, the convent, and the castle, 
which must have been very extensive, as the princes often 
resided here, were most probably built close to one another. 
If, therefore, old walls are found, no one can say to which of the 
different buildings they belonged. During the destruction of 
the rostry hill, a staircase, going down very deep, was discovered ; 
and as this work is still going on, we may expect further 


It seems as if the convent and church had suffered a great deal chap. hi. 
during the siege and reduction of the Kalkberg, in the year 1371 ; 
for the service in the church ceased, the monks w^ent to the 
neighbouring convent Liine; and it was resolved to demolish 
the convent, and to build a new one in the tovi^n of Luneburg. 
Till these new^ buildings were finished, the coffins of those princes 
buried in the old church were, ad interim, deposited in St. 
Cyriacus' church, which was situated to the north-east, at the 
foot of the Kalkberg. In this church was a ducal chapel, (capella 
Omnium Sanctorum), also called " Kaldaunen Capelle," in which 
most probably the intestines of those which were deposited on the 
Kalkberg were interred. 

Gn St. Vitus's day, in the year 1371, the two Saxon dukes, 
Albert and Wenzel, accompanied by the mayor and corporation 
of Luneburg, and by great crowds of people, had the coffins 
and dead bodies removed from the Kalkberg, and deposited 
in the Cyriacus church. There is no certain account how 
many were brought down, and in what state. It is very 
probable that only those of William's vault were deposited in 
Cyriacus church. 

Soon after the building of the convent was finished on the 
spot where it now stands, and the monks had again taken 
possession of it, the removal of the coffins, &c. from the Cyriacus 
church to the vaults of the new St. Michael's church took place ; 
but the year is uncertain. 

In the present church of St. Michael are deposited the 
following princely remains : — 


CHAP. III. j_ Those which were brought down from the Kalkberg to 
the Cyriacus church. How many, and in what state, is unknown. 

II. Of the Saxon family : — 

J, Albert, duke of Saxony, who died 1385. 

2, Wenzelaws, duke of Saxe-Lausburg, who died 1388, (is 

3, Catharine of Anhalt, duke Albert's consort, who died 1390. 

III. Of the house of the Guelphs : — 

1, Agnes, dowager of duke William. 

The remains of the princes mentioned under No. II., and 
those of the dutchess Agnes, are, together with those of No. I., 
deposited in one vault. 

2, Bernhard, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, who died 1434. 

3, Margaret, his consort. 

4, Otho, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, who died 1446. 

5, Bernhard, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, grandson of 
Bernhard, who died 1464. 

6, Otho, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, who died 1471. 

7, A young prince of another family; Henry, son of the 
count Henry the Fourth, of Under-Gratz. 

The remains of persons mentioned under 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, 
have a separate vault, close to the first, on the south side of 
it, in the nave of the church, near to the present principal 

The following monuments were erected in the new church 
of St. Michael : — 

Those above-mentioned old monuments of Otho the Severe, 


and his dutchess, Matilda. The two plates, which are already chap. hi. 
described, were put upon a high pedestal of wood, in the shape ^^'^^'^ 
of a large box ; the sides of which contained portraits of other 
princely persons ; particularly of the following : — 

1, William, with a ball in his hand. 

2, Otho the First. 

3, John. 

4, Otho the Third. 

5, William. Both with documents in their hands. 

6, Albert, with a cup. 

There is a very good representation of this monument in 
the Origines Guelficse, torn. iv. p. 77. 

It is very probable that the monument of Otho and Matilda, 
in the old church of the Kalkberg, consisted only of the two 
plates ; and that all the other additions were made after the 
building of the new church. Even the small brass plates at 
the heads of the two princely persons, with the inscription, 
" Hsec est generalis sepultura illustrium principunducum nec- 
non et ducissarum de Brunswic et Luneburg," appear to be the 
work of a later period. 

In the year 1556, the abbot Eberhard de Holle had erected 
another monument in memory of D. Herman Billung, and of 
all the abbots before him, and also of himself. This monument, 
consisting of a wooden table, six feet high, and eighteen feet long, 
stood, till the repairing of the church, in the year 1792, in 
the wall on the right hand of the chief entrance of the church. 
On this are the following inscriptions : — 


CHAP. HI. On the top of it, 

'''-^^V^^ j,^^ yai- unses Heren 971 stifte Herman Billinck nach dem he von 
Keiser Otte dem ersten mith dem Furstendom Sassen mide 
Llineburg beleneth dith Kloster up dem Kalckbarch an 
dem Stathe Luneborch belegen unde wart anno 1371 

dut Slot und Closter gewlinnen unde netter 
gezetten und wardt dut Closter 1373 alhir gestifted. 

To the right stands a figure, representing Herman Billung ; 
near to it the words, — 

Epithaphium Heemanni BiLiNGE, Hertogen tho Sassen unde Luneborch, 
Fundatoris disses Closters. 

And under this the words, — 

Herman Bilingk bin ick genanth 

In dem Romischen Rike wol bekanth 

Ein Eddelman van Stibbeshorn 

Was van stichten stammen geboren 

Kunst Doeget Rechtickect mick bracht 

Dat Kayser Ottho mick thorn fiirsten macht 

Do ick nhu erhaven tho einen Heren 

Do stifte ick Got unde dem Adel tho Eren 

Und becwede dit Kloster S. Michael vorwar 

Dar beneven Luneborch dat Sloeth aldar 

Was tuchtig strenge in aller Thaeth 

Otthe de Groethe mi darumb begnad. 

To the left are the names and arms of thirty-five abbots : the 
last of them is, — 

Eberhard van HoUe de 35 abt. Starf, 1586. 


Below are the words, — chap. hi. 

Als de Erwijrdige Heer Herbordt van Holle loflicher und selio-er 

Gedechtnisse thorn abbot creoren bet he alse forst de reinen 

lehren des heiligen Evangely angenommen unde hette de 

sulwigen besten dichleik bekendt beth in sin ende dar 

by uns Godt gnedichlick wolde er holden. Amen. 

The following account of the alterations which took place 
in the interior of the church, between the years 1792 and 1794, 
is taken principally from the " Annalen der Braunschweig-Liine- 
burgisch, Churlande, 7te Jahrgang, 1793, 2'" Stuck," p. 177, seq., 
and from the account given by an old mason, who was employed 
in that work. 

At first the above-mentioned monument of Otho was removed. 
According to the account of this old man, it was done during 
the night, by Mr. Meissner, who directed the whole work, and 
by the people whom he had brought with him from abroad. 
It is not known if any thing remarkable was found under the 
plates, or in the large pedestal. The two brass plates, with 
the two figures ; the small plate, with the inscription, " Hsec est 
generalis, &c.," and the names Marcus and Johannes; likewise 
the boards, with the statues of six dukes and six dutchesses, 
and those with the shields and arms, stand at present in a 
saloon behind the altar; but the plates, with the ornaments, 
are missing. The upper plate, with the inscription, is broken 
in two places. The plate with the figure of the duke is also 
broken and injured; so that in the inscription, in the word 
3 D 


CHAP. III. Princeps, the letters EPS, and in the word Dominus, the letters 
"^-^^y^^-^ DOMIN are lost. 

In the same saloon is the table of Herman Billung and the 

thirty-five abbots. 

This saloon is never used for the service of the church, and 

can only be entered from the convent, which is generally locked. 

Where the monument and table formerly stood is not marked ; 

and likewise nothing can be observed in order to point out 

the places where vaults have been, except a stone with a stroke, 

in the form of a cross*. 


Account by the Rev. Mr. D. Nitzsch. 

The convent of Franciscans at Wittenberg, under the altar 
choir of which the electors of Saxony, with their consorts and 
children, from Albert the First to Rudolph the Third, found 
their rest, was in the Schmalcaldian war so totally altered, that 
since that time an inspection of the princely sepulchral monu- 
ments has been impossible. But at the time when such altera- 
tions were in view, all the inscriptions were collected and 
preserved in different ways. For instance, Andreas Sennert, 

* See the above-mentioned Annals of Brunswick-Luneburg. 


1678, in his Athense Wittenbergenses, has published twenty chap, hi, 
of these inscriptions ; among which that of Helena, the foundress ^^^''^^ 
of the above-mentioned convent, is the first, as follows : — 

Helena, Ducissa Saxon. Elect. Ux. anno MCCLXXIII. 8 Sept. obiit 

Domina Helena, conjunx Alberti I. Ducis Saxoni 

ac Electoris, filia Ducis Ottonis de Brunsvic. 

fundatrix hujus ccenobii. 

Witlenb. 20 Sept. 1819. 


Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Illing, of Scharnebeck. 

" In regard to the burying place of the dutchess Magdalene, 
consort of Frederick the Pious, duke of Brunswick- Luneburg, 
who, according to historical records, died and was buried in 
the year 1453, at Scharnebeck, I have to observe as follows: — 

" In the archives of the parish there is a book written by 
the former ministers of this church, which bears the title, 
" Nachtichtgebendes Denkbuch fiir die Kirche und Pfarre zu 
Scharnebeck, &c. von Zeit zu Zeiten fortgesetzt und erstesmahl 
eingerichtet von Friedrich Ernst Straussen, Pastore Anno 1686." 
In the third part, containing, " Historisches Verzeichniss der 
Denkwiirdigkeiten in dieser Pfarre vorgefallenen Sachen, so weit 
dieselbe der Geistlichkeit angehen." At p. 136, sec. v. the 


CHAP. III. following notice, anno 1453': " There is here, in the choir of 
this church, preserved and built round, a princely tomb, in which 
is deposited Magdalene, a dutchess of Brunswick and Luneburg. 

" The same remark, in the same words, is recorded in the 
' Amts Lagerbuche,' of the year 1666, p. 3. 

" Now the question is, where to find in our church the 
proper burying place of the said dutchess ? But here we meet 
with great difficulty, for the former large church, probably the 
convent church, was demolished; and a new one, which was 
built in the year 1723, by the command of his majesty king 
George the First, and consecrated at Witsuntide, 1724, is that 
which exists. Neither can it be ascertained that the new church 
is built on the spot of the old one, though an old tower with 
shell stairs, on which the church leans, appears to be of great 
antiquity; nor can we find, in or outside the church, a monu- 
ment which marks the burying place in question. The only 
thing I remarked at the present search is, that there is before 
the altar a stone twelve feet long and six feet wide, with regard 
to which an alteration must have taken place, as it has in the 
middle a rent, which is closed again by a hard mortar. Not 
the least trace of an inscription is to be seen on it. This is, in 
my opinion, the only place in the church where, by proper 
digging, some discoveries might be made. 



Memoire du Grand Baillif Lueder, a Herzberg. 

D'apr^s les notices recueillis sur I'ancienne histoire de ce 
chateau, j'en peux faire remarquer ce qui suit. 

1486, Le due Albrecht III. mourut en ce chateau, et fut 
depos6 a Osterode. 

1518, Mourut et fut enseveli ici le fils du due Philip, n6 
an 1509. Sa mort 6toit la suite d'une incendie dans le chateau, 
qui avoit eu lieu le 3 Novb. 1510, et ou le due, avee son dpouse 
et le prince, avoit et6 forc6 de se sauver par la fenfitre sans etre 

1551, Philip I. mourut ici, et fut depos^ \ Osterode. 

1567, Le 2 Avril, mourut ici sans suecesseur le due Erneste, 
qui fut de mfime enseveli a Osterode. 

1586, Le 9 Avril, mourut ici I'^pouse du due Wolfgang, 
Doroth6e de Lauenburg, ensevelie ^ Osterode. 

1595, Le 14 Mars, mourut ici le due Wolfgang, enseveli a 

1596, Le 4 Avril, mourut ici le due Philip II, et fut enseveli 
^ Osterode, avee son Spouse Clara, de Wolfenbiittel. 

La mort de Philip II. mit fin h. la ligne des princes de 
Grubenhagen; et pendant I'interr^gne, lorsque le due Heinrieh- 
Julius, de Wolfenbiittel, (jusqu'^l'an 1613,) et Friederich-Ullrich, 



CHAP. HI. (jusqua I'an 1617,) menoient le gouvernement des pays de Gru- 
■^ benhagen, 'il n'y avoit point de cour ici. 

1617, Le due George, de Celle, reprit le gouvernement, et 
fixa sa residence ici. Aprfes sa mort, son 6pouse, Anna-Eleonora 
de Darmstadt, demeura ici, et mourut le 6 Mai, 1659 : elle fut 
ensevelie a Celle. 

De ce mariage sont nes ici : 

Le 9 Aout, 1618, la princesse Magdalene, morte le m^me 
jour, et enterr^e ici dans I'^glise prfes de I'autel, avec un 6pitaphe. 
Le 25 Fevr. 1622, Christian-Ludwig. 
Le 16 Janv. 1624, George- Wilhelm. 
Le 25 Avril, 1625, Johann-Friederich. 
1628, Sophia- Amalia. 

Le 20 Nov. 1628, Ernest- Augustus, et sa soeur jam elle, 
Dorothea-Magdalena, qui mourut ici le 17 Nov. 1630, et fut 
ensevelie daias I'^glise, prfes de la sacristie. 

Le due Christian-Ludewig residoit ici jusqu'au 12 Dec. 1648. 
II fit aggrandir le chateau, et batir une maison de chasse sur le 
dit Knollen. Son 6pouse, Dorothea de Holstein-Glucksbourg, 
qui ne vivoit pas en bonne intelligence avec le due, gardoit sa 
residence ici jusqu'au 11 Janvr. 1668, ou elle alloit k Berlin et 
finissoit par-la la cour d'ici. Le due Christian-Ludwig fut succ^de 
par ses frferes Tun apres I'autre. Les quatre princes de Ernest- 
Augustus se mirent en marche contre les Turcs avec une armee 
de 10,000 hommes. Ce corps fut passe en revue ici sur la 
bruyere le 23 Mars, 1685, par le prince h^reditaire, George- 
Ludwig, qui fut apr^s roi d'Angleterre. De ces quatre princes. 



George-Ludwig 6toit le seul qui revint; les trois autres, Friedrich- chap. hi. 

Augustus, Christian, et Carl-Philip, tomboient en Hongrie au '■'''^^^^^ 

champ d'honneur. Friedrich-Augustus, general Autrichien, tom- 

boit le 10 Janvr., 1691, pr^s de Teres, en Siebenburgue, oCi 

il perdoit la main gauche et la tete. Son corps est transportt'- 

ici, ou il repose dans la voute de I'autel, dans un cercueil couvert 

de cordouan noir. 

Le prince Christian se noya dans le Danube, le 31 Juillet, 
1713, pr^s de Ehingen, son cheval ^tant tu6 sous lui dans une 
affaire pendant la guerre de la succession Espagnole. Son corps, 
transport^ ici, repose dans la voute de lautel, dans un cercueil 

Le prince Carl-Philip, colonel Autrichien, mourut an 1690, 
dans une bataille avec les Turcs, oi\ il prefera une morte h^roique, 
le sabre a la main, k la captivity. Trois chevaux avoient ^te 
tu^s sous lui, et mont^ sur le quatrifeme, il fut perc6 d une lance 

Ces peu de notices suffiront pour montrer, que cet endroit 
nest pas sans int^r^t pour la collection que son altesse royale 
le due de Clarence a en vue. Si les d^ails moins relevants 
concernants la residence et la cour d'ici ne seroient pas rejett^s, 
j en pourrois encore recueillir de quelques manuscrits. 

On dit que ce chateau est b^ti en 1029, par le comte Werner, 
de Lutterberg, comme une maison de chasse; et qu'apr^s il a 
6t6 aggrandi pour la residence des princes de Grubenhagen. 

A ce que je sais, le due Ernest a 6t6 le premier prince de 
Grubenhagen qui a reside ici, an 1340. 


Translation of an Account which the Rev. Mr. Starke has sent, 
concerning the Bmying Places and Sepulchral Monuments of 
several Prijices and Princesses of the House of Brunswick- 
Lunehurg, at Herzberg. 

CHAP. III. The greater number of those princes and princesses of the 
'^^'^^"^^ house of Brunswick-Grubenhagen who resided at this place, 
have been buried at Osterode. We know from the history of 
our country, that the following princely persons died here : — 

Duke Albert the Third, 1486. 

His son, duke Philip the First, 1551. 

His consort, Catharina, of Mansfeldt, 1567. . 

Their son, duke Ernest the Third, 1567. 

Duke Wolfgang, brother of the latter, 1595. 

His dutchess, Dorothy of Saxe-Lawenburg, 1586. 

Duke Philip the Second, brother of Ernest and Wolfgang, 
who has a tomb erected in memory of his name under the organ 
of the church. Vide letter A. 

His dutchess, Clara of Wolfenbuttel, 1595. Their remains, 
as well as those of the dutchess Margaretha, consort of duke 
Ernest the Third, who resided at Salzderhelden, were carried 
to Osterode, and deposited there. 

Herzberg was, at the time when it first became the residence 
of princes, an insignificant place ; and had only a chapel, which, 
with that of the castle, had not room enough for building a family 
vault. The larger churches of Osterode, which town had been 
frequently the residence of princes, contained already such 


vaults; therefore the remains of the members of the ducal family chap. iii. 
were carried from other places to be deposited there. Though ^'^'^'''"^ 
the larger church of St. Bartholomew was built in the year 1593, 
at Herzberg, previous to the extinction of the line of Gru- 
benhagen, they did not think it necessary to build proper 
family vaults; as those at Osterode still existed, and they 
could already at that time foresee the end of this branch of 
the family, and did not think it probable that Herzberg would 
ever become again the residence of princes. The small vault, 
described under the letter D, is not at all calculated for the 
burying place of a princely family ; and was most probably 
built a long time after the extinction of this branch, as they 
did not make use of it when the casualties mentioned under 
letters B and C occurred. 

It happened that Herzberg became once more the residence of 
the dukes of Brunswick-Luneburg, after the extinction of the 
Grubenhagen branch. Duke George, from whom the present 
royal family descends in a direct line, transferred his resi- 
dence to Herzberg, after the differences about the succes- 
sion were settled in the year 1617. Though the active part 
which he took in the great events of his time called him 
frequently from home, it was here where all his children 
were born. His son and successor, the duke Christian-Lewis, 
resided here also till the year 1648, after he had exchanged the 
principality of Celle with that of Calenberg; he removed his 
residence first to Hanover, and afterwards to Celle. His 
dutchess, Dorothea, daughter of Philip, duke of Holstein- 
Gliicksburg, continued her residence at Herzberg, till she was 
3 E 


CHAP. III. married again to Frederick- William, elector of Brandenburg, in 
"■^^ the year 1668. She seems to be the last princely person who 

resided here. 

But, during the time that Grubenhagen was held in possession 
by the younger branch of the house of Luneburg, the remains 
of the deceased members of the family were regularly carried 
to other places for interment. Duke George, who died at 
Hildesheim, 1641, was taken to Celle. His dutchess, Anna- 
Eleonora, who continued for eighteen years after his death to 
reside here, and died 1659, was likewise taken to Celle. 

Duke Christian-Lewis, who died at his country seat near 
Celle, was carried there also. 

Duke John-Frederick, Avho finished the building of a wing 
of the castle, but never resided here, was brought after his death, 
which happened at Augsburg, 1679, to Hanover. 

Duke Ernest- Augustus, who had been in possession of Osna- 
bruck eighteen years before John-Frederick's decease, took up 
his residence at Hanover. 

But of the period that the dukes of the younger house of Lune- 
burg resided here, two monuments remain in our church : 1, That 
of princess Magdalena, eldest daughter of duke George ; 2, That 
of a twin sister of the elector Ernest-Augustus, Dorothea-Mag- 
dalena. Both died in their infancy. The description of these 
monuments will be found under letters B and C. 

I cannot tell what was the cause, but at a time when Herzberg 
had ceased to be a place of residence, two sons of the elector 
Ernest-Augustus, who both had died the death of heroes in 
the Austrian service, were brought here to be interred. They 


rest in the above-mentioned ducal vault of the Bartholomew chap. hi. 
church. A description of it is given under letter D. Herzberg ^^^'^^^ 
has reason to be proud of the remains of these young heroes ; but 
it is much to be lamented that fate did not permit their third 
brother, who met with an equally glorious death in Albania, to 
rest by their side. 

It is not in my power to say positively, that besides these 
four, no other members of the illustrious family have found their 
place of rest at Herzberg. But it is certain that no vestiges of 
another burying place can be found here. 

All documents, which were undoubtedly at those times pre- 
served in the castle, have most probably been removed to Hanover 
or Celle. But a notice which I find in a manuscript preserved in 
the church archives, says, that at the departure of the dowager 
of the duke Christian-Lewis, the dutchess Dorothea, from hence 
to Berlin in the year 1668, the whole of the archives and other 
important documents were carried off to Berlin. 

As the church registers of this parish do not go farther back 
than to the middle of the 17th century, and Herzberg already 
about this time ceased to be the residence of our princes, no 
notices of their families can be expected therein. Only in two 
places I find mentioned the names of some of them ; once at the 
christening of the daughter of aulic counsellor Berninger, at 
which the dowager of duke George, the dutchess Anna- 
Eleonore, her sister Juliane, and prince Ernest-Augustus, after- 
wards bishop of Osnabruck, and elector, stood as godfathers 
and godmothers ; afterwards the deposition of the remains of 
prince Christian in the ducal vault. The following is an exact 
copy of the register: — 


1656. Mains 

den 5. dess Herrn Hofraths Christian-Berningers, Tochterlein 

Eleonora-Juliana, getaufft, Gev. 

Ittma. nra. (nostra) Principissa Anna-Eleonora 

ejusdem soror Juliana. 

Ittmg. Ernestus-Augustus. 

1703, the 25th October, is prhice Christian here deposited; 
but the funeral and deposition of prince Frederick-Augustus is 
not mentioned. 

In the neighbouring parish, village Hattorf, the church register 
reaches back to the 16th century, and in this they have inserted 
the deaths of several reigning princes of our house. These inser- 
tions I have added in letter E. 

The above-mentioned manuscript is a collection of Memora- 
bilia Herzbergiana : the author of it is the late organist of this 
church, Mr. Wallis. It is of no great value. 

Finally, I add, under letter F, the description of tw^o medals 
of silver, vv^hich have been for a long time in possession of my 
family. They were coined in memory of some of the princes 
of the house of Brunswick-Luneburg, and deserve to be preserved 
in a collection of medals. 

Herzberg, l^th March, IE 

(Signed) T. F. Starcke, 

Superintendent of Herzberg. 



Inscription under the Organ of the St. Bartholomews Church 
at Herzberg. 

When duke Philip the Second, with whom the line of Gru- 
benhagen became extinct, succeeded his brother, the duke Wolf- 
gang, and removed his court from Catlenburg to Herzberg, he 
gave to the new-built church of St. Bartholomew the organ 
which is still in it, and which he had first intended to give to 
the church at Catlenburg. In memory of his munificence, a 
wooden tablet under the organ has the following inscription, in 
small German letters : — 

Philipp, Hertzog zu Braunschweig maclit 
Diss werk stifftet christlich bedacht 
Gott zu Ehren, den menschen zur freudt 
Gott gnad Ihm in der Seeligkeit. 
Den virde Aprilis starb diss Jahr 
Fur bin zu seiner Voreltern schaar. 

The duke Wolfgang had given to the building of this church 
1000 guilders. There was a stone to his memory fixed in the 
pulpit, with the following inscription : — 

Beij Regierung des hochgebohrnen Fiirsten und Herrn, Herrn 

Wolfgang, Herzogen zu Braunschweig und Liineburg, 

ist diese Kirche neu erbauet. 1593. 


CHAP. III. The removal of the pulpit from the middle of the church to 
the altar, in the years 1741 and 1742, has destroyed this 

(Signed) Starcke. 

Herzberg, 29th March, 1819. 


Tomb and Monument of the Princess Magdalene, in the 
St. Bartholomew's Church at Herzberg. 

This princess was the eldest of the children of Anna-Eleonora, 
daughter of the landgrave Louis the Fifth, of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
and consort of duke George, the first of the line of Celle and 
Calenberg, or the line of Hanover, of the new house of Luneburg. 
She was bom the 9th of August, 1618, at Herzberg, and died the 
same day. Her burying place is in the choir of the church on 
the south-east wall, just before the stairs which lead to the pulpit. 
It is two feet and a half high, and as many feet wide, and covered 
with a stone plate, which has the following inscription: — 

Von Gottes Gnaden Magdalena, Hertzogin zu Braunschweig und 

Luneburg, ist ut Hertzberg, den 8 Augusti, frue Zwischen 

2 und 3 Gebohren und Zwischen 11 und 

12 selig in Christo Verschieden, 

im Jahr 1618. 

Over the inscription are the Brunswick and the Hesse- 
Darmstadt arms, cut in stone. Both are well preserved. 


In the wall over the grave is a wooden monument, painted chap. hi. 
white and gilded, which has in the upper corners the two coats ^-'''^^^-^ 
of arms painted, and in the middle the following inscription: 

Nata est illustrissima Princeps heroi nata Magdalena, serenissimi 

Principis ac Domini, Domini Geokgii, Ducis Branovicensis et 

Luneburgensis, primogenita filiola. A, 1618. IX Augusti, 

de nocte inter secundam et tertiam, obiit eodem 

die inter undecimam et duodecimam horam 

meridianam. Pax suis manibq. 

Non opus est luctu, quod prima ab origini coelo 

Reddita sum nobis, fasne sit invideas? 
Incipe uterque parens mordacem sistere lessum 

Coelestes inter jubila pango duces, 
Dans prsecepta aliis, vitse fastidia discant, 

Atque omnem in Christo spem posuisse suam. 

(Signed) Starcke, 

Herzberg, 29th March, 1819. 


Tomb and Monument of the Princess Dorothea-Magdalena, 
in the St. Bartholomew's Church at Herzberg. 

Close to the tomb of the princess Magdalena, on the south- 
east side of the church, is that of her younger sister, the princess 
Dorothea-Magdalena, the twin sister of the elector Ernest- 
Augustus. They were born at Herzberg, the 20th Nov. 1629; 


CHAP. III. and she died the 17th Nov. 1630. The tomb has the same 
height and width as that of the princess Magdalena, and there 
is no space between them. The covering plate of stone con- 
tains nothing but some coarse ornaments. But the tablet 
on the wall, which is of stone, the pillars of which are 
damaged, has the following inscription, with white letters on 
black ground : — 

Sub saxo isto quiescit 

generosissima heroinula 

Dorothea Magdalena, 

filiola gemella 

illustrissimi et celsissimi Principis 

ac Doi. Georgii, Duels Br. et Luneburg. 


D.20)_ fl629. nata et baptizata, 6-)^ (1630. 

_ SNov.-' ^ y Jaii.^ 

D. 17> i. 630. mortua et terrse redita, 13 5 C 631. 

Adeoque cum magno 

inclytee familise celsissimorum parentum 

subditorum omnium 


Intra paucos dies redeuntes 

nata, defuncta, baptizata, sepultate. 

Quicunque haec legit ut 

vicissitudinem humanam providentiam divinam 

fatum commune 

tarn insigni exemplo agnoscas, 


illustrissimis parentibq. 


condoleas CHAP. III. 

oliin ^^-^ 

lantiora preceris 

It is very probable that over the cornice of this monument 
v^'as a head-piece, like that of the monument of the princess Mag- 
dalena, ornamented with the ducal arms ; but it was perhaps 
taken away when the seat of the bailiff was made longer. 

(Signed") Staucke. 

Hazberg,29th 31arc/,, 1819. 


Ducal Vault in St. Bartholomew's Church at Herzbei^g. 

Under the altar of this church is a vault of very good mason- 
work, in which repose the remains of the two sons of the elector 
Ernest-Augustus, who both fell in the Austrian service. The vault 
is about twelve feet high and twelve feet wide. It is lighted 
by an opening on the east side, which has an iron grate. A 
commodious staircase, closed by a falling gate, leads from the 
choir to the well-guarded folding door of the vault. 

The eldest of these princes is Frederick-Augustus, the second 
son of Ernest-Augustus, born 1661. He was major-general in 
the Austrian army, when he lost his life on the field of battle, 
on the 10th of June, 1690, near Teres, in Transylvania, in forcing 
a pass against the Turks. 

3 F 


CHAP. III. A double wooden coffin, of which the outside is covered with 

'^^'^^^"^ black leather, contains his remains. It is eight feet long, and 
bordered with tin plates. It has, besides the initials of the prince 
on both sides of the cover, a caput mortuum and an hour-glass 
of tin on the head side of the cover, and a crucifix, four feet 
long, of tin, on the top of it. The back part of the cover, on 
which the memento mori is fixed, is loose and broken ; the rest 
seems to be firm and well preserved. 

The other coffin, which stands in this vault, encloses the 
earthly remains of prince Christian, the fifth son of Ernest- 
Augustus. He was born 1671, and lost his life the 31st July, 
1703, at Ehingen, not far from Ulm, on the Danube, when in 
an engagement with the French. He tried to cross the river, 
and his horse was killed under him. On the 23d October, 1 703, 
he was deposited in this vault. He was likewise an Austrian 

The outside coffin is behind three feet and a quarter, and 
before two feet three quarters high. The width of the cover 
increases from one foot and a half to three feet and a half; but 
lessens in width to three feet. It is of solid English tin, and 
rests upon an iron scaffold. An abundance of well worked orna- 
ments of the same metal are rivetted. They consist, besides 
the usual borderings, of a crucifix, which covers the whole, and 
the Christ of which is of brass, and gilded. Of the brass plate, 
with the inscription F. N. R. F. of the crucifix, which was also 
^gilded, a piece is broken off, so that the first letters are only 
to be seen. 


On both sides of the cover are ornaments, from head to foot, chap. hi. 
in the following order : — v^'N"^^ 

Arms ; cross beam of the crucifix ; arms. 

Between the cross beams and the arms below, is a place not 
filled out, where it appears that ornaments have existed ; on 
one side the date of his birth, and on the other that of his death. 
But these are torn oiF. 

On the sides of the coffin, ornaments ; handle, arms ; handle, 
arms, handle. 

At the feet, arms. 

At the head the initials of the prince, and under it the 
complete ducal coat of arms. Here is an opening, about an 
inch wide, through which a scull can be seen — a proof that the 
inside of the wooden coffin is already decayed. 

(Signed) Starcke. 

Ha-zberg, 29th Marc/i, 1819. 


Extracts of the Register of Deaths kept in the Parish Church at 
Hattorf, near Herzberg, since the Year 1589. 

Anno 1595, den 12 Martii, ist der durchlauchtige Fiirst und 
Herr, Herr Wolfgangus, Hertzog zu Brauns. und Liineb. zum 
Herzberg in God selig eingeschlafen. 

Anno 1596, den 4 April, ist der durchlauchtige Fiirst und 
Herr, Herr Philippus, Hertzog zu Brauns. und Luneb. als der letzte 


CHAP. HI. Grubenhagenschen Stams audi zum Herzberg in Gott selig 
''■^'^''''^*^ entschlafen. alt. 62 jahr: 11 monath. 

Anno 1613, den ist der Hochwiirdigste und durch. Fiirst 

und Herr, Herr Heinrich Julius, Dhumprobst zu Halberstadt und 
Hertzog zu Braunsch. und Luneb. in Gott selig verschieden. 
Symbolum, Sincere et constanter. 

Anno 1665, den 15 Martii, ist der durchlauchtigste Fiirst und 
Herr, Herr Christian-Ludowig, Herzog zu Br. und Luneb. in Christo 
Jesu sanft und selig eingeschlafen und zu Zelle 1 9"'- dieses 
annoch lausenden Jahren in sein Ruhekiimmerlein daselbsten 
hochflirst. solennitiit nach verwahrlich beygesetzet worden. buig 
aia in pace requiescat, setat. suae 43 jahren 18 tagen. 

Symlolum, Alles mit bedacht. 

Anno 1666, den 17 September, ist der durchlauchtige Fiirst 
und Herr, Herr Augustus, Herzog zu Br. und Luneb. als altester 
und Hochgelahrtester Fiirst ufF Dero hochfiirst. Resident zu 
Wolfenbuttel seinem Erloser Christo Jesu sanft eingeschlafen und 
darauf den 11 Xbris hochfiirst. solennitiit nach in Dero fiirst. 
Erb-Begrabness zu Wolfenbiittel beygesetzet worden. alt 87 
jahren, 5 mon. 7 tagen. 

Si/mbolum, Ex duris gloria. 

Anno 1679, den 18 Xbris. ist der durchlaucht, Fiirst u. Herr, 
Herr Johann-Friederich, Hertzog zu Br. und Luneb. (auf der 
vorgehabten Reise nach Venedig) in der Stadt Augsburg selig 
v-erschieden, und anno 1680, den 20 Aprilis, zu Hannover solen- 
niter in Dero Ruhe. Kiimmerlein demandiret worden. 

Anno 1641, den 2 M. ist der durchlauchtigste Fiirst und 


Herr, Herr Georg, Hertzog zu Br. und Luneb. zu Zelle in Gott chap. in. 

selig verschieden. "''■^^^'^tJ 

Extrahirt Hattorf, 18 Marz, 1819, und sub fide pastoral! 

(Signed) G. J. Starcke, Pastor. 


Description of tivo Aledals. 

The largest of these medals weighs two ounces and a half; and 
has on one side the well-executed and preserved figure of the 
elector Ernestus-Augustus, with the inscription, 

Ern. Aug. D. G. D. Br. et L. S. R. F. E. L. E. O. 

and under the figure the name of the artificer, E. B. 
On the other side the inscription :■ — ■ 

Natus XX. Nov. CIoloCXXIX. 

denatus media nocte 

inter XXIII. et XXIV. Januar. 

CIoIdCXCIIX. regiminis episcopalis 

anno XXXVI. 

ducalis XIX. electoralis VII. 

postquam vixisset 

annos LXIIX. menses II. dies III. 

Haec meta laborum. 

The whole is surrounded by a wreath of laurel. 


CHAP. III. The other weighs one ounce, and is not so well executed. 

^■"^"^^^^ It represents on one side the head of the consort of duke 
Anthony-Ulrich, of Brunswick, Elizabeth-Juliana, daughter of 
Frederick, duke of Holstein-Norburg, with the words round it, — 

Diva Elisab. Julia, D. G. Due. Brun. et Lun. 

And under it, — 

Nata 1634, denata 1704. 

On the other side a cloud lifts up the glorified from a palace, 
(probably Salzdalum, or the Grave Hof of Brunswick) ; before 
which is lying on a table the ducal crown, with the inscription, — 

Deservisse juvat. 

Should these two medals, which I have in my possession, but 
of which I do not know if they belong to what may be called 
rarities in this genus, be of any value to his royal highness the 
duke of Clarence, I venture to leave them at his disposal. 

(Signed) Starcke. 

Ilerzberg, 29th Man/,, 1819. 



Notices Sepulcrales su)' la Famille aiiguste des Dues et Duchesses de 
Brunsvick Lunebourg, et Grubenhagen, specialement ce qui s^en 
trouve a Osterode, redigees par ordre de Son A It esse Roy ale le 
Due de Clarence. Par J. F. H. Effler, Surintendant. 

Ce que la ville d'Osterode contient maintenant en reliques chap, hi, 
de la maison auguste des dues et duchesses de Brunsvick-Lune- ^'^'^^^ 
bourg-Grubenhagen, se divise en deux parties : — 

1. Tombes sculpt^es en dessus des caveaux. 

2. Portraits et inscriptions sur un grand tableau de famille, 
peint en couleur. 

L'6glise de St. Jacques, surnommee du Chateau, parcequ'elle 
est annex^e a cet Edifice, qui d'un ancien convent de fiUes 
Cycercienses, I'an 1558, fut chang6 en residence princi^re, et 
qui fait maintenant la demeure du baillif, a servi de sepulture 
^ un grand nombre de personnes, parmi lesquelles la duchesse 
Catherine (qui mourut en 1535) est d6sign6e ; mais depuis sa- 
restauration en 1752, on n'y trouve plus de pierres sepulcrales 
ni d'autres marques distinctives ; et personne ne pent dire ce 
qu'elles sont devenues. Sur I'ouverture du caveau, qui existe 
sous la sacristie, on trouva (le 24 Fevrier, 1819,) deux 
cercueils ; dont Fun, detain et sup^rieurement travaille, contient 
les restes d'un baron d'Oeynhausen (qui mourut en 1671); et 
Tautre ceux d'un baron de Schlitz, nomme de Gorz, qui mourut 
en 1703). 


CHAP. III. Les recherches ult^rieures faites sur le choeur de cette 6glise, 

qui fut fouill6 dans le milieu, et ou I'on s'attendoit a trouver 
le tombeau de la duchesse Catherine, n'ont produit d'autres 
resultats que I'existence de deux petits tombeaux ; dont I'un, 
devant le milieu de I'autel, contenoit un cercueil de bois double 
tout pourri, sans un souppon d'inscription ou d'autre renseigne- 
ment; il ne restoit, du corps mort, que la tete, de moyenne 
grandeur, et quelques os detaches; le matelas avait 6t6 fait en 
houblon, encore reconnoissable. 

Les murailles de ce caveau 6tant deja alFoiblies, il a 6t6 rempli 
de decombres. Un autre, qui se trouvoit auprfes du baptist^re, 
avoit d6ja eu ce sort, et on n'y voyoit que peu de fragmens des 
planches, dont le cercueil avoit 6t6 compose. 

L'^glise de St. Gille (Egydien kirche), ou du march^, pro- 
mettoit de plus heureuses d^couvertes, parcequ'elle 6toit plus 
, ancienne et qu'elle avoit toujours servi de cath^drale; aussi les 

archives y annonfoient les caveaux de plusieurs princes Bruns- 
wicois, y deposes. Sur I'autorisation donn^e par le cabinet, le 
parquet du choeur et le marchepied de I'autel furent ot^s, (le 
24 Mars, 1S19,) et il se presenta sept tombes, avec des sculptures 
et des inscriptions parfaitement bien travaillees et conserv^es. 
Elles sont placees sur deux rangs en cet ordre : — 


I'Autel. 1 

Anne Marguerite. 

j Erneste. 

Philippe I'Aime. 

1 ^• 


1 *• 

1 Wolfgang. 

le Jeune. 



No. 1. Figure d'homme %e, la barbe forte, large, et couple; chap. ,„. 
tout en armure, r^p6e baiss6e dans les mains, le casque ouvert "-^^^^ 
pos6 par terre ; a ses pieds les armes orndes du casque couronn6, et 
par dessus le cheval Brunswicois (sans 6tre, comme ordinaire- 
ment, entour^ de deux faucilles), et la queue de paon : T^cusson, 
non divis6, contient deux lions, I'un au-dessus de lautre, un peu 
grossiferement travaill^s. A name devise. 

L'inscription : — 

Anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo quinquagesimo prime (1551) die 

Veneris, quarta mensis Septembris, obiit illustris, clementissimus et 

pacificus Princeps et Dominus, Dominus Philippus, Dux 

Brunswicensis et Luneburgensis et cet. cujus aniraa 

requiescat in pace. 

No. 2. Figure d'homme prestance noble, visage long et maigre, 
barbe crepue, descendant h la poitrine, tout arm^, I'^p^e baiss^e 
entre les mains, k ses pieds, le casque ferm6. Les armes, orn^es 
du casque couronn^, du cheval entour^ de deux faucilles, et 
de la queue de paon. L'^cusson, divis^ en quatre quartiers, 
deux leopards en occupent deux. 

a, b, c, d, un lion droit, qui en b est entour^ de coeurs. Sanji 

L'inscription : — 

Anno 1567, secundo die Aprilis, inter 4 et 6 horam post meridiem, 
Ernestus, Dux Brunsw. et Luneburgensis, laudabili fine, 
immortalem vitam consecutus est* 
3 G 



CHAP. HI. No. 3. Figure de femme, avec rinscription : — 

Anna Margaretha, Ernesti Ducis. Brunsw. et Luneburg. conjux, 

paulo plus completis 2 annis viduitatis post mortem mariti, hie 

sepulta jacet: obiit 24 Jul. 1569. 

Les armes sont decorees d'uii casque couronn6 d'un haut 
panache ; T^cusson divis6 en neuf quartiers : dont a, b, c, e, f, i, 
ont un griffon ; d, un dragon droit k queue courb6e en 
avant ; g, un griffon au-dessus en pierres de taille, ou 
pierres de muraille ; h, deux faises en forme de sautoir 
(X), et des roses dans les quatre coins. Point de devise. 
Les ornemens en la tete sont, a la gauche de Tembl^me de la 
foi, une figure avec la croix en mains ; a la droite ceux de I'amour 
et de Fespdrance, une figure tenant un pigeon a la main droite, la 
gauche reposant sur un ancre. 

No. 4. Tres belle figure d'homme tenue fifere, forte moustache, 
le menton presque sans barbe, tout en armure, r^p6e au c6t^ 
gauche et un poignard au c6te droit, tenant un baton de com- 
mandement a la main droite. Aux pieds le casque ouvert. Les 
armes divis6es en quatre quartiers, comme a No. 2, avec la 
devise, " Fide, sed cui vide." 
L'inscription : — 

Wolfgangus, Dei gratia Dux Brunswicensis et Luneburgensis, obiit XIV. 

Martis, anno MDLXXXXV.(1595) vixit LXill.annos, XI. menses, XVII. 

dies (63 ans, 11 mois, 17 jours), cujus anima requiescat in pace. 

No. 5. Trfes-belle figure de femme, t^te mignonne, taille et 
tenue gracieuses. 


L'inscription Allemande : — 

Von Gottes Gnaden Dorothea, geb. Herz. zu Sachsen, Engern und 

Westphalen, Herzoginn zu Braunschweig und Luneburg, ist anno 1586, 

den 5 Aprilis, umb 11 Uhr Vormittags zum Herzberge in Gott 

den Herrn seliglich entschlafen. 

Aux quatre coins de la tombe on voit autant d'ecussons 
simples, dont deux opposes ont la guirlande de rue Saxonne sur 
des fasces horizontales. Celui a la droite en haut a un aigle 
double, droit, les ailes ^ploy^es, regardant a droite ; et celui k la 
gauche en bas a trois croissants. Sa?is devise. /'^ "=') 

No. 6. Figure d'homrae grande et noble, peu de barbe, 
grande moustache, tout arm^, ayant une petite hallebarde au 
bras droit, I'^p^e attach^e a une forte chaine et le poignard 
au c6t6 droit, aux pieds le casque ferm^ plus un grand panache. 
Les armes, orn^es de deux casques couronn^s, dont Tun a le 
cheval Brunswicois et la queue de paon, Tautre un grand plumet 

a trois rangs : I'^cusson est divis6 en cinq quartiers ; 

dont deux ont des leopards ; b, c, d, ont un lion droit ; 

celui en b, est entour6 de ccBurs; celui en e, a un 

lion marchant sur trois fasces horizontales. 

La devise : Deus dat, Deus aufert. 

L'inscription : — 

Philippus, Dei Gratia Dux Brunswicensis et Luneburgensis, obiit 

IV Aprilis, anno MDXGVI. (1596), vixit annos LXII. mens. XI. 

(62 ans, 11 mois), cujus anima requiescat in pace. 

Les ornemens comme en No. 3. 


CHAP. III. No. 7. Figure de femme, traits nobles; sur la poitrine, une 

^^^^^^^ croix attach^e k une chaine. Les mfimes armes comme en No. 2 
et 4, mais mieux execut^es. 
La devise Allemande : — 

In Gottes gewallt 
Habe ich es gestallt. 

L'inscription : 

Anno 1595, 13 Novembris, pie in Christo obiit illustrissima Principissa 

Clara, Ducissa Brunswicensis et Luneburgensis, uxor 

illustrissimi Principis Philippi. 

Les tombes des dues Wolfgang et Philippe le Jeune sont 
d'ardoise, les autres de grfes, (landstein). 

Toutes ces pierres ^tant legferement plac^es sans aucune 
mafonnerie, on a lev6 les deux derniers, No. 4 et 6, et on a trouv^ 
du gravois au-dessous a la hauteur d'un pied, et plus bas un 
plan d'albatre, ou un mortier, qui, d'aprfes I'avis des masons, fait 
la couverture de la voute du caveau, dans lequel chaque corps 
mort a le sien propre. Sur cela on s'est arrets de crainte de 
reproches d'avoir trouble le repos de ces illustres morts. Les 
pierres 6tant remplac^es, le parquet a et^ r^tabli aux d^pens 
du magistrat de la ville. 

Cette recherche etant finie, j ai et^ informe, qu'il y a 48 ans, 
a I'oceasion de quelques changements et restaurations dans cette 
eghse, deux de ces caveaux ont 6i6 ouverts; et que dans Tun 
d'eux, vraisemblablement celui du due Wolfgang, on a trouv6 
un cercueil de bois double, orn6 d'une 6p6e, dans lequel reposoit 
un corps mort en armes, un chapeau a trois comes sur la tete, et a 



ses pieds iin papier, qui apr^s avoir 6te lu par un des assistants, le chap. in. 
ministre Miinster, mais sans etre copi^, a et6 remis h sa place. ^-^^'^^ 
De ces assistants quatre sont encore en vie ; mais le detail est 
echapp^ a leur m^moire, et un proces-verbal n'en a pas 6t6 dresse. 
La m^me 6glise de St. Gille (Egydien) contient un grand 
tableau mortuaire, d'tVpeu-prfes 16 pieds de hauteur a 14 pieds 
de largeur, en boiserie sculpt^e et peinture. La partie superieure 
repr6sente la resurrection de J6sus Christ ; plus bas il se trouve 
un quartier large, avec 1 1 figures bien execut^es, dont sept figures 
d'hommes, tout en armes, le casque remise par terra, sont a 
genoux dans I'attitude de la pri^re ; plac^es a gauche, vis-a-vis * 
d'elles, quatre dames debout, toutes marquees par une petite 
croix rouge a la t^te, en signe de mort. Le quartier plus bas 
contient les inscriptions suivantes : — 

Philippus, Dux Brunsw. et Luneb. Albert: filius Christianse, religionis 

pius professor, vitae morumque integritate clarus, moritur Herzbergiee, 

prope Osterodam, et in hoc St. Egydii templo sepultus est, anno 

Christi 1551. 

Johannes, filius quartus. Dux Brunsw. et Luneb. globe bombardae 

ietaliter vulneratus inter Quintinum et Derveram, in qua pugna 

ultra 5000 caesi et decies mille capti fuerunt, post piam 

confessionem, in castris mortuus, et sepultus est in 

urbe Regis Hispaniae, Camerich, anno 1557, 

aetatis 31. 

Anno 1567, secundo die Aprilis, inter 4 et 5 horam post meridiem, 

fortitudine et sapientia praestans heros, Ernestus, Dux Bruhsw. 

et Luneb. Ducis Philip, pii primogenitus, Ducium Wolfgangi 


CHAP III et Philippii frater, post piam confessionem vita functus 

^,>-\-^i^ est Herzhergise, et apud patrem sepultus, anno 

getatis 55, gubernationis 16. 

Albertus, Dux Brunsw. et Luneb. Ducis Philippi filius secundus, iu 

acerrimo preelio, quod Imperator Carolus V. gessit contra 

confoederatos Schmalcaldicos, vulnus periculosum accepit, 

sepultus in urbe Nordlingen, anno 1546, setatis 25. 

Philippus III. Dux Brunsw. et Luneb. mortuus Herzbergiae in Acre 
juventutis et gloriae culmini, sepultus Herzbergiae, 1531. 

De I'autre cote : — 

Catiiarina, Comitis Ernesti a Mansfeld filia, Philippii, Ducis 

Brunsw. et Luneburg. conjux, mater pauperum, obiit Herzhergiae, 

et in templo St. Jacobi, Osterodae, sepulta, anno 1535. 

EnsABETHA, Ducis Philippi filia, infans, obiit et Osterodae sepulta est, 
anno 1520. 

Barbara, Ducis Philippi filia, Herzbergiae mortua et sepulta, 
anno 1528. 

Au c6t6 droit de ces ^pitaphes on lit en plus grands carac- 
tferes : — 

Anno 1573. 
Inclytus Dux Brunswicensis et Luneb. Wolfgangus, 

In honorum parentum et fraternum amorem. 
Salve sancte cinis, piacideque parere parentes 

Fidelse cives usque manete domus. 


Aspice quam deceat generosos gratia fratres CHAP. III. 

Sanguine quam junctos mutuus ornet amor. ^^^^.^^^«' 

Nos etiam vobis venientia tempoia jungent, 

Simus ut a Christo non aliena cohors. 
Qui modo vitales moribundi linquimus auras, 

Pulvere surgemus vivi vocante Deo. ' 

Ergo pie in terris studeamus vivere eadem 

Quo vehat in coelos nos pia cura Dei. 

Les enfants de Philippe I'ain^ et de Catherine ont h\.i : 
1, Philippe, (mort enfant). 2, Erneste. 3, Elisabeth. 4, Al- 
brecht. 5, Catherine. 6, Jean. 7, Barbara. 8, Wolfgang. 
9, Philippe (le Jeune). 

Ce grand tableau pent etre ferm^ par deux battans de toile 
cir^e, et on voit sur Tun d'eux le due Wolfgang; et sur I'autre 
son 6pouse, la duchesse Dorothea, en grand costume, bien fait 
et conserv6 : a leurs pieds leurs armes, pareilles a celles sur les 
tombes. Au-dessous une epitaphe AUemande, tres-mal r^dig^e, et 
riin6e, portant que le due Wolfgang a fait construire ce monu- 
ment en rhonneur et a la memoire de ses parents d^funts, en 
ces termes : — 

WoLrcANG, der hochgebohrne fiirst und herr, 

Hat zu Gedaclitniss und Ehr 
Seinen Eltern und Briidern fein, 

Saschon in Gott entschlafen sein 
Dies epitaphiura machsn Ian 

Damit seine fiirstliche Gnad zeigt an 
Gottes Giite und Allmaclitigkeit 

Sein Shbpsung Gewalt und innige Weisheit 


CHAP. HI. Sein barmherzigkeit und milde. 

^^^^^."^^-^ Den Gl'aubigen wird vorgebildt; 

Daraus sie haben Trost und Lehr 

Gott zu sagen ruhm lob und ehr, 
Der jenen durch sein gunst, gnad und huld 

Will alle ihre siind und schuld 
Durch seinen Hohn Christum vergeben 

Darnach anzeigen darneben 
Dass Gott wird zwar bald uns alien 

Durch sein posaunenrufen mit schallen 
Aus den Grabern auferwecken, 

Und die seligkeit entdecken. 
Es wird auch an unser Leben 

Ganz gar vbllig wiedergeben, 
Uns geben was wir begehren. 

Christ wird sein Engel auch schicken 
Uns nun entgegen zu riicken, 

Und uns auch schon empfangen 
In seinen armen umsangen 

Des werden wir uns stets freun 
Uns lieben von ganzem trueen : 

Wir werden ewig mit schalle 
Vor Gottes stuhl singen alle 

Lob, Ehr' pris, kraft und starke 
Gott Vater und dem Sohn 

Des Heiligen Geistes werke 
Sey ewig lob und dank gethan. 


Le revers de ces deux battans est d6cor6 de tableaux embl^- 
matiques tir6s de I'^criture sainte, viz, la resurrection du jeune 


homme de Nain et celle de Lazare. La resurrection des morts chap. hi. 
et le dernier jugement, avec les passages y relatifs. . ^^■v^^-«' 

Dans une Chronique d'Osterode (manuscrit), redigee par 
Henri Wendt, secretaire de la ville, I'an 1639, il est dit expr^s, que 
les suivans princes de la maison de Brunswick-Liinebourg ont 6te 
deposes dans I'^glise cath^drale de St. Alexandre, a Einbeck ; viz. 

Henri, qui mourut en 1322. 

Jean, fils ain6 de Henri, pr^vot du chapitre, qui mourut en ] 367. 

Erneste, sonfrfere, qui mourut en 1344, avec sa seconde 6pouse, 
Agnfes, comtesse d'Eberstein, a Grubenhagen, leur residence 

Albrecht, fils d'Erneste, qui mourut en 1379, 

Erich, fils d'Albrecht, qui mourut en 1431. 

Henri, deuxifeme fils d'Erich, mort a Grubenhagen en 1469. 
Son fils ain^, Erich, prevot du chapitre, qui mourut 
y repose de meme. 

Osterode, 10 Mai, 1319. 


Account of the Rev. JMr. Koester, i-especthig the Burying Places 
and Monuments of the illustrious House of Brunswick- Lunebui-g 
at Harburg. 

The burying place of the princes and princesses of the house 
of Brunswick-Luneburg, who resided here from 1527 to 1642, 
3 H 


CHAP. III. was in the former church of St. Maria, which stood not far from 
'^^^^/'^^ the ducal palace, between this and the town of Harburg, on a spot 
which is now called the Bau-Hof. 

After the decease of the last duke, William, of the line of 
Harburg, which happened 1642, it was resolved to break down 
this old church, as it stood on damp ground, exposed to frequent 
inundations, and to build a larger one in the town, on a more 
elevated situation. When this new church was finished, and con- 
secrated in the year 1652, the nine coffins which were found in the 
ducal vault of the old church were carried to the new town church, 
and deposited in a vault made for that purpose, and exactly 
large enough for the nine coffins. It is under the high altar in 
the middle of it, between the altar and the pulpit, and has never 
been opened since. 

In the ducal chapel of the castle, which was built by Otho 
the Younger, between the years 1560 and 1570, no persons were 
ever buried. But this fine chapel, which afterwards was used 
for the divine service of the garrison, and in the year 1813 
most unluckily burnt down by the imprudent behaviour of 
French soldiers, who made a fire on the floor of it, was orna- 
mented with the statues of five princely persons, and with a 
most splendid monument of alabaster in memory of two brothers 
of the family. The figures M^ere of fine marble, and had the 
same inscriptions as the coffins. 

In the town church there are no monuments or epitaphs 
of the ducal family, and no inscriptions on the tombstones, 
as the ducal vault and the whole of the choir is covered with 
large floor stones, without inscriptions or ornaments. 


The nine coffins contain the remains of the following princes chap. hi. 
and princesses: — 

1, Otho, the first duke of the middle house of Bnmswick- 
Luneburg, who resided here. At the settlement with his brother 
Ernest, probably his love for a retired life, and his marriage with 
Matilda von Campen, of the house of Isenbuttel, made him choose, 
1527, the house of Harburg for his future residence. This prince 
died in the year 1549, after a reign of twenty-two years, at 
Harburg, and he was deposited in the above-mentioned church 
of St. Maria; and, in the year 1G52, removed to the great town 
church, as already mentioned. 

2, His consort, Matilda von Campen, of Isenbuttel ; died 1580. 

3, His son, and successor as reigning duke, Otho the Younger ; 
died after a reign of fifty-four years, in the year 1603. 

4, The first consort of the latter prince, Margaret, born 
countess of Schwarzburg; died 1557. 

5, His second consort, Hedewig ; born countess of East 
Friesland; died 1616. 

6, Christopher, younger son of Otho the Younger, co-regent 
with his elder brother, duke William, after his father's death, from 
1603 to 1606; died in consequence of an unlucky fall in the 
castle of Harburg, the 7th June, 1606. 

7, His consort, Elizabeth ; born dutchess of Brunswick- 
Luneburg; died 1618. 

8, Otho, younger brother of Christopher, and after whose 
decease became co-regent with his eldest brother, William; 
died at Harburg, 25th February, in the year 1641, sixty-eight 
years old. 


CHAP. III. 9, Hedwig, sister of the last reigning duke, William, at 

^■"^"^"^^ Harburg, and of Christopher and Otho ; died unmarried, 6th 
March, 1620. 

William, the last duke of the line of Harburg, died the 
30th March, 1642. His remains were transported to Celle, 
and deposited there in the ducal vault. His statue, in full length, 
was in a niche of the ducal chapel of the castle. 

The following statues, in full length, cut in marble, and of 
excellent workmanship, were to be seen in niches behind the 
altar of the now entirely destroyed chapel of the castle. They 
had inscriptions on oval plates of marble, as follow : — 

D. G. Otto, Dux Brunsv. et Luneb. obiit anno MDCIII. 
die XX. mensis Octbr. 

D. G. Maegaeetha, nata Comitissa ex familia Schwarzburgensi, 

Ducissa Brunsv. et Luneburg. obiit anno MDLVII. 

die XVI. mensis Martii. 

D. G. Hedewig, nata Comitissa ex famili^ Comitum Phrisise orientalis, 

Ducissa Brunsv. et Luneburg. obiit anno M'DCXVI. 

die IV. mensis Decbr. 

D. G. Hedewicis, nata Principissa Brunsv. et Luneburg. ccelebs, obiit 

anno MDCXX. die VI. mensis Martii. 

D. G. WiLHELMUs, Dux Brunsv. et Luneburg. obiit anno MDC. 

die mensis Martii. 

A large expensive monument, most beautifully done in Italy, 
at an expense of two thousand Rhenish gold guelders, was erected 


by duke William, in memory of his brothers Christopher and chap. in. 
Frederick, and had exactly the following very instructive ^"^'^''^ 
inscriptions : — 

Christopherxjs, D. G. Dux Bruns. et Luneb. D. Ottonis, ex 

D. Hedwige, nata e familia Com. Phrysiae orient, filius quartus, in lucem 

editus mense August! die XII. anno MDLXX. postquam a pueritia 

ad pietatem educatus. Deinde litteris, armis, ac ludis equestribus 

egregie claruisset, plurimas praeterea regiones, Galliam, 

Italiam, Ungariam, Poloniam perlustrasset, uxore ducta 

D. Elisabetha, D. Julii, D. Br. et Lun. filia, vixque 

biennis in matrimonio felicissime peracto extra 

omnem omnium expectationem, VII. m. Jun. 

anno MDCVII. fortuito casu capsus 

invocatione Divini Numinis quamvi& 

breviss. tamen ardentiss. 

nocte ejusdem diei, suramo suorum cum luctu, absque prole expiravit, 

ciim vixisset a. XXXV, m. XI, diem horamque unam. 

Friedekicus, D. G. Dux Brunsv. et Luneb. D. Ottonis, ex D. Hedewige, 

nata e familia Comit. Phrysiae orient, filius septimus, dum anno MDLXXVIII. 

VI. mens. Septb. natus, et ab ipsa pueritia ad pietatem educatus, vitam 

variis ac vero principe dignis virtutibus exornasset, et Germaniam, 

Italiam, Suev. Livoniam perlustrasset, et D. Carolo, electo 

Regi Suecio milites Germanicos aliquot adduxisset in praelio, 

quod baud procul a Riga urbe Livoniae versus Nercholm 

questum contra Polonos strenue fortissimeque 

dimicans, post plurima et data et accepta 

vulnera tandem occubuit, XVII m. Sept. 

Anno Dom. MDCV. ac jussu illustrissimi Principis D. Friederict, 

in Livonia, Curlandia, et Semigallia ducis, Mitoviam deductus 

et ibidem sepultus, cum vixisset a. XXVII dies hor. VI. 


(HtW. III. Quos casus inopinatos fratrumque suavissimorum interitum frater 

'^■*^^'^^^' illustrissimus Princeps Dominus Wilhelmus, Dux Brunsv. et 

Luneburg. moestissime deplorans in perpetuam defunctorum 

famae laudatissimae memoriam suique amoris et doloris 

testimonium hoc monumentum posteritati 

posult, anno MDCVII. 

We find in the works of Rethmeyer, Pfeffinger, Staphorst, 
Oldenburger, Thesaurus Rerum Publ., &c. many notices about 
the deaths and the burying places of the persons of the ducal 
house of Brunswick-Luneburg ; but they are not all of them 
exact, nor do they agree with those which we find upon the 
tombstones and monuments. It is, therefore, advisable to 
consult Arnold Schenk's Homilise Funebres, the notices and 
accounts of the churches in the town, and the inscriptions and 
monuments in regard to this branch of the family. 

It is not quite clear why the year and the day of the month 
are omitted on the statue of William; but it is very probable 
that the sculptor did not know them when he was at work, 
and that it was afterwards forgotten to add them, as this statue 
of the last duke of Harburg was erected to his memory by duke 
Christian-Louis, of Celle, several years after the decease of 
William. But Arnold Schenk's funeral sermon makes it certain 
that he died at Harburg, the 30th March, 1642. 

(Signed) H. L. C. Koester, 

Pastor of Wilhelmsburg. 


Additional Remarks, hi/ the Rev. Mr. D. Schlegel, of Ha r burg. 

For the foregoing account I am obliged to the Rev. Mr. Koester, chai*. lu. 
of.Wilhelmsburg, who, during the time of his officiating as garrison 
chaplain here, studied with particular diligence the antiquities 
of this town. It is a very lucky circumstance that this gentleman 
at that time collected all the inscriptions, and that his papers 
were afterwards preserved, M'hen his house at Wilhelmsburg 
was plundered by the French; for otherwise we should have 
lost considerably in respect of the history of the house of Harburg. 
To the above notices I have nothing to add, but that the princes 
and princesses of this illustrious house, who resided here, have, 
by so many benevolent establishments for the support of the 
poor, left many monuments of their residence here. 

On the 30th of May, 1813, on the same day on which 
Hamburg, after having suffered a bombardment, was again taken 
possession of by the French, and on which the greatest part of 
the garrison of Harburg left this place, a fire broke out at six 
oclock in the morning, occasioned by the imprudent way in 
which the French cooked their victuals on the floor of the church. 
This tremendous fire consumed a great part of the royal palace, 
many public buildings, and also the fine royal chapel. Of this 
chapel nothing is left but the bare walls, and these ruins are awfully 
sublime. It is reported that, by an order of the war office, they 
will be taken down as soon as stones for new buildings are 
wanted. The niches behind the altar are still to be seen, but 
of the statues themselves not the least vestiges are to be found. 
They were dashed to pieces by the petulant enemy, or consumed 


CHAP. III. under the flames, which no one could approach for several days. 
Also of the monument in memory of the dukes Christopher and 
Frederick, nothing more is to be seen than the spot in the wall 
where it stood, and a few trifling ornaments. 

(Signed) D. Schlegel. 


Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Busse, at Dannenberg. 

" As the former ducal sepulchral vault, together with the 
choir, which threatened to fall in, were taken away in the year 
1812, and the church registers reach only to the year 1643, I 
should not have been able to fulfil your wishes, and to give you 
the smallest notice on the subject in question, if the present chief 
magistrate, Mr. Siiltmeyer, when a public attorney, had not 
taken an account of what was observed when the vault was 
broken down ; from which he has communicated to me the 
following authentic notices." 

A List of the Princes and Princesses of the Line of Dannenberg- 
Hitzacker, whose Remains were deposited in the Ducal Vault of 

1, Duke Henry the Younger, Robus, who died 19th January, 
1598, aged sixty-five years. 


2, Most probably prince Siegmund-Henry, son of duke chap. iii. 
Julius-Ernest, who died on the 1st of November, 1614, two ^■^^^■''^^ 
months old. 

3, Duke Julius-Ernest's first consort, Maria, countess of 
East Friesland, who died 9th July, 1616, aged thirty-six years. 

4, Duke Henry's consort, Ursula, princess of Saxe-Lauenburg, 
who died 12th October, 1620. 

5, Duke Augustus' first dutchess, Clara-Maria, princess of 
Pomerania, who died 1623. 

6, Prince Henry-Augustus, son of duke Augustus, who died 
30th September, 1627, aged two years and a half. 

7, Duke Augustus' second consort, Dorothea, princess of 
Anhalt-Zerbst, who died 26th September, 1634, aged twenty- 
seven years and two days. 

8, Duke Julius-Ernest, who died 26th October, 1636. 

9, Sidonia, daughter of duke Henry, who died 1645. 

(Signed) Busse. 

Extract from a Record of the Princes ivho resided in the Town of 
Dan?ienberg, by Sultmeyer. 

Duke Henry the Younger, born the 4th June, 1533, who died 
19th January, 1598. His dutchess, Ursula, princess of Saxe- 
Lauenburg, who died 12th October, 1620. By her he had 

1, Prince Julius-Ernest, born 11th May, 1571. 

2, Prince Francis, born 6th June, 1572; who, on Christmas 

3 I 


CHAP. III. eve, , was drowned in the Rhine, when he was riding from 

''-^^^'**-^ Rastadt to Strasburg. 

3, Princess Anna-Sophia, born the 14th August, 1573 ; and 
died the following year, 24th March, 1574. 

4, Prince Henry, born 25th October, 1574, about midnight; 
who died 14th July, 1575, at one o'clock after midnight. 

5, Princess Sybilla-Elizabeth, born 4th June, 1576; married 
31st August, 1600, to Anthony, count of Oldenburg. 

6, Princess Sydonia, born 10th December, 1577; who died 
unmarried at Luchow, 1645. 

7, Prince Augustus, born 10th April, 1579; from whom the 
present reigning house of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle are descended. 

Duke Julius-Ernest, who died 26th October, 1636; married, 
first, to Maria, daughter of count Ezard, of East Friesland, born 
1st May, 1582; who died 9th July, 1616. Their children were, 

1, Prince Siegmund-Henry, born 30th August, 1614; died 
two months after, 1st November, 1614. 

2, Princess Maria-Catharina, born 10th June, 1616; married 
15th February, 1635, to Adolphus-Frederick, duke of Meck- 
lenburg- S chwerin . 

Julius-Ernest married, secondly, to Sybilla, princess of Celle ; 
bom 8d June, 1584; who died 1651, at Schwarzburg. 

(Signed) Sultmeyer. 



Exti'act of a Letter received from the Rev. Mr. Ritcher, of 
Gifhorn, dated 2th April, 1819. 

With great pleasure I proceed to give you some account of chap. hi. 
the monument of duke Francis, of Brunswick-Luneburg, who ^-^^'^^^ 
died during his residence here in the year 1549. 

His remains rest in a coffin of stone, which stands before 
a high window upon a wall, and which can be reached only 
by a ladder through the chapel. In this chapel of the castle 
stands over this coffin of stone another one, which is empty, 
and was most probably intended for his widow, who died at 
Barth, in Pomerania, at her son-in-law's, Bogislaus, in the year 
1576, and was interred at that place by the side of her daughter. 
But both the duke and the dutchess are cut out of wood, and 
represented in the act of kneeling at the side of their coffins ; 
the duke in the dress of a knight, and the dutchess in a German 
dress of those times. High on the wall where the leaden coffin 
rests in a stone one, are the words " sepulchrum ;" and under 
this, " Confiteor per Christum solum peccati remitti." 

The coffin was most probably broken open by the French, 
under Eckmuhl, who halted here for fifteen days. The bones 
which are in it have a pleasant smell, it is therefore probable 
that the body was embalmed. The heart and the entrails are in a 
copper vessel, interred in the middle of the choir of the town 


CHAP. III. church, and covered with a tombstone, on which the heart 
and the entrails are engraved, with the inscription : — 

lUus. princi. ac Dmni. Domini Francisci, Due Brun. et Luneb. Viscera 
hie sepulta jacent : obiit setatis suse , 14 Jan. 1549. 


Statement respecting the Sepulchres of the Princes and Princesses of 
the House of Brunswick, in St. Alej^anders Church, at Eimbeck, 
by the Rev. Mr. Crome. 

According to Letzner and Rethmeyer, and an old chronicle 
of the year 1639, by Wendt, a town secretary at Ostrode, the 
following princely persons are deposited in St. Alexander's 
church, of Eimbeck. 

1, Henry the Wonderful, who died 1322*. 

2, John, his eldest son, provost of St, Alexander, at Eimbeck, 
who died 13671- 

* He died in the castle of Salz der Helden, close to Eimbeck, and his remains 
were deposited in St. Alexander's church, in a vault ; in which before some counts 
of Dassel had been buried. Afterwards several of the princes of this house were 
buried here, until they chose their burying place in St. ^gidius church, at Ostrode. 
— Vid. Rethmeyer's Chronicle, p. 531. 

t John is called here the eldest son of Henry, according to Letzner; but 
he was most probably the fourth ; lor we see no reason why he should have given up 


3, Ernest, the brother of John, who died 1361. chap. ui. 

4, Agnes, or Adelheid, his consort, who died 1373. ^^^ 

5, Albert, their son, who died 1397. 

6, Erich, son of Albert, who died 1431. 

7, Henry, second son of Erich, who died 1469. 

8, Ernest, eldest son of Henry, provost of St. Alexander, 
at Eimbeck. 

The only monument which remains is a brass plate, in the 
shape of a tombstone, which formerly lay on the ground, in 
different places of the church, and in consequence of which it 
has suffered a great deal. At present it is placed in the wall, 
on the right of the altar, in an erect position. A male figure, in 
full length, is represented on it as lying in the grave. Around 
the plate, and partly in the body of it, is the following inscrip- 
tion in Gothic letters : — 

Anno Domini 1367, 10 Cal. Junii, obiit Johannes, filius illustris 

Priucipis Domini Henrici, Ducis Brunsvicensis. 

Praepositus hujus ecclesiae S. Alexandri, cujus 

animam habet Dominus. Amen. 

In the recent searches, made by order of his royal highness 
the duke of Clarence, we have not been so lucky as to find 
any more. 

In the large vault, under the high altar, called Crypta, in 

the right of progenitor, as he was able to govern as well as one of his brothers. 
According to Rethmeyer, p. 531, there is a letter of resignation, of the year 1325, 
in which he resigns his right to the government to his brothers : but that is no proof 
of his being the eldest son. 


CHAP. III. which were formerly several altars, and where divine service 
'"^^"•^^^'^ was performed, we found certainly several coffins, but all of 
more modern times ; and, by their inscriptions, of persons belong- 
ing to the noble fanylies of Schleppegrell, Malorty, Birkefeldt, &c. 
Of princely coffins there is n"Dt the least mark ; and in case such 
high persons should have been deposited in wooden coffins, it 
may easily be conceived that they must be destroyed in a period 
of more than five hundred years, and during so many changes. 

Besides this crypta there are no other vaults in the church. 
But, that nothing might be neglected, we examined, for several 
days, in the interior of the church, by taking up stones and 
digging in the ground ; a work which is more difficult at present 
than before the year 1781, as about that time the whole interior 
of the church was covered with flat stones. We soon observed 
that with the stones many tombstones had been covered. Several 
of those tombstones which we discovered were of a late date. 
In other places we found walled graves, in which the corpses were 
not quite mouldered. Hardly a good place in the church is to 
be found which in modern times had not been used for inter- 
ments, as so many families had their sepultures here, and as 
nearly all the people, of any rank, wished to be buried in 
the church. 

According to an old tradition, the prince's tomb was near 
the altar of St. Mary, and this stands near the vestry; there 
I we dug likewise, but found only new graves. 

Another unfounded report speaks of a coffin of tin ; and the 
son of a former grave-digger came to point out the spot where 
it stood; but this search was likwise in vain. 


At the alteration of the floor of the church, and probably chap. hi. 
before that time, they used to fasten the monuments in the ^^^"^'^ 
outside walls of the church ; but also among them there is not 
the least vestige of a princely one. They are all of private 
families, and the inscriptions and letters are quite different from 
those on the epitaph of duke John. 

In regard to the question, " If, perhaps, in the archives of the 
chapter some notices might be found about the burying-places of 
these princely persons, of vv^hom it is recorded that they vi^ere 
deposited here?" I have to say, that Mr. Hubener, the present 
secretary of the chapter, who arranged the archives a short while 
ago, did not find the smallest notice concerning this subject. 
There are certainly several old documents ; among which are the 
diplomatoria, or copy-books, afterwards to be mentioned; in 
which, perhaps, some notices might be found : but as neither 
Mr. Hubener nor myself possess sufficient ability to read such 
ancient writings with facility, it would require the proper and 
longer researches of a man who is more experienced in such 

The archives of the town were, as reported, burnt in the 
great fire of 1540. All that exist is of a later period. Besides 
this, they are in such confusion, that it would require, for a long 
time, the attention and labour of a competent man to bring them 
into such an order that things may be found easily. 

To the above report the following notices are to be added : — 
The secretary of the chapter, Mr. Windeborn, who died in 
the year 1760, examined the records, which are kept in the 
chsipter of St. Alexander, and has published them ; or at least 


CHAP. III. the results of his examination, in the Samlung ungedruckter 
''-^'^*^^ Urkunden und anderer zur Erlauterung der Niedersachsischen 
Geschichte und Alterthiimer gehorigen Nachrichten, which were 
published at Hanover in 1753 and 1754. From these records 
the genealogy of the princely persons, which have already been 
taken notice of, may be corrected. 

In a copy of Wendeborn's original MS. kept in the register of 
our inspection, it is said, p. 9, " Notwithstanding that Letzner 
and Rethmeyer mention, that, besides the duke John, (whose 
epitaph is still in the chapter church); as also duke Henry 
the "Wonderful, Henry the Second, Ernest the First, Albert the 
First, Erich, and Henry the Third, are buried in St. Alexander, 
no epitaphs or other monuments of them are in existence. But 
they find often, particularly on the best spots in the church, 
tombs, made and walled with freestones, and for two or threCj 
or more persons ; which can have been destined only for persons 
of distinction. Perhaps the epitaphs were destroyed by the 
great fire in 1540, or have been lost by other accidents. A 
later hand has added, John Hildes, a priest, founded in the 
chapter church a lasting commemoration to the altar " unser 
lieben Frauen," situated near the " Fursten Grabe." The founda- 
tion — anno et die — . This altar stands, at present, enclosed by 
an iron railing, below the vestry. 

Mr. Klinkhard, an attorneyj a resident of this town, is fond 
of searching in old records, and writes to me, after having ex- 
amined the archives of the chapter, that the chapter of St. Alex- 
ander is in possession of several diplomatoria, or copy-books, 
from the time before the reformation. In one of them (I think 


No. 2) is a document concerning the foundation of the altar chap. hi. 
of lieben Frauen, in which, it is said, that this altar is situated ''•■^^'^^'*'^ 
near the Fiirsten Grab, 

The result of all our inquiries is, that duke John was certainly 
deposited in this church, and most probably all the other above- 
mentioned illustrious persons. 

It is likewise most probable that Henry the Fourth, of 
Grubenhagen, who died, in 1526, at Salz der Helden, is 
buried in Eimbeck ; for where else could his remains have been 
deposited ? 

(Signed) F. A. Ckome, 

Superintendent and Minister of 

St. Alexander Chapter, in Eimbeck, 
Eimbeck, the 2d Nov. 1819. 


Was formerly a nunnery, founded 1030 or 1050, and occupied 
by nuns from Nordheim. An old tradition marks it as the 
place where bishop Boniface destroyed the idol Reto ; and derives 
its name from Wigbert, one of the Wittikend family, who settled 
here. It is at present the seat of the bailiff of the district 
of the same name ; and, in respect of the history of the house 
3 K 


CHAP. III. of Guelph, remarkable for being the burying place of Otho the 
^"^'^^"^ Strong, duke of Brunswick-Gottingen. He had chosen, in his 
lifetime, at this convent his place for interment ; and was depo- 
sited here afterwards secretly, as he was not yet liberated from 
the interdict under which the archbishop of Mentz had put 

Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Bottcher, at 
Wiebrech tshausen . 

At the entrance of the church, on the left hand, is a 
chapel, which seems to have been built on purpose for the tomb 
of the said duke, which is in it. This tomb is called that of 
the Seckelburger, and consists of a tombstone, equal in size 
and shape to those in the churchyard, and made of the same 
kind of stone as that of which the church is built. On it is 
the figure of the deceased, but very much defaced by time. 
After having it cleaned from the coals heaped on it, I found 
it very much injured. The sickles under the duke's breast 
are still visible; also the flower-pot, held in his left hand, and 
the two lions, which stand above the trunk of a tree planted 
in it. Round the stone is an inscription, of which only single 
words are legible, f. i. obiit — • aetatis z z — 

I am not able to give any further account of it. Perhaps 
the archives of the convent contain more ; but as access has not 
been permitted, notwithstanding my desiring it on such an occa- 
sion, we must remain in ignorance. 


From ancient records it is known that the following inscrip- 
tion was on this tombstone of duke Otho the Strong : — 

Anno Domini MCCC nonagesimo quarto die Lucise Virginis, obiit Otho, 

Dux in Brunswick, cujus anima requiescat in pace. Amen. 

Qui cum magna, dilectione et humilitate Domini in vita sua hunc locum 

eligerat, in sepulturam expectando diem futuri judicii. 


Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Borntrager, of Uslar. 

Though it is very probable that Otho Codes was buried 
here, yet neither in the church, nor elsewhere, can a monument 
or inscription be found. Our church was built in the year 1424, 
and therefore ancient enough to make us suppose that the said 
duke, who had his residence here, found his last place of rest 
in it. But several vaults, which we had opened on this occasion, 
contained only coffins of clergymen and their families, or of other 
private persons. There are certainly some more traces of burying 
places, but these are covered with the pews of the church ; the 
removal of which would cause greater expenses than the church, 
which is poor, is able to afford. The parish archives contain 



CHAP. III. no notices at all on the subject. The probable reason is, that, 
150 years ago, the parsonage house was destroyed by fire. The 
town archives are also void of interest ; I therefore have it not 
in my power to give the notices which are wished for. Instead 
of them, I add the following extracts from Getting. Zeit and 
Geschichts Beschreibung, b. i. p. 106: — 

" Anno 1462. The count Bernhard, of Lippe, took the part 
of the bishop ; the duke Otho, who resided in Uslar, that of 
the town." Hereby it is clear that duke Otho Codes, who had 
his regular residence at Uslar, was still alive in Nov. 1462 ; and 
as it is said that he died feria sexta post diem Valentini, which is 
the 20th February, aged 69 years, his death must have occurred 
in the following year ; which is corroborated by an old chronicle, 
in which it is said : — 

" ' 1462. Anno Domini 1463, ante ascens. Domini anno 
Domini 1463, ante ascens. Dei, Da ging man mit einer pro- 
cession wiillen und bar fuss um der pestilenz willen man betete 
und begehrte auch dess Gott der herr diesen landen woUe geben 
einen fromme und gute herrn und landesfursten an herzogs 
Otten selb Stadte.'" 

Erath Consp. p. 34 : — 

" 1463. Obiit Otto, ultimus linese suae." (Gottingens). 



Account received from the Imperial Royal Keeper of the Records, 
(Archivar'ius), Rademachek*. 

The following princes and princesses of the illustrious house chap. hi. 
of Brunswick have found their places of rest in the Austrian 
dominions : — 

1, Adelheid, daughter of Henry the Wonderful, duke of 
Brunswick-Luneburg, was the second wife of duke Henry oi 
Carinthia, whose father, Meinhard the Fourth, count of Gorz 
and Tyrol, was invested with the dukedom of Carinthia for the 
great services he had done to the Roman emperor, Rudolph 
of Habsburg. 

Henry himself, in right of his first wife, Anna, who was 
the eldest daughter of Wenzel, king of Bohemia, and died 1313t, 
held for a short time the crown of Bohemia, but was 
soon driven out of the country. Adelheid's marriage with 

* This most valuable account has beeu obtained by the very obliging endeavours 
of lieutenant-colonel baron Greifenegg-WoUfurt, Austrian charge d'affaires at tiie 
court of Hanover, who, as soon as he heard that such records were wished for, applied 
to his court, and received this document. 

+ " Anno Domiui 1313, 3 Non. Septembr. obiit Domina Anna, Regina Bohemise, 
prima conthoralis Regis Heiiirici, filii fundatoris nostri, hic sepulta."— Chron. Mon. 
Stamsensis in Tyrolo, ad annum 1313. 


CHAP. III. duke Henry of Carinthia took place in the convent of Wilthen, 
''■"^^'^^^ in Tyrol*, in autumn of the year 1315 f- 

Adelheid died the 15th August, 1320:j;, and her remains rest in 
the convent Stams. Her anniversary is kept in the convent 
Wilthen, on the 28th of August 1|. 

Adelheid had two daughters: 1, Margaret, surnamed die 
Maultasche, who was first married to John, prince of Bohemia ; 
but, after being divorced, married again to Louis §, of Bavaria- 

* " Donatio lacds Altsec coenobio in Wilthen, in compensationem damnorum 
quse coenobitEe illi passi sunt, occasione nuptiarum duabiis conjugibus de Braunschweig 
et de Sabaudia in Wilthen, celebratarum ab Henrico, Rege Boh." 

Datum in Wilthen, 26 Martii, 1328. Tabulee Repert. Aust. P. vi. pag. 42. 

+ Ant. Steyrer Comment, pro Hist. Alberti, Ducis Austria, pag. 592 et 593. 

" Quo anno nata sit Adelheidis nondum comperi, annum pariter nuptialem 
nuUus scriptor posteris adnotavit; adest tamen in tabulario CEnipontano instru- 
mentum donationis propter nuptias, anno MCCCXV. X Calend. Octob. scriptum, 
quo solo conficitur, conjugium ncn multo ante eam diem illo ipso anno celebratura 
fuisse. En litteris, Wir Heinrlch. 

X " Anno Domini 1320, in die Agapiti Martyr, obiit Domina Adelheidis, Ducissa 
de Brawnswig, secunda conthoralis prsefati Regis Heinrici, etiam hic sepulta." — Chron. 
Stams. ad dictum annum. 

11 Steyrer, 1. c. pag. 592, gives us the document of the foundation by king Henry. 
Chron. Mon. Stamen, in Tyrol, ad 1324, 15 January, from the archives of Wilthen. 

§ Imp. Carolus IV. Scriptor Synchronus in Freheri Script. Boh. P. i. pag. 88. 

" Expulit Henricum, Carinthiee ducem, qui habuit in uxorem sororem seniorem 
uxoris suae (king John's of Bohemia), quae mortua est deinde sine prole." Et 
pag, 90 : " Demum acceperat aliam uxorem, sororem ducis de Brunschwig, cum qua 
habuit unicam filiam, quam copulavit fratri meo Johanni in uxorem." 

All historians do not give credit to this most important testimony ; for there are 
still some later writers, viz. Steyrer, 1. c. pag. 598 ad 613; Burglehner, lib. xiii. 
cap. V. et vi. ; Addzreiter, Annal. Boic. P. ii. lib. iv. pag. 65 ; Rov. lib. iii. pag. 113 r 
who contend that Margaret was a daughter of the Bohemian princess, Anna, first 
wife of Henry : but their reasons are by no means strong enough to weaken the 
testimony of Charles the Fourth, whose brother John was the first husband of this 


Brandenburg ; and, 2, Adelheid, of whom we do not know any chap. hi. 
thing, either of her life or where she was buried*. ^^^^r^^ 

2, Anna, daughter of duke Frederick, of Brunswick-Luneburg, 
was the second wife of Frederick, surnamed with the Empty 
Pocket, mit der Leeren Tasche, duke of Austria. Her marriage 
took place in the year 141 Of. Anna became the mother of 
four children: 1, Margaretha; 2, Wolfgang; 3, Hedwig; and, 
4, Sigismund, who are all buried in the convent of Stams:};. 

The dutchess died after her three eldest children, in the year 

* Henry had a second daughter, who is mentioned in documents, vid. Steyrer, 
1. c. pag. 98, 129, et 596. The learned Austrian archivist, De Plosenthal, has 
proved from a diploma of duke Henry, dated Thursday after St. Bartholomew, 1334, 
that her name was Adelheid. Coronini Tentamen Genealogicum Comitum et Rerum 
Goritise, pag. 276. As, according to the testimony of the emperor Charles the Fourth, 
duke Henry had no children by his first dutchess, Anna ; as further, in a diploma of 
king John of Bohemia, dated Lucilburk, 7 Cal. Maji, anno Domini millesimo 
treeentessimo vicesimo quarto, (vid. Steyrer, 1. c pag. 596,) it is expressly said, 
" Et inter unum ex filiis nostris carissimis, qui non sit desponsatus ex una, et unam 
ex filiabus dicti domini ducis (Henrici) Karinthiffi, quam eligendam duximus ;" and, 
as also duke Henry celebrated his third marriage with Beatrix of Savoy at the 
convent Wilthen, after the year 1327 ; this Adelheid must have been a daughter of 
the Brunswick princess, as the name indicates : and the opinion of the emperor 
Charles the Fourth, that duke Henry had but one daughter by his second wife, is 
evidently erroneous. 

t Her uncles, Bernhard and Henry, dukes of Brunswick, bound themselves by a 
deed, dated 2d February, 1410, to bring their niece, witli a princely dowry, on next 
Whit Sunday, to TUssen, on the frontier of the Tyrol. The manuscript of this deed 
is in the imperial family archives at Vienna. 

I " Frau Anna hat in der Ehe erworben 4 kinder, Wolfgang, Sigismund, Mar- 
garet, und Hedwig, welche, nun Sigismund ausgenomen gar jung gestorben sind." — 
Burglehner, Manuscr. in the imperial family archives. 

Margaret, died 1424, 2 Non. without mentioning the month. 

Wolfgang, died 16th February, 1426. 

Hedwig, died 21st February, 1427. 

Sigismund, died 4th March, 1496.— Chron. Mon. Stams. ad dictos annos. 


CHAP. III. J 432*. Her body rests in the vault at the convent Stams, but 
her intestines are deposited in St. Jacob's church, at Insbruck. 

3, Wilhelmina-Amelia, daughter of John-Frederick, duke of 
Brunsvi^ick-Luneburg-Calenberg, was married to Joseph the First, 
king of the Romans. The marriage settlement, which is still 
preserved in the imperial private family archives, was agreed 
upon at Vienna, on the 7th of January, 1699; and ratified by 
George-Louis, elector and duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, the 
15th January, of the same year. The espousals were celebrated 
at Modena, the 15th January, and the marriage ceremony at 

* " Eodem anno, 1432, in crastino S. Laurentii, (11th August,) obiit nobilissima 
Domina Anna, ducissa de Brawnschv/eig, secunda conthoralis Domini Friderici, duels 
Austriae, quee hie honorifice nobiscum in novo sepulehro est sepulta." — Chron. Stams. 

" Im jahre 1432, den 10'™ tag des monats August, hat Herzog Friedrieh verboren 
seine geliebte gemahlin frau Anna, herzogin zu Braunschweig, deren eingewichte zu 
Insbruck in St. Jakobs Pfarrkirche von St. Niklas Alban begraben, ehr Leichnam 
aben mit stattlichen procession in das kloster Stams gefiihrt worden ist." — Burglehner. 

This latter author mentions the 10th of August as the day of her decease, though 
both the Chronicle and Burglehner are of the same opinion in respect of the year, 1432 ; 
still this is not quite undisputed. — Conf Herrgott. Taphograph. pr. Aust. P. i. 1. iii. 
cap. vi. No. 8. 

In this Taphographia, part ii. tab. 18, are to be seen drawings of the vault ^t 
Stams, with the decaying coffin, and of a statue of dutchess Anna. This statue 
appears more accurately in the Pinacotheca, part i. tab. 29 ; and tom. ii. of the Pina- 
cotheca, lib. i. cap. xii. No. 13, gives to it the following explanation: — 

" Priori (uxori Elisabethse) adjungitur uxor Friderici secunda, Anna nomine, inter 
dictas stirpenses statuas una spectanda. Hsec, varie omata, coronam radiatam in 
capite gerit, ut quae Friderici Bninsuicensis ducis et electi Romanorum regis nata 
erat. Etsi enim hie ne quidem Gerraanica corona redimitus fuerit, nee etiam ipse in 
actis publicis, quantum quidem constat, alio, quam ducis nomine usus fuerit; non 
tamen defuerunt, qui ilium Csesaris titulo etiam post ceedem ejus mactarent. 

" Quare vix dubitari potest, auctorem hujus statuae, cum ducissse coronam im- 
posuit, ad hauc paternam dignitatem ut brevissimam ac ceede illius contaminatam 


Vienna on the 24th February, 1699. Wilhelmina-Amalia became chap. hi. 
the mother of three children : — v^^v"^^ 

1, Maria- Josepha, born at Vienna the 8th December, 1699; 
married to Frederick-Augustus, king of Poland, and elector of 
Saxony; died at Dresden the 17th November, 1757, and was 
buried there. 

2, Leopold-Joseph-John, born at Vienna the 29th October, 
1700; died the 4th August, 1701, and is deposited in the imperial 
hereditary vault at the Capuchms. 

Epitaph : — 

O Luctum! 

Serenissimus Leopoldus Josephus, 

Sfficulari Anno 1700, Die 29 Octobris, 


Jam anno 1701, 4 Augusti, coelo 

Ac Urnae huic illatus. 

Quam acerbus ictus fuit, 

Qui Leopoldi M. Nepotem 

JosEPHi I. Rom. ac Hung. Regis, 

et Amalis; filium Primogenitum, 

Spem Ipsam Humani Generis, 


3, Maria- Amalia, bom at Vienna 22d October, 1701 ; married 
to Charles-Albrecht, duke of Bavaria, (the emperor Charles the 
Seventh); died at Munich 11th December, 1756, and buried 
there, in the convent of the Capuchins. 

3 L 


CHAP. III. After the decease of Joseph the First, (1711), the empress 
^^"^^'•^^^ dowager resolved to pass the rest of her days in solitude, and 
built for that purpose the convent of the Salesianian nuns, in 
one of the suburbs of Vienna called Rennweg. 

On the 6th of April, 1740, she made her last will*; and died 
on the 10th of April, 1742, in the said convent. 

Herrgott, 1. cit. lib. vii. cap. vii. No. 3 — 5, gives a short 
description of her life, death, funeral, and exequies. 

According to her own verbal and written disposition, her body- 
was to be opened so much that the heart could be taken out, in 
order to deposit it in the imperial hereditary vault, at the feet 
of her illustrious husband. The urn, of which a drawing is to 
be seen in vol. ii. table 84, No. 29, of the said Taphographia, 
has the following inscription : — 

Amalia Wilh. Aug. 

Cor Suum 

Ad Ped. Joseph. Imp. A. 

Conjug. Dulciss. 

Rep. juss. 


On the 13th April her remains, laid in a coffin of nut wood, 
which was varnished inside with tin plate, and secured by two 
locks, were deposited in the vault of her convent. A drawing 
of the plain tomb of stone, on which the coffin stands, is to be 
seen in the Taphographia, p. ii. table 93. 

* The original of it is preserved in the imperial family archives. 


Inscription:— chap. iii. 

WiLHELMiNA Amalia, e Duclbus Brunsvic. Luneburgensis, Josepui I. 

Imperat. vidua, annos nata LXIX. obiit IV. Id. Aprilis, 

Anno Dni. MDCCXLII. Hujus Caenobij. Ord. 

Visit. B. M. V. Fundatrix. 

Of the vault in the convent of the Salesianians, which the 
deceased empress had Hkewise built, the Taphographia gives 
the following description, (vide p. i. 1. vii. cap. vii. No. 2) : — 

" Cryptam subterraneam, cujus ichnographiam nacti hand 
fuimus, Augusta pariter struxit, tres intra humum arcus haben- 
tem. Medius, quern imperatrix sibi reservavit, recta arae majori 
subjacet; duo reliqui, hinc inde excitati, serenissimis filiabus 
destinati erant, hodiedum autem, cum singulse extra patriam 
mortem obierint, vacui sunt; reliquum cryptae spatium mortuas 
moniales excipit. Sub medio itaque arcu positus est sarcophagus 
imperatricis, quem vivens sibi jam tum anno MDCCXXXIX. ad 
similitudinem tumba; Eleonorae Mantuanse, uxoris Ferdinandi II. 
Imp. fieri curavit. Sculptus est h simplici lapide, omni arte : 
insignibus ornamentisque caret, nisi quod in operculo corona 
Csesarea lauro cincta, ex eodem lapide, c^lato opere, excisa sit. 
In longitudinem excurrit pedes novem cum sextante; altus est 
pedes quinque et trientem; in latitudinem porrigitur pedes tres 
cum octo digitis. Retro caput, decern fere pedalis, erecta stat 
crux, ex ligno rude fabricata, nullisque coloribus linita, ut in 
viis publicis poni consuevit. Pro pedibus affixa est lamina 
stanea, quatuor aquilarum falculis, in cochleas tortis, ad ferream 
firmata; altitudine pedem unum et octo pollices; latitudine. 


CHAP. III. supernfe pedes tres, digitos quinque et semis, infernfe pedes 
^^^^^'^^^ totidem, cum sesqui uncia sequans : cui epitaphium, pro modestia 
pientissimae imperatricis, omnibus honorum titulis, ut ipsa petierat, 
vacuum, solo fundatricis hujus ccenobii, ad quod tamen segre 
induci potuerat, nomine, necnon connubii ac aetatis memoria, 
retentis litteris cupreis, auro incrustatis, infixum est. 

4, Elizabeth-Christina, daughter of Louis-Rudolphus, duke 
of Brunswick-Luneburg-Wolfenbuttle ; married to king Charles 
the Third, of Spain, afterwards Charles, the sixth emperor. 

The marriage settlement was made the 5th of February, 1708, 
at Vienna, by the Brunswick plenipotentiary, baron Imhof ; and 
ratified on the 7th of February by the emperor Joseph the First, 
as chief of the house of Austria ; and on the 30th of March by 
Anthony-Ulrich, duke of Brunswick*. 

The marriage took place at Barcelona, on the 1st of August, 
1708, after she had previously, before the archbishop of Mayence, 
and bishop of Bamberg, on the 1st of May, 1707, at Bamberg, 
confessed herself to the Roman catholic faith'f. 

The last will of the empress Elizabeth-Christine is dated 
the 29th of May, 1750J. She died at Vienna on the 21st of 
December, 1750, and her remains rest in the imperial hereditary 
vault at the Capuchins. 

Herrgott, in his Taphographia, p. i. lib. vii. cap. v. No. 20, 
gives an account of her death and funeral; and p. ii. tab. 86, 

• The original in the imperial family archives. 

t The original certificate of this act is likewise in the imperial family archives. 

I The original testament in the said archives. 


a drawing of her tomb, to which belongs the following descrip- chap. hi. 
tion, (vide P. i. lib. vii. cap. v. No. 15 — 19): — ^^'V'^^ 

" Ejusdem fer^ formse, magnitudinis certfe ejusdem (ut 
Caroli VI.), est solium Elisabethse Christinae, Caroli VI. conjugis. 
Tota moles basi marmorese imposita incumbit, quas inter in 
medio ex utraque parte singulae calvarise laureatee, ac lauri 
palmaeque ramis decussatis, suppedaneoque ornatissimo impositae 
sunt. Operculo pallio archiducali operto, figura muliebris alata 
et velata insidens, protomen imperatricis viduae velatam, juvante 
ex adversa parte genio, supra nubes extollit, superposita stella, 
beatae aeternitatis symbolo. Hinc ver6 in parte pallii anteriori 
coronae Caesarea et Hispanica una cum sceptro, inde in posteriori 
Hungarica et Bohemica jacent. Medium tumbae latus occupat 
iter imperatricis, Barcellonam, anno 1708, susceptum ex adversa 
parte repetitum. Quatuor anguli, encarpis pulchre ornati, totidem 
figuras muliebres velatas pectore tenus efformatas ostendunt; et 
in latere tam orientali quam occidentali sigula scuta sunt, 
quorum priori haec epigraphe insculpta: — 

Pietati et Perpetuitati 


Virtutis et Sapientiae Gloria 


An. MDCXCI. XXVIII. Aug. In Vitam Ingress^, 

An. MDCCVIII. I Aug. Carolo. 

Barcinone. Felici. Connubio. Junctse. 

An. MDCCXI. XII Octob. Imperii. Quo Nullum Est 

Sacratius. Honorificentia. Exaltatse. 


CHAP. III. An. MDCCXIV. X Oct. Apostolici 

^"^^"^^"^^ Insignibus. Regni. Glorificatee. 

An. MDCCXXIII. VIII Sep. Sacra Unctione Prage 


An. MDCCL. XXI Dec. Morte. Non 

Consummatse,* sed Consummatae. 

iEtema. Enim. Felicitas 

Spei. CHKiSTiANiE. Finis 


Altera insignium virtutum ejus compendium his verbis pro- 
sequitur : — 

Haec. Itaque. Ccelesti Virtute Femina 

Naturae. Fortunae. Gratiae. Donis 

Ipsaque. Oris. Corporisq. Gravi Majestate 


Sub. Expeditione Hispanica 

Comes. Laborum. Sollicitudinum. Curarum 

In. Summo. Fastigio. Regio 

Privatorum. Sortem. Experta Est 

Lustratis. Terra, Mariq. Finibus 

In Germaniam Redux, 

Opt. Optatiss. q. Optimatum. Civium. Pauperum 


Non raro Abstersit. lUorum Lacrimas 

Quorum. Oculos. Non Vidit 

Desiderio. Transmundani. Illius. Imperii 


* Most probably " consumtae." 


Temporis, Et Naturae Miserias Fortiter CHAP. III. 

Tulit. ^.^V-^-^ 

Atque Inaudita Se 

Ipsam. Constantia Vicit 

Editisq. lUustribus Exemplis, 

Adhuc. in. Sepulchre 


This most pious empress founded, in the year of her decease 
(1750), an order, which was afterwards renewed and enlarged 
by her illustrious daughter, Maria-Theresa, and therefore called 
the Elizabeth-Theresa order. It is only for military persons, of 
the rank of colonel and upwards, who have faithfully served 
thirty years for the house of Austria. 

The empress Elizabeth- Christina was the mother of four 
children: — 

1, Leopold- John- Joseph, born at Vienna the 13th of April, 
1716 ; died there on the 4th of November, 1716 ; and is buried in 
the imperial hereditary vault at the Capuchins. 

2, Maria-Theresa, the heiress of all the Austrian dominions ; 
bom at Vienna the 13th of May, 1717; married, the 12th of 
February, 1736, to Francis- Stephan, duke of Lorraine and Bar; 
died at Vienna 29th November, 1780; and rests in the here- 
ditary vault at the Capuchins. 

% Maria-Anna, bom at Vienna the 14th September, 1718; 
married to Charles- Alexander, duke of Lorraine, at Vienna, the 
7th of January, 1744; died at Brussels the 16th December, 
1744. Her remains were deposited in St. Michael's church at 


CHAP. III. Brussels; but afterwards, (2Gth April, 1749), brought to the 
'"''^'^'^^"***^ hereditary vault at Vienna. 

4, Maria-Amalia, born at Vienna the 5th of April, 1724; 
died there the 19th of April, 1730; and rests at the Capuchins. 

5, Maximilian-William, duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, 
knight of the golden fleece, and his imperial majesty's general- 
field-marshal, and colonel of a regiment of cavalry; born the 
14th of December, 1666; died at Vienna the 27th of July, 1726, 
in his garden at the Road, a suburb of Vienna. 

After the funeral ceremonies had been performed for three 
days in the chapel of the imperial court church at the Augustins, 
the body was transferred from the duke's house at the Road, 
to the church of the imperial convent of the Jesuits, on the 
3d of August, and deposited there till further directions. This 
church is now 'called the parish church of the nine choirs of 
angels, at the Hof. 

This is taken from the Diario of Vienna : — 
A copy of the testament of the duke is in the archives of 
the imperial council of war. Though the body was deposited 
in the church of the Jesuits' convent only till further orders, 
there is no mention in the Diario of its being transferred 
from thence to another place. The imperial archivist had, 
therefore, recourse to the superintendent of the said parish 
church, in order to get more notices ; but neither the present 
minister, nor his still living antecessor, were able to give any, 
as all the records of the church had been dispersed at the time 
of the abolishment of the Jesuits : but the sexton, an aged man 


of seventy, recollected most distinctly, that when a boy he had chap. hi. 
seen in the vault a coffin of tin, decorated w^ith a ducal hat. ^*^'^^^^*^ 
It is indeed very much to be regretted, that this vault, and all 
the others, were built up by order of Joseph the Second. 
But the said sexton asserted positively that not one coffin, 
except that of a count of Althann, had been taken out of the 
vault before it was built up. 


After the minister of the church of this town had declared, 
that neither the church itself, nor the church registers, affiarded 
any record of a princess of the house of Brunswick being buried 
there, a further application was made by Mr. Lessee, who was 
requested to search the grand ducal archives, and from him 
the following account has been received. 

Of the researches made in the grand ducal archives by the 
privy counsellor, Mr. Strecker, the following has been the 
result : — 

In the choir of the town church, at the left hand, is a 
cross of stone, with a person kneeling before it, under which 
is the following inscription : — 

Die Duichleuchtigste u. Hochgeborne Flirstin u. Fiauleiu, Fiaulein Mabia, 

Herzogin zu Braunschweig und Luneburg, gebohren im Jahr Christi 1576, 

von Ihrem Herm Vater, Herrn Wilhelmen, Herzogen zu Braunschweig 

3 M 


CHAP. IH. und Luneburg imd jhrer Frau Mutter, Frau Dorothea, Herrn 

^■^^.^^»-^ Christiani Tertii, Konigs in Dennemark Tochter, ein sehr 

gottseliges Fraulein und des gottlichen worts rechte liebhaberin 

mit alien Fiirstlichen Tugenden geziert. Sterbet zu Darmbstatt 

im jahr 1610, am 8 August, wird den 13'" ejusdem daselbst 

Christlich begraben ; lebet bey Gott ewiglich und racket 

in Christo in frohlicker Hofnung der Auerstehung 

Ihres Leibes zu ewiger Herrlichkeit. 

(Signed) Hamm. 


Extract of the Answer of Rev. Mr. Hanff, 

Not one of the five bishops of the house of Brunswick- 
Luneburg have been buried at this place. 

1, Lewis, the thirty-ninth bishop, who died 1346, was 
deposited at Walsrode. 

2, Francis, the fifty-second bishop, who died 1529; buried 
at Riddagshausen. 

3, Julius, the fifty-fourth bishop; resigned. 

4, George, the fifty-fifth bishop, who died 1566; buried at 

5, Christian, the fifty-ninth bishop, who died 1633; buried 
at Celle. 



Accoimt received from the Rev. C, G. Berger, M. A., Supermtendent 
at Eisleben. 

After many researches in the i-ecords, and repeated inspections chap. hi. 
of the tombs and monuments of the churches in this town, I ^-^^v^'^-> 
am enabled to give, in answer to your letter, dated the 23d of 
March, 1820, the following account : — 

There are at Eisleben two family vaults of the counts of Mans- 
feld ; one in the Market church of the old town, and the other 
in the St. Anne church of the new town of Eisleben. 

The first is called, from its founder, count Bruno, the Bru- 
nonian vault. It is remarkable that the dead bodies in this vault 
do not putrify, but dry up, and become at last as hard as stone. 
In this vault are deposited seven members of the Mansfeld family ; 
but none who belong to the house of Brunswick. 

The other vault is in the church of St. Anne, in the new 

Margaret, born princess of Brunswick-Luneburg, daughter 
of duke Ernest the Confessor, married Hans the First, count of 
Mansfeld ; she contributed largely to the building and enlarging 
of the St. Anne church, and likewise built this vault for herself 
and her family. 

In this vault rest : — 

I, Maygaret, who died in October, 1596. 


CHAP. III. 2, Ernest the Sixth, son of count Hans the First, and Mar- 

^•-^^^"^^ garet, who died at Hergisdorf, 7th April, 1609. 

3, His brother, Frederick-Christoph, who died 6th April, 

4, Ernest-Lewis, son of count Frederick-Christoph, who died 
8th April, 1632. 

5, His brother, Christian-Frederick, who died 20th December, 
1666; the last of this line of the family of Mansfeld. After he 
was deposited, the key was thrown into the vault, and the 
entrance walled up. 

The vault has suifered greatly; and it is desirable that it 
should be opened, repaired, and whitewashed ; but the church 
and parish are too poor to bear the expenses. 

In respect to the princess whom you mention in your first 
letter, Agnes, daughter of duke Magnus-Torquatus, and wife of 
count Busso, of Mansfeld, I have to observe, that there are 
great difficulties in finding out her burying place. 

In the pedigree of the family of Mansfeld, which hangs in 
the said church of St. Anne, are the following words : — " Busso, 
Graf zu Mansfeld hat 1362, Herzog Magnus von Braunsciiweig, 
Tochter, Fraulein Agnes gefreyt, stirbt ungefahr, 1392." 

As all the churches of Eisleben, according to the inscrip- 
tions on the tombs and other documents, were built in the 15th 
century, and as before that period nothing but small chapels 
under the principal spires existed, we search in vain in the present 
churches for the tomb of Agnes. 

Only one church, that of St. Catherine, existed in the 14th 
century, on the spot of the St. Catherine convent, in Neuendorf. 


It was built, as the ancient record says, in the year 1320, by chap. iii. 
count Burghardt the Sixth, as a mark of his gratitude to God, who /^^^ 

had blessed him with fine children and much goods. Here rest, 
without doubt, the remains of Agnes. Nobody is able to point 
out the place where her tomb was. On the spot where the church 
stood is now a pavement, as this church was destroyed by 
fire in the year 1498. Some family statues in stone were saved, 
and brought into the Market or St. Andrew's church. Among 
these is most probably that of Agnes; for in a niche of this 
church is a female figure of stone kneeling, in full length, in 
a very ancient costume, with a garment, the plaits of which 
are flowing most handsomely round the body. The inscrip- 
tion beneath is erased, but the coats of arms round the 
figure prove that she was a princess of Brunswick-Luneburg. 
Opposite her kneels a knight, with his helmet taken off, who 
is most probably her husband, count Busso. 

This is all that can be found here on monuments and tomb- 
stones, as well as in ancient records, about the burying places of 
princes and princesses of the ancient and illustrious house of 

CSigned) Berger. 



Answer of Counsellor Von Hellbach, at Armstadt, Author of a 
Sketch of an Authentic Genealogy of the House of Schwartzburg. 

In answer to your letter of the 13th of March, a. t\, I give 
the following notices : — 

1, Catharine, (not Elizabeth, as Cuspinian and Bunting call 
her,) was married to count Henry the Twenty-ninth, of Schwarz- 
burg, in the year 1413, (not 1403); died 1439; but where 
she was buried is not yet known. In order to ascertain this, 
I had opened, in the presence of prince Charles, and our present 
princess, the family vault here; had every thing most care- 
fully examined; but I did not find the least vestige of this 
princess *. 

2, Clara, married to count William, died at Heeringen, and 
was buried at Frankenhausen. 

3, Sibylla, her sister, died likewise at Heeringen, and was 
buried at Frankenhausen. 

4, Augusta-Dorothea, died in her palace, called Augusten- 

* In a Chronicle, (vide Schoettgen and Kreysig, torn. i. p. 495,) it is expressly 
said that the arms of Catharine, and those of her husband, were in one of these 
windows of the church at Armstadt. G. 


burg, near Armstadt, which was taken down after her death, chap. hi. 
Having embraced the catholic faith, her remains were transported ^^^'^^^ 
to Erfurt, and interred there, in the convent of UrsuUns. 

(Signed) V. Hellbach. 


Ansioer, received from a Gentleman of that Place. 

About the burying place of Catharine, princess of Brunswick- 
Luneburg, married to Philip the First, count of Schwarzburg, 
who died at Salfeld, 24th February, 1581. Sylv. Liebe, in his 
Salfeldographia, observes, " that the said princess was interred 
the 4th of March, 1581, in the St. John's church." 

Of a monument, which marked her burying place in this 
church, nothing is now to be seen. 

(Signed) Wendorf, 

Rector and Deacon. 



Extract from a Letter of Amts-Commissioner Schultes, at 

CHAP. III. In the ducal vault of the Ober, or Brother church, are to 
^^ be seen, 

1, In a corner, next to the sacristry on the wall, the 
following mscription : — 

Von Gottes Gnaden Dorothea, Herzogin zu Braunschweig und Luneburg, 

ward gebohren zu Wolfenbuttel, den 8 July, anno 1596, und vom 

Herrn Vater Jul. Heinrichen, Herzogen zu Braunschweig und 

Luneburg, vermahit mit Herrn Christian Wilhelm 

postulisten Administratoren des Erzstifts Magdeburg, 

Primaten in Germania, Markgrafen zu 

Brandenburg, in Preussen Herzogen, d. 

8ten Januarii, 1615, hat im 

wahrenden Ehestand ein Fraulein zur welt gebohren zu Halle, doch 

hernach auf ihrem Leibgedinge zu Jinsar in Gottselig 

vestorben am 1 Septembris, an. 1643 ; ihres alters, 

47 jahr, 11 monath, 3 wochen, und 3 tage; 

am 28 August, 1644, wurde sie in 

diese Grlift beigesetzt. 

2, Next to this is the following inscription : — 

Von Gottes Gnaden Sophia Elisabetha, Herzogin zu Sachsen, Julich, 
Cleve, und Berg, gebohren Markgrafin zu Brandenburg, geboren 


zu Halle in Sachsen, am 22 Januarii, 1616, und von der CHAi'. ill 

Fiirstl. Eltern Herrn Christian Wilhelm, Markgrafin \^^w^^ 

von Brandenburg, und Frau Dorothea gebornen, 

Herzogin zu Braunschweig und Luneburg, Herzog 

Friebrich Wilhelm, zu Sachsen, Julich, 

Cleve, und Berg, vermahlet, ao. 1638, 

d. 18 Septembris, hat im Ehestand 

gelebt 11 jahr. 3 monat, 15 tage, 

ist in Gott Seelig verschieden 

zu Altenburg, am 6 Martii, ao. 1650, friihe gegen 6 uhr; 

ihres alters, 34 jahr. 1 monat, 13 tage. 

3, At the entrance to the vault, close to the door, 
stands a coffin, upon which are the Brunswick-Luneburg arms ; 
but the inscription over the crucifix is quite illegible. In 
this coffin rests, most probably, the dutchess Elizabeth, of 
Brunswick-Luneburg, wife of duke John-Philip, of Altenburg, 
who died 1650. It stands close to the coffin of duke John- 

As I am engaged in writing a history of the House of Alten- 
burg, I must decline communicating any records which I have 
in my hands. 

(Signed) Schultes. 

3 N 



The foUoiving Account was received from Mr. Buglor, Dom-Ckrk 
at Meissen. 

1, Catharina, wife of Frederick the Warlike, elector of Saxony, 
and daughter of Henry, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, was mar- 
ried in the year 1402, and died 1442, at her residence of 
Grimma. Her remains were brought to Meissen, and interred 
in the cathedral, close to those of her husband. No monument 
was erected to her memory. 

2, Anna, daughter of duke Otho, of Brunswick, was married, 
in the year 1403, to William Codes, margrave of Misnia. After 
his death, which happened 1407, she married again, in the year 
1414, a count of Henneberg. No further notices of her are found 

3, Catharina was the wife of Henry the Pious, duke of 
Saxony ; but she was no princess of Brunswick, but the daughter 

* This must be altogether a mistake ; for there is no Otho of Brunswick 
of whom the records say that he had a daughter named Anna. Besides, Wil- 
liam Codes, of Misnia, who died 1407, was married to Ludomilla, or Elizabeth, 
daughter of the emperor Jodocus, of Moravia, who died 1400. Therefore this 
Anna can be no other than the daughter of Ernest, duke of Brunswick-Gottingen, 
who was married, 1414, to count William, of Henneberg, and died 25th Oct. 1426. 
(Vide Records, Vesra). That this Anna had previously been married to William 
Codes, of Misnia, is not improbable ; but I have not found it recorded. The early 
history of this princess, previous to her marriage to count William, of Henneberg, 
is still involved in obscurity. G. 


of duke Magnus, of Mecklenburg. She died 1561, and was chap. iii. 
interred in the cathedral at Freyburg*. 

4, Elizabeth, daughter of duke Otho, of Brunswick, married to 
the landgrave Henry Ruspe, of Thuringia ; died 1247, and interred 
in the former convent of Reinhardsbrunn t- 

5, Helena, duke Otho of Brunswick's daughter, married to 
Albert the First, elector of Saxony ; died 1273, and was buried 
in the church of Franciscans, at Wittenberg. -Vide Records, 

6, Margaret, daughter of Ernest, elector of Saxony, mar- 
ried to Henry the Younger, duke of Brunswick ; died 1528 ; 
interred at Weimar. 

7, Sidonia, daughter of duke Henry the Pious, of Saxony, 
married to duke Erich the Second, of Brunswick-G6ttingen ; 
died at Weissenfels, and was interred, 1575, at Freyburg, in 
the cathedral. 

8, Catharina, daughter of Philip, duke of Brunswick-Gruben- 
hagen, married to John-Ernest the First, duke of Saxony, and 
after his death to Philip, count of Schwarzburg. She died 1581, 
and was interred in St. John's church, at Salfeld.— Vide Records, 


(Signed) Buglor, Dom-Clerk. 

* This is all very true ; but there was another Catharina, daughter of Francis, 
duke of Bmnswick-Luneburg-Giffhorn, married to Henry, burggrave of Misnia, 
1564 ; died 1565. Respecting her burying place some notices were requested. 

t This Elizabeth can be no other than the daughter of Otho the Infant, who was 
married to William, of Holland, emperor in the year 1251. Though Henry Raspe's 
first wife was called Elizabeth, who died 1231, it is no where said what princess she 
was : if she was Otho the Infant's daughter, she must have been married to Henry 
Raspe previous to her marriage to emperor William; but that does not correspond 
with the year. The whole is therefore a mistake. 



The royal vault, under the choir of the royal chapel, was 
built by duke John-Frederick, and most probably intended for 
himself, his wife, and children, only. It is eleven feet eight 
inches high, thirty-two feet eighteen inches long, and twenty- 
five feet ten inches wide ; and has a most conspicuous entrance 
from the nave of the church. In this vault are deposited the 
remains of duke John-Frederick ; his daughter, Anna-Sophia ; 
the elector, Ernestus-Augustus ; his consort, the electress 
Sophia; king George I.; his brother, the bishop Ernestus- 
Augustus ; and of princess Charlotte-Louisa- Augusta, daughter 
of his royal highness the duke of Clarence. 

1, Duke John-Frederick*. His remains rest in a coffin of 
copper ; first plated and then well gilded. The ornaments are of 
silver. There are no inscriptions. At the head and at the foot 
of the coffin is a soaring angel represented. On the right side 
of the upper part of the coffin are the Brunswick-Luneburg 
arms, in an oval shield; and towards the feet are represented, 
on a small shield, several scenes of paradise, and a hand 
extended out of the clouds towards the tree of life ; and in the 
fore-ground a sea ; out of the middle of which a rock is visible ; 

• He died at Augsburg, the 18th Dec. 1679, on his way to Italy; and his remains 
were brought to Hanover, and deposited in this vault with great solemnity. His 
funeral service was the last which the catholic monks, to whose faith the duke had 
conformed in the year 1651, and to whom he had given a residence in the castle, and 
the use of this chapel, performed in this church. They were obliged to leave both ; 
and the first protestant service was performed in it again on the 27th of June, 1680. 


towards which a ship steers with full sails, driven by an angel's chap. iii. 
breath from the clouds. The shield is enclosed by wreaths of ^"^"^^'^ 
thorns and palms ; and under it are the words, — 

Ex duris gloria. 

On the left side of the upper part of the coffin are likewise 
the Brunswick-Luneburg arms ; and towards the feet, in a 
small shield, is the emblem of Death, standing in a thorn bush ; 
holding in his right hand a sword, and in his left a sceptre; 
both of thorns, which are on the top fastened together by a 

2, The coffin of Anna-Sophia, daughter of John-Frederick, 
is of tin : it rests upon an iron bier ; and has at the head, on a 
round shield, the following inscription : — 

Serenissima Princeps, 

Domina Anna Sophia, 

Serenissimi Principis 

ac Domini, 

Domini Johannis Fhiderici, 

Ducis Brunsvicensis ac Luneburgensis, 


Serenissimse Principis 

ac Dominse, 

DotniiiBe Benedicts, 

Comitis Palatinse Rhenete 

filia primogenita. 

On the right and left side of the coffin are two coats of arms. 


CHAP. III. enclosed by three angels ; and at the foot is a round shield, with 
^^"^"^^"^ the following inscription : — 


X die Februarii, 

anni MDCLXX. 


XXIV Martii, inter 

horam III et IV pomeridianam, 


At the four corners of the cover are four mourning angels, and 
on the top of it lies a crucifix. 

3. Elector Ernestus-Augustus. The coffin is of copper, richly 
plated and gilded. It is supported by four wild men, who are 
likewise of gilded copper. The ornaments, shields, and crucifix, 
are of massive silver; the handles are of brass. At flie head 
a shield, with the initials E. A. encircled with garlands ; and 
over them the electoral crown. On the right side of the head 
part is a shield, with a horse at full gallop towards a temple, 
and with this inscription : — 

Consummato cursu. 

In the middle are the electoral arms of Hanover ; in which 
the centre field is not filled out, and above which is an escrol, 
with the words, — 

Ernst. Aug. D. g. Dux Bnin. et Lun. S. R. F. El. EP. OSN. 


Towards the feet is a shield, with a celestial globe, and the chap. hi. 
inscription, — ' 

Sufficit unus. 

At the feet a galloping horse, with the inscription, — 

Sola bona quae honesta. 

On the left side of the coffin, towards the feet, a shield, with a 
terrestrial globe, and the inscription, — 

Non sufficit unus. 

In the middle, as on the right side, the electoral arms ; and on 
a riband the words, — 

Defunct. XXIII Januar. st. vet. anno Dom. MDCXCVIII. 

Towards the head a shield, with a wreath of laurel; over which 
waves a crown in heaven, surrounded with stars, and the in- 
scription, — 

Sola bona quae eeterna. 

4, The coffin of the electress Sophia is of copper, richly plated 
and gilded. The shields and ornaments are of massive silver; 
the handles are of brass, and gilded. The coffin is supported / 

by four wild men, likewise of gilded copper. At the head 
are the Brunswick-Luneburg arms, about three inches removed 
from the coffin. On the right side, towards the head, is an oval 
shield, with a landscape ; and in the forepart a poppy, (a plant,) 
with the inscription, — 

Coronato redux in semine. 


CHAP. III. Towards the feet a similar shield ; on which, in the forepart, 
'""-^^^'^^^ a castle and a forest; and, in the back-ground, the sun rising 
above the horizon of the sea. The inscription, — 

Aliis transmittet lumina terris. 

On the left side of the coffin, towards the head, is an oval 
shield representing a grove of palm trees, of which the most 
beautiful is thrown down, with the inscription, — 

Per germina crescit. 

Towards the feet, on the same side, is a similar shield, on which 
is a landscape, through which a river flows, and on which a town 
is situated : from heaven descends a star, which spreads, by its 
rays, light over the whole. The following is the inscription, — 

Hac duce venerunit leges. 

At the feet is a shield in the form of a heart, with the 
inscription : — 


D. G. ex stirpe El. Pal. 

Elect, vid. Brun. et Lun. 

Mag. Brit. Haeres, 


XIII Oct. MDCXXX. nupta mense Sep. MDCLVIII. 

ad successionem Mag. Brit, nominata MDCCI. 

sub vesperam VIII Junii, MDCCXIV. in hortis 

Herrenhausanis adhuc vegata ; et firmo passu 

deambulans, subita et placida morte erepta. 


5, King George the First. The coffin is of copper, richly chap. hi. 
plated and gilded ; the ornaments, shields, &c. are of massive ^^^^^^ 
silver ; the crown and the sceptre are of copper, gilded ; the 
cushion, upon which the crown rests, the two capita mortua, 

and the handles, are of massive silver. The coffin rests upon 
four lions of brass. At the head are the royal initials, G. R., 
with the words, Honi soit qui mal y pense; and the motto, 
Dieu et mon droit. On the right side of the coffin, in the middle, 
and on the left side, in the same manner, are the arms of Great 
Britain. At the feet, on an oval shield, is the following in- 
scription : — 

Georgius Imus, 

D. G. Magnse Britan. Franc, et Hib. Rex, Fidei Defens. 

Bruns. et Luneb. Dux, S. R. I. Archithes. et Elect. 

Optimus Princeps, 

Bello ac paci aeque magnus et felix, 

natus Hannoverffi, XXVIII Maii, St. Vet. CIoIoCLX. 

suscepit regimen Electorates 


introductus in Colleg. Electoral. 

VII Sept. St. Vet. CIoIoCCVIII. 

Rex Magnse Britann. XII Aug. ClaloCCXIIII. 

Oblit Osnabrug. XXII Jan. 


6, Bishop Emestus-Augustus. The coffin is of copper, plated 
and gilded; the ornaments and shields, the mitre and crosier, 

3 o 


CHAP. III. are of silver ; and the lion's claws, upon which it rests, are of 
^"^^^^^ gilded brass. At. the head are the initials E. A. B., surrounded 
with the words, Honi soit qui mal y pense ; and with the motto. 
Pro lege et grege. On the right and left side of the coffin are 
the English and the episcopal arms, on an oval shield, and with 
the same inscription. At the feet are the following : — 

Ernestus Augustus, 

D. G. Dux Eborac. et Albaniae, Episcopus 

Osnabrugensis, Dux Brunsvicensium et Luneburgensium, 

natus Osnabrugffi, d. XVII Sept. St. Vet. CIoIdCLXXIIII 

dux Eborac. et Alban. d. XIIII Jul. St. Vet. CIOloCCXVI. 

Postulatus Episcop. Osnabr. d. II Mart. St. Vet. CIoIoCCXVI. 

obiit Osnabrugse, d. XIIII August. St. N. CIoIoCCXXVIII. 

Princeps amabilis admirabilis 

Civibus, Exteris, 


7, The coffin of Charlotte-Louisa-Augusta, daughter of his 
royal highness the duke of Clarence, rests upon a scaffi^ld three 
feet and a half high, is of polished mahogany, and embellished 
with gilded ornaments. At the head are the British and Saxon 
arms, of massive silver, and supported by the lion and unicorn. 
Over both arms is the ducal crown; and under the British are 
the orders of the duke ; viz. that of St. George, St. Andrew, &c. 
Under the coats of arms is a floating riband, with the motto, — 

Nee temere nee timide. 


At the feet, upon a square plate of silver, is the following chap. hi. 
inscription : — v^^V^^^ 

Charlotte Louise Auguste, 

Prinzessin des vereinigt. Konigr. Gross Britannien und Irland, 

auch Konigreichs Hannover, 

Tochter des Prinzen Wilhelm Heinrich, Herzogs von Clarence, 


der Herzogin Adelheit von Clarence, 

gebohren Herzogin von Sachsen, 

gebohren und gestorben den 27ten Mars, 1819. 


Copy of the Diploma, or Charter, of the Emperor Frederick the 
Second, by which the States of Brimsivick and Ltineburg were 
erected into a Dutchy, and Otho the Child loas created Duke of 
Brunswick and Luneburg. 

In nomine sanctae et individuse Trinitatis. Fridericus Se- 
cundus, divina favente dementia Romanorum imperator semper 
Augustus, Jerusalem et Siciliae rex. Gloriosus in Majestate sua 
dominantium Dominus, qui regna constituit et firmavit imperium, 
de cujus dementia vivimus, de cujus est munere, quod fdiciter 
imperamus; ad hoe nos supra reges et regna prseposuit, et in 
imperiali solio sublimavit, ut nobis factori nostro gratitudine 
devota subjectis, pacem et justitiam moderamina nostra con- 
tineant, et qui summus prae filiis hominum ab eo, qui praeminet 
orbi terrae, sublimius exaltati, viros dignos honoribus et non 
immeritos ad solicitudinis partem admitti, liberaliter ad decus 
et decorem imperii nominis et honoris titulo decoremus. Hinc 
est ergo, quod per prsesens scriptum noverit praesens aetas et 

THE RECORDS, &c. 4(^9 

futura posteritas, quod, cum diu propositi nostri foret, ut chap. iv. 
dilectum consanguineura nostrum, Ottonem de I.uneburch ad ^^-^^'"^^ 
fidem imperii et devotionem nostram efficeremus arcius obli- 
gatum, nee loci vel temporis opportunitas afFuisset, quo con- 
ceptum erga eum intentionem nostram prosequi nos deceret; 
contingente caussa nostri felicis adventus in Alamanniam, et 
pro reformatione totius terrae status indicta Maguntiae curia 
generali, dictus Otto eandem curiam vocatus accessit. In qua 
dum assidentibus nobis principibus nostra serenitas resideret, 
de reformando terrae statu disponens, nominatus Otto de Lune- 
burch flexis genibus coram nobis, omni odio et rancore post- 
positis, quae inter proavos nostros existere potuerunt, se totum 
in manibus nostris exposuit, nostris stare beneplacitis et man- 
datis, et insuper proprium castrum suum Luneburch, quod 
idiomate Theutonico vocatur Eygen, cum multis aliis castris, 
terris et hominibus eidem castro pertinentibus, in nostram pro- 
prietatem et Dominium specialiter assignavit, ut de eo, quic- 
quid nobis placeret, tanquam de nostro proprio faceremus. Nos 
autem, qui tenemur modis omnibus imperium augmentare, prae- 
dictum castrum, de Luneburch cum omnibus castris, perti- 
nentiis et hominibus suis, quemadmodum. ex ejusdem Ottonis 
assignatione in proprietatem accepimus, in praesentia principum 
in imperium transtulimus, et concessimus, ut per imperium 
infeodari deberet. Civitatem insuper de Brunswich, cujus me- 
dietatem proprietatis Dominii a marchione de Baden et reliquam 
medietatem c\ duce Bavariae, dilectis principibus nostris, emi- 
mus, pro parte uxorum suarum, quae fuerunt quondam filiae 


CHAP. IV. Henrici de Brunswich, comitis palatini Rheni, patrui dicti 
^-^^^'^""^ Ottonis, similiter in eadem curia imperio concessimus, proprie- 
tatem nobis debitam in dominium imperii transferentes. Pree- 
terea Ottone in ipsu generali curia in manibus nostris connexis 
palmis super sancta cruce imperii, quae ibidem tenebatur, prae- 
stante fidei juramentum, nos attendentes, quam pura fide, sincera 
et prona devotione se totum mandato nostro et voluntati com- 
midt, et in proprietatem nostram concessit proprie proprium 
castrum suum, de quo nemini tenebatur, et humiliaverit se 
modis omnibus coram nobis ; considerantes insuper, quod nun- 
quam per eum fuerit ofFensum imperium, et nee contra honorem 
nostrum ad suggestionem alicujus voluerit inveniri, dignum et 
utile vidimus circa statum et augmentum ipsius imperiali muni- 
ficentia providere. Quapropter cum consilio, assensu et assi- 
stentia principum civitatem Brunswich et castrum Luneburch 
cum omnibus castris, hominibus et pertinentiis suis univimus, 
et creavimus inde ducatum, et imperiali autoritate dictum con- 
sanguineum nostrum Ottonem, ducem et principem facientes, 
ducatum ipsum in feodum imperii ei concessimus ad haeredes 
suos, filios et filias haereditarie devolvendum, et eum solenniter 
juxta consuetudinem investivimus per vexilla ; de affluentiore 
gratia concedentes eidem decimas Goslariae, imperio perti- 
nentes. Ceterum ministeriales suos in ministeriales imperii 
assumentes, eidem concessimus, eosdem ministeriales juribus 
illis uti, quibus imperii ministeriales utuntur. Ad hujus itaque 
concessionis memoriam, et robur perpetuo valiturum, praesens 
privjlegium fieri, et bulla aurea, typario nostras majestatis 


impressa, jussimus communiri. Hujiis autem rei testes sunt chap. iv. 
S. Maguntinus, H. Coloniensis, E. Salzpurgensis, T. Treve- 

rensis, et Bisuntinus, archiepiscopi ; W. Magdebur- 

gensis electus, E. Papembergensis, S. Ratisponensis, impe- 
rialis aulse cancellarius, H. Constantiensis, S. Augustensis^ 
B. Argentinus, H. Basiliensis, C. Hyldensemensis, I. Leodiensis, 

G. Cameracensis, I. Metensis, Tullensis, Monaste- 

riensis, E. Nuemburgensis, Trajectensis, C. Osenbur- 

gensis, R. Pactaniensis, H. Eystediensis, C. Spirensis, E. Mer- 
seburgensis, G. Verdunensis, et C. Frisingensis, episcopi. Prater 
H. domus hospitalis sanctse Marise Theutonicorum in Jerusalem 

magister Morbacensis Augensis et • • • • Elwa- 

censis, abbates. Otto dux Bavariae, comes palatinus Rheni. 
H. dux Brabanciae, A. dux Saxoniae, B. dux Carinthite, M. 
dux Lotharingiae, H. lancravius Thuringiae, palatinus comes 
Saxoniae, H. marchio Misinensis, H. marchio de Baden, I. et 
O. marchiones de Brandenburch, H. comes Senensis, H. comes 
Barensis, D. comes Clevensis, H. comes de Hanalt, et alii 

Signum domini Friderici Secundi, Dei gratia invictissimi 
Romanorum imperatoris semper Augusti, Jerusalem et Siciliee 

Ego Sifridus Ratisponensis episcopus, imperialis aulae can- 
cellarius, vice domini • • • • Maguntini archi episcopi, totius 
Germaniae archi cancellarii, recognovi. Acta sunt haec anno 
Dominicae incarnationis millesimo ducentesimo tricesimo quinto, 
mense Augusti, octavae indictionis, imperante Domino nostro- 

472 THE RECORDS, &c. 

CHAP. IV. Friderico, Dei gratia serenissimo Romanorum imperatore semper 

^^^^^^^"^ augusto, Jerusalem et Siciliae rege, anno imperii ejus sexto 

decimo, regni Jerusalem decimo, Siciliae tricesimo octavo, 

feliciter, Amen. Datum Magunciae anno, mense et indictione 






TABLE I. (A.) 


I. The Guelphs in Germany. 




GUELPH, conntof Bajoariaat Altoif - - - - - 
Married to Heigilwigis of Saxony, about 85:6 abbess of Cale - 

Before 82.'>. 
After 833. 

207 et seq. 


1, Judith, married 819 to Louis the Pious . - - - 

2, Eticfio ; 3, Conrad, count and duke, the patriarch of the 

Guelphic kings of Burgundy, and married to Adelheid, daughter 
of the Guelphic count Hugo of Alsatia 
4, Rudolph, palatine under Charles the Bald 

15 March 843. 



p. 227. 

ETICHO I., count of Bajoaria or Bavaria . . - - 
His countess unknown. His son, 

Before 830. 

GUELPH, count of Argnngau, lived about 860. His countess unknown. 
His son. 


ETICHO II., count, retired into a forest near Ammergau 
His countess unknown. 



p. 217. 

], Henry; 2, Lucarde, married to the emperor Arnulf. 

HENRY, surnamcd with the Golden Chariot . . . - 
Married to Beata, or Hatta, of Hohenwarth 



p. 219. 
p. 219. 

1, Rbdolpu ; 2, St. Conrad, about 934 bishop of Constanz 



RUDOLPH I., count 

His son was probably 



p. 219. 


Whose sons were, 

1, Rudolph ; 2, Eticho, had many illegitimate children 




Married to Itha, daughter of Cuno of Oeningen 


1, Henry, lost his life when he was hunting with his brother 

2, Guelph; 3, RicHARDis, or Kiclinda, married to Adalberon, 
count of Ebersberg ...... 






p. 219. 
p. 215. 

p. 221. 


Married to Imiza (Irmengardis, Irnientrud), daughter of Frederick, 
count of Luxemburg, and grand-daughter of the empress Cuncgunde - 
1, Guelph; 2, CuNizA, or Cunigunda. 



p. 221. 
p. 215. 

GUELPH III., count and duke of Carinthia, without issue 



p. 221. 

CUNIZA, or CUNIGUNDE, married to margrave Azo II. of the Italian 
branch of the Guelphic family 

Before 1055. 

La Badia. 

p. 231. 

TABLE I. {\,)- Continued. 



11. The Giielphsvi Italy. 




BONIFACE I., of Bajoaria, count and governor of Lucca, at least after 
811; probably married to Waldradana, sister of Fiilrad, abbot of St. 
Dionys. His children, 

1, Boniface. 

2, Berethar, or r.:RALD ...... 

3, RiCHlLuis, abbess of Lucca before 823 . . - . 

After 829. 

BONIFACE II., margrave of Tnscia and prefect of Corsica, at least 
after 829 ; married to Bertha ------ 

His son was 

After 834. 

ADALBERT L, niav<.rave and duke of Tuscia 

Married to Rotildus, daughter of duke Guido of Spoleto. 
1, Adalbert ; 2, Boniface. 

Alter 886. 

ADALBERT II., surnamed the Rich, margrave and duke of Tuscia 
Married to Berta, daughter of king Lothairc of Australia 
1, Guido ; 2, Lambert ; 3, Ebmenoaru, married to Adalbert, mar- 
grave of Ivera. 

16 September, 916. 


p. 228. 
p. 229. 

GUIDO, margrave of Tuscia ...... 

Married, 926, to Marosia .-.-.. 



LAMBERT, margrave of Tuscia, confined, and deprived of his sight 

Not before 960. 

BONIFACE III., margrave, second son of Adalbert I., lived about 884. 
His son, most probably, 

ADALBERT III., margrave, about 940. His son, 

OTBERT, or OBIZO I., margrave and palatine of Italy 
His childrcn- 
,1, Othburt ; 2. Adelbert ; 3, Albert ; the two last about 996. 

Before 97j. 

In a Convent. 

OTBERT IL, margrave of Italy 

His children— 
1, Albert Azo; 2, Hugo -.-..- 
3, Adalhert; 4, Obert; .1, Guido, killed - 

All were married and had issue. 
6, Berta. 

After 1014. 

After 1033. 

ALBERT AZO I., margrave of Italy, the tirst of the family who resided 

atEste - - 

Married, 1, to Waltfada, daughter of Claudianus the younger, duke of 

CAi/difii— Albert Azo. 
Married, 2, about Kill, to Adela, (Adelheidc.) 

After 1029. 

ALBERT AZO II., margrave of Italy, count of Luniglana, Este, Rovigo, 

100 years old 

Married to Cuniga, or Cunigunde - - - . - 

CAiWrm-GuELPH. (Vide III.) 
Married, 2, to Garssenda, of Maine - - . . - 


1, Hugo IL, margrave and lord of Este; (from him the dukes of 


2, FuLCO, prince of Maine. 

3, Matilda, (educated by countess Matilda.) 

Married, 3, to Matilda, a noble widow; hut soon divorced, by 
Gregory VII. 

Bifoie 105.-1. 


La Badia. 

p. 231. 

TABLE I. {k.)-Contim(ed. 



The GuelpJiic Dukes of Bavaria and Saxoni/. 





GUELPH IV. duke of Bavaria about 1071, son of 
Azo II. and Cunigunda, in whom tlie two lines of the 
Giiclplis, the German and the Italian, became reunited. 
Married, 1, to Ktliclindc, daugliter of Otho, of Nord- 
heim, divorced. 

2, to Jiiditli, daughter of Baldwin, count of Flanders, 
widow of Tostiis, titular king of England 
Children— ■[. Guelph ; 2, Henrv. 

GUELPH V. duke of Bavaria 
Married to Matilda, marchioness of Ferrara, Vicenza, 
and without issue ..... 

HENRY THE BLACK, duke of Bavaria 

Married to Wulfildis, daughter of Magnus, the last 
duke of Saxony, of the Billung family 
Children — 

1, (;<)i\RAD, an ecclesiastic . . - . 

2, Judith, married to Frederick (Codes) duke of 

Snabia, mother of Frederick Barbarossa, eni- 

3, Sophia, married to Berclitold TII.,dnke of ZhIi- 

ringeu; and, 2, to Leopold, margrave of Siria 

4, Henry ; 5, Guelph; 6, Matilda, married, 

1, to biepokl, margrave of Vohburg; and, 2, 
to Gerhard, of Sulzbacb - - - 

7, WuLFiLDE, married to Rudolph of Braganza. 
HENRY THE PROUD, duke of Bavaria and Saxony 
Married to Gertrude, daughtrr of emperor Lothaire 
Children— 1, Henkv ;' 2, Guelph. 
GUELPH VI., duke of Spoleto and Tuscia - 

Married to Uta, daughter of Godfried, count palatine 


His only son — Guelph .... 

HENRY THE LION, duke of Bavaria and Saxony - 

Married, 1, to Clementia, daughter of duke Conrad, 

ofZahringcn; divorced, 1662 ... 


Gertrude, married, 1, to duke Frederick, of 

.Suabia de Rosenberg .... 

2, to Canute, king of Denmark 

2, to Matilda, daughter of Henry, king of England 
1, RicHEKZA ; 2, Henry ; 3, Ludeu, or Lothaire, 

4, Otho; 6, William; 6, IMatilda, married 
to Ganfrcdo, oouni of Piith - 
HENRY THK LONG, duke- and coui.l palatine of 

the Rhine 

Married, 1, to Agnes, daughter of Conrad, count 
palatine ...... 


1, Hemiy; died young . . . . 

2, Irjiengard; married to Herman, of Baden 

3, Agnes; married to Otho, duke of Bavaria 
Married, 2, to Agnes, daughter of margrave Conrad, 
ofLanilsborg -..--. 

OTHO IV., inipcrorof the Romans, duke of Aquitania, 
and dnUe of Hiuiiswirk - - - 
Married, 1, to I'niitrix, daughter of Philip, emperor; 
2, to r.I.in.i, <l,ni;;litcr of Henry, dnke of Brabant; 
and who was nr.inied again to William I., count of 

WILLIAM, duke of Lnnebnrg - 

Married to Helena, daughter of WaUlemar I., king of 
Denmark ...... 

C/iiWrai— Otho the Infant. 

I'iJe Tuhle 11. (A.) 


] 225. 

7 Aug. 12: 


i89, but '\ 
ivorced ' 
1 095. 3 

7 March, 1094. 

Kaufnrgen, 1120 

24july, 1115. 

23 Nov. 1127. 
13 Dec. 1127. 

S Quedlinbnrg, ^ 
( 20 Oct. 1139. i 
14 April, 1143. 

In Italy, lU 
6 Aug. 119; 

r Weingarten,or ^ 
' Paplios, in > 
(. Cyprus. 3 


St. Benedetto, ^ 
near Mantua. 5 


Bari, in Naples. 



Probably Hirsan. 







28 Apr. 1269. 




15 iMay, 1218. 
12 Aug. 1212. 


13 Dec. 1213. 


Peter Louva 


TABLE I. (B.) 



I. The Saxons. 




Burial Places. 


The different opinions about the Ancestors of Ludoliih. 

Vide - ' - 


p. 233. 

LUDOLPH I., first tlnke of Saxony - 



p. 245. 

IMavricd to Oda, daughter of Bilhing and Oeda^ of 

Franconia ...... 




p. 245. 


1 , Hathamunda, abbess of Gandersheim 



29 Nov. 874. 


p. 245. 

2, Gerberdis, abbess of Gandersheim 




p. 245. 

3, Christina, abbess of Gandersheim 




p. 245. 

4, Enda, married to Count Lolhaire of Stnde. 

5, LuiTGARDis, married to Louis, king of Australia 



6, Bruno. 7, Otho. 

BRUNO, duke of Saxony, was probably killed in the 

battle of Ebstorf 



p. 246. 

OTHO THE GREAT, duke of Saxony 

30 Nov. 912. 


p. 245. 

Married to Hedwig, of royal blood - 



p. 245. 


1, Oda ; married, 1, to Zuentcbold, king; and, «, 

to Gerhard, count of Cleves. 

2, Baea. 

3, LuiTOARDis, abbess of Gandersheim. 

4, Henhy. 

HENRY I., or the Fowler, duke of Saxony, and 

i Memolleben, } 
I 9 July, 936. ) 

fleeted emperor in 919 . . . . 



p. 248. 

Married, 1, lo Hathburg, daughter of Erwin, prince 

of Merseburg, a " vidua velata," and was therefore 

divorced ; |2, to Matilda, daughter of Theodorich, 

count of Kingclsheim, of the family of Wittikeud - 


14 March, 968. 


p. 248. 


By Hathburg, Dankward. killed at Ehrisburg - 


By Matilda, 1, Gerberg ;, married, 1, to Gisel- 

bert, duke of Lorraine 


2, to Louis IV. (Ultramannns)king of France 



5 May, 934. 

S Reims, Church ) 
i of St. Remigii. \ 
i Paris. Abbey 1 
( St. Dionysii. J 

2, Hedwig, or Adelheid, married to Hugo, count 

of Paris, patriarch of the Capets 



3, Matilda, abbess of Quedlinburg 




p. 250. 

4, Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, and duke of 

Lorraine ..... 

11 October, 965. 


p. 258. 

5, Otho. 6, Henry. 

OTHO L, or the Great, (Amor Mundi,) emperor, and 

duke of Saxony 

23 Nov. 912. 

7 May, 973. 


p. 250. 

Married, 1, to Ediths, daughter of Edward, king of 




23 Feb. 946. 


p. 251. 

2, to Adelheid, daughter of Rudolph, king of Bur- 

gundy, and widow of Lothaire, king of Italy 


16 Dec. 999. 



r Mayence, ■) 
] St. Prosperi, or f 
(. St. Albani. 3 

Byl^ditha: 1, Ludolph .... 



6 Sept. 957. 

He was married to Ida, daughter of Hermann 

of Suabia, by whom he had issue, and became 

dukeofSuabia .... 



2, LiiTGARD, married to Conrad, duke of Fran- 

conia and Lorraine .... 




Mayence, St. Albani. 

By Adelheid : 1, Hknry, died before his father; 

2, William, archbishop of Mayence. (Some 

say that he was a natural son by a Slavonian 

lady.) ...... 





3, Matilda, abbess of Quedlinburg 


8 Feb. 999. 


4, Otho. 

TABLE I. (B.) — Continued. 


I. The Saxons. 




Burial Places. 


OTHO II., emperor, and duke of Saxony - 
Married to Theopliania, daughter of Romanus Por- 
phyrogenus, emperor of Constantinople 

Dec. 955. 


7 Dec. 983. 
18 June, 991. 

Rome, St. Peter. 

1, Otho; 2, Matilda, married to Ezo, count 
palatine; 3, Sophia, abbess of Gandersheim ; 
4, Judith, married to Uretoslaus, duke of 

OTHO III., emperor, and duke of Saxony , without issue 


28 Jan. 1002. 

S Aug.«bHrgand ^ 
) Achen. J 

p. 247. 

HENRY (Rixosus), Henry the Fowler's third son, duke 

of Bavaria 

Married to Judith, daughter of Arnulph, duke of 


1, Lbitgard, married to Burchhard, duke of 
Suabia ; 2, Adelheid ; 3, Gerbergis, abbess 
of Gandersheim .... 
4, Henry. 5, Bruno. 

1 Nov. 955. 


p. 245. 

HENRY (Hezelo), duke of Bavaria - 
Married to Gisela, daughter of Conrad, king of Bur- 


1, GisEiA, maiTied to Stephan, king of Hungary ; 

2, Bruno, bishop of Augsburg 

3, Henry. 

28 Aug. 994. 
Ratisbon, 1029. 

i Gaiiderslieim, ) 
I or Ratisbon. J 


HENRY II., or Sanctus, emperor, and duke of Bavaria 
Married to Cunigunda, daughter of Siegfried, pala- 
tine of the Rhine; without issue 

■ ■ 

$ Grona, | 
( 13 July, 1024. J 
i Haufungen, J 
I 3 Mar. 1033. S 


p. 239. 

11, The Brunones. 

BRUNO I., margrave of Saxony; most probably the 
second sen of Henry Rixosus 
Married to Hildeswinda, princess of Croatia 
Children— Brvko. 


BRUNO II., margrave of Saxony and prince of Brims- 
Married to Gisela, danghter of Hermann, duke of 
Suabia; married afterwards to Conrad II., emperor. 



CAiidrra— LuDOLPH. 

LUDOLPH, margrave of Saxony and Thuringen, 
prince of Brunswick .... 
Married to Hilda, daughter of Baldwin, count of 

Children— 1, Bruno ; 2, Eckbert. 

■ ■ 



BRUNO III., margrave, was killed at NIendorf, near 


ECKBERT I., margrave of Saxony and prince of 
Brunswick, ic. - - - - - 
Married to Irmengard, daughter of Manfred, count 
of Susa, and widow of Otho, count of Schweiufurth. 

- - 



p. '.'(33. 

Children— I, Eckbert ; 2, Gertrude. 

ECKBERT II., margrave of Saxony, of Thuringen, 
and prince of Brunswick ; murdered in a mill near 
Brunswick ...--- 
Married to Oda, daughter of Otho of Orlamunde, 
margrave of Misiiia ; but without issue. 

- - 



p. 263. 

GERTRUDE, his sister, heiress, married to Henry 
the Fat. 

TABLE 1. (B.)-Conthiued. 


The Saxons. 




Burial Places. 


111. Of Nordheim. 


p. 239, 256. 

HERMAN, count of Nordheim ; not certain wliose 

son he was; perhaps a third son ot Henry Hixosns 

After 998. 

C/iiZdrra— Siegfried. 

SIEGFRIED I., or senior connt of Nordheim and 

Bornieneburg ..... 




Married, 1, to Matilda, countess of Catlenbnrg; 

2, to Etiilinde. 


By Matilda: 1, Siegfried; and, 2, Brenno. 

SIEGFRIED II., count of Nordheim 

- - 


BRENNO, or BERNHARD, count of Nordheim, of 

Wiershausen; married to Eileke. 

Children— Otuo. 

OTHO the Illustrious, count of Nordheim and duke of 

Bavaria - 

llJan. 1083. 


p. 256. 

Married to Richenza, widow of count Herman of 



1, Henry; 2, Siegfried, count of Bormenebnr«; 

at Hersfeld, who was married to Helena of 

Hombnrg, and had a son, who died without 

issue -....- 



3, CuNO, count of Bleichingen ; had issue bv his 

wife Cunigunda, daughter of Otho of Orlage. 

munde ; murdered .... 



4, Ethelinde; married, 1, to Guelph IV., di. 

voreed ; 2, to Herman, count of Westphalia. 

5, Ida ; married to count Thirmans, of Wettiu. 

HENRY THE FAT, count of Nordheim, killed in 

war against the Frieslandcrs 




p. 259. 

Married to Gertrude, daughter of Eckbert I., and 

heiress of Brunswick .... 




p. 266. 


1, Riciienza, or Richsa, married to emperor 

Lothaire ; and, 2, Gertrude, married to Sieg- 

fried, palatine of the Rhine. 

IV. Of Suppliiigeiiburg. 

About the remotest Ancestors of this ancient and illus- 

trious House, yide 



p. 240. 

GEVEHARD, or GERHARD, count of Supplingen- 

burg and Blankenburg, count of Querfurth, and pala. 

tine of Sommerschenburg, was killed in the battle at 



Married to N. N., most probablv daughter of Otho, 

duke of Suabia, aud grand-daughter of Matilda, 

sister of Otho III. 

CAiWrcn— Lothaire. 

LOTHAIRE, count of Snpplingenburg, 1106, dnke of 

Saxony, and, 1123, SOIh of August, elected emperor 



30 Dec. 1137. 


p. 2.53. 

Married to Richenza, or Richsa 


10 June, 1141. 


p. 233. 

CAiWira— Gertrude, heiress, married to Henry 

the Proud, dnke of Bavaria. 


TABLE I. (B.)- Continued. 


V. The Billungs. 

Abuut the Ancestors, Vide 

BILLUNG, of Stuebecksliorn, count, had three sons, 

1, Amelung, bishop of Verden . . - 

2, WiEGMANN. 3, Herman. 

WIEGMANN, comit . - - - - 

Married to N. N. (Frideruua), sister of the empress 


1, WiEB.MA 

EcKBERT. Both no male issue. 

HERMAN BILLUNG, count, and afterwards duke 
of Saxony on the Elbe . . . . 

Married to Hildegard, of Westcrburg 

1, Bremno, or Berniiard. 

2, LuDGER, count of Holstein, &c. &c. 

3, SUANTHiLUis; married, 1, to Ditmar, margrave 

of Lausitz; and, 2, to Eckbert I., margrave 
of Thuringen. 

4, Matilda; married to Godefried, count of 


BRENNO, or BERNHARD I., duke of Saxony and 
Luneburg ...... 

Married N. N., daughter and heiress of count Henry 
of Stade. 

BRENNO, or BERNHARD H., duke of Saxony - 
Married to Betraila, daughter of Harold, king of 
Denmark. His sons, 

3, Ordulph ; a, Herman, count of Holstein. 

ORDULPH, duke of Saxony at Luneburg 
Married, i, to Giscia, daughter of Claus, king of 
Denmark; 2, to Gertrude, daughter of Conrad, mar- 
grave of Brandenburg. His sou, 

M.\GNUS, the last Billung duke of Saxony - 

Married to Sophia, daughter of Geisa, king of Hun- 


1, WuLFiLDE, married to Henry the Black. 

2, Eileke, married to Otho, count of Anhalt and 





5 May, 960. 

1 April, 973. 


Burial Places. 








The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


OTHO THE INFANT, duke of Brnnswick-Luneburg 


9 June, 1252. 

<, Brunswick, or } 
t Luneburg. <, 

p. 266. 
p. 274. 

Married to Matilda, daughter of Albert 11., margrave 

of Brandenburg 



p. 274. 


],Otho, died before the father - 





p. 274. 

i!, Albert. 3, John. 

4, Otho, bishop of Hildesheim, elected 1261 



4 July, 1279. 


p. ."sa. 

■i, CoNRAO, bi^liop of Verden, elected 12(37 



15 Oct. 1303. 


p. 324. . 

6, Matilda, married to count Henry II., of 

Anhalt, and afterwards abbess of Gernrode - 



7, Helena; married, 1, to Herman, landgrave of 

Thuringen . - - . - 

1 March, 1238. 

6 Sept. 1273. 


p. 437. 

2, to Albert I., duke of Saxony 


8, Elizabeth; married to William of Holland, 

emperor - - . . . 


25 Jan. 1251. 

9, Adelheid ; married to Henry I., or the Child, 

landgrave of Hesse . - . . 



10, Agnes; married to Wenzeslaus, prince of Rngen. 

I. The first Division, or the Old House of 



ALBERT THE GREAT, duke of Brunswick 



16 Aug. 1279. 


p. 266. 

Married, 1, to Elizabeth, daughter of Henry V. of 

Brabant, who died without children 





p. 266. 

2, to Adeliieid, daughter of Boniface IV. of Mont- 

ferrat, who was married again to Gerhard II., count 





1, Matilda; married to Henry III., duke of 

Silesia Glogau . . . . 


2, Henry. 3, Albert. 4, William. 

5, Conrad, commander of the Order of Malta - 




6, Otho, commander of the Order of Templars. 

7, LuDER, commander of the Order of Malta. 

Henry, Albert, and William divided again the states 

of their father, and founded three lines— GRUBEN- 



HENRY THE WONDERFUL, duke of Brnnswick- 

Grubenhagen ------ 

7 Sept. 1322. 


p. 428. 

Married to Agnes, daughter of Albert, landgrave of 


Thuringen ------ 





1, Henry. 2, Ernest. 3. William, who resided 

at Herzberg, but died unmarried 



After 1361. 

4. John, provost of St. Alexander, at Eimbeck - 


10 June, 1367. 


p. 423. 

5, Elizabeth, or Alsina; married to Frederick 

v., count of Beichlmgen. 

6, Adeliieid; married, 1, to count Gerhard of 

Ebstein ; and, 

2, toHenry, dukeofCarinthia 




7, Facie, or Bonifacia ; married, under the name 

of Irene, to the emperor of the East, Andro- 

nicHS II. - - - - 



8, Margaretha; married to Barnim I., duke of 


9, RlXA ; died a nun at Ostcrodc. 

3 Q 

TABLE II. {A.)-Contimced. 

The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


HENRY THE GRECIAN, duke of Br.-Grubenhagen 


After 1351. 


p. 429. 

Married, l. to Jutta (Hedvvig), princess of Bran- 

denburg ...... 




2, to Maria, princess of Cyprus. 


1, Otho. 5, Balthasar; married to Johannetta, 

daughter of Honoratus, count of Fundi, in 




In Italy. 

3, Philip, in Cyprus ; married to the mother of 

king Peter of Cyprus 

After 1372. 

Probably in Cyprus 

4, Melchior, bishop of Osnaburg and Schwerin - 



6, RiDDAWY ; died, most probably, in Italy. 

6, Thomas; became monk and D.D. ; died, most 

probably, in Italy. 

OTHO THE TARENTINE, duke of Brunswick- 

Grubenhagen, duke of Tarentura, in Italy 

About 1320. 


About 1398. 

Foggio, in Apulia. 

Married to Johanna, queen of Naples 

Sept. 1375. 


ERNEST I., second son of Henry the Wonderful, duke 

of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, Osterode 


9 March, 1361. 


p. 429. 

Married to Agnes, (Adelheid), daughter of count 

Henry, of Ebersteiu - - , - 


After 1373. 


p. 429. 


1, Otho, died yonng. 

2, Albert. 

3, Frederick. 

4, Agnes; married to count Ulrlch, of Hohenstein. 

5, Ernest II., provost of Eimbeck, and afterwards 

abbot of Corvey, killed in battle 




p. 429. 

6, Anna, abbess at Osterode. 

ALBERT II., duke of Br.-Grubenhagen, at Eimbeck 

About 1384. 


p. 429. 

Married to Agne.n, daughter of Magnus Torq. (some 

writers mention Sophia, daughter of Albert, duke of 


C7ii7drfn— Erich. 

FREDERICK, son of Ernest I., duke of Brunswick- 

Grubenhagen, at Osterode - ... 
Married, 1, to Adclbeid, princess of Anhalt: 2, to 

About 1421. 


p. 409. 

Elizabeth, heiress of Homburg. 

CAiWren— Otho. 

OTHO, duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, at Osterode 
Married to Schonela, of Nassau, dowager of Hom- 


After 1452. 


p. 409. 

burg ; without issue ..... 
ERICH, Albert II.'s son, duke of Brunswick-Gruben- 



p. 334. 

hagen -.-.... 
Married Elizabeth, daughter of Otho the Strong, 
duke of Brunswick.Gottingen. 


28 May, 1427. 


p. 429. 


1, Agnes, abbess of Gandersheim 

S!, Eliz-abeth ; married to Cassamir, duke of Po. 



p. 245. 

merania-Stettin ; after his and her sister's 

death, abbess of Gandersheim 

After 1483. 


3, Sophia, abbess of Gandersheim 


p. 429. 
p. 246. 

4, Margaret ; married to count Simon, of Lippe. 

5, Anna; married, 1, to Albert III., duke of Ba- 

varia; and, 2, to Frederick, duke of Bruns- 


6, Ernest III., provost of Halberstadt and Eim- 

7, Henry. 



p. 429. 

8, Albert. 


TABLE II. {k.)~Contmued. 

The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


HENRY III., duke of Bninswick-Gr.ibenl.agen 
Maiiied to Margaret, daughter of John I , duke of 
Sagau, Silesia ..... 

■ ■ 

Before 1466. 
After 1491. 


p. 429. 

1, Otho, died young. 2, Henry. 

HENRY IV., duke of Brunswick-Grubenliagen 
Married to Elizabetli, daughter of Bernhard, dnke of 
Saxe-Lauenburg - . . . . 


(, Salsderhelden ) 
( 1526. ] 


p. 429. 

ALBERT III., Erich's second son, duke of Brunswick- 
Gnibenhagen . . . . - 
!\rarried to Elizabeth, daughter of Volrad, count of 

15 Oct. 1471. 

Herzberg, 1486. 



p. 414. 


1, Just, died young .... 

2, Sophia, abbess of Gandersheini 

3, Ernest IV., died before he was of age 

4, Philip. 

5, Erich, bishop of Osnaburg since 1508, and 

bishop of Munster 1532 





About 1493. 

$ Fiirsienan, > 
( 14 May, 1532. 5 



p. 429. 
p. 246. 

p. 335. 

PHILIP I., duke of Brunswick- Grubenhagen 
Married to Catharine, daughter of Ernest HI., count 
ofMansfeldt -..-.. 

i Herzberg, J 
i 4 Sept- 1551. S 



p. 409. 
p. 414. 


1, Philip, died young .... 

2, Ernest; 3, Elizabeth; died young - 

4, Alkrecht, was killed in liie battle near 


5, Catharine; married, 1, to John Ernest, dnke 

ofSaxe-Coburg . . . . 
2, to Philip, of Schwaizburg-Lcntcnberg 

6, John ; died in consequence of the wounds 

which he had received on the 10th August, 
1557, at St. Qucntin .... 

7, Barbara, died young ... 

8, Wolfgang. 9, Philip. 



25 Aug. 1524. 


13 Feb. 1542. 

18 March, 1520. 

21 Oct. 1546. 

24 Feb. 1581. 

2 Sept. 1557. 




Cambray, in France 

p. 389. 
p. 414. 

p. 414. 
p. 453. 

p. 414. 

ERNEST v., dnke of Brunswick-Giubenhagen 

M;irried to Anne Blargaret, daughter of George, 
dukeofPomerania-Stettin - - 

Elizabeth ; married to John, duke of Holstein, 
son of Christian III., king of Denmark 

S Herzberg, 1 
i 2Apr.l518. 5 

4 Oct. 1548. 

$ Herzberg, ) 
( 2 April, 1567. 5 
<, Sals<lerhelden,^ 
i 24 June, 1669.) 

12 Feb. 1586. 


p. 409. 
p. 410. 

WOLFGANG, duke of Brunswick-Giubenhagen 
Married to Dorothea, daughter of Francis I., duke 
of Saxe-Lanenbuig, (Saxe-Engern, and Westphalia); 

1 April, 1531. 

Dec. 1570. 

14 March, 1595. 
5 April, 1586. 


p. 410. 
p. 410. 

PHILIP II., dukeof Brnnswick-Grubenhagen ; without 
issue, and the last of his line . . . . 
Married to Clara, daughter of Henry the Younger, 
dukeofBruuswick-Wolfenbuttel . 

4 May, 1533. 
16 Nov. 1532. 

1 July, 1560. 

4 April, 1596. 
13 Nov. 1595. 


p. 411. 
p. 412. 



The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 



ALBERT THE FAT, second son of Albeit the Great, 
dnkeof BninswickGottingeii - ;„ ' 
Married to Riclisa, or Riehenza, daughter of Henry 
the Elder, prince of Werlc, in INIeckUnburg 

- ■ 

22 Sept. 1318. 


p. 266. 
p. 266. 


i, Matilda, abbess of Gandersheini. 

2, Adei.heid; married to John, son of Henry I., 

landgrave of Hesse; after her deaili canonised. 

3, Otho. 4, Aleekt, bishop of Halberstadt 

5, Henry, bishop of Hildeslieim - 

6, BiiiiNo ------ 

7, Luther, or Luder, grand master of the Teu- 

tonic Order . - - - - 

8, John, likewise grand master of the Teutonic 


9, Magnus. 10, Ernest. 

\ '■ 

6 Feb. 1362. 
Oct. 1303. 




p. 266. 
p. 334. 
p. 337. 

p. 343. 

OTHO THE LIBERAL, duke of Brunswiek-Gottin- 
gen, reigned till his death over the dominions of the 
family ; first, as <:nardiau of his brothers, and after- 
wards in their name . . - - - 
Married to Agnes, daughter of Conrad, and widow 
of margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg 



30 Aug. 1344. 


p. 266. 
p. 266. 


Agnes, married to duke Barnim III. of Pome- 


After his death, the two brothers divided the country, 
and founded two lines, — Magnus that of BRUNS- 


ERNEST, duke of Brunswick- Gottingen, youngest 
son of Albert the Fat - - - - 
Married to Elizabeth, daughter of Henry the lion, 
landgrave of Hesse . . . - - 

- - 

At Harste, 1367. 


p. 267. 
p. 337. 



2, Agnes, married to count Godfried of Ziegen- 


3, Anne, married to count William of Henneberg 



28 Oct. 1426. 


p. 316. 

OTHO THE STRONG, duke of Brunsw.-Gottingen 
Married, 1, to Mirislava, daughter of count John of 
2, to Margaretha, daughter of Gerhard, duke of Berg 



$ Hardegsen, ^ 
i 13 Dec. 1393. i 



p. 434. 
p. 338. 


1, William, died 21 years old 

2, Otho. 

3, Agnes, married to Henry, count of Hohenstein. 

4, Elizabeth, married to Erich, duke of Bruns- 





p. 339. 

OTHO COCLES, duke of Brnnswick-Gottingen 
Married to Agnes, daughter of landgrave Herman of 
Hesse --.---. 



20 Feb. 1463. 
17 Jan. 1471. 

Cassel, St.aiartini. 

p. 435. 

TABLE II. (B.)~ Continued. 

27ie Reigning Piiiices and their Families. 




Burial Places. 



MAGNUS THE PIOUS, second son of Albert the 

Fat, and duke of Binnswick-Biunswick 


Summer of 1369. 


p. 267. 

Maiiied to Sophia Agnes, daughter of Henry, mar- 

grave of Brandenburg. 


1, Matilda, married to prince Bernhard III. of 

( Nienberg, } 
} Anhalt-Cothen. ] 


2, Helena, married to count Otho of Hoya. 


After 1354. 

p. 346. 

3, Agnes, married to count Erich of Hoya. 

4, Sophia, mar. to count Diedcrich of Holjenstein. 

( Italy orNurn- ^ 
( berg, 1339. ) 

r,, Otho, died on liis return from Palestine 

6, Ernest, resided at Blankcnau. 

7, Albert, elected archbishop of Bremen 1361 - 



p. 332. 

8, Henry, provost oflhe Holy Cross atHildesheim. 

9, Louis. 10, Magnus. 

LOUIS, duke of Brunswick-Brunswick 

. . 




p. 365. 

Married to IMatilda, youngest daughter of duke 

William of Luneburg, who, after his death, married 

again to count Otho of Holstein-Schaumburg 


MAGNUS TORQUATUS, dnke of Brnnswick-Bruns- 

wick, killed in the battle near Leveste 


25 July, 1373. 


p. 267. 

Married to Catharina, daughter of Woldemar, prince 

of Anhalt and margrave of Brandenburg; married 

again to Albert, duke of Saxe-Lauenburg - 





p. 382. 


1, Frederick. 2, Bernhard. 3, Henr\. 

4, Otho, bishop of Verden, elected 13.i8, and arch- 

bishop of Bremen, elected 1395 



p. 331. 

5, Agnes, or Helena ; married to Albert II., duke 

of Mecklenburg, and king of Sweden 



6, Agnes, married to Albert of Gnibenhagen 



7, Agnes, married to Busso, count of Mansfeldt - 


8, Elizabeth, mar. to duke Gerhard of Holstcin. 

9, Anne, married to count Maurice of Oldenburg 



10, Matilda, married to count Otho of Hoya 


After 1416. 

11, Sophia, mar. to duke Erich of Saxe-Lauenburg. 

After the death of William of Luneburg, 13r;9, Magnus 

Torquatus took possession of the dulchy of Luneburg ; 

but the long war of succession began, and ended 

finally in favour of his sons, who, after his death, 

continued to support their rights with vigour and 


II. The Old House of Luneburg. 

JOHN, duke of Brunswick-Luiieburg, second son of 

Otho the Infant ----- 



\ Dalenberg, ) 
( 13 Dec. 1277. S 


p. 374. 

Married to Luitgard, daughter of Gerhard I., count 

of Holstein-Schaumburg - - . - 




1, Otho. 

2, Agnes; married to Gardnin, count of Halmcr- 


3, Matilda; married to Henry III., prince of the 

Wends - - - - - 




p. 366. 

4, Elizabeth; married to John VII., count of 


5, Helena; married to Otho, count of Oldenburg- 


TABLE II. (B.)- Continued. 

The Reisnins Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


OTHO THE SEVERE, duke of Briinswick-Liineburg 
Married to Matilda, daiisliter of Henry the Severe, 
duke of Baria and count Palatine - . - 


1, John, administrator of the archbishop. Bremen. 

2, Louis, bishop of Mindeii, elected 1324 - 

J, Agnes, married to Barnim III., duke of Poine- 
rania ------ 

4, OthO. 5, WiLlIAM. 

OTHO THE YOUNGER, duke of Bruns.-Lnneburg 
Married to Matilda, daughter of Henry, duke of 
Mecklenburg - . . . . 


1, Otho, drowned in the Ilmenau. 

2, Matilda, married to count Henry of Waldeck. 

WILLIAM, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg 
Married, 1, to Hedewig, daughter of Otho, count of 
Ravensbbrg ----.. 

2, to Sophia, a princess of Schroeden 

3, to Maria, or Agnes, daughter of Erich I., duke of 
Lauenburg ------ 


1, Elizabeth ; married, 1, to Otho, duke of Saxony, 

by whom she liad a son, Albert 
2, to Nicolaus, count of Holstein. 

2, Matilda; married, ], to Louis, duke of Bruns- 

wick, son of duke Magnus Pius 

2, to Otho II., count of Schauniburg. 

Luueburg succession war from 1369 to 1338. 

ALBERT, duke of Saxe-Laucnburg, son of Elizabeth, 
daughter of William of Lunehurg; pretender to the 
dutchy of Luueburg, killed before Ricklingen 

WENZLAW, duke and elector of Saxony, Albert's 
uncle, governed the dutchy together with Albert, 
and after the death of the latter, till 25th May, 1388 

9 April, 1330. 
27 March, l3l9. 

Aug. 1346. 

19 Aug. 1352. 

23 Nov. 1369. 





Hanover, ) 
15 May, 1388. 5 



p. 374. 
p. 374. 

p. 374. 
p. 374. 

p. 374. 
p. 374. 

p. 374. 



The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


The dukes Fhedebick, BERNHARD.and Henry, after 

Iiavins gained the undisputed and peaceable posses- 

sion of the whole country belonging to the Honse of 

Brnnswick and Lnncburg, reigned conjointly till the 

melancholy death of Frederick. After his decease, 

the remaining brothers, Bernhard and Henry, 

made another division, in the vear 1409; and founded. 

after some furthir regulations, the two Houses of 




FREDERICK, duke of Brunswick and Lnneburg, 

eldest son of Magnus Torquatus, and elected king of 

C Wiebrechtshau- ■> 
' sen and ' 

the Romans, but murdered near Fritzlar 



b June, 1400. 

p. 434. 

Jlarried to Anne, daughter of Wenzlaw, duke of 

l_ Brunswick, j 

Saxony and elector ----- 



11 Aug. 1432. 

Married again, to Balthasar, landgrave of Thuringen 




1, Elizabeth, married to countHenrv of Schwarz- 

burg - - - - - - 


2, Anne, married to Frederick, duke of Austria- 



II. The Second Division, or the Middle 

House of Briinszcick. 


HENRY, dnke of Brunswick, younger son of Magnus 

Torquatus ------ 

<s Ulzen, ^ 
i 2 Oct. 1416. 5 

$ Probably ^ 
i Brunswick. ) 

Married, 1, to Sophia, daughter of Wratislaw, duke 




28 June, 1406. 


1, Catharina; married to Frederick the Warlike, 

elector of Saxony . - - . 



a. William. 

2, to Margarttha, daughter of Herman, landgrave of 



After 1442. 

CA/.'rfrra— Henry. 

William and Henry divided, 23d November, 1432. 


HENRY THE PACIFIC, dnke of Brunswick in 


Married to Helena, daughter of Adolphus, duke of 


8 Dec. 1473. 



22 May, 1423. 


29 June, 1471. 


CftiMrcn— Margaret, married to William V., 

count of Henneberg - . - . 


7 Nov. 1466. 

« Mayenburg, ^ 
( 13 Feb. 1309. S 

( VesrI. ; 

p. 318. 


Since 1473. 

WILLIAM THE VICTORIOUS, duke of Brunswick 

in Calenherg, and afterwards also in Wolfenbuttel 


25 July, 1482. 

p. 267. 

Married, l, to Cecilia, daughter of Frederick I., 

elector of Brandenburg . - - . 


After 1431. 


p. 267. 

Children— 1, William. 2, Frederick. 

2, to Matilda, danghter of Otho, count ofSchaum- 

burg, and widow ot Bernhard of Lnneburg - 


22 July, 1468. 


p. 267. 

C/iiWren— Otho, died young 





p. 368. 

William and Frederick divided, but reigned together 

till Frederick's death. 

TABLE ill. {k.)-Conthmecl 


The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. Records. 

FREDERICK, duke of Briinswick-Wolfeiibuttel, sur- 
named the Turbulent, died in confinement - 
Married, 1, to Anna, daughter of duke Erich of 
Brunswick-Grubenhagen, and widow of Albert, duke 

of Bavaria 

2, to Margaretha, daughter of Conrad, count of 
Rietberg ...... 

WILLIAM THE YOUNGER, duke of Brunswick- 

Wolfcnbuttel, eldest son of William the Victorious - 

Married to Elizabeth, daughter of Heury, count of 

StoUberg-Werningerode . . . - 


1, Henry. 2, Erich. 

3, Anne ; married to William, landgrave of Hesse 
Henry and Erich divided the country, 2d May, 1495, 
into Wolfenbnttel and Calenberg-Gottingen. 


f Nenstadam "\ 
ERICH THE ELDER, duke of Brunswick at Calen- J ) Knbeii- ( 

berg - S \ bume, / 

Married, 1, to Catharina, daughter of Albert, duke (, l6Feb.l470 * 
of Saxony, and dowager of duke Sigismund of Aus- ; 
tria-Tyrol ...... 

2, to Elizabeth, daughter of Joachim I., elector of 
Brandenburg --.-.. 
She was afterwards married to Poppo XVIII., count 
of Henneberg --.... 

Children— 'By Catharina. 

1, Anna Maria; married to Albert, margrave of 


2, Elizabeth ; married to George Ernest, count 

of Henneberg ..... 

3, Catharina; married to William, count of Ro. 

senberg, in Bohemia. 

4, Erich. 

ERICH THE YOUNGER, duke of Bruns.-Luneburg- 
Calenberg ...... 

Married, 1, to Sidonia, daughter of duke Henry the 
Pious of Saxony . . . . . 

2, to Dorotha, dau<;hter of Francis, duke of Lorraine ; 
without legitimate issue ... 


HENRY THE ELDER, duke of Bruns.-Limebnrg. 
Wolfenbuttel, and eldest son of duke William the 
Younger, killed at the siege of Ileerort, in East 
Friesland ...... 

Married to Catharina, daughter of Erich II., duke 
of Pomerania . . . . . 



Children — 

1, Elizabeth, abbess of Stedcrburg 

2, Catharina ; married to Magnus II., duke of 

Lauenburg . . . . . 

3, Christopher, 1,'>02 archbishop of Bremen, and, 

since 1511, administrator of Verdcn . 

4, Henry. 

5, Erich, commander of the Teutonic Order in 

Coblentz, (killed in the Peasants' war) 

6, Francis, bishop of Minden, elected 1504 

7, George, bishop of Minden 1553, archbishop of 

Bremen 1553, and administrator of Verden 

8, William, commander of the Teutonic Order at 

Mirow, in Mecklenburg ... 

10 Nov. 1489. 

20 Sept. 1575, 

Munden, 1495. 

4 July, 1503. 
$ Staufenberg, ) 
( after 1519. S 

( Hagenau, ) 
t 30 July, 1540. J 

10 Feb. 1524. 

i Weissenfels, ) 
( 4 Jan. 1575. J 


23 June, 1514. 



19 June, 1563. 

$ Tangermunde J 

I 22 Jan. 1558. ) 

29 Nov. 1525. 
25 Nov. 1529. 

4 Dec. 1566. 






p. 339. 
p. 246. 

p. 341. 
p. 316. 

TABLE III. {k.)- Continued, 


The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


HENRY THE YOUNGER, <lukc of Bruns.-Luneb.- 


10 Nov. 1498. 

11 June, 1563. 


p. 300. 

Married, 1, to Maria, daughter of duke Henry of 

Wirtemberg ..--.- 


28 Dec. 1541. 




1, Andiiew, died young . - . - 




2, Catharina, married to John, margrave of 

Brandenhurg-Custrin - . - . 




3, Charles Victor, killed at Silvershausen 


9 July, 1533. 


p. 301. 

4, Philip Magnus, killed at Silvershausen 


9 July, 1553. 



5, Julius. 

6, Maria, abbess of Gandersbeim 1531 - 


26 July, 1539. 

7, Clara ; after her sister's death, 1339, abbess of 

Gandersbeim; resigned 1547; and married to 

\ Herzberg, ^ 
I I3NOV.1395. S 

Philip II., duke of Grubenhagen 

16 Nov. 153S. 

1 July, 1560. 


p. 412. 

8, Margaret, married to George, duke of 

Munsterberg-Oels .... 

8 Sept. 1561. 

27 Oct. 1580. 

2, to Sophia, daughter of Segismund, king of Poland 

2ii Feb. 1556. 

< Scbbningen, ) 
( 28 May, 1375. S 


p. 301. 

JULIUS, duke of Bninswick-Wolfenbuttle - 

29 June, 1328. 

3 May, 1389. 



Married to Hedwig, daughter of Joachim II., elector 

of Brandenburg ..... 

1 March, 1540. 

25 Feb. 1560. 

21 Oct. 1602. 




1, Sophia- Hedwig, married to Ernest Louis, 

duke of Pomerania .... 

1 Dec. 1561. 

20 Oct. 1377. 


2, Henry-Julius. 

3, Maria ; married to Francis II., duke of Saxe- 

Lawenburg ..... 

13 Jan. 1566. 

11 Nov. 1582. 


4, Elizabeth ; married, 1, to count Adolpb of 

Schauniberg ..... 


6 May, 15!;3. 

2, to Christoph, duke of Brunswick.Luneburg. 


23 Feb. 1567. 


94 Oct. 161U. 


p. 419. 

5, Philip.Sigismund, bishop of Verden 1568, and 

< Hurg, } 
i 19 Mar. 1623. $ 

of Osnaburg 1591 .... 

1 July, 1563. 


p. 325. 

6, Margaret ..... 

22 June, 1571. 

20 Jan. 1580. 


7, Joachim-Charles, provost of Strasbnrg 

23 April, 1573. 

9 Oct. 1615. 

« Marienthal, ) 

) near Helmstadt. J 


8, Sabina Catharina .... 

29 April, 1574. 

1 Sept. 1590. 

9, Dorothea-Augusta; elected, 14th Nov. 1611, 

abbess of Gandersbeim 

12 Feb. 1577. 


23 Dec. 1625. 


p. 303. 

10, Julius-Augustus ; elected, 1591, abbot of 

Micbelstein, and provost of St. Blase's, at 


4 Feb. 1578. 

30 Aug. 1617. 


p. 303. 

1 1, Hedwig ; married to Otho, duke of Brunswick- 

Luneburg-Harburg .... 


15 April, 1621. 

After 1643. 

3 II 



The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


HENRY JULIUS, duke of Bninswick-Lmiebnrg- 

^ Prague, ) 
( 20 July, 1613. ) 

Wolfenbuttle - . . - . 

15 Oct. 1564. 


p. 303. 

Married, 1, to Dorothea, daughter of Augustus, 

elector of Saxony; died in childbed 


26 Sept. 1585. 

6 Feb. 1587. 


Children — 

Dorothea-Hedwig, married to Riidolpli, prince 

of Anhalt-Zerbst . - . , 

6 Feb. 1587. 

29 Dec. 1605. 

16 Oct 1609. 


2, to Elizabeth, daughter of Frederick II., king of 

Denmark -.-... 

24 Aug. 1573. 

19 April, 1590. 

19 June, 1626. 


p. 303. 


1, FrederickUlrich. 

a, Sophia-Hedwig, married to Ernest-Casarair, 

count of Nassaii-Dietz 

20 Feb. 1592. 

8 June, 1607. 


3. Elizabeth; married, 1, to Augustus, duke of 


1 June, 1612. 

«, to john-Philip, duke of Saxe-Altcnburg - 

23 June, 1593. 

25 Oct. 1618. 

25 March, 1650. 

4, Hedwig ; married toUlrich.duke ofPomerania 

19 Feb. 1595. 

7 Feb. 1619. 

26 June, 1650. 

5, Dorothea, married to Christian-William, mar- 

grave of Brandenburg 

8 June, 1596- 

1 Jan. 1615. 

15 Aug. 1643. 
r Groningen, j 
} Halberstadt, i 

6, Henry-Julius .... 

7 Oct. 1597. 



p. .SOI. 

i llJuIy,1606. 3 

7, Christian, bishop of Halberstadt, elected 1616, 

and knight of the Garter 

10 Sept. 1599. 


6 July, 1626. 


p. 304. 

0, Rudolph, bishop of Halberstadt, elected 1615 i 15 June, 1602. 

13 June, 1616. 


p. OlO. 

9, Henry-Charles, bishop of Halberstadt, elected 

f Helmstadt, ^ 
( 11 June,l616. J 

1613 ...... 

3 Sept. 1609. 


p. 303. 

10, Anne-Augusta ; married to George-Louis.count 

of Nassau-Dillenbnrg 

9 May, 1612. 



11, Christoph. Very little known of him ; is said 

to have died in the Danish service . 



"fREDERICK-ULRICH, duke of Bruns«ick-Lune. 


5 April, 1591. 

11 Aug. 1634. 


p. 304. 

Married to Anna-Sophia, danghterofJohn-Segismund, 

elector of Brandenburg .... 

12 March, 1599. 

4 Sept. 1614. 

19 Dec. 1659. 

Cologne on the Spree 

II. The Middle House of Luneburg. 

BERNHARD I., duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, second 

1 sou of Magnus Torquatus - . ^' . 


11 Jane, 1434. 


p. 382. 

Married to Margaret, daughter of duke Wenzelaus 

of Saxony ...... 







1, Otho. 2, Frederick. 

3, Margaret, married to Casamir, duke of 

Pomerania - - . . 


OTHO, (CLAUDUS), duke of Bninswick.Luneburg 

1 June, 1446. 



Married to Elizabeth, daughter of count Herman of 




p. 366. 

FREDERICK THE PIOUS, duke of Brunswick. 

Luueburg - . . . 



29 :\Iarch, 1478. 


p. 317. 

Married to Magdalene, daughter of Frederick I., 

elector of Brandenburg .... 





1, Margaret; married to Ulrich, duke of Stut- 

gard --.... 
2, Bernhard. 3, Otho. 


p. 347. 

BERNHARD II., duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, died 
before his lather . . . . . 
Married to Matilda, daughter of Otho, count of 


Celle, 1464. 


p. 382. 

Schaumberg ...... 


After the duke's death, she married William the Vic. 

torious, duke of Biunswick-Wolfenbuttle 


22 July, 1468. 



TABLE HI. (B.)- Continued. 


The Reigning; Princes and their Families. 



Burial Places. 


OTHO THli MAGNANIAIOUS, dnke of Binnswick- 
Lnnebiirg, died before his father 
Blarried to Anna, daughter of count John of Nassau- 
Uillenbing -.-.-. 
She was married again to Philip, count of Katzenel- 
lenbogen ; after whose death she came back to Celle 

C/ii'Wi-en— Henry. 

HENRY THE YOUNGER, duke of Brunswick- 
Luneburg ...... 

Married to Margaret, daughter of Ernest, elector 
of Saxony ...... 

i, Elizabeth; married to Charles of Egniont, 
duke of Guelders . - . . 

2, Otho. 3, Ernest. 

4, ApoLtOMA ; was for a short time canoness of 

Wienhausen . . . . . 

5, Johanna; married to Barnim XI., duke of 

Pomerania ..... 

6, Francis. 

Otho and Ernest reigned together from 1521 till 
1527; when Otho contented himself with Harburg, 
and resigned his share in the government. After this 
Ernest reigned with his younger brother, Francis, 
who was now become of age, till 1539, when the 
latter received Gifhorn, and resigned likewise the 
sole and chief government to Ernest, who from 
that time reigned alone, and resided at Celle. Hereby 
three lines of the house were founded — that of Har- 
burg, Gifhorn, and Celle. 


OTHO THE ELDER, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, 

at Harbnrg 

INIarried to Matilda, of Campen, daughter of a Bruns- 
wick nobleman . . . . . 

6 Dec. 1502. 

28 Sept. 1467. 

26 Feb. 1487. 

1, Anne, died young. 2, Otho, and 3, Ernest, 
twins; died very young. 4, Otho. 5, Fre- 
derick, died soon after his birth. 6, Mar- 
garet, died seven years old. 7, Susanna, 
died likewise young. 

OTHO THE YOUNGER, duke of Brunswiek-Lune. 

burg, at Harburg 

Married, 1, to Margaret, daughter of Henry, count 
of Schv\arzbnrg, and widow of the count of Gera 


1, li.iZABETU; married to Erich, count Bralic, 

(if Wissingenburg .... 

'.', Otiio-Henuv, in military service 

3, John-Frederick - . . . 

■2, to Hcdwig, daughter of Enna II., count of East 

Fricsland ...... 


1, William. 

2, Anne-Margaret, provost of Quedlinburg 

3, Henry, died young. 

4, Hedwig ..... 

14 Aug. 1495. 

25 Sept. 1528. 

18 Sept. 
!6 June, 
23 Feb. 

1 March 
21 Aug 

, 1567. 

8 Sept. 1551. 
25 June, 1582. 
8 Nov. 1562. 

18 April, 1514. 

19 Feb. 1532. 
7 Dee. 1528. 

31 Aug. 1571. 
6 Nov. 1573. 

11 Aug. 1549. Harburg. 

16 Oct. 1580. Harburg. 

20 Oct. 1603. 
16 March, 1557. 

15 Oct. 1591. 
21 Feb. 1619. 

6 March 1620. 


Celle, or Wien- ) 
hausen. ji 





TABLE III. (B.)-Contmued. 


The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


5, CHRisTOPHEii, duke of Bninswick-Lunebiirg- 

H a, burs . - - - - 

12 Aug. 1670. 

7 June, 1606. 


p. 42! . 

Married to Elizabeth, daugliter of Julius, duke 

of Bninswick-Wolfenbuttie, and dowager of 

Adolph, count of Scliaumbnrg 

23 Feb. 1567. 

28 Oct. 1604. 

24 Oct. 1618. 


p. 419. 

6, Otho, duke of Brunswick-Luuebnrg-Harburg 

20 March, lo72. 


25 Feb. 1641. 



Married to Hedwig, daughter of duke Julius 

of Brnnswick-Wolfenbutlle - 


15 April, 1621. 

After 1643. 

7, John 

19 July, 1573. 

27 Feb. 1R25. 

3, Elizabeth . - - - . 

1 Dec. 1574. 

20 June, 1575. 

9, Catharina-Sophia; married to Herman, count 

of Holsteiii-Schauenburg 

6 May, 1577. 

26 Feb. 1629. 

15 Dec. 1665. 


10, Frederick, served under king Charles IX. of 

Sweden - . . . . 

6 Sept. 1578. 

17 Sept. 1605. 

11, Freuebick-Augustus, died j'omig 

la Feb. 1580. 

18 March, 1580. 

WILLIAM, duke of Brunswick-Lnneburg-Harburg; 

reigned first with his brotlier Christopher, then 

S Harburg, ) 
( 30 War. 1642. ] 

with Otho, and at last alone, unmarried - 

14 March, 1564. 



p. 354. 


FRANXIS, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Gif horn - 

23 Nov. 1508. 

23 Nov. 14'.)9. 


p. 427. 

Married to Clara, daughter of Magnus II., duke of 

Lauenbnrg ...... 

29 Sept. 1547. 

21 March, 1576. 



1, Catharina ; married to Henry, bnrggrave of 

Misnia, andi.rinceofPlawen 

9 April, 1564. 

10 Dec. 1565. 

2, Clara ; married, 1, to Beruhard, prince of An- 


28 May, 1565. 

25 Jan. 1598. 


2, to BogislausXIII.,dukeof Pomerania 

1 Jan. 1550. 

8 Sept. 1.572. 


ERNEST THE CONFESSOR, duke of Brunswick- 

Lunebnrg-Celle ..... 

26 June, 1497. 

11 Jan. 1547. 


p. 357. 

Married "to Sophia, daughter of Henrv, duke of 

J Whit.sun- ^ 
i tide, 1528. J 



8 June, 1541. 




1, Francis-Otho. 

2, Frederick, died of his wounds received in the 

battle ol Silverhauseu - . - . 

2 June, 153.'. 


20 Jnly, 1553. 


p. 348. 

3, Henry. 

■I, Margaret; married to John, count of Mans- 


10 June, 1534. 

14 Aug. 1.549. 

24 Sept. 1596. 


5, William. 6, Ursula 

1 Oct. 1536. 

21 Oct. 1558. 

7, Catharina, died joung 


8, Elizabeth-Ursula ; married to Olbo,count of 

i Detmold, J 
{ 3 Sept. 1586. } 

Schauniberg ..... 
9, Magdalene ; married to Arnold, count of Bent- 




p. 371. 




At Burgdorf,1586. 

10, Sophia; married to Poppe XVIII., cmint of 

i Breitingeu, ^ 
I 17 Jan. 1631. 5 

Hcnueberg . - . . . 

18 Jan. 1541. 

22 June, 1562. 


p. 318. 

FRANCIS-OTHO, duke of Bruuswick-Luneburg- 

f Isenhagen, ~i 
I 20 June, J 
C 1530. 3 


29 April. 1559. 


p. 343. 

Married to Elizabeth-Magdalene, daughter of Joa- 

chim II., elector of Brandenburg 

Jan. 1559. 

22 Aug. 1595. 




T/ie Reigning Priiices and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


After the death of dnkeFrancis-Otho, !iis two brothers, 

the diikes Henry and William, reigned together for 

ten years, till the year 1569; when Henry left the 

chief sovernment to liis hrother, and contented him- 

self with the appanage of Dannenberg, Hitzacker, &c. 

Hereby two lines were founded: 1, that of DAN- 

NKNBKKG-HITZACKEK, which becamethe NEW 


FEN BUTTLE; and 2, that of CELLE, which 

became the NEW HOUSE of BRUNSWICK- 


III. The Third Division ; or, the New House 

of Brumxtick-Luneburg. 




HENRY, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Dannenberg, 

second son of Ernest the Confessor 

4 June, 1533. 

19 Jan. 1598. 


p. 425. 

Married to Ursula, daughter of Francis, duke of 

Engern and Westphalia .... 



12 Oct. 1620. 




1, Julius-Eenest. 

'^, Francis, provost of Strasbnrg, drowned in the 

Rhine - - " - 

6 June, 1572. 

24 Dec. 1601. 


p. 311. 

3, Anna-Sophia . - . - 

4 Aug. 1573. 


24 March, 1574. 

4, Henry . . - . - 

25 Oct. 1574. 


2 July, 1575. 

5, SiBYLLA-EnzABETH, married to Anthony III., 

duke of Oldenburg - . . - 

4 June, 1576. 

16 Nov. 1600. 

9 July, 1630. 


10 Dec. 1577. 


4 Sep. 1645. 


p. 425. 

7, Augustus. 

JULIUS-ERNEST, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Dan- 

nenber;: ...... 

11 March, 1571. 


26 Oct. 1636. 


p. 426. 

Married, 1, to Maria, daughter of Ezard, count of 

East Friesland 

1 May, 1582. 

1 Sep. 1614. 

9 July, 1616. 




1, Segismund-Henry, died two months old 

May, 1615. 

9 July, 1615. 



2, Maria-Catharina; married to Adolphus-Fre- 

derick, duke of Mecklenbnrg-Schwerin 

llJune, 1616. 

15 Sep. 1635. 

1 July, 1665. 

2, to Sibylla, daughter ofWilliam, duke ofBrunswick- 

$ Scbwarzburg, | 

i 1651. ; 

Luneburg-CcUe . - . . . 

3 June, 1584. 

13 Dec. 1617. 

C/uWrai— Anna-Maria, died young. 

AUGUSTUS, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Dannen- 

bers-Hitzacker, since 14th December, 1633 ; also duke 


10 April, 1579. 


17 Sep. 1666. 


p. 305. 

Married, l,toClara-Maria,daughter of Bogislaus XIII., 

duke of Fomerania, dowager of Segismund-Augustus, 

duke of Mecklenburg - - . . 

10 July, 1574. 

13 Dec. 1607. 

23 Feb. 1623. 


p. 425. 

CA;/dren— Two, still-born. 

Married, 2, to Dorothea, daughter of Rudolph, prince 

ofAnhalt-Zerbst; died in childbed - 

24 Sept. 1607. 

26 Oct. 1623. 

26 Sept. 1634. 


p. 425. 


1, Henry-Augustus .... 

28 April, 1625. 


30 Sep. 1627. 




married to Christian, duke of Holstein-Gluck- 


4 Dec. 1629. 

20 Sep. 1663. 

12 Dec. 1671. 

4, Ci.ARA-AuGUSTA, married to Frederick, duke of 


25 June, 1632. 

7 June, 1653. 

6 Oct. 1700. 

5, Anthony-Ulrich. 

TABLE IV. {X.)-^ Continued. 


The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


Married, 3, to Sophia- Elizabeth, daughter of John- 

Albert, duke of Mecklenburg 

20 Aug. 1612. 

13 July, 1635. 

12 July, 1676. 


p. 305. 


i, Ferdinand-Albert. 

2, Maria-Elizabeth; married, l, to Adolphus- 

Williani, duke of Saxe-Eisenach 

27 Jan. 1638. 

18 Jan. 1663. 

15 Feb. 1687. 

2, to Albert, duke of Saxe-Coburg 

18 July, 1676. 

3, Christian-Francis . . . . 

1 Aug. 1639. 

7 Dec. 1 6.39. 


p. 304. 

Rudolphus-Angustus and Anthony-Ulrich reigned to- 

gether; but Ferdinand-Albert received an appanage 

and resided in Bcvern. Thereby two lines were 

founded: 1, WOLFENBUTTLE; 2, BEVERN. 



RUDOLPHUS- AUGUSTUS, duke of Brnnswick- 

Wolfenbuttle, eldest son of Augustus 

16 May, 1627. 

26 Jan. 1704. 


p. 270. 

Married, 1, to Christine-Elizabeth, dauglitcr of 

C Sondershau- ") 
' sen, J 
L 2 May, 1681. 3 

Albert-Frederick, count of Barby 

26 Oct. 1634. 

10 Nov. 1650. 




1, Dorothea-Sophia; married to John-Adolphus, 


18 Jan. 1635. 

2 April, 1673. 

21 March, 1722. 

2, Christiana-Sophia, abbess of Gandersheini; 

afterwardsmarried to Augustus- William, eldest 

son of duke Anthony-Ulrich 

3 April, 16.54. 

24 Jan. 1681. 

26 Jan. 1695. 


p. 306. 

3, Eleonora-Sophia .... 

5 Aug. 1655. 

7 Jan. 1656. 


Married, 2, to Rosine-Elizabcth-Menton, called 

Madame Rudolphine . _ . . 


21 May, 1701. 


p. 270. 

ANTHONY-ULRICH, duke of Brunswick-Wolfen- 

buttle ...... 

4 Oct. 1633. 


27 March, 1714. 


p. 306. 

Married to ElizabetU-Juliane, daughter of Frederick, 

duke of Holstein-Harburg .... 

24 May, 1634. 

17 Aug. 1656. 

4 Feb. 1704. 




1, Augustus-Frederick, killed in the siege of 

<, Speyer, ) 
(22A.ig.1676. J 


24 Aug. 1657. 


p. 305. 

2, Elizabeth-Eleonore; married, 1, to John- 

George, duke of Mecklenburg 

31 Sep. 1658. 

2 Feb. 1675. 

15 March, 1729. 


2, to Bernliard,dukeofSaxe-Meinungeii 

25 Jan. 1681. 

3, Anna-Sophia, married to Charles-Gustavus, 

margrave of Baden-Durlach - 

29 Oct. 1659. 

28 Oct. 1677. 

4, Leopold-Augustus . - - . 

27 Feb. 1661. 

5 March, 1662. 


p. 304. 

5, Augustus-William. 

6, Augustus-Henry .... 

14 Aug. 1663. 

24 Feb. 1664. 


p. 307. 

7, Augustus-Charles .... 

4 Aug. 1664. 

21 Dec. 1664. 


p. 304. 

8, Augustus-Francis .... 

7 Oct. 1665. 


14 Dec. 1665. 



9, Augusta- Dorothea; married to Anthonv- 

Guuther, prince of Schwarzburg 

16 Dec. 1666. 

6 Aug. 1684. 

22 Dec. 1716. 

10, Amelia-Anthonia .... 

7 June, 1688. 

1 Nov. 1663. 


p. 303. 

11, Henrietta-Christine, abbess of Gander- 

shei.n, elcclress 1693; resigned 1712; turned 

catholic, and died as abbess of Ruremonde - 

19 Sep. 1669. 

14, Louis-Rudolph. 

13, Sibvlla-Ursula - - - . 

10 Sep. 1672. 

1 April, 1673. 



AUGUSTUS-V/ILLIAM, duke of Bmnswick-AVolfen- 

buttle --.... 

8 March, 1662. 


23 March, 1731. 


p. 307. 

Married, 1, to Christina-Sophia, daughter of duke 

Rudolphus-AnguEtus, and his cousin 

3 April, 1654. 

24 Jan. 1681. 

26 Jan. 1695. 


p. 306. 

2. to Sophia-Amelia, daughter of Christian-Albert, 

dukeof Holstein-Gottorp .... 

18 Jan. 1670. 

7 July, 1695. 

27 Feb. 1710. 


p. 307. 

S, to Elizabeth-Sopbia-IWaria, daughter of Rudolphus- 

Frederick, duke of Holstein-Norburg, and widow of. 

Adolphus.Augustns, prince of Holstein-Ploen.without 

issue ...... 


12 Sep. 1710. 


TABLE IV. {k.)- Continued. 


The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 


LOUIS-KUDOLPHUS, duke of Biunswiok-Wolfen- 

buttle, at Blankenburg, as his appanage - - 

22 July, 1671. 

Married to Ciiristiiia-Liidowicka, daughter of Albert- 
Ernest, prince of Oettingen 

20 March, 1671. 

- - 



p. 287. 


1, Elizabeth-Christine ; married to Charles III., 

king of Spain, afterwards emperor 

28 Aug. 1691. 

23 April, 1708. 


2, Charlotte-Augusta 

23 July, 1692. 


8 Aug. 1692. 


p. 306. 

3, Charlotte-Christiana-Sophia; married to 

Alexis-Pelrowitz, imperial prince of Russia - 

29 Aug. 1694. 

25 Oct. 1711. 

4, Antoinetta-Amelia; married to Ferdinand- 

Albert, duke of Brunswick-Bevern 

22 April, 1696. 

15 Oct. 1712. 

6 March, 1762. 


p. 286. 



FERDINAND-ALBERT I., duke of Brunswick- 

Wolfenbuttle-Bevern, youngest son of duke Augustus 

22 May, 1C36. 

25 April, 1687. 


p. 274. 

Married to Christina, daughter of Frederick, land- 
grave of Hesse-Eschwegc . - . - 

30 Oct. 1648. 

15 Nov. 1667. 

10 March, 1702. 


p. 275. 


1, Leopold-Charles - - - , - 

30 Jan. 1670. 


4 March, 1670. 


p. 276. 

2, Frederick-Albert . . - - 

5 Jan. 1672. 

27 Jan. 1673. 


3, Sophia-Eleonora . - - . 

5 March, 1674. 

14 Jan. 1711. 


4, Claudina-Eleonora - - - 

29 Nov. 1675. 

30 July, 1676. 


6, Augustus-Ferdinand 

29 Dec. 1677. 

2 July, 1704. 


p. £73. 

6, Ferdinand-Albert II. 

7, Ernest-Ferdinand. 

8, Ferdinand-Christian 

9, Henry-Ferdinand - - - - 

4 March, 1682. 
12 April, 1684. 

- : 

21 Dec. 1706. 
7 Sept. 1706. 


p. 280. 

Ferdinand-Albert II. and Ernest-Ferdinand founded 

two lines, the ALBERTINE and the ERNESTINE 

of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle ; of which the latter 

became extinct 1809. The Albertine line is that of 

the present dukes of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttle. 



The Reigning Princes and their Families. 

II. The Line of Celle ; or, the New House of 

WILLIAM THE YOUNGER, duke of Bmnswirk- 
Ltincburg, at Cellc, youngest son of Ernest the Con- 
fessor - - . - . . 
Married to Dorothea, daughter of Christian III., king 
of Denmark ---.-. 

Children — 

1, Sophia; married to George-Frederick, mar- 

grave of Brandenburg ... 

2, Ernest. 

3, Elizabeth ; married to Frederick, count of 

Hohenlohe - . - . . 

4, Christian. 5, Augustl'S. 

6, Dorothea; married to Charles, palatine of 

Birkenfeld - - - . . 

7, Clara ; married to William, count of Schvvarz- 


4 July, 153.5. 
-20 June, 1546. 


8, Anna-Ursula ----- 

9, Margaret, married to John-Casimir, duke 

of .Saxe-Coburg - - . . 

10, Frederick. 

11, Maria ---... 

12, Magnus - - . . . 

13, George. 

14, John 

15, SiBVi.LA ; married to Julius-Ernest, dnke of 
Brunswick-Daunenberg - ■ - . 

ERNEST, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, at Celle - 

CHRISTIAN, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, at Celle, 
bishop of Minden; elected 6th Feb. 1599 - 

AUGUSTUS, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, at Celle, 
bishop of Ratzburg; elected 1611 - 

FREDERICK, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, at Celle 

GEORGE, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, had his 
residence at Herzberg - . - - 

Married to Anna-Ii:ieonora, daughter of Louis V., 
landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt 


1, Magdalene - - - . . 

2, Christian-Louis. 3, George-William. 

4, John-Frederick. 

5, .Sophia-Amalia ; married to Frederick III, 

king of Denmark - . . . 

6, Ernest-Augustus. 

7, Dorothea-Magdalena, twin with Ernest- 

8, Anne-Eleonora - . - . 

The duke, with the consent of his elder brothers, had 
ordained two reigning lines, by the two eldest sons ; 
so that the eldest should have the choice, and that 
no fuither division of the two lines should ever take 
place. Thereby two linfs,— 1, that of CELLE, and, 
a, that of CALEMBEKG, or HANOVER, were 
established. But (his family division Tould not be 
executed till the death of duke Frederick of Celle, 

30 Oct. 1563. 
9 Nov. 1565. 

1 Jan. 1570. 

16 Jan. 1571. 
2Si March, 1572. 

5 April, 1573. 

21 Oct. 157.5. 

30 Aug. 1577. 

23 June, 1583. 
3 June, 1584. 

31 Dec. 1564. 

19 Nov. 1566. 

23 Nov. 1568. 
28 Aug. 1574. 

12 Feb. 1582. 
30 July, 1601. 

9 Aug. 1618. 
24 March, 1628 


12 Oct. 1561. 

3 May, 1579. 

3 May, 1585. 

23 Feb. 1586. 
7 March, 1593. 

16 Sept. 1599. 

18 Sept. 1617. 


S Winsen, \ 
( 6Jan.l617. S 

14 Aug. 1649. 

18 July, 1658. 

( Kirchberg, ) 

I 5 Feb. 1601. J 

4 Aug. 1643. 

21 Oct. 1610. 
10 Feb. 1632. 

27 Nov. 1628. 

J Schwarzburg, } 
i 3 June, 1652. 5 
2 March, 1611. 

1 Oct. 1636. 
10 Dec. 1648. 

i Hildesheim, ) 
( 2 April, 1641. J 
i Herzberg, ^ 
t 6 May, 1659. ) 

9 Aug. 1618. 

17 Nov. 1630. 
30 Nov. 1636. 

Burial Places. 





p. 349. 


Celle, 16 May, 1643 



Herzberg, probably. 

p. 449. 
p. 352. 

p. 360. 
p. 362. 

TABLE IV. (B.)~Co.tinued. 


The Reigning Princes and their Families. 




Burial Places. 



CHRISTIAN-LOUIS, di.ke of Brunswick-Luneburg- 
Celle, resided first at Herzberg 
Married to Dorothea, daughter of Philip, duke of 
Holstein-Gluckstadt .... 
She was married again after the duke's death, to 
Frederick-William, elector of Brandenburg; without 

25 Feb. 1622. 
28 Sept. 1636. 

11 Oct. 1653. 
13 June, 3 668. 

15 March, 1665. 
6 Ang. 1689. 

Berlin, probably. 

p. 355. 


GEORGE-WILLIAM, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, 
at Calemburg, from 1648 till 1665, then at Celle 
Married to Eleonora, daughter of Alexander 
d'Olbreuse, of France . . . . 

16 Jan. 1624. 
7 Jan. 1639. 


28 Aug. 170.5. 
5 Feb. 1722. 


p. 355. 
p. 356. 


SoPHiA-DoROTHEV, maided to George-Louis, at 
that time hereditary prince of Hanover 

15 Sept. 1666. 

21 Nov. 1682. 

$ Ahlden, } 
( 13 Nov. 17 'J6. i 



JOHN-FREDERICK, duke of Brnnswick-Luneburg- 
Calemburg, at Hanover, since 1665 - 
Married to Benedicta-Henrietta-Philippina, daughter 
of Edward, count palatine of the Rhine, and niece 
of his sister-in-law, Sophia, in Osnaburg 

25 April, 1625. 

20 Nov. 1668. 

i Augsburg, ^ 
i 18 Dec. 1679. } 

Aug. 1730. 


p. 460 


1, Anna-Sophia .... 

2, CHARLOTTE-FEticiTAs ; married to Reinald, 

duke of Modena and Regain 

3, Henrietta-Maria-Josepha 

4, Wii.helminaAmelia ; married to Joseph, king 

of the Romans, afterwards emperor - 

10 Feb. 1670. 

8 March, 1671. 

9 March, 1672. 

11 April, 1673. 

11 Feb. 16.6. 
24 Feb. 1699. 

24 March, 1671. 

24 Sept. 1710. 
4 Sept. 1678. 


p. 461. 

ERNEST-AUGUSTUS, duke, and 9th of December, 
1692, the first elector of Brunswick-Luneburg, 
or Hanover - - - - . . 
Married to Sophia, daughter of Frederick V., elector 
Palatine, and king of Bohemia; and Elizabeth, 
princess of Great Britain - - . - 

20 Nov. 1629. 
13 Oct. 1630. 

30 Sept. 1658. 

24 Jan. 1698. 
8 June, 1714. 


p. 462. 
p. 464. 


1, George -Louis; 2, Frederick- Augustus, 
killed in battle in Transylvania 

3, Maximilian-William 

4, Sophia-Charlotte, married to Frederick I., 

king of Prussia .... 

5, CharlfsPhilip, killed in battle against the 

Turks, near Pristina in Albania 

6, Christian, drowned in the Danube - 

7, Ernest-Augustus, bishop of Osnaburg, 

elected 4tli December, 1715 

3 Oct. 1661. 
13 Dec. 1666. 

2 Oct. 1668. 

13 Oct. 1669. 
29 Sept. 1671. 

7 Sept. 1674. 

28 Sept. 1684. 

10 June, 1691. 

27 July, 1726. 

<, Hanover, I 

[ 11 Feb. 1705. S 

1 Jan. 1690. 

31 July, 1703. 

14 Aug. 1728. 



p. 391. 
p. 448 
p. 396. 

The glorions succession of the house of Brunswick- 
Luuebnrg to the throne of Great Britain. 


Adelbertus, count of Bavaria, 4. 
Adelbert I., marquess of Tuscany, 8. 
Adalbert II., marquess of Tuscany, 9. 
Adelbert III., succession of, 12. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, account of, 247. 
Albert the Bear, 37. 
Albert the Great, 69. 
Albert the Fat, 74. 
Albert of Saxe-Lawenburg, 8 1 . 
Altdorf, account of, 218. 

— , persons interred at, 219. 

, situation of, 18. 

Altenburg, princely persons buried at, 456. 
Altmunster, account of, 212. 

, persons interred at, 215. 

Ancestors of the Guelphs, Saxon, 237—241. 
Anthony-Uhick, 117. 

Anna-Sophia, princess of Hanover, her epi- 
taph, 461. 
Anne-Eleonora, dutchess, her epitaph, 353. 
Anne-Eleonora, princess, her epitaph, 363. 
Anne, dutchess, account of, 348. 
Augustus, duke, his epitaph, 351. 
Augustus, duke of Wolfenbuttle, 1 15. 
Augustus-William, 117. 
Augustus, duke of Luneburg, 125. 
Azo II., marquess of Este, 26. 

Banfelde, account of, 259. 
Bari, account of, 235. 
Bernhard, duke of Luneburg, 89. 
Berta, account of, 10. 

Billungs, the history of, 32. 

Blase's, St., church, monuments in, 261. 

, list of illustrious persons interred 

there, 263—300. 
Boniface I., count of Lucca, 6. 
Boniface II., count of Lucca, 7. 
Bremen, princes buried at, 331. 
Brunswick, civil wars of, 82, et seq. 

Celle, princes and princesses buried at, 347,8. 
, list of coffins and inscriptions in the 

church of, 349—364. 
Charter of the dutcliy of Brunswick and 

Luneburg, copy of, 468, et seq. 
Christian, duke of Luneburg, history of, 

Christian-Louis, 132. 
Cologne, account of, 258. 
Condrad of Altdorf, 16. 
Condrad, bishop of Constance, 18. 
Conrad the Monk, 31. 
Cunigunda of Altdorf, marriage of, 20. 


Danneberg, account of the princes who 

resided at, 424—426. 
Darmstadt, account from, 449. 

Edico, prince of the Scyrri, 3. 

Eimbeck, account of sepulchres at, 428, et seq. 

Eislaben, account of, 451. 

Epitaph of Adelbert II., 228. 

Epitaph of Berta, 229. 

of Henry the Lion, 265. 

in the old vault at Brunswick, 268. 

in Rudolph's chapel, 270. 

of Ferdinand-Albert, duke of Bevern, 


of Christina of Hesse, 275. 

of her children, 276. 

of duke Augustus-Ferdinand, 279. 

of Ferdinand-Christian, 281. 

of Henry-Ferdinand, 282. 

of Sophia-Eleonora, 284. 

of Ferdinand-Albert II., 285. 

of Ernest-Ferdinand, 289. 

of Louis-Rudolph, 288. 

— of Frederick-William, 290. . 

of duke Augustus, 290. 

— of George-Louis-Frederick, 293. 

of six infants, 294. 

of Rudolph, bishop of Halberstadt, 


of Henry, duke of Danneberg, 311. 

of Bruno, duke of Saxony, 321 . 

of duke Christian-Louis, 355. 

of prince Christian-Louis, 363. 

, of queen Carohne-Matilda, 356. 

— of duke Christian, 362. 

of duke Christopher, 421. 

of the empress Elizabeth-Christina, 


of Charlotte, princess of Clarence, 467. 

of Dorothea, princess, 349. 

of Dorothea, dutchess, 361. 

of Dorothea-Magdalena, 400. 

of Dorothea, dutchess, 456. 

of Ernest-Augustus, elector, 462. 

— • of Ernest-Augustus, bishop of Osna- 

burg, 466. 
Epitaphs in duke William's vault at Lune- 

burg, 375. 

Erich, duke of Calenburg, 93. 

Ernest, duke of Luneburg, 121. 

Ernest- Augustus, bishop of Osnaburg, 134; 

duke of Hanover, 138; elector, 141. ■ 
Ernest, duke, his epitaph, 351. 
Ernest the Confessor, account of his statues 

and epitaphs, 357, et seq. 
Ernest, duke of Celle, history of, 113—114. 
Ethico I., count of Altdorf, 17. 
Etthal, account of, 215. 

Fulke, prince of Este, 28. 

Ferdinand-Albert, duke of Brunswick, 117. 

Francis-Otho, duke of Gifforn, 114. 

Francis-Otho, his epitaph, 358. 

Frederick I , Barbarossa, 40. 

Frederick II., 66. 

Frederick of Brunswick, emperor, 86. 

Frederick-Ulrick, 108. 

Frederick the Just, ib. 

Frederick, duke of Luneburg, 127. 

Frederick the Pious, account of, 347. 

Frederick, prince, his epitaph, 352. 

Frederick, prince, his epitaph, 350. 

Frederick, prince, his epitaph, 362. 

Frederick, prince, his epitaph, 421. 

Gandersheim, account of, 244. 

, illustrious persons buried at, 245. 

Genealogy of the Guelphs, from A. D. 476 

to 1055, 25. 
from Guelph VI. 

to Otho the Infant, 63. 

from Otho the In- 

fant to Magnus II., 85. 

from Magnus II. 

to Ernest the Confessor, 119. 


Genealogy of the Guelphs, from Ernest the 

Confessor to George the First, 173. 
of the dukes of Brunswick, from 

Ernest the Confessor to the present 

duke, 174. 
of king George IV., from the first 

Saxon king of England, and the first 

king of Scotland, 203. 
George-Louis, elector of Hanover, 143. 
George-Louis, history of, 143 — 171. 
George-Louis, king of England, 172. 
George-William, duke of Celle, 134. 
George, duke of Luneburg, history of, 128 — 

George, duke, his epitaph, 353. 
George-William, duke of Celle, his epitaph, 

George-William, prince, his epitaph, 355. 
George, duke, his epitaph, 363. 
George the First, king, his epitaph, &c. 465. 
GifForn, princes buried at, 427. 
Gottingen, university of, 194. 

— , princes buried at, 337. 

Guelph, origin of the name. Introduction, x. 

et seq. 
Guelph, dux or leader of the Bavarii, 4. 
Guelphll. of Altdorf, 17. 
Guelph III., count of Altdorf, 19. 
Guelph IV., history of, 20. 
Guelph v., duke of Carinthia, 20. 
Guelph VI., history of, 28. 
Guelph Vll., history of, 29. 
Guelphs, records of the ancient, 207 — 211. 
Guido, marquess of Tuscany, 1 1 . 

Hanover, account of royal vault at, 460, et seq. 
Harburg, account of, 417. 

, princes and princesses buried at, 


Hardignen, princes buried at, 338. 

Helen, dutchess of Saxony, account of her 

tomb, 387. 
Henry of the Golden Chariot, 18. 
Henry II. of Altdorf, 19. 
Henry tlie Black, 30. 
Henry the Proud, history of, 33. 
Henry the Lion, history of, 39—56. 
Henry of Saxony, count palatine, historj(jbf,57. 
Henry the Wonderful, duke of Gruben- 

hagen, 74. 
Henry of Greece, 75. 
Henry, duke of Brunswick, 89. 
Henry the Bad, 91. 

Henry the Younger, history of, 94 — 105. 
Henry-Julius, 106. 
Henry, duke of Luneburg, 109. 
Henry, duke of GifForn, 111. 
Henry, duke of Danneberg, 115. 
Henry the Fowler, account of, 249. 
Herman Billung, account of his tomb, 384. 
Herzberg, memoir relating to the princes who 

resided there, 351—389. 
, princes and princesses buried at,, 

392 — 406. 
Hildesheim, princes buried at, 333. 
Hugo, prince of Este, 28. 


Inscriptions on the windows of St. Blase's 

church, 299. 
on the monuments of the bishops 

ofVerden, 321. 

■ at Osnaburg, 335. 

Isenhagen, letter from, 366. 

Joan, queen of Naples, 76. 

John, prince, his tomb, 353. 

John- Frederick, duke of Hanover, 134. 


Jolin, duke of Luneburg, 73. 
Judith of Altdorf, empress, 15. 
Julius, duke of Brunswick, 106. 
Julius-Ernest, duke of Celle, 115. 


Kingdom of Hanover, past and present state 

of, 175—202. 
Kbnigs-Lutter, account of, 253. 
, princes buried at, 254. 


Leopold, margrave of Austria, 37. 
Lothaire, emperor, 33. 

Louis-Rudolphus, duke of Blankenburg, 117. 
Lubeck, history of, 48. 
Lucca, account of, 228. 

Luneburg, account of princes and princesses 
buried at, 373 — 386. 


Magnus I., " Pious," duke of Brunswick, 80. 
Magnus II., " Torquatus," 83. 
Magnus, duke, his tomb, 352. 
Magdeburg, account of, 250. 

, persons buried at, 251. 

Magdalena, princess, her epitaph, 399. 
Margaret, princess, account of, 347. 
Margaret, dutchess of Saxe-Coburg, account 

of her tomb, 350. 
Maria, dutchess of Darmstadt, account of her 

tomb, 449. 
Matilda, countess of Lucca, 29. 

, epitaph of, 233. 

Matilda, princess of Anhalt, her tomb, 346. 

Medals, description of tvpo, 405. 

Meissen, account of, 458. 

Minden, account of, 450. 

Miinster, persons buried at, 339—343. 

Neuburg, account of, 235. 
Nienburg, account of, 346. 
Nordheira, account of, 256. 

, princes buried at, 257. 

Nordlingen, account of, 215. 
Numberg, monuments at, 319. 


Oberkirchen, account of, 368. 

Obotrites, account of, 46. 

Odoacer, king of the Heruli, 3. 

Osnaburg, treaty of, 133. 

, princes buried at, 335. 

Osterode, princes aud princesses 
407 — 417. 

Otbert I , marquess of Tuscany, count pala- 
tine, 13. 

Otbert II., marquess of Liguria, 14. 

Otho of Saxony, emperor, 58. 

Otho the Infant, history of, 64—68. 

Otho, prince of Tarentum, 76. 

Otho, duke of Gottingen, 78. 

Otho the Lame, 108. 

Otho, duke of Luneburg, 109. 

Otho, duke of Harburg, 111. 

Otkarlus, duke of Burgundy, 4. 


Padia, (La), account of, 230. 
Padolerone, account of, 232. 
Philip I., duke, his tomb, 397. 
Philip II., duke, his epitaph, 409, 
Prebislaus, count of Swerin, 47. 

Quedlingenberg, account of, 248. 
■ , princes buried at, 250. 


Ravensberg, account of, 16 


Richard, king of England, 55. 
Rudolph, duke of Brunswick, 117. 
Rudolph I., count of Altdorf, 19. 
Ruthardus, missus regius in Bavaria, 4. 

Saalfeldt, princes buried at, 455. 
Schleusingen, account of, 318. 
Scharneck, letter from, 387. 
Schwartzburg, house of, 454. 
Schonan, account of, 236. 
Scyrri, account of the, 2. 
Sepulchres of the Guelphs, 242. 
Sophia, dutchess, her tomb, 360. 
Sophia-Elizabeth, dutchess, her tomb, &c. 

Sophia, electress, 145. 
Sophia, death and character of, 165. 
Sophia, her tomb, &c. 464. 
Stadthagen, letter from, 369. 

, epitaph in the church of, 371. 

Stade, account of, 258. 
Steingraden, account of, 224. 
Strasburg, monuments at, 311 — 315. 
St. Michael's church, inscription in, 380. 

Tours, account of, 227. 
Tubingen, monument at, 318.^ 

U. and V. 
Uelzen, account of, 367. 
Uslar, letter from, 435. 
Verden, princes buried at, 321—330. 
Versa, account of, 316. 

Vienna, account of princes and princesses 
buried there, 437 —449. 

Walsrode, account of, 236. 

Weingarten, account of, 219. 

Wienhausen, account of princes buried at, 

Wiebrechtshausen, account of, 433. 
WiUiam the Younger, duke, his tomb, 349. 
William, duke of Harburg, his epitaph, 354. 
William, duke of Luneburg, 361. 
William, of Winchester, 376. 
Wittenburg, account of, 386. 
Wlph, prince of the Scyrri, 2. 
Wolfenbuttle, account of the monuments 

at, 300—307. 
Wolfgang I., duke of Gnibenhagen, his 

tomb, 397. 
Wolfgang II., 11, 414, etseq.