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Cistercians

Index Cistercians

A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century. [1]

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Aadorf

Aadorf is a municipality in the district of Münchwilen in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

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Aaron of Lincoln

Aaron of Lincoln (born at Lincoln, England, about 1125, died 1186) was an English Jewish financier.

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Aarwangen Castle

Aarwangen Castle (Schloss Aarwangen) is a castle in the municipality of Aarwangen of the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Abbaretz

Abbaretz (Abarrez in Breton) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in the Pays de la Loire region of western France.

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Abbaye Blanche

The Abbaye Blanche ("White Abbey"), was a nunnery founded in 1112 in Mortain, France.

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Abbaye-aux-Bois

The Abbey of the Woods (Abbaye-aux-Bois) was a Bernardine (i.e., Cistercian) convent in Paris, with buildings at 16 rue de Sèvres and at 11 rue de la Chaise in the 7th arrondissement.

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Abbazia di San Salvatore

The Abbazia di San Salvatore or Abbadia San Salvatore is an abbey in the town of Abbadia San Salvatore, Tuscany, Italy, to which it gives its name.

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Abbess

In Christianity, an abbess (Latin abbatissa, feminine form of abbas, abbot) is the female superior of a community of nuns, which is often an abbey.

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Abbey

An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.

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Abbey Dore

Abbey Dore is a village and civil parish in Herefordshire, England, known for Dore Abbey, a 12th-century Cistercian abbey, expanded in the 13th century.

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Abbey Dore Court

Abbey Dore Court is a minor country house in Abbey Dore, Herefordshire, England.

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Abbey Hulton

Abbey Hulton is a village in Staffordshire, England that now forms a suburb of the city of Stoke-on-Trent.

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Abbey of Blanche-Couronne

The Abbey of Our Lady of Blanche-Couronne (Abbaye Notre-Dame de Blanche-Couronne) is a former Benedictine and Cistercian abbey located in La Chapelle-Launay in the department of Loire-Atlantique in France.

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Abbey of Chiaravalle della Colomba

The Abbey of Chiaravalle della Colomba (Italian: Abbazia di Chiaravalle della Colomba) is a 12th-century Cistercian monastic complex near the town of Alseno, in the Province of Piacenza, Region of Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

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Abbey of Fontenay

The Abbey of Fontenay is a former Cistercian abbey located in the commune of Marmagne, near Montbard, in the département of Côte-d'Or in France.

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Abbey of Montheron

The Abbey of Montheron is a historic abbey in Montheron near Lausanne in Switzerland.

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Abbey of Monthiers-en-Argonne

The Abbey of Monthiers-en-Argonne (also spelled Montiers-en-Argonne, from Latin Monasterium in Argona, "monastery in the Argonne") was a Cistercian monastery located in Possesse in the diocese of Châlons-sur-Marne in the County of Champagne.

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Abbey of New Clairvaux

The Abbey of New Clairvaux is a rural Trappist monastery located in Northern California in the small town of Vina in Tehama County.

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Abbey of Notre-Dame du Lac (Oka, Quebec)

The Abbey of Notre-Dame du Lac (fr. Abbaye Notre-Dame du Lac), known as the Oka Abbey (fr. Abbaye Cistercienne d'Oka), was a Trappist Cistercian monastery located in Oka, Quebec.

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Abbey of Our Lady of Atlas

The Abbey of Our Lady of Atlas (دير سيدة الأطلس; Abbaye Notre Dame de Atlas) is a Roman Catholic monastery of Cistercians-Trappists, inaugurated on March 7, 1938 in Tibhirine, close to Médéa, in Algeria.

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Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani

The Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani is a monastery near Bardstown, Kentucky, in Nelson County, a part of the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), better known as the Trappists.

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Abbey of Our Lady of the Holy Trinity

The Abbey of Our Lady of the Holy Trinity was a Trappist Cistercian (OCSO Order of the Cistercians of the Strict Observance) monastery in Huntsville, Utah.

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Abbey of Saint Peter (Assisi)

The Abbey of St.

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Abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa

The abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa is a Benedictine abbey located in the territory of the commune of Codalet, in the Pyrénées-Orientales département, in southwestern France.

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Abbey of San Galgano

The Abbey of Saint Galgano was a Cistercian Monastery found in the valley of the river Merse between the towns of Chiusdino and Monticiano, in the province of Siena, region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas

The Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas is a monastery of Cistercian nuns located approximately 1.5 km west of the city of Burgos in Spain.

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Abbey of the Holy Cross, Rostock

The Abbey of the Holy Cross (Kloster zum Heiligen Kreuz) in Rostock, Germany, was founded in the 13th century by Cistercian nuns.

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Abbey of Woney

The Cistercian Abbey of Woney (Irish, Mainistir Uaithne), also written Wotheny or Owney, on the banks of the Mulkear River in Abington, County Limerick, was founded in 1205 when Theobald Walter (le Botiller) granted the whole "theodum" (believed to be an error, which should have been feodum) of Woodenikuwice for the purpose.

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Abbey Series

The Abbey Series of British novels by Elsie J. Oxenham comprises 38 titles which were published between 1914 and 1959.

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Abbeycwmhir

Abbeycwmhir or Abbey Cwmhir (Abaty Cwm Hir, "Abbey in the Long Valley") is a village and community.

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Abbeydorney

Abbeydorney is a village in County Kerry, Ireland.

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Abbeydorney Abbey

Abbeydorney Abbey, also known as Kyrie Eleison Abbey or Odorney was founded by the O Torna, chieftain of the region, in 1154 for the Cistercians from Monasteranenagh.

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Abbeyknockmoy

Abbeyknockmoy is a village and parish in County Galway, Republic of Ireland.

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Abbeylara

Abbeylara is a village in the easternmost portion of County Longford, Ireland, located about three kilometers east of Granard on the R396 regional road.

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Abbeyleix

Abbeyleix is a town in County Laois, Ireland, located around south of the county town of Portlaoise.

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Abbeyleix House

Abbeyleix House, sometimes called Abbeyleix Castle, is an Irish country house that was the residence of the Viscounts de Vesci in County Laois, Ireland.

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Abbeys and priories in Hampshire

Abbeys and priories in Hampshire lists abbeys, priories, friaries or other monastic religious houses in Hampshire, England.

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Abbeyshrule

Abbeyshrule is a village in south-east County Longford, Ireland, on the River Inny and the Royal Canal.

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Abbeystead

Abbeystead is a small, picturesque hamlet located in the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, in Lancashire, England.

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Abbeytown

Abbeytown, also known as Holme Abbey, is a village and civil parish in Cumbria, England.

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Abbot

Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.

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Abbot of Balmerino

The Abbot of Balmerino (later Commendator of Balmerino) was the head of the Cistercian monastic community and lands of Balmerino Abbey, Fife, founded in 1227 x 1229 by monks from Melrose Abbey with the patronage of Ermengarde de Beaumont and King Alexander II of Scotland.

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Abbot of Culross

The Abbot and then Commendator of Culross was the head of the monastic community of Culross Abbey, Fife, Scotland.

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Abbot of Deer

The Abbot of Deer (later Commendator of Deer), was the head of the Cistercian monastic community of Deer Abbey in Buchan.

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Abbot of Dundrennan

The Abbot of Dundrennan was the head of the Cistercian monastic community of Dundrennan Abbey, Galloway.

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Abbot of Kinloss

The Abbot of Kinloss (later Commendator of Kinloss) was the head of the property and Cistercian monastic community of Kinloss Abbey, Moray, founded by King David I of Scotland around 1151 by monks from Melrose Abbey.

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Abbot of Melrose

The Abbot and then Commendator of Melrose was the head of the monastic community of Melrose Abbey, in Melrose in the Borders region of Scotland.

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Abbot of Newbattle

The Abbot of Newbattle (later, Commendator of Newbattle) was the head of the Cistercian monastic community of Newbattle Abbey, Midlothian.

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Abbot of Saddell

The Abbot of Saddell was the head of the Cistercian monastic community of Saddell Abbey, in Argyll, Scotland.

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Abbot of Soulseat

The Abbot of Soulseat was the head of the Premonstratensian (originally Cistercian) monastic community of Soulseat Abbey in Galloway.

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Abbot of Sweetheart

The Abbot of Sweetheart (later Commendator of Sweetheart; also Abbot of New Abbey) was the head of the Cistercian monastic community of Sweetheart Abbey, Dumfries and Galloway, founded by monks from Dundrennan Abbey with the patronage of Derbhfhorghaill inghean Ailein (a.k.a. "Dervorguilla Balliol"), Lady of Galloway, about 1275.

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Abbot of Tongland

The Abbot of Tongland (later Commendator of Tongland) was the head of the Premonstratensian (originally Cistercian) monastic community of Tongland Abbey in Dumfries and Galloway.

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Abbot's Palace (Oliwa)

The Abbots' Palace in Oliwa (Pałac Opatów w Oliwie) is a rococo palace in Oliwa, a quarter of Gdańsk (Danzig).

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Aberarth

Aberarth, Ceredigion, Wales is a small seaside village situated towards the southern end of Cardigan Bay between Aberystwyth and Cardigan.

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Aberconwy Abbey

Aberconwy Abbey was a Cistercian foundation at Conwy, later transferred to Maenan near Llanrwst, and in the 13th century was the most important abbey in the north of Wales.

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Absalon

Absalon or Axel (21 March 1201) was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death.

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Abtweiler

Abtweiler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Aby with Greenfield

Aby with Greenfield is a civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Acey Abbey

Acey Abbey (Abbaye d'Acey; Aceyum) is a Cistercian abbey founded in 1136, and occupied since 1873 by Trappist monks.

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Achstetten

Achstetten is the northernmost municipality in the district of Biberach, in the region of Upper Swabia in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Acton, Cheshire

Acton is a small village and civil parish lying immediately west of the town of Nantwich in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.

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Adam de la Halle

Adam de la Halle, also known as Adam le Bossu (Adam the Hunchback) (1245–50 – 1285–88?, or after 1306) was a French-born trouvère, poet and musician.

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Adam of Ebrach

Adam of Ebrach (late 11th century – 23 November 1161) was the first abbot of Ebrach Abbey in the area of Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany.

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Adam of Perseigne

Adam of Perseigne (1145 – 1221) was a French Cistercian, abbot of Perseigne Abbey in the Diocese of Le Mans.

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Adam of Ross

Adam of Ross was an Irish Cistercian monk who fl.

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Adam of Wągrowiec

Adam of Wągrowiec (also Adam from Wągrowiec) (Polish: Adam z Wągrowca) (died 27 August 1629), was a Polish composer and organist, as well as a Cistercian monk in the Wągrowiec cloister.

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Adel, Leeds

Adel is a suburb in North Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

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Adolf of Germany

Adolf (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) was Count of Nassau from about 1276 and elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298.

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Adolf of Osnabrück

Adolf of Osnabrück, O.Cist (also known as Adolphus, Adolph, Adolf of Tecklenburg), was born in Tecklenburg about 1185, a member of the family of the Counts of Tecklenburg in the Duchy of Westphalia.

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Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine

Adolf of the Rhine (Adolf der Redliche von der Pfalz) (27 September 1300, Wolfratshausen – 29 January 1327, Neustadt) from the house of Wittelsbach was formally Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1319–1327.

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Adoration in the Forest (Lippi)

"dark intensity and bursts of golden light" - Filippo Lippi's ''Adoration in the Forest'' Adoration in the Forest is a painting completed before 1459 by the Carmelite friar, Filippo Lippi, of the Virgin Mary and the newly born Christ Child lying on the ground, in the unusual setting of a steep, dark, wooded wilderness.

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Aduard

Aduard is a village in the municipality of Zuidhorn, in the Netherlands.

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Aduard Abbey

Aduard Abbey (Abdij van Aduard, Abdij Sint-Bernardus in Aduard) is a former Cistercian abbey in the village of Aduard about 8 kilometres to the north-west of Groningen in the Netherlands, founded in 1192 and dissolved in 1580.

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Advocatus

During the Middle Ages, the Latin word advocatus (in English, advocate; in French avoué; in German, Vogt) was a general term for any person called (ad vocatus) to defend another, such as a lawyer or an advocatus ecclesiae, usually a lay lord charged with the protecting a particular church.

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Aelred of Rievaulx

Aelred of Rievaulx (Aelredus Riaevallensis); also Ailred, Ælred, and Æthelred; (1110 – 12 January 1167) was an English Cistercian monk, abbot of Rievaulx from 1147 until his death, and known as a writer.

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Aesop's Fables

Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE.

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Affective piety

Affective piety is most commonly described as a style of highly emotional devotion to the humanity of Jesus, particularly in his infancy and his death, and to the joys and sorrows of the Virgin Mary.

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Afonso I of Portugal

Afonso IOr also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence.

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Agathonice

Agathonice was an Ancient city and bishopric in Roman Thrace, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see.

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Agivey Abbey

Agivey Monastery was an early monastic site in Northern Ireland.

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Agnès Arnauld

Mother Agnès Arnauld, S.O.Cist. (1593–1672), was the Abbess of the Abbey of Port-Royal, near Paris, and a major figure in French Jansenism.

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Agnes Blannbekin

Agnes Blannbekin (– March 10, 1315), was an Austrian Beguine and Christian mystic.

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Agnes of Antioch

Agnes of Antioch (1154 – c. 1184) was a Queen of Hungary from 1172 until 1184 as the first wife of Béla III.

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Agnes of Babenberg

Not to be confused with Agnes of Brandenburg Agnes of Babenberg (Agnes von Babenberg, Agnieszka Babenberg; b. ca. 1108/13 – d. 24/25 January 1163), was a German noblewoman, a scion of the Franconian House of Babenberg and by marriage High Duchess of Poland and Duchess of Silesia.

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Agnes of Bohemia

Agnes of Bohemia, O.S.C., (Svatá Anežka Česká, 20 June 1211 – 2 March 1282), also known as Agnes of Prague, was a medieval Bohemian princess who opted for a life of charity, mortification of the flesh and piety over a life of luxury and comfort.

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Agnes of Landsberg

Agnes of Landsberg (1192 or 1193 – 1266 in Wienhausen) was a German noblewoman.

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Agnolo Gaddi

Agnolo Gaddi (c.1350–1396) was an Italian painter.

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Agostino Trivulzio

Agostino Trivulzio (c. 1485–1548) was an Italian Cardinal and papal legate.

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Agriculture in Scotland in the Middle Ages

Agriculture in Scotland in the Middle Ages includes all forms of farm production in the modern boundaries of Scotland, between the departure of the Romans from Britain in the fifth century and the establishment of the Renaissance in the early sixteenth century.

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Ahrensburg

Ahrensburg is a town in the district of Stormarn, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Aiguebelle Abbey

Aiguebelle Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame d'Aiguebelle) is a Trappist monastery situated in the communes of Montjoyer and Réauville in the département of Drôme, on the borders of the Dauphiné and of Provence, France.

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Ain Zana

Ain Zana (Aïn-Zana) is a town and commune in Souk Ahras Province in north-eastern Algeria.

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Airdrie, North Lanarkshire

Airdrie (An t-Àrd Ruigh) is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland.

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Alain (bishop of Auxerre)

Alain (Alanus) (died 1185Alan Coates, et al., A Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century now in the Bodleian Library (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 81.) was a Cistercian abbot of La Rivour, and bishop of Auxerre from 1152 to 1167.

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Alan of Galloway

Alan of Galloway (born before 1199; died 1234), also known as Alan fitz Roland, was a leading thirteenth-century Scottish magnate.

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Alberic of Cîteaux

Alberic of Cîteaux, O.Cist. (died January 26, 1109), sometimes known as Aubrey of Cîteaux, was a French monk and abbot, one of the founders of the Cistercian Order.

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Alberic of Trois-Fontaines

Alberic of Trois-Fontaines (Aubri or Aubry de Trois-Fontaines; Albericus Trium Fontium) (died 1252) was a medieval Cistercian chronicler who wrote in Latin.

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Alberich Mazak

Alberich Mazak, also Alberik Mazák (1609 – 9 May 1661) was a 17th-century Czech-Austrian composer.

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Alberich Rabensteiner

Alberich Rabensteiner, born January 28, 1875, in Villanders, South Tyrol, was a Cistercian monk who practiced at Heiligenkreuz Abbey.

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Alberich Zwyssig

Father Alberich or Alberik Zwyssig (17 November 1808 – 18 November 1854) was a Cistercian monk who composed in 1841 the Swiss Psalm, the present Swiss national anthem.

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Albert I of Pietengau

Albert I Count of Pietengau (* around 1215; † 9 December 1260/62) was Bishop of Regensburg from 1246 to 1259.

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Albert I, Margrave of Meissen

Albert I (1158 – 24 June 1195), called the Proud (Albrecht der Stolze), a member of the House of Wettin, was the Margrave of Meissen from 1190 until his death.

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Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel

Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel (– between 19 November and 4 December 1300) was a Margrave of Brandenburg.

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Albert of Genoa

Albert of Genoa, also known as Lambert of Genoa, was a Cistercian hermit.

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Albert of Stade

Friar Albert of Stade, O.F.M., was a 13th-century chronicler, born before the end of the 12th century, most likely about 1187.

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Albert of Strzelce

Albert of Strzelce (Albert strzelecki; after 1300 – around 25 September 1375), was a Duke of Opole during 1313–1323 (with his brother as co-ruler) and Duke of Strzelce since 1323 until his death.

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Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.

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Albin O'Molloy

Albin O'Molloy (Ailbe Ua Maíl Mhuaidh) (died 1223) was the Irish bishop of Ferns.

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Albino, Lombardy

Albino is a comune in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy, northern Italy.

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Alcácer do Sal

Alcácer do Sal is a municipality in Portugal, located in Setúbal District.

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Alcher of Clairvaux

Alcher of Clairvaux was a twelfth-century Cistercian monk of Clairvaux Abbey.

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Alcobaça Monastery

The Alcobaça Monastery (Mosteiro de Alcobaça, Mosteiro de Santa Maria de Alcobaça) is a Roman Catholic church located in the town of Alcobaça, in Oeste Subregion.

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Alcobaça, Portugal

Alcobaça is a city and a municipality in Oeste Subregion, region Centro in Portugal, formerly included in the Estremadura Province.

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Aldersbach Abbey

Aldersbach Abbey (Kloster Aldersbach) is a former Cistercian monastery in the community of Aldersbach in the district of Passau in the valley of the Vils, Lower Bavaria, Germany.

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Alekna Sudimantaitis

Alekna Sudimantaitis (Алехна Судзімонтавіч, Olechno Sudymuntowicz; died in 1490/1491) was an influential Lithuanian noble of Trąby coat of arms, Grand Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1478–1490) and Voivode of Vilnius (1477–1490).

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Alexander of Lincoln

Alexander of Lincoln (died February 1148) was a medieval English Bishop of Lincoln, a member of an important administrative and ecclesiastical family.

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Alfonso II of Aragon

Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995),, p. 630-631; in Hidalguía. XLIII (252) pp. 619–632."Alfonso II el Casto, hijo de Petronila y Ramón Berenguer IV, nació en Huesca en 1157;". Cfr. Josefina Mateu Ibars, María Dolores Mateu Ibars (1980).. Universitat Barcelona, p. 546.,.Antonio Ubieto Arteta (1987).. Zaragoza: Anúbar, § "El nacimiento y nombre de Alfonso II de Aragón".. – 25 April 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and, as Alfons I, the Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death.

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Alfonso Téllez de Meneses el Viejo

Alfonso Téllez de Meneses (1161–1230), known as el Viejo ("the Old"), was a nobleman of Castile and a participant in the key Reconquista battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.

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Alfonso the Battler

Alfonso I (1073/10747 September 1134), called the Battler or the Warrior (el Batallador), was the king of Aragon and Pamplona from 1104 until his death in 1134.

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Alfonso VII of León and Castile

Alfonso VII (1 March 110521 August 1157), called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126.

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Alhama de Aragón

Alhama de Aragón is a spa town located in the province of Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain, situated on the river Jalón, a tributary of the Ebro.

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Alice Margaret Cooke

Alice Margaret Cooke (18 September 1867 – 26 January 1940) was a British historian and writer.

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Alice of Schaerbeek

Alice of Schaerbeek, O.Cist. (or Adelaide or Aleydis) (also known as Alice the Leper) (Sint Aleydis, Sainte Alix), (c. 1220–1250) was a Cistercian laysister who is venerated as the patron saint of the blind and paralyzed.

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All Saints Church, Poplar

All Saints' Church, Poplar, is a church in Newby Place, Poplar, London Borough of Tower Hamlets, and is the Church of England parish church of Poplar.

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Allar, Jerusalem

Allar (علار) or 'Allar el-Fawqa ("Upper Allar"), also known as 'Allar el Busl, was a Palestinian Arab village located southwest of the Old City of Jerusalem near Wadi Surar ("Valley of Pebbles"), along Wadi Tannur.

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Allegheny Mountains

The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras.

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Aller

The Aller is a long river in the states of Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony in Germany.

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Alphorn

The alphorn or alpenhorn or alpine horn is a labrophone, consisting of a straight several-meter-long wooden natural horn of conical bore, with a wooden cup-shaped mouthpiece.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Altenberg (Bergisches Land)

Altenberg is an Ortsteil (area) in the municipality of Odenthal in the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia and was formerly the seat of the Counts of Berg.

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Altenberg Abbey

Altenberg Abbey (Abtei Altenberg) (Vetus Mons) is a former Cistercian monastery in Altenberg, now a part of Odenthal in the Bergisches Land, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Altenberger Dom

The Altenberger Dom (or Bergischer Dom) is the former abbey church of Altenberg Abbey which was built from 1259 in Gothic style by Cistercians.

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Altmünster, Mainz

The Altmünster abbey near Mainz, Germany, was reputedly founded by Saint Bilihildis (d. 734), who served as the first abbess; however, it may well be a 7th-century foundation.

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Alton, Leicestershire

Alton is a deserted medieval village between Coalville and Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in North West Leicestershire, England.

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Altzella Abbey

Altzella Abbey, also Altzelle Abbey (Kloster Altzella or Altzelle, previously Cella or Cella Sanctae Mariae) is a former Cistercian monastery near Nossen in Saxony, Germany.

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Alvastra

Alvastra is a small village in Ödeshög Municipality in eastern Sweden.

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Alvastra Abbey

Alvastra Abbey was a Cistercian monastery located at Alvastra in Östergötland, Sweden.

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Alvingham Priory

Alvingham Priory was a Gilbertine priory in St.

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Amadeus de Bie

Gerardus Franciscus Amadeus de Bie, 1844-1920 was a Belgian abbot of Bornem Abbey (Common Observance).

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Amaro Averna

Amaro Averna is an Italian liqueur in the Amaro category produced in Caltanissetta, Sicily.

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Ambrose Lisle March Phillipps De Lisle

Ambrose Lisle March Phillipps de Lisle (17 March 1809 – 5 March 1878) was an English Catholic convert.

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Amelia, Umbria

Amelia is a town and comune of the province of Terni, in the Umbria region of central Italy.

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Amelungsborn Abbey

Amelungsborn Abbey, also Amelunxborn Abbey (Kloster Amelungsborn) near Negenborn and Stadtoldendorf, in the Landkreis of Holzminden in the Weserbergland, was the second oldest Cistercian foundation in Lower Saxony, Germany, after Walkenried Abbey.

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Amesbury Priory

Amesbury Priory was a Benedictine monastery at Amesbury in Wiltshire, England, belonging to the Order of Fontevraud, a Benedictine reform.

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Ancient Diocese of Hamar

The former Norwegian Catholic diocese of Hamar existed from 1152 to 1542, when the Protestant Reformation turned it into a bishopric of the Lutheran state church.

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Ancient Diocese of Ribe

The former Roman Catholic diocese of Ribe (29 deaneries, 278 parishes) consisted of the modern Danish Provinces of Ribe, Vejle and Ringkøbing, and part of Southern Jutland.

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Ancient Diocese of Viborg

The former Roman Catholic diocese of Viborg, in Denmark existed from 1065 to the Protestant Reformation.

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Ancient See of Aarhus

The Ancient See of Aarhus (Latin: Arusia, Arusiensis) was a pre-reformation Catholic diocese in Denmark.

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André Vingt-Trois

André Armand Vingt-Trois (born 7 November 1942) is a French cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Andrea Negroni

Andrea Negroni (November 2, 1710 – January 17, 1789) was an Italian Cardinal who was Cardinal-Deacon of the titular Church of Santi Vito, Modesto e Crescenzio from 1765 to 1779.

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Andrew de Buchan

Andrew de Buchan (d. 1304?) was a Scottish Cistercian, bishop of Caithness from 1296.

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Andrzej Spot

Andrzej Spot was a 16th-century Catholic priest, Cistercian monk, Abbot, Canon, and Auxiliary Bishop of Kraków.

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Anglèse de Sagazan

Anglèse de Sagazan (died 1582) was a French shepherdess from Lannemezan who claimed she saw three Marian apparitions in Monléon (70 kilometers away from Lourdes) three times in 1515.

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Anglo-Normans

The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.

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Aniconism in Christianity

Christianity has not generally practised aniconism, or the avoidance or prohibition of types of images, but has had an active tradition of making and venerating images of God and other religious figures.

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Anna of Greater Poland

Anna of Greater Poland (Anna wielkopolska; b. 1253 – d. aft. 26 June 1295), was a Greater Poland princess member of the House of Piast and abbess at Owińska.

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Annales Cambriae

Annales Cambriae (Latin for The Annals of Wales) is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles compiled or derived from diverse sources at St David's in Dyfed, Wales.

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Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn (1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII.

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Annibale Annibaldi

Annibale Annibaldi, also known as Annibaldo degli Annibaldi, (died 1 September 1271) was an Italian Catholic theologian,.

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Annibale Maria di Francia

St.

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Anselm Baker

Anselm Baker (1834–1885), was an English artist.

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Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.

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Anselm van der Linde

Anselm van der Linde O.Cist., born 24 September 1970 in Roodepoort, is a Cistercian abbot of the common observance, he is the current Abbot praeses of the Congregatio Augiensis.

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António, Prior of Crato

António, Prior of Crato (153126 August 1595; sometimes called The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal and claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 dynastic crisis.

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Anthony Mary Claret

Saint Anthony Mary Claret, C.M.F. (Antoni Maria Claret i Clarà; Antonio María Claret y Clarà; December 23, 1807 – October 24, 1870) was a Spanish Roman Catholic archbishop and missionary, and was confessor of Isabella II of Spain.

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Anti-Catholicism

Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents.

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Antiphonary

An Antiphonary is one of the liturgical books intended for use in choro (i. e. in the liturgical choir), and originally characterized, as its name implies, by the assignment to it principally of the antiphons used in various parts of the Roman liturgy. In current usage Antiphoner refers more narrowly to books containing the chants for the Divine Office in distinction to the Gradual (Graduale or more rarely antiphonarium Missarum), which contains the antiphons used for the Mass. The discussion below is almost entirely drawn from the 1908 article in the Catholic Encyclopedia. Subsequent developments have been the replacement of the Ratisbon editions with the Vatican edition of 1912 and the publication of the Antiphonale monasticum (1934) produced by the Benedictines of Solesmes, In 1971 the Office was substantially revised and renamed the Liturgy of the Hours (Liturgia Horarum) and new books appeared: the Psalterium monasticum (1981) and the Liber hymnarius (1982).

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Anton Egon, Prince of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg

Anton Egon (23 April 1656 – 10 October 1716), a member of the Swabian House of Fürstenberg, was Imperial Prince and Princely Landgrave of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg from 1674 until his death.

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Anton Wolfradt

Anton Franz Wolfradt, O.Cist., O.S.B. (9 July 1582, Cologne – 1 April 1639, Vienna) was a Cistercian and Benedictine, Abbot of Wilhering then Kremsmünster, Prince-Bishop of Vienna, and President of the Hofkammer.

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Apocalypse of Lorvão

The Apocalypse of Lorvão is an illuminated manuscript from Lorvão, Portugal containing the Commentary on the Apocalypse of Beatus of Liébana Monastery, Spain.

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Apologia ad Guillelmum

Bernard of Clairvaux's Apologia ad Guillelmum was written in 1125 at the ostensible request of his friend and fellow monastic reformer, William of Saint-Thierry, and is the key document in the early twelfth century controversy over art, the greatest controversy over art to occur in the West previous to the Reformation.

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Apostolic Prefecture of Lausitz

The Apostolic Prefecture of Lausitz (Lusatia) was a missionary pre-diocesan Latin Catholic jurisdiction in Lusatia (in German Lausitz, today in the northeastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg and in western Poland).

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Arbanum

Arbanum is a town, former bishopric and present titular see in present Albania.

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Arboretum du Sarroudier

The Arboretum du Sarroudier (60 hectares) is a new arboretum now taking shape in the village of Le Mas, Alpes-Maritimes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France.

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Archaeologia Cambrensis

Archaeologia Cambrensis is an archaeological and historical scholarly journal that is published annually by the Cambrian Archaeological Association.

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Archbishop of Cashel

The Archbishop of Cashel (Ard-Easpag Chaiseal Mumhan) was an archiepiscopal title which took its name after the town of Cashel, County Tipperary in Ireland.

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Archbishopric of Bremen

The Archdiocese of Bremen (also Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, Erzbistum Bremen, not to be confused with the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994) is a historical Roman Catholic diocese (787–1566/1648) and formed from 1180 to 1648 an ecclesiastical state (continued under other names until 1823), named Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen) within the Holy Roman Empire.

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Archdeacon of Wells

The Archdeacon of Wells is a senior clergy position in the Church of England Diocese of Bath and Wells.

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Archdiocese of Uppsala

The Archdiocese of Uppsala (Uppsala ärkestift) is one of the thirteen dioceses of the Church of Sweden and the only one having the status of an archdiocese.

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Architecture of cathedrals and great churches

The architecture of cathedrals, basilicas and abbey churches is characterised by the buildings' large scale and follows one of several branching traditions of form, function and style that all ultimately derive from the Early Christian architectural traditions established in the Constantinian period.

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Architecture of Italy

Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period or region, due to Italy's division into several city-states until 1861.

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Architecture of Leeds

The architecture of Leeds, a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England, encompasses a wide range of architectural styles and notable buildings.

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Architecture of Portugal

Architecture of Portugal refers to the architecture practiced in the territory of present-day Portugal since before the foundation of the country in the 12th century.

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Architecture of Provence

The Architecture of Provence includes a rich collection of monuments from the Roman Empire; Cistercian monasteries from the Romanesque Period, medieval palaces and churches; fortifications from the time of Louis XIV, as well as numerous hilltop villages and fine churches.

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Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England

The medieval cathedrals of England, which date from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings that constitute a major aspect of the country’s artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity.

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Archpoet

The Archpoet (1130 – c. 1165), or Archipoeta (in Latin and German),Jeep 2001: 21.

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Arcos de Valdevez

Arcos de Valdevez is a municipality along the northern frontier of Portugal and Galicia (Spain).

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Ardchattan Priory

The Ardchattan Priory was a Valliscaulian monastic community in Ardchattan, Argyll, Scotland.

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Ards Peninsula

The Ards Peninsula is a peninsula in County Down, Northern Ireland, that separates Strangford Lough from the North Channel of the Irish Sea on the north-east coast of Ireland.

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Ariosophy

Armanism and Ariosophy are the names of ideological systems of an esoteric nature, pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels respectively, in Austria between 1890 and 1930.

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Arlon

Arlon (Arel,; Aarlen,; Arel; Årlon) is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in and capital of the province of Luxembourg.

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Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé

Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé (January 9, 1626 ParisOctober 27, 1700 Soligny-la-Trappe), abbot and founder of the Trappist Cistercians.

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Arn – The Knight Templar

Arn – The Knight Templar (Arn - Tempelriddaren) is an epic film based on Jan Guillou's trilogy about the fictional Swedish Knight Templar Arn Magnusson.

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Arnaud Amalric

Arnaud Amaury (Arnoldus Amalricus; died 1225) was a Cistercian abbot who played a prominent role in the Albigensian Crusade.

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Arnauld family

The Arnauld or Arnaud family Lord de la Mothe, de Bessac, de la Besse, de Villeneuve, de Ronzière et d'Artonne, then d'Andilly, de Corbeville and Marquess de Pomponne is a noble French family prominent in the 17th century, and closely associated with Jansenism, associating frequently with the Jansenist religious communities in Port-Royal de Paris and Port-Royal des Champs.

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Arnold I of Cologne

Arnold I (c. 1100 – 3 April 1151) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1137 to 1151.

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Arnold I of Vaucourt

Arnold I of Vaucourt (Arnaud, Arnaut de Vaucort, Arnold von Valcourt, Valancourt, Walecourt) (circa 1120 – May 25, 1183 in Trier), was the Archbishop of Trier from 1169 to 1183.

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Arnold I, Lord of Egmond

Arnold I of Egmond, in Dutch Arnoud, Arend, or Arent van Egmond, (– 9 April 1409) was Lord of Egmond and IJsselstein.

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Arnsburg Abbey

Arnsburg Abbey (German: Kloster Arnsburg) is a former Cistercian monastery near Lich in the Wetterau, Hesse, Germany.

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Arnsburger

Arnsburger is a white variety of grape used for wine.

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Arnulf of Leuven

Arnulf of Leuven (c. 1200–1250) was the abbot of the Cistercian abbey in Villers-la-Ville.

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Arrentières

Arrentières is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

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Arrouaise Abbey

The Abbey of Arrouaise was the centre of a form of the canonical life known as the Arrouaisian Order, which was popular among the founders of canonries during the decade of the 1130s.

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Arsuz

Arsuz (أرسوز, Αρσούς), also known as Uluçınar is a city in Hatay Province, southern Anatolia (Asian Turkey), and under its Ancient name Rhosus (Ῥῶσός) a former bishopric and titular see.

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Ascelina

Ascelina (1121-1195), was a French Cistercian nun and mystic.

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Askam and Ireleth

Askam and Ireleth is a civil parish close to Barrow-in-Furness in the county of Cumbria, in North West England.

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Askeby Abbey

Askeby Abbey (Swedish: Askeby kloster), was a Cistercian nunnery in Sweden, in operation from the late 12th century until 1529.

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Askrigg

Askrigg is a small village and civil parish in Wensleydale in the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

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Assarting

Assarting is the act of clearing forested lands for use in agriculture or other purposes.

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Assen

Assen is a municipality and a city in the northeastern Netherlands, and is the capital of the province of Drenthe.

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Astikai

Astikai (Astikus, Ościk, Ościkowicze or Ostik) was a Lithuanian noble family, that prospered in late 14th and early 17th centuries.

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Aubazine

Aubazine (Obasina in Occitan) is the official name (incorrectly spelt Aubazines on many maps and notably in the INSEE database) of a commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France.

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Augustin de Lestrange

Augustin de Lestrange (secular name Louis-Henri de Lestrange) (born in 1754, in the Château de Colombier-le-Vieux, Ardèche, France; died at Lyon, 16 July 1827) was a French Trappist abbot, an exile from France after the French Revolution.

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Augustine Grimaldi

Augustine Grimaldi (1482 – 14 April 1532) was Regent of Monaco (1523–1532), Bishop of Grasse, Abbot of Lérins, and founder of the village of Valbonne.

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Augustinians

The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.

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Aulne Abbey

Aulne Abbey was a Cistercian monastery between Thuin and Landelies on the Sambre in the Bishopric of Liège in Belgium.

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Aulps Abbey

Aulps Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery located at an altitude of 810 metres in the village of Saint-Jean-d'Aulps in the Aulps Valley, Haute-Savoie, French Alps.

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Aunay-sur-Odon

Aunay-sur-Odon is a former commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region of north-western France.

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Aunis

Aunis is a historical province of France, situated in the north-west of the department of Charente-Maritime.

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Auriac, Corrèze

Auriac is a commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France.

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Aylesby

Aylesby is a village and civil parish in North East Lincolnshire, England.

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Áed Ua hOissín

Áed Ua hOissín (Hugh O'Hession), first Archbishop of Tuam, died 1161.

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Álvaro Rodríguez

Álvaro Rodríguez (fl. 1129–1166, died January 1167) was a Galician magnate during the reigns of Alfonso VII and Ferdinand II.

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Ángel de Maldonado

Angel de Maldonado, O. Cist. (1660–1728) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Antequera (1700–1728).

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Ås Abbey

Ås Abbey (Ås Kloster; Asylum) was a Cistercian monastery situated near the mouth of the River Viskan into the Kattegat in Halland, formerly part of Denmark but now in Sweden, near the present hamlet of Åskloster about 14 km north of Varberg, in Varberg Municipality.

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Échourgnac

Échourgnac is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

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Époisses de Bourgogne

Époisses de Bourgogne is a legally demarcated cheese made in the village Époisses and its environs, in the département of Côte-d'Or, about halfway between Dijon and Auxerre, in the former duchy of Burgundy, France, from agricultural processes and resources traditionally found in that region.

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Île Saint-Honorat

The Île Saint-Honorat is the second largest of the Lérins Islands, about a mile off shore from the French Riviera town of Cannes.

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Îlot Saint-Michel

Îlot Saint-Michel (Saint Michael Island) is an uninhabited island in the English Channel off the coast of Brittany in Côtes-d'Armor, France, near the resort of Sables-d'Or-les-Pins.

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Óláfr Guðrøðarson (died 1153)

Óláfr Guðrøðarson (died 29 June 1153) was a twelfth-century King of the Isles.

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Øm Abbey

Øm Abbey was a Cistercian monastery founded in 1172 in the Diocese of Aarhus near the town of Rye, between the lakes of Mossø and Gudensø in central Jutland, Denmark.

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Ústí nad Orlicí

Ústí nad Orlicí (Wildenschwert) is a city in the Ústí nad Orlicí District, Pardubice Region in Eastern Bohemia in the Czech Republic.

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Überlingen

Überlingen is a German city on the northern shore of Lake Constance (Bodensee).

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Łęczyca

Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca; Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca; לונטשיץ) is a town of 14,362 inhabitants in central Poland.

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Łodygowice

Łodygowice is a village in Żywiec County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.

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Łuczyna

Łuczyna is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dobroszyce, within Oleśnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Šentjernej

Šentjernej (or; in older sources also Šent Jernej,Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 72. Sankt Bartlmä) is a small town and a municipality in southeastern Slovenia.

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Żarnowiec

Żarnowiec (Żarnówc, German Zarnowitz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krokowa, within Puck County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

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Żyrosław I

Żyrosław I (Latin: Siroslaus) was Bishop of Wrocław from, 1112 to 1120.

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Babylon 5

Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created by writer and producer J. Michael Straczynski, under the Babylonian Productions label, in association with Straczynski's Synthetic Worlds Ltd.

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Bad Doberan

Bad Doberan is a town in the district of Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Bad Doberan (district)

Bad Doberan is a former district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Bad Herrenalb

Bad Herrenalb is a municipality in the district of Calw, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Bad Sobernheim

Bad Sobernheim is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Baddiley

Baddiley is a scattered settlement and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.

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Baden, Switzerland

Baden (German for "Baths"), sometimes unofficially, to distinguish it from other Badens, called Baden bei Zürich ("Baden near Zürich") or Baden im Aargau ("Baden in Aargau"), is a municipality in Switzerland.

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Badia a Settimo

The Badia a Settimo or Abbazia dei Santi Salvatore e Lorenzo a Settimo is a Cluniac Benedictine abbey in the comune of Scandicci, near Florence in Tuscany, Italy.

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Baldwin (archbishop of Pisa)

Baldwin (died 6 October 1145) was a Cistercian monk and later Archbishop of Pisa, a correspondent of Bernard of Clairvaux, and a reformer of the Republic of Pisa.

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Baldwin II of Jerusalem

Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (Baudouin; died 21 August 1131), was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.

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Baldwin of Forde

Baldwin of Forde or FordSharpe Handlist of Latin Writers pp.

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Ballymascanlan

Ballymascanlan, otherwise Ballymascanlon, is a small village and townland in County Louth, Ireland, situated 4 km north-east of Dundalk on the Cooley Peninsula, on the road to Carlingford.

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Balmerino Abbey

Balmerino Abbey, or St Edward's Abbey, in Balmerino, Fife, Scotland, was a Cistercian monastic community which has been ruinous since the 16th century.

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Baltasar de Figueroa

Baltasar de Figueroa, O. Cist. (1634–1684) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Santiago de Cuba (1683–1684).

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Baltinglass Abbey

Baltinglass Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey founded in 1148 and located in Baltinglass, Ireland.

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Bamberg Cathedral

The Bamberg Cathedral (Bamberger Dom, official name Bamberger Dom St. Peter und St. Georg) is a church in Bamberg, Germany, completed in the 13th century.

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Banat in the Middle Ages

The Middle Ages in the Banat (a historical region in Central Europe which is now divided among Romania, Serbia and Hungary) started around 900.

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Banzendorf

Banzendorf is a village in the state of Brandenburg, Germany.

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Barbegal aqueduct and mill

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, near the town of Arles, in southern France.

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Barbery, Calvados

Barbery is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region of north-western France.

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Bardo, Poland

Bardo (Wartha) is a town in Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Barefoot

Barefoot is the most common term for the state of not wearing any footwear.

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Barnim VIII, Duke of Pomerania

Barnim VIII, Duke of Pomerania (between 1405 and 1407 – between 15 and 19 December 1451) at www.ruegenwalde.com' was Duke of Pomerania–Wolgast–Barth.

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Barnoldswick

Barnoldswick is a town and civil parish in Lancashire, England, near the county border with North Yorkshire, just outside the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

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Baroness Mary Vetsera

Baroness Marie Alexandrine von Vetsera (19 March 1871 – 30 January 1889) was a member of Austrian "second society" (new nobility) and one of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria's mistresses.

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Barony (Ireland)

In Ireland, a barony (barúntacht, plural barúntachtaí) is a historical subdivision of a county, analogous to the hundreds into which the counties of England were divided.

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Barrow-in-Furness

Barrow-in-Furness, commonly known as Barrow, is a town and borough in Cumbria, England.

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Basílica de Santa Maria de Castelló d'Empúries

The Santa Maria Basilica (the Basílica de Santa Maria de Castelló d'Empúries, or the Catedral de l'Empordà or the Catedral de Castelló d'Empúries), located in the municipality of Castelló d'Empúries in Girona, Catalonia, Spain, has for centuries been regarded as the Empordà Cathedral, although papal authorities have never grant it this rank.

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Basedale Priory

Basedale Priory or Baysdale Priory was a priory in North Yorkshire, England located East from the parish church of Stokesley.

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Basilica di Sant'Andrea

The Basilica di Sant'Andrea is the church of a monastery in Vercelli, Piedmont, northern Italy, founded in 1219 by Cardinal Guala Bicchieri and completed in 1227.

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Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption and St. Nicholas

The Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption and St.

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Basilica of St Giles

Basilica of St Giles in Bardejov, Slovakia, is a Gothic sacral building, which is situated in the northern part of the Town-Hall square (in Slovak Radničné námestie).

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Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers

The Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers (German: Basilika Vierzehnheiligen) is a church located near the town of Bad Staffelstein near Bamberg, in Bavaria, southern Germany.

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Basingwerk Abbey

Basingwerk Abbey (Abaty Dinas Basing) is a Grade I listed ruined abbey near Holywell, Flintshire, Wales.

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Battle of Ourique

The Battle of Ourique (25 July 1139: St. James Day) saw the forces of Portuguese Prince Afonso Henriques (of the House of Burgundy) defeat the Almoravid led by Ali ibn Yusuf.

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Battle of Pwll Melyn

The Battle of Pwll Melyn, also known as the Battle of Usk, was part of the Welsh War of Independence against English rule that lasted from 1400 to 1415.

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Battle of Strėva

Battle of Strėva, Strebe, or Strawe was fought on 2 February 1348 between the Teutonic Order and the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the banks of the Strėva River, a right tributary of the Neman River, near present-day Žiežmariai.

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Béla III of Hungary

Béla III (III., Bela III, Belo III; 114823 April 1196) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196.

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Béla IV of Hungary

Béla IV (1206 – 3 May 1270) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, and Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258.

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Bélapátfalva

Bélapátfalva is a town in Heves county, in Hungary, located north of the city of Eger.

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Březová (Uherské Hradiště District)

Březová is a village and municipality (obec) in Uherské Hradiště District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic.

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Beatrice of Nazareth

Blessed Beatrice of Nazareth or in Dutch Beatrijs van Nazareth (c. 1200 in Tienen – 1268) was a Flemish Cistercian nun.

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Beatrice of Silva

Beatrice of Silva, O.I.C., also known (in Spanish) as Beatriz da Silva y de Menezes and (in Portuguese) as Beatriz de Menezes da Silva, (Campo Maior, Portugal ca. 1424 – Toledo, Castile, 9 August 1492) was a noblewoman of Portugal, who became the foundress of the monastic Order of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady in Spain.

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Beatrice of Swabia

Beatrice or Beatrix of Swabia (April/June 1198 – 11 August 1212), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was Holy Roman Empress and German Queen in 1212 as the first wife of the Welf emperor Otto IV.

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Beaulieu Abbey

Beaulieu Abbey,, was a Cistercian abbey located in Hampshire, England.

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Beaulieu-en-Rouergue Abbey

Beaulieu-en-Rouergue Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in south-west France, founded in 1144.

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Beauly Priory

Beauly Priory was a Valliscaulian monastic community located at "Insula de Achenbady", now Beauly, Inverness-shire.

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Beaupré Abbey (Picardy)

Beaupré Abbey (Abbaye de Beaupré; Bellum pratum) is a former Cistercian monastery in the commune of Achy, department of Oise and region of Picardy, France.

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Bebenhausen Abbey

Bebenhausen Abbey, also known as Bebenhausen Monastery and Palace, was a Cistercian monastery located in the village of Bebenhausen (now a district of Tübingen), in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Bective Abbey

Bective Abbey (Mainistir Bheigthí) is a Cistercian abbey on the River Boyne in Bective, County Meath, Ireland.

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Bective, County Meath

Bective (sometimes known as Bective Bridge or Ballina) is a small hamlet and townland in County Meath, Ireland.

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Beheading of St John the Baptist

The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist, also known as the Decollation of Saint John the Baptist or the Beheading of the Forerunner, is a holy day observed by various Christian churches that follow liturgical traditions.

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Beinwil (Freiamt)

Beinwil (Freiamt) is a municipality in the district of Muri in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.

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Belleau Abbey

Belleau Abbey, later Belleau Priory (otherwise Belle Eau or Belle-Eau) (Abbaye de Belleau, Prieuré de Belleau; Bella Aqua) was a Cistercian monastery in Villeneuve-la-Lionne, Marne, France, about 15 kilometres south-west of Montmirail.

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Bellebranche Abbey

Bellebranche Abbey (Abbaye de Bellebranche) is a former Cistercian monastery located in Saint-Brice, Mayenne, France, founded in 1152 and suppressed during the French Revolution.

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Belleperche Abbey

Belleperche Abbey (bella pertica) is a former Cistercian abbey in Tarn-et-Garonne, Occitanie, in France, about 7 kilometres south of Castelsarrasin and 20 kilometres west of Montauban, situated on the Garonne.

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Bellevaux Abbey

Bellevaux Abbey was a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1120 by Pons de Morimond, near the present-day Cirey, Haute-Saône, France.

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Belmont Abbey, Herefordshire

Belmont Abbey, in Herefordshire, England is a Catholic Benedictine monastery that forms part of the English Benedictine Congregation.

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Benedict Joseph Labre

Saint Benedict Joseph Labre, T.O.S.F., (Benoît-Joseph Labre) (25 March 1748 – 16 April 1783) was a French mendicant, Franciscan tertiary, and Catholic saint.

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Benedict Neefs

dom Benedictus Neefs, (French: Benoit Neefs) OCist.

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Benedict XVI Philosophical-Theological University

The Pope Benedict XVI Philosophical-Theological University (German: Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Benedikt XVI. Heiligenkruez), colloquially referred to as Hochschule Heiligenkreuz, is a private, Roman Catholic pontifical university located in Heiligenkreuz, Austria.

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Bergen auf Rügen Abbey

Bergen auf Rügen Abbey (Kloster Bergen auf Rügen) was a monastery for Cistercian nuns established on the Baltic Sea island of Rügen.

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Bergische Kräher

The Bergische Kräher is a German breed of domestic chicken from the Bergisches Land, in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany.

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Bermond d'Anduze (bishop of Sisteron)

Bermond Anduze (born, unknown — June 11, 1214) was an important Catholic cleric and bishop in 12th century France.

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Bermudo Pérez de Traba

Bermudo Pérez de Traba (died 1168), the eldest son of Count Pedro Fróilaz de Traba and his first wife Urraca Fróilaz, was a member of the most important medieval lineage in Galicia.

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Bernard de Montgaillard

Bernard de Montgaillard (1563–1628) was a French Cistercian preacher and abbot of Orval Abbey.

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Bernard de Périgord

Bernard de Périgord (died 1149) was the first bishop of the restored diocese of Zamora from 1121 until his death.

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Bernard of Alzira

Bernard of Alzira (born Ahmet Ibn Al-Mansur in 1135, Carlet, Valencia, Spain - Alzira, Valencia, Spain, 1181) was a Andalusian prince and diplomat, later turned from Islam to become a religious brother of the Cistercian Order.

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Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.

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Bernard of Valdeiglesias

Bernard of Valdeiglesias (or "of Candeleda") was a Benedictine Cistercian monk at Valdeiglesias, province of Avila, Spain.

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Bernardine Cemetery

The Bernardine Cemetery (Bernardinų kapinės, Cmentarz Bernadyński), is one of the three oldest cemeteries in Vilnius, Lithuania.

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Bernardine Cistercians of Esquermes

The Bernardine Cistercians of Esquermes are a small branch of the Cistercian Order.

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Bernardines

Bernardines may refer to.

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Bernardino of Siena

Bernardino of Siena, (also known as Bernardine; 8 September 138020 May 1444) was an Italian priest and Franciscan missionary.

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Bernardo de Brito

Friar Bernardo de Brito (20 August 1569 – 27 February 1617) was a Portuguese monk and historian.

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Bernardyńska Street in Bydgoszcz

Bernardyńska street is an historic axis of Bydgoszcz Old Town.

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Bernat Calbó

Bernat Calbó (or Calvó) (c. 1180 – 26 October 1243), sometimes called Bernard of Calvo, was a Catalan jurist, bureaucrat, monk, bishop, and soldier.

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Bernhard Boll

Bernhard Boll (7 June 1756 in Stuttgart – 6 March 1836 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German Roman Catholic priest, Cistercian monk and the first Archbishop of Freiburg.

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Bernhard of Prambach

Bistumswappen of Passau.Bernard von Prambach, also known as Wernhard (around 1220 - 27 July 1313) was the 42nd Bishop of Passau from 1285 to 1313.

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Bernhard von Spanheim

Bernhard von Spanheim (or Sponheim; 1176 or 1181 – 4 January 1256), a member of the noble House of Sponheim, was Duke of Carinthia for 54 years from 1202 until his death.

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Berno, Apostle of the Obotrites

Berno, Bishop of Schwerin, also known as the Apostle of the Obotrites or Berno of Amelungsborn (died 14 January 1191) was a pre-eminent missionary to the Obotrites in the territory of Mecklenburg, Germany, and the first Bishop of Schwerin.

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Berthold of Hanover

Berthold of Hanover (died 24 July 1198) was a German Cistercian and Bishop of Livonia, who met his death in a crusade against the pagan Livonians.

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Berthold Schwarz

Berthold Schwarz (sometimes spelled Schwartz), also known as Berthold the Black and der Schwartzer, was a legendary German (or in some accounts Danish or Greek) alchemist of the late 14th century, credited with the invention of gunpowder by 15th- through 19th-century European literature.

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Bertran de Born

Bertran de Born (1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan troubadours of the twelfth century.

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Bethel Strict Baptist Chapel, Robertsbridge

Bethel Strict Baptist Chapel (also described as Bethel Calvinist Chapel) is a former place of worship for Reformed Baptists#Strict Baptists in Robertsbridge, a village in the district of Rother in the English county of East Sussex.

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Biddlesden

Biddlesden is a village and civil parish in Aylesbury Vale district in north-west Buckinghamshire, England on the boundary with Northamptonshire.

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Biddlesden Abbey

Biddlesden was a Cistercian abbey founded in 1147 by Arnold de Bosco (de Bois), steward to the Earl of Leicester.

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Bierzo (DO)

Bierzo is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the northwest of the province of León (Castile and León, Spain) and covers about 3,000 km².

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Bindon Abbey

Bindon Abbey (Bindonium) was a Cistercian monastery, of which only ruins remain, on the River Frome about half a mile east of Wool in the Purbeck District, Dorset, England.

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Binningen, Rhineland-Palatinate

Binningen is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Birchgrove, Swansea

Birchgrove (Y Gellifedw) is a community and large village in the City and County of Swansea, Wales.

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Bishop of Achonry

The Bishop of Achonry is an episcopal title which takes its name after the village of Achonry in County Sligo, Ireland.

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Bishop of Ardagh

The Bishop of Ardagh was a separate episcopal title which took its name after the village of Ardagh, County Longford in the Republic of Ireland.

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Bishop of Ardfert and Aghadoe

The Bishop of Ardfert and Aghadoe (usually simply referred to as the Bishop of Ardfert) was an episcopal title which took its name after the village of Ardfert and townland of Aghadoe, both in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland.

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Bishop of Bangor

The Bishop of Bangor is the ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Bangor.

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Bishop of Clogher

The Bishop of Clogher is an episcopal title which takes its name after the village of Clogher in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland.

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Bishop of Clonmacnoise

Bishop of Clonmacnoise was the ordinary of the Roman Catholic episcopal see based at Clonmacnoise, County Offaly, Ireland.

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Bishop of Cloyne

The Bishop of Cloyne is an episcopal title that takes its name after the small town of Cloyne in County Cork, Republic of Ireland.

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Bishop of Connor

The Bishop of Connor is an episcopal title which takes its name after the village of Connor in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.

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Bishop of Derry

The Bishop of Derry is an episcopal title which takes its name after the city of Derry in Northern Ireland.

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Bishop of Elphin

The Bishop of Elphin is an episcopal title which takes its name after the village of Elphin, County Roscommon, Ireland.

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Bishop of Exeter

The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury.

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Bishop of Kilmore

The Bishop of Kilmore is an episcopal title which takes its name after the parish of Kilmore, County Cavan in Ireland.

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Bishop of Lismore, Ireland

The Bishop of Lismore was a separate episcopal title which took its name after the town of Lismore in County Waterford, Republic of Ireland.

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Bishop of Meath

The Bishop of Meath is an episcopal title which takes its name after the ancient Kingdom of Meath.

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Bishop of Norwich

The Bishop of Norwich is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Norwich in the Province of Canterbury.

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Bishop of Ossory

The Bishop of Ossory is an episcopal title which takes its name after the ancient of Kingdom of Ossory in the Province of Leinster, Ireland.

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Bishop of Raphoe

The Bishop of Raphoe is an episcopal title which takes its name after the town of Raphoe in County Donegal, Ireland.

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Bishop of Salisbury

The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury.

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Bishop of Sodor and Man

The Bishop of Sodor and Man is the Ordinary of the Diocese of Sodor and Man in the Province of York in the Church of England.

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Bishop of St Asaph

The Bishop of St Asaph heads the Church in Wales diocese of St Asaph.

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Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek

The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.

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Bishopric of Dorpat

The Bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu piiskopkond; Bisdom Dorpat; Ecclesia Tarbatensis) was a medieval prince-bishopric, i;e; both a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church and a temporal principality ruled by the bishop of the diocese.

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Bishopric of Pomesania

The Bishopric of Pomesania (Bistum Pomesanien; Diecezja pomezańska) was a Catholic diocese in the Prussian regions of Pomesania and Pogesania, in northern modern Poland until the 16th century, then shortly a Lutheran diocese, and became a Latin titular see.

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Bjälbo

Bjälbo is a small village in Mjölby Municipality, Östergötland, Sweden.

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Black

Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.

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Black Worcester pear

The Black Worcester pear (also known as 'Parkinson's Warden') is a cultivar of the European Pear (Pyrus communis), it may have come to UK via the Romans, but also has been used in Heraldry and around the city of Worcester.

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Blackdown Hills

The Blackdown Hills are a range of hills along the Somerset-Devon border in south-western England, which were designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) in 1991.

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Blanche of Navarre, Countess of Champagne

Blanche of Navarre (?–1229) was Countess of Champagne, then Regent of Champagne, and finally also regent of her native kingdom of Navarre.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Bledzew

Bledzew (Blesen) is a village in Międzyrzecz County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.

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Blessed Gerard of Clairvaux

Blessed Gerard of Clairvaux (Gerardus de Clara Valle, Gérard de Clairvaux) (born c. 1120; died in 1177) was the sixth abbot of Clairvaux.

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Bloemkamp Abbey

Bloemkamp Abbey (Abdij Bloemkamp, also Oldeklooster; Floridus campus) is a former Cistercian abbey in the Netherlands, located in Hartwerd in the municipality of Wûnseradiel to the north-east of Bolsward, in the province of Friesland.

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Blood of Jesus Christ (military order)

Blood of Jesus Christ, or Blood of Christ, was a military order instituted at Mantua by Vincenzo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, approved on 25 May 1608 by Pope Paul V. The motto of the order was Domine probasti me, or that Nihil hoc triste recepto.

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Bogoriowie

Jarosław z Bogorii i Skotnik The Bogoriowie was a family of Polish knights.

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Bogumilus

Bogumilus, in Polish Bogumił Piotr, (also known as Bogimilus and Theophilus) was Archbishop of Gniezno and a hermit.

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Boitzenburger Land

Boitzenburger Land is a municipality in the Uckermark district, in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Bokrijk

Bokrijk is a park and museum complex in the municipality of Genk in the Province of Limburg, Belgium.

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Bolków Castle

Bolków Castle - a castle located in Bolków on the Castle Hill (Wzgórze Zamkowe, Polish), with a 396 metres, where the hillside is cut by the Nysa Szalona river, with a sharp precipice (with a sudden drop of 90 metres); the eastern side of the hill gradually lowers, taken up by the town.

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Bolko I of Opole

Bolko I of Opole (Bolko I Opolski; before 21 October 1258 – 14 May 1313), was a Duke of Opole from 1282 (until 1284 with his brother as co-ruler), Niemodlin and Strzelce Opolskie until his death.

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Bolko I the Strict

Bolko I the Strict also known as the Raw or of Jawor (Bolko I Surowy or Srogi or Jaworski; 1252/56 – 9 November 1301), was a Duke of Lwówek (Löwenberg) during 1278–81 (with his brother as co-ruler) and Jawor (Jauer) since 1278 (with his brother as co-ruler until 1281), sole Duke of Lwówek since 1286, Duke of Świdnica-Ziębice since 1291.

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Bombarral

Bombarral is a Portuguese municipality in the Oeste Subregion, region Centro.

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Bommenede

Bommenede or Bommenee is a former island, village, and municipality in the Netherlands, located about 5 km east of the city of Brouwershaven.

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Boneffe Abbey

Boneffe Abbey was, from the early 13th century until the end of the 18th century, a Cistercian monastery on the banks of the Mehaigne in what is now the municipality of Éghezée in Belgium.

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Bonfilh

Bonfilh's stanzas (2, 6 and 8) Guiraut, I sing to make my heart rejoice And for love of one who keeps me happy, And because I like honor and joy and youth; But I'd never sing only for money, Nor do I seek it; I'd rather give it to you, For I give generously, all for the love of my lady, Who is clever and worthy and pretty and gay.

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Boniface of Savoy (bishop)

Boniface of Savoy (c. 1217 – 18 July 1270) was a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England.

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Bonmont Abbey

Bonmont Abbey (Abbaye de Bonmont) is a former Cistercian monastery in the municipality of Chéserex in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Bonnes Mares

Bonnes Mares is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot noir as the main grape variety.

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Bonneval Abbey (Aveyron)

Bonneval Abbey (Abbaye de Bonneval) was founded as a monastery of Cistercian monks in Le Cayrol, in the department of Aveyron, in the south of France.

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Bonnevaux Abbey (Dauphiné)

Bonnevaux Abbey (Abbaye de Bonnevaux; Bonae Valles) is a former Cistercian monastery in Lieudieu near Villeneuve-de-Marc in the Isère department of France, in the region of the Dauphiné, 25 kilometres east of Vienne and about 6 kilometres south-east of Saint-Jean-de-Bournay on the northern edge of the Forêt de Bonnevaux.

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Book of Deer

The Book of Deer (Leabhar Dhèir in Gaelic) (Cambridge University Library, MS. Ii.6.32) is a 10th-century Latin Gospel Book with early 12th-century additions in Latin, Old Irish and Scottish Gaelic.

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Book of Henryków

The Book of Henryków (Księga henrykowska, Liber fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichau) is a Latin chronicle of the Cistercian abbey in Henryków in Lower Silesia.

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Bordesley Abbey

Bordesley Abbey was a 12th-century Cistercian abbey near the town of Redditch, in Worcestershire, England.

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Bornem Abbey

Bornem Abbey is the only Cistercian abbey of Common Observance in the Archdiocese of Malines-Brussels.

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Borough of Waverley

The Borough of Waverley is a local government district with borough status in Surrey, England.

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Bottenbroich Abbey

Bottenbroich Abbey, later Bottenbroich Priory (Kloster Bottenbroich), was a former Cistercian religious house located in Bottenbroich, now in Frechen, about three kilometres north-east of Kerpen, in the present Rhein-Erft-Kreis of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Bourras Abbey

Bourras Abbey (Abbaye de Bourras; Bonus radius) is a former Cistercian monastery in the commune of Saint-Malo-en-Donziois in Nièvre, Burgundy, France.

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Boxley Abbey

Boxley Abbey in Boxley, Kent, England was a Cistercian monastery founded c.1146 by William of Ypres, leader of King Stephen's Flemish mercenaries, and colonised by monks from Clairvaux Abbey in France.

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Boyle Abbey

Boyle Abbey (Mainistir na Búille) was the first successful foundation in Connacht of the Cistercian order which had opened its first Irish house at Mellifont, County Louth, in 1142.

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Boyle, County Roscommon

Boyle is a town in County Roscommon, Ireland.

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Brahetrolleborg

Brahetrolleborg is a castle about 10 kilometres north-west of Fåborg on the island of Fyn, near the present Korinth.

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Braunschweig

Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.

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Brecht Abbey

Brecht Abbey, also known as the Abbey of Our Lady of Nazareth, is an abbey of Trappistine nuns located in Brecht, in the Campine region of the province of Antwerp (Flanders, Belgium).

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Brenhinoedd y Saeson

Brenhinoedd y Saeson (English: The Kings of the English) is the medieval title of three Middle Welsh annalistic chronicles known from three 14th-century manuscripts (referred to as P, R, and S) recording events from 682 to the English conquest of Wales in 1282 (P was subsequently continued to 1332, S ultimately to 1461).

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Brick Gothic

Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.

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Bridget of Sweden

Bridget of Sweden (1303 – 23 July 1373); born as Birgitta Birgersdotter, also Birgitta of Vadstena, or Saint Birgitta (heliga Birgitta), was a mystic and saint, and founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks after the death of her husband of twenty years.

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Brightley Priory

Brightley Priory was founded in 1133 as a Cistercian monastery.

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Brother Robert

Brother Robert was a cleric working in Norway who adapted several French literary works into Old Norse during the reign of King Haakon IV of Norway (1217–1263).

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Bruce campaign in Ireland

The Bruce campaign was a three-year military campaign by Edward Bruce, brother of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce, in Ireland.

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Bruern

Bruern or Bruern Abbey is a hamlet and civil parish on the River Evenlode about north of Burford in West Oxfordshire.

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Brunaille

A Brunaille is a painting executed entirely or primarily in shades of brown.

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Bruno of Cologne

Bruno of Cologne (c. 1030 – 6 October 1101) was the founder of the Carthusian Order, he personally founded the order's first two communities.

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Buch Abbey

Buch Abbey, in German Kloster Buch, is a former Cistercian monastery near Leisnig in Saxony.

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Buckfast Abbey

Buckfast Abbey forms part of an active Benedictine monastery at Buckfast, near Buckfastleigh, Devon, England.

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Buckfastleigh

Buckfastleigh is a small market town and civil parish in Devon, England situated beside the Devon Expressway (A38) at the edge of the Dartmoor National Park.

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Buckland Abbey

Buckland Abbey is a 700-year-old house in Buckland Monachorum, near Yelverton, Devon, England, noted for its connection with Sir Richard Grenville the Younger and Sir Francis Drake and presently in the ownership of the National Trust.

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Buckow

Buckow (Märkische Schweiz) is a town in the Märkisch-Oderland district, in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Buda, Kortrijk

Buda is a historical neighbourhood in the Belgian city of Courtray.

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Budaörs

Budaörs (Wudersch, Jerša, Erša or Vundeš) is a town in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary.

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Buildwas Abbey

Buildwas Abbey is located along the banks of the River Severn in Buildwas, Shropshire, England, about two miles west of Ironbridge.

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Burgundy wine

Burgundy wine (Bourgogne or vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône.

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Burgwindheim

Burgwindheim is a community with market rights in the west of the Upper Franconian district of Bamberg and a member of the administrative community (Verwaltungsgemeinschaft) of Ebrach.

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Burial sites of European monarchs and consorts

This list contains all European emperors, kings and regent princes and their consorts as well as well-known crown princes since the Middle Ages, whereas the lists are starting with either the beginning of the monarchy or with a change of the dynasty (e.g. England with the Norman king William the Conqueror, Spain with the unification of Castile and Aragon, Sweden with the Vasa dynasty, etc.). In addition, it contains the still-existing principalities of Monaco and Liechtenstein and the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.

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Burkardroth

Burkardroth is a municipality in the district of Bad Kissingen in Bavaria in Germany.

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Burleydam

Burleydam is a small English village in the civil parish of Dodcott cum Wilkesley in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, near the border with Shropshire.

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Burstock

Burstock is a village and civil parish in west Dorset, England, south of Crewkerne.

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Burtscheid Abbey

Burtscheid Abbey (Abtei Burtscheid) was a house of the Benedictine Order, after 1220 a Cistercian nunnery, located at Burtscheid, near Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany.

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Bygdøy

Bygdøy or Bygdø is a peninsula situated on the western side of Oslo, Norway.

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Bygdøy Royal Estate

Bygdøy Royal Estate (Bygdøy kongsgård) is a Kongsgård estate that occupies a large part of the northwestern part of the Bygdøy peninsula in Oslo, Norway.

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Byland Abbey

Byland Abbey is a ruined abbey and a small village in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England, in the North York Moors National Park.

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Bzovík

Bzovík (Bozók) is a village and municipality in the Krupina District of the Banská Bystrica Region of Slovakia.

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Cadouin Abbey

Cadouin Abbey (Abbaye de Cadouin or Abbaye Notre-Dame de la Nativité de Cadouin) was a Cistercian monastery founded as a hermitage in 1115 by Gerald of Salles, in the name of Robert of Arbrissel, in what is now the commune of Le Buisson-de-Cadouin in the Dordogne, south-west France.

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Cadwgan of Llandyfai

Cadwgan also known as Cadwgan of Llandyfái or Martin (died 11 April 1241) was a Welsh cleric who was Bishop of Bangor from 1215 to 1236.

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Caedite eos. Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius.

"Caedite eos.

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Caesarius of Heisterbach

Caesarius of Heisterbach (ca. 1180 – ca. 1240) (sometimes erroneously called in English Caesar of Heisterbach) was the prior of the former Cistercian monastery Heisterbach Abbey, in the Siebengebirge near the little town of Oberdollendorf, Germany.

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Calatrava la Vieja

Calatrava la Vieja (formerly just Calatrava) is a medieval site and original nucleus of the Order of Calatrava.

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Calatrava, Romblon

, officially the, (formerly Andagao), is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Calder Abbey

Calder Abbey in Cumbria was a Savigniac monastery founded in 1134 by Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester, and moved to this site following a refoundation in 1142.

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Caldey Abbey

Caldey Abbey is an abbey and monastery of the Cistercian order of the Strict Observance (commonly called Trappists), situated on the island of Caldey off the coast of Pembrokeshire, Wales, south of Tenby.

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Caldey Island

Caldey (Welsh:Ynys Bŷr) is a small island off the southwest coast of mainland Wales, near Tenby in Pembrokeshire. With a recorded history going back over 1,500 years, it is known as one of the holy islands of Britain. A number of traditions inherited from Celtic times are observed by the Cistercian monks, who are the chief inhabitants and owners of the island today. At its closest point, Caldey lies south of the mainland, though the usual access to the island is by small boat from the town of Tenby, some to the north. The island's population consists of 40 permanent residents and a varying number of Cistercian monks, known as Trappists. The monks' predecessors migrated there from Belgium in the early 20th century, taking over from Anglican Benedictines who had bought the island in 1906 and built the extant monastery and abbey but later got into financial difficulties. Today, the monks of Caldey Abbey farm the island, chiefly raising dairy cattle, and make a range of items including cheese, shortbread, perfumes, chocolate and toiletries. In the spring and summer, visitors are ferried to Caldey, not only to visit the sacred sanctuary but also to view the island's rich wildlife.

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Caldey Lighthouse

Caldey Lighthouse is located on the south end of Caldey Island, three miles (5 km) off the south Pembrokeshire, Wales coastline, a small island inhabited by a Cistercian monastery.

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Caldwell Priory

Caldwell Priory was a priory of Canons of the Holy Sepulchre in Bedfordshire, England, from circa 1154 to 1536.

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Camargue

The Camargue (Provençal Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône delta.

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Cambrian Archaeological Association

The Cambrian Archaeological Association (Cymdeithas Hynafiaethau Cymru) was founded in 1846 to examine, preserve and illustrate the ancient monuments and remains of the history, language, manners, customs, arts and industries of Wales and the Welsh Marches and to educate the public in such matters.

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Cambron Abbey

Cambron Abbey (Abbaye de Cambron; Camberona) is a former Cistercian abbey in Belgium, located in Cambron-Casteau in the municipality of Brugelette in Hainaut.

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Cammeringham

Cammeringham is a village and civil parish in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Cammeringham Priory

Cammeringham Priory was a priory in Cammeringham, Lincolnshire, England.

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Campile

Campile ((officially spelt Ceann Poill)) is a small village situated in the south of County Wexford, Ireland.

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Campo de Borja (DO)

Campo de Borja is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the Campo de Borja comarca, northwest of the province of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain).

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Canons regular

Canons regular are priests in the Western Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.

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Canton of Bern

The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population.

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Capital of Wales

The current capital of Wales is Cardiff, which was first referred to as such in 1955, when Gwilym Lloyd-George, then Minister for Welsh Affairs commented in a Parliamentary written answer that "no formal measures are necessary to give effect to this decision".

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Carcastillo

Carcastillo is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, in the north of Spain.

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Cardinals created by Francis

Pope Francis (r. 2013–present) has created cardinals at five consistories held at roughly annual intervals beginning in 2014.

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Carlisle Cathedral

The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, otherwise called Carlisle Cathedral, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Carlisle.

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Carlo Giuseppe Imbonati

Carlo Giuseppe Imbonati ("Imbonatus") was a Cistercian scholar who was active during the last half of the 17th century.

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Carmagnola

Carmagnola is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located south of Turin.

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Carmelite Priory, Copenhagen

The Carmelite Priory, Copenhagen, was a small Carmelite college in Copenhagen, Denmark, in existence between 1497 and 1529, with connections to the University of Copenhagen.

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Carmelo Domênico Recchia

Carmelo Domênico Recchia, O. Cist, (14 December 1921 – 26 August 2015) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Carmyle

Carmyle (An Càrn Maol) is a suburb in the east end of Glasgow, north of the River Clyde.

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Carrickbrennan Churchyard

Carrickbrennan Churchyard located on Carrickbrennan Road, Monkstown, County Dublin, Ireland is a graveyard that can still be seen today, but is no longer in use.

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Carrizo Christ

The Carrizo Christ is an 11th-century ivory carving and is conserved in the Museo de León, León (Spain).

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Carrizo de la Ribera

Carrizo de la Ribera is a town and municipality in the Province of León, Castile and León, Spain.

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Carse Loch

Carse Loch is situated (NX 926 849) in a low-lying area, surrounded by woodland, close to the A76 at Friar's Carse, in Dumfries and Galloway, Parish of Dunscore.

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Carucage

Carucage was a medieval English land tax introduced by King Richard I in 1194, based on the size—variously calculated—of the estate owned by the taxpayer.

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Casalvolone

Casalvolone is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Novara in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about southwest of Novara.

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Casamari Abbey

Casamari Abbey is a Cistercian abbey in the Province of Frosinone, Lazio, Italy, about 10 kilometers (6 miles) east-south-east of Veroli.

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Casbas Monastery

The Casbas Monastery, also known as the Monastery of Santa Maria de la Gloria, is in Casbas de Huesca, a municipality in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain.

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Cashel, County Tipperary

Cashel is a town in County Tipperary in Ireland.

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Caspe

TheoCaspe or Casp is a historic town and municipality in the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.

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Cassian Haid

Cassian Haid, born Josef was the 75th General Abbot of the Common observance between 1920–1927.

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Castagniers Abbey

Castagniers Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame de la Paix de Castagniers) is a Cistercian nunnery, in Castagniers, 12 km from Nice in the Alpes-Maritimes departement in southwestern France.

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Castle Hotel, Conwy

Castle Hotel is in High Street, opposite to the entrance to Llewelyn Street, in Conwy, Wales.

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Castle of Racconigi

The Royal Castle of Racconigi is a palace and landscape park in Racconigi, province of Cuneo, Italy.

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Catesby Priory

Catesby Priory was a priory of Cistercian nuns at Lower Catesby, Northamptonshire, England.

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Catesby, Northamptonshire

Catesby is a civil parish in the Daventry district of Northamptonshire, England.

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Catharism

Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.

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Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption, Pelplin

The Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption or Pelplin Abbey (Polplinum) is a former Cistercian abbey, located in Pelplin, Poland, to the south of Gdańsk.

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Catholic Church art

Catholic art consists of all visual works produced in an attempt to illustrate, supplement and portray in tangible form the teachings of the Catholic Church.

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Catholic Church in Australia

The Catholic Church in Australia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual and administrative leadership of the Holy See.

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Catholic Church in Norway

The Catholic Church in Norway is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, the Curia in Rome and the Scandinavian Bishops Conference.

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Catholic Church in Sweden

The Catholic Church in Sweden was established by Archbishop Ansgar in Birka in 829, and further developed by the Christianization of Sweden in the 9th century.

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Catholic novitiate

A novice in Catholic law and tradition, is a prospective member of a religious institute who is being tried and being proven for suitability of admission to a religious order of brothers, sisters or monks.

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Catholic religious order

Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church.

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Cârța Monastery

The Cârța Monastery is a former Cistercian (Benedictine) monastery in the Țara Făgărașului region in southern Transylvania in Romania, currently a Lutheran Evangelical church belonging to the local Saxon community.

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Cîteaux Abbey

Cîteaux Abbey (French: Abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Roman Catholic abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, south of Dijon, France.

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Cîteaux Moralia in Job

The Cîteaux Moralia in Job (Dijon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms 168, 169, 170, and 173) is an illuminated copy of Gregory the Great's Moralia in Job made at the famous reform monastery of Cîteaux in Burgundy around 1111.

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Côte de Nuits

The Côte de Nuits is a French wine region located in the northern part of the Côte d'Or, the limestone ridge that is at the heart of the Burgundy wine region.

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Côte-d'Or

Côte-d'Or (literally, "golden slope") is a department in the eastern part of France.

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Cecilia Eusepi

Blessed Cecilia Eusepi (17 February 1910 – 1 October 1928) was an Italian Roman Catholic and a professed member from the Secular Servites.

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Cedynia

Cedynia (Zehden) is a small town in Poland, the administrative seat of Gmina Cedynia in Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

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Celestines

The Celestines were a Roman Catholic monastic order, a branch of the Benedictines, founded in 1244.

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Centering prayer

Centering Prayer is a method of meditation used by Christians placing a strong emphasis on interior silence.

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Central heating

A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms.

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Cerenzia

Cerenzia is a town, comune (municipality), former bishopric and Latin titular see with a population of 1000 people in the province of Crotone, in Calabria region, southernmost peninsular Italy.

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Certosa di Pavia

The Certosa di Pavia is a monastery and complex in Lombardy, northern Italy, situated near a small town of the same name in the Province of Pavia, 8 km north of Pavia.

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Cestui que

Cestui que (also cestuy que, "cestui a que") is a shortened version of cestui a que use le feoffment fuit fait, literally, "The person for whose use the feoffment was made." It is a Law French phrase of medieval English invention, which appears in the legal phrases cestui que trust, cestui que use, or cestui que vie.

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Chaalis Abbey

Chaalis Abbey (Abbaye de Chaalis) was a French Cistercian abbey north of Paris, at Fontaine-Chaalis, near Ermenonville, now in Oise.

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Chablis wine

The Chablis region is the northernmost wine district of the Burgundy region in France.

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Chalford

Chalford is a large village in the Frome Valley of the Cotswolds in Gloucestershire, England.

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Cham, Switzerland

Cham is a municipality in the canton of Zug in Switzerland.

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Chanel No. 5

Chanel No.

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Chardonnay

Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine.

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Charles de Foucauld

Charles Eugene Vicomte de Foucauld de Pontbriand (15 September 1858 – 1 December 1916) was a French Catholic religious and priest living among the Tuareg in the Sahara in Algeria.

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Charles de Visch

Carolus or Charles de Visch (1596–1666) was a Cistercian bibliographer, and prior of the Abbey of Dunes.

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Charles Maurice Le Tellier

Charles-Maurice Le Tellier (1642 in Turin – 1710 in Reims) was a French Archbishop of Reims.

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Charles Plumier

Charles Plumier (20 April 1646 – 20 November 1704) was a French botanist, after whom the Frangipani genus Plumeria is named.

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Charlotte de Rothschild

Charlotte de Rothschild (May 6, 1825 – July 20, 1899) was a French socialite, painter, and a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family of France.

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Charon's obol

Charon's obol is an allusive term for the coin placed in or on the mouth of a dead person before burial.

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Charwelton

Charwelton is a village and civil parish about south of Daventry in Northamptonshire, England.

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Château Clarke

Château Clarke is a wine property of Bordeaux of based in the Listrac-Médoc AOC and classified as Cru Bourgeois.

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Cheadle, Staffordshire

Cheadle is a small market town near Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England, with a population of 12,165.

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Cherlieu Abbey

Cherlieu Abbey (Abbaye de Cherlieu; Carus locus) is a former Cistercian monastery in the commune of Montigny-lès-Cherlieu in Haute-Saône, France, about 37 kilometres west-north-west of Vesoul and about 6 kilometres south-east of Vitrey-sur-Mance in the Forest of Cherlieu (Forêt de Cherlieu).

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Chiaravalle (district of Milan)

Chiaravalle (Ceravall) is a district (quartiere) of Milan, Italy, part of the Zone 5 administrative division of the city.

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Chiaravalle Abbey

The Abbey of Santa Maria di Rovegnano (Latin: Sanctæ Mariæ Clarævallis Mediolanensis) is a Cistercian monastic complex in the comune of Milan, Lombardy, northern Italy.

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Chiaravalle Abbey, Fiastra

Chiaravalle Abbey, Fiastra (Abbazia di Chiaravalle di Fiastra) is a Cistercian abbey situated between Tolentino and Urbisaglia, in the Marche.

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Chiddingfold

Chiddingfold is a village and civil parish in the Weald in the Waverley district of Surrey, England.

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Chief Chronicler of the Kingdom of Portugal

Chief Chronicler of the Kingdom (Cronista-Mor do Reino) was a courtly position in the Kingdom of Portugal, formally instituted in 1434 by King Edward I.

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Chimay Abbey

Chimay Abbey has been the name of two or three different religious houses in Chimay in Hainaut, Belgium.

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Chorin Abbey

Chorin Abbey (German - Kloster Chorin) is a former Cistercian abbey near the village of Chorin in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Choszczno

Choszczno (Arnswalde) is a town (population around 16,173) in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.

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Christian de Chergé

Charles-Marie Christian de Chergé, O.C.S.O (Colmar, 18 January 1937 - 21 May 1996), was a French Roman Catholic Cistercian monk.

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Christian Feurstein

Christian Feurstein, (born Georg Maria Feurstein; 14 October 1958 – 12 March 2017) was an Austrian Roman Catholic priest and Cistercian monk at Heiligenkreuz Abbey, Stiepel Priory, Rein Abbey in Gratwein-Straßengel, Styria.

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Christian humanism

Christian humanism is a philosophy that combines Christian ethics and humanist principles.

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Christian mission

A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.

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Christian monasticism

Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.

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Christian monasticism before 451

Eastern Christian monasticism developed for around a century and a half as a spontaneous religious movement, up to the time of the Council of Chalcedon, which took place in 451.

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Christian of Oliva

Christian of Oliva (Christian z Oliwy), also Christian of Prussia (Christian von Preußen) (died 4 December(?) 1245) was the first missionary bishop of Prussia.

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Christian of Whithorn

Christian of Whithorn was Bishop of Whithorn (1154–1186), the second incumbent of that Episcopal See since it had been resurrected by King Fergus of Galloway earlier in the 12th century.

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Christian vegetarianism

Christian vegetarianism is a Christian practice based on effecting the compassionate teachings of Jesus, the twelve apostles, and the early church to all sentient or living beings through vegetarianism or, ideally, veganism.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Australia

Christianity is the largest Australian religion according to the national census.

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Christianity in Medieval Scotland

Christianity in Medieval Scotland includes all aspects of Christianity in the modern borders of Scotland in the Middle Ages.

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Christianity in the 11th century

Christianity in the 11th century is marked primarily by the Great Schism of the Church, which formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches.

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Christianity in the 12th century

Christianity in the 12th century was marked by a continuation of the Crusades, namely with the Second Crusade in the Holy Land.

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Christianity in the 13th century

Bibliothèque Nationale de France --> The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) imperial church headed by Constantinople continued to assert its universal authority.

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Christianization of Pomerania

Medieval Pomerania was converted from Slavic paganism to Christianity by Otto von Bamberg in 1124 and 1128 (Duchy of Pomerania), and in 1168 by Absalon (Principality of Rügen).

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Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.

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Christoforo Borri

Christoforo Borri (Milan, 1583 – Rome, 24 May 1632), also called Christopher Borrus in older English sources, was a Jesuit missionary in Vietnam, a mathematician, and an astronomer.

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Chronicles of Mann

The Chronicles of the Kings of Mann and the Isles – British Library (Chronica Regum Manniæ et Insularum) or Manx Chronicle is a medieval Latin manuscript relating the early history of the Isle of Man.

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Chronicon Holtzatiae

The Chronicon Holtzatiae auctore presbytero Bremensi is a Latin universal chronicle from the year 1448, but concentrating on the County of Holstein (the terra Holsacie) and written by an anonymous presbyter of Bremen originally from Holstein.

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Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum

Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum (Kronika polsko-śląska, Polish-Silesian Chronicle) is a medieval Polish chronicle based on Wincenty Kadłubek's Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae and the anonymous poem Carmen Mauri, with additional information on History of Silesia.

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Chrysogonus Waddell

Chrysogonus Waddell (1930–2008) was an American Roman Catholic convert and theologian.

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Chrysostomus Hanthaler

Chrysostomus Hanthaler (b. Ried, Upper Austria, 14 February 1690; d. in the Cistercian monastery of Lilienfeld in Lower Austria, 2 September 1754) was a Cistercian historian and numismatist.

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Church architecture in Scotland

Church architecture in Scotland incorporates all church building within the modern borders of Scotland, from the earliest Christian structures in the sixth century until the present day.

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Church of All Saints, Helmsley

The Church of All Saints is an Anglican parish church serving the town of Helmsley in North Yorkshire, England.

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Church of San Bernardo, Mexico City

The Church of San Bernardo (Iglesia de San Bernardo) stands at the corner of Avenida 20 de Noviembre and Venustiano Carranza Street just south of the Zocalo or main plaza of Mexico City.

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Church of Santo André (Melgaço)

The Church of Santo André (Mosteiro de Fiães/Igreja Paroquial de Fiães/Igreja de Santo André) is a Romanesque and Baroque era Portuguese religious building located in the civil parish of Fiães, municipality of Melgaço, in the northern Portuguese district of Viana do Castelo.

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Church of St Illtyd, Penrice

The Church of St Illtyd is Grade II* Listed Building in the city and county of Swansea in south Wales.

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Church of St Leonard, Marston Bigot

The Church of St Leonard in Marston Bigot, Somerset, England, was built on the site of an older one and was opened to the public in 1789.

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Church of St Leonard, Old Warden

The Abbey Church of St Leonard of Old Warden is a Grade I listed church in Old Warden, Bedfordshire, England.

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Church of St Mary & All Saints, Conwy

The Church of St Mary's & All Saints is the parish church of Conwy, Wales in the United Kingdom.

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Church of St Nicholas, Bradfield

The Church of St.

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Church of St. Stephen Harding in Apátistvánfalva

The Church of St.

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Church of the Assumption of Our Lady and Saint John the Baptist

The Church of the Assumption of Our Lady and Saint John the Baptist is a Gothic and Baroque Gothic church north-east of Kutná Hora in the Czech Republic and is listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List together with the Church of St. Barbara and other monuments in Kutná Hora.

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Church of the Holy Ghost, Copenhagen

The Church of the Holy Spirit (Danish: Helligåndskirken) in Copenhagen, Denmark, is one of the city's oldest churches.

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Church of the Holy Spirit, Palermo

The church of the Holy Spirit (Italian: Chiesa dello Spirito Santo) is a Norman church in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy.

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Cist (disambiguation)

A cist is a small stone-built coffin-like box or ossuary used to hold the bodies of the dead.

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Cistercian architecture

Cistercian architecture is a style of architecture associated with the churches, monasteries and abbeys of the Roman Catholic Cistercian Order.

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Cistercian College, Roscrea

Cistercian College, Roscrea or Roscrea College is a private boarding school in Ireland.

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Cistercian Hymnal

The Cistercian Hymnal is a compilation of the ancient texts and melodies sung by Cistercian monks during the Liturgy of the Hours.

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Cistercian nuns

Cistercian nuns are female members of the Cistercian Order, a religious order belonging to the Roman Catholic branch of the Catholic Church.

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Cistercian Preparatory School

Cistercian Preparatory School is a Roman Catholic school for young men located in Irving, Texas, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas.

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Cistercian Rite

The Cistercian Rite is the liturgical rite, distinct from the Roman Rite and specific to the Cistercian Order of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Cistercian Way (Wales)

The Cistercian Way is a waymarked, circular, long-distance trail which circumnavigates Wales, linking the Cistercian historic sites of Wales.

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Clairmarais

Clairmarais is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

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Clairvaux Abbey

Clairvaux Abbey (Latin: Clara Vallis) is a Cistercian monastery in Ville-sous-la-Ferté, 15 km from Bar-sur-Aube, in the Aube department in northeastern France.

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Claraval

Claraval is a Brazilian municipality located in the southwest of the state of Minas Gerais.

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Clare Island Abbey

Clare Island Abbey, officially St.

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Clarus Mag Máilin

Clarus Mag Máilin, Irish monk, fl.

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Clas (ecclesiastical settlement)

A clas (Welsh clasau) was a native Christian church in early medieval Wales.

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Claude Fleury

Claude Fleury (6 December 1640, Paris – 14 July 1723, Paris), was a French ecclesiastical historian.

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Cleeve Abbey

Cleeve Abbey is a medieval monastery located near the village of Washford, in Somerset, England.

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Clement of Dunblane

Clement (died 1258) was a 13th-century Dominican friar who was the first member of the Dominican Order in Britain and Ireland to become a bishop.

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Clos (vineyard)

A clos (French 'enclosure') is a walled vineyard.

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Clos de Tart

Clos de Tart is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot noir as the main grape variety.

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Clos de Vougeot

Clos de Vougeot, also known as Clos Vougeot, is a wall-enclosed vineyard, a clos, in the Burgundy wine region, and an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for red wine from this vineyard.

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Cluniac Reforms

The Cluniac Reforms (also called the Benedictine Reform) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor.

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Cluny Abbey

Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.

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Coatbridge

Coatbridge (Cotbrig or Coatbrig, Drochaid a' Chòta) is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland, about east of Glasgow city centre, set in the central Lowlands.

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Codex Gigas

The Codex Gigas (Giant Book) is the largest extant medieval illuminated manuscript in the world, at long.

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Codex Runicus

The Codex Runicus is a codex of 202 pages written in medieval runes around the year 1300 which includes the oldest preserved Nordic provincial law, Scanian Law (Skånske lov) pertaining to the Danish land Scania (Skåneland).

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Coggeshall

Coggeshall is a small town of 4,727 residents (in 2011) in Essex, England, between Colchester and Braintree on the Roman road of Stane Street, and intersected by the River Blackwater.

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Coggeshall Abbey

Coggeshall Abbey, situated south of the town of Coggeshall in Essex, was founded in 1140 by King Stephen of England and Matilda of Boulogne, as a Savigniac house but became Cistercian in 1147 upon the absorption of the order.

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Colico

Colico is a city in the province of Lecco, Lombardy, Italy.

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Collège des Bernardins

The Collège of Bernardins, or Collège Saint-Bernard, located no 20, rue de Poissy in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, is a former Cistercian college of the historic University of Paris.

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Collections of ancient canons

Collections of ancient canons contain collected bodies of canon law that originated in various documents, such as papal and synodal decisions, and that can be designated by the generic term of canons.

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College of the Neophytes

The College of the Neophytes, in Italian Collegio dei Neofiti (Latin Collegium Ecclesiasticum Adolescentium Neophytorum or Pia Domus Neophytorum) was a Roman Catholic college in Rome founded in 1577 by Gregory XIII for education of young men, in an institution for converts from Judaism and Islam that itself been started in 1543 by Pope Paul III.

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Collegiate church

In Christianity, a collegiate church is a church where the daily office of worship is maintained by a college of canons; a non-monastic or "secular" community of clergy, organised as a self-governing corporate body, which may be presided over by a dean or provost.

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Collon

Collon is a village and townland in the south west corner of County Louth, Ireland, on the N2 national primary road.

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Comber

Comber is a small town in County Down, Northern Ireland.

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Combermere Abbey

Combermere Abbey is a former monastery, later a country house, near Burleydam, between Nantwich and Whitchurch in Cheshire, England, near the border with Shropshire.

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Community of St. John

The Community of St.

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Como

Como (Lombard: Còmm, Cómm or Cùmm; Novum Comum) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy.

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Compton, Waverley

Compton is a former village and today a semi-rural suburb centred ESE of Farnham in the Waverley district of Surrey, England and connected to Farnham by two direct urban single carriageways and green space footpaths along the Wey (North Branch) which in part marks the northern boundary of the area together with the A31.

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Conception of Our Lady

Conception of Our Lady is an order of nuns founded in Portugal in 1484.

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Conceptionists

The Order of the Immaculate Conception (Ordo Inmaculatae Conceptionis), also known as the Conceptionists, are a contemplative religious order of nuns.

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Congregation (Catholic)

In the Roman Catholic Church, the term "congregation" is used not only in the senses that it has in other contexts (to indicate, for instance, a gathering for worship or some other purpose), but also to mean specifically either a type of department of the Roman Curia, or a type of religious institute, or certain organized groups of Augustinian, Benedictine, and Cistercian houses.

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Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life

The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (Congregatio pro Institutis Vitae Consecratae et Societatibus Vitae Apostolicae) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for everything which concerns Institutes of Consecrated Life (orders and religious congregations, both of men and of women, as well as secular institutes) and Societies of Apostolic Life, regarding their government, discipline, studies, goods, rights, and privileges.

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Congregation of Savigny

The monastic Congregation of Savigny (Savigniac Order) started in the abbey of Savigny, situated in northern France, on the confines of Normandy and Brittany, in the Diocese of Coutances.

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Congregation of the Feuillants

The Feuillants were a Roman Catholic congregation, originating in the 1570s as a reform of the Cistercian life in Les Feuillants Abbey in France but soon after declared an independent order, which in 1630 separated into the French branch (the Congregation of Notre-Dame des Feuillants) and the Italian branch (the Reformed Bernardines or Bernardoni).

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Congregation of the Immaculate Conception

There are a number of Roman Catholic religious orders or congregations with Immaculate Conception in their name.

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Connections (TV series)

Connections is a 10-episode documentary television series and 1978 book (Connections, based on the series) created, written, and presented by science historian James Burke.

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Conrad (bishop of Sodor and Man)

Conrad O.Cist. was a pre-Reformation cleric who was appointed the Bishop of Sodor and Man in the early 15th century.

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Conrad of Bavaria

Conrad of Bavaria (Konrad von Bayern; Corrado di Baviera) (c. 1105 – 17 March 1126 or 1154) was a Cistercian monk, the son of Henry the Black, Duke of Bavaria.

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Conrad of Leonberg

Conrad of Leonberg, or Leontorius, or his real name was Konrad Töritz.

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Conrad of Urach

Conrad of Urach (Konrad von Urach, also known as Konrad or Kuno von Zähringen) (born in the 1170s; died 29 September 1227, probably in Bari) was a Cistercian monk and abbot, and Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina; he declined the papacy.

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Conrad V, Count of Rietberg

Count Conrad V of Rietberg (died 31 October 1472) was Count of Rietberg from 1428 until his death.

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Consecrated life

Consecrated life, in the canon law of the Catholic Church, is a stable form of Christian living by those faithful who are called to follow Jesus Christ in a more exacting way recognized by the Church.

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Consecration and entrustment to Mary

For centuries, Marian devotions among Roman Catholics have included many examples of personal or collective acts of consecration and entrustment to the Virgin Mary, with the Latin terms oblatio, servitus, commendatio and dedicatio having been used in this context.

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Constance of Greater Poland

Constance of Greater Poland (also known as of Poznań) (Konstancja wielkopolska (poznańska)) (1245/46 – 8 October 1281) was a princess of Greater Poland, a member of the House of Piast, and by marriage a Margravine of Brandenburg–Stendal.

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Conwy Castle

Conwy Castle (Castell Conwy, Conway Castle) is a medieval fortification in Conwy, on the north coast of Wales.

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Conwy town walls

Conwy's town walls are a medieval defensive structure around the town of Conwy in North Wales.

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Conza della Campania

Conza della Campania (or Conza di Campania; formerly called Compsa, commonly known as Conza (Campanian: Cònze)) is a comune (municipality) and former Latin Catholic (arch)bishopric in the province of Avellino in the region of Campania in southern Italy.

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Corcomroe Abbey

Corcomroe Abbey (Irish: Mainistir Chorco Modhruadh) is an early 13th-century Cistercian monastery located in the north of the Burren region of County Clare, Ireland, a few miles east of the village of Ballyvaughan in the Barony of Burren.

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Cornelius Johannes Barchman Wuytiers

Cornelius Johannes Barchman Wuytiers (died May 13, 1733 at Rhynwyck, Netherlands) served as the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht from 1725 to 1733.

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Corpus Christi (feast)

The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for "Body of Christ") is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation.

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Cottisford

Cottisford is a village and civil parish in Oxfordshire, about south of Brackley in neighbouring Northamptonshire.

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Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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Countess Palatine Irmengard of the Rhine

Countess Palatine Irmengard of the Rhine, also known as Irmengard of Baden (– 24 February 1260) was Margravine of Baden by her marriage to Herman V, Margrave of Baden-Baden.

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Counthorpe

Counthorpe is a hamlet in the civil parish of Counthorpe and Creeton in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.

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County Kilkenny

County Kilkenny (Contae Chill Chainnigh) is a county in Ireland.

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County Laois

County Laois (Contae Laoise) is a county in Ireland.

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County Longford

County Longford (Contae an Longfoirt) is a county in Ireland.

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County of Loon

The County of Loon was a province of the ancien regime Holy Roman Empire, which by 1190 came under the overlordship of the Prince-bishop of Liège.

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County of Schaunberg

The County of Schaunberg (Grafschaft Schaunberg; also Schaumberg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in present-day Upper Austria.

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Coupar Angus

Coupar Angus (Gaelic: Cùbar Aonghais) is a town in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, situated four miles south of Blairgowrie.

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Coupar Angus Abbey

Coupar Angus Abbey was a Cistercian monastery near Coupar Angus, in central Scotland, on the boundary between Angus and Gowrie.

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Couvent des Bernardines

The Couvent des Bernardines is a historic building in the 1st arrondissement of Marseille, France.

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Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard

The Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard (Saint Bernard's Convent and Basilica) is a group of buildings in Fontaine-lès-Dijon, France, including a convent, basilica and church set in a public park.

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Cowl

The cowl (from the Latin cuculla, meaning "a hood") is an item of clothing consisting of a long, hooded garment with wide sleeves.

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Creeton

Creeton is a hamlet in the civil parish of Counthorpe and Creeton in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Crisóstomo Henríquez

Crisóstomo Henríquez (1594 – 23 December 1632) was a Spanish Cistercian monk and scholar of church history, who belonged to the Spanish Congregation of that Order, and who worked in the Spanish Netherlands.

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Cristóbal de Castillejo

Cristóbal de Castillejo (1491 – June 12, 1556) was a Spanish poet, a contemporary of Garcilaso de la Vega and Juan Boscán, who championed the use of traditional forms of Spanish poetry and criticized the use of Italianate forms such as the sonnet.

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Cristóbal Pérez Lazarraga y Maneli Viana

Cristóbal Pérez Lazarraga y Maneli Viana, O. Cist. (1599 – 18 February 1649) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Cartagena in Colombia (1640–1649) and Bishop of Chiapas (1639–1640).

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Crouy-Saint-Pierre

Crouy-Saint-Pierre is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

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Crowfield, Northamptonshire

Crowfield is a hamlet of some two dozen houses in the civil parish of Syresham in that part of the English county of Northamptonshire popularly known as Banburyshire.

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Croxden

Croxden is a village in the county of Staffordshire, England, south of Alton and north of Uttoxeter.

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Croxden Abbey

Croxden Abbey, also known as "Abbey of the Vale of St.

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Cru (wine)

Cru is "a vineyard or group of vineyards, especially one of recognized quality".

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Culdees

The Culdees (Céilí Dé, "Companions of God") were members of ascetic Christian monastic and eremitical communities of Ireland, Scotland, and England in the Middle Ages.

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Culross

Culross (/ˈkurəs/) (Gaelic: Cuileann Ros) is a village and former royal burgh, and parish, in Fife, Scotland.

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Culross Abbey

Culross Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey in Culross, Scotland, headed by the Abbot or Commendator of Culross.

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Culture of Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages

See also History of Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages Culture and Society in Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages refers to a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (AD 1000–1300).

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Culture of Somerset

Somerset is a county in the south west of England.

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Cwmbran

Cwmbran (Cwmbrân, also in use as an alternative spelling in English) is a new town in Wales.

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Cwmfelin Mynach

Cwmfelin Mynach is a tiny Carmarthenshire village.

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Cwmhir Abbey

Cwmhir Abbey (Abaty Cwm Hir), near Llandrindod Wells in Powys, is a Welsh Cistercian monastery founded in 1176 by Cadwallon ap Madog.

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Cymer Abbey

Cymer Abbey (Welsh: Abaty Cymer) is a ruined Cistercian abbey near the village of Llanelltyd, just north of Dolgellau, Gwynedd, in north-west Wales, United Kingdom.

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Cyprian Michael Iwene Tansi

Blessed Cyprian Michael Iwene Tansi (born in Aguleri, Anambra State, Nigeria in September 1903 – died in Leicester, England, 20 January 1964) was an Igbo Nigerian ordained a Roman Catholic priest of the Archdiocese of Onitsha, Nigeria on 19 December 1937.

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Czech Gothic architecture

Czech Gothic architecture refers to the architectural period primarily of the Late Middle Ages in the area of the present-day Czech Republic (former Crown of Bohemia, primarily consisting of the Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia).

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Czudec

Czudec is a town in Strzyżów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.

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Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd

Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (– 1203) was Prince of Gwynedd from 1170 to 1195.

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Dafydd ap Gwilym

Dafydd ap Gwilym (c. 1315/1320 – c. 1350/1370) is regarded as one of the leading Welsh poets and amongst the great poets of Europe in the Middle Ages.

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Dalhem Church

Dalhem Church (Dalhems kyrka) is a medieval Lutheran church in Dalhem on the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Diocese of Visby.

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Dallas

Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Daniel Dolan

Daniel Lytle Dolan (born May 28, 1951) is a sedevacantist Traditionalist Catholic bishop.

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Daphni Monastery

Daphni or Dafni (Modern Greek: Δαφνί; Katharevousa: Δαφνίον, Daphnion) is an eleventh-century Byzantine monastery northwest of central Athens in the suburb of Chaidari, south of Athinon Avenue (GR-8A).

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Dargun

Dargun is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

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Dargun Palace

Dargun Palace, previously Dargun Abbey (Schloss Dargun, Kloster Dargun) was a Cistercian monastery in Dargun, Mecklenburgische Seenplatte, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, in the former Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, converted after its dissolution into a palace.

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Dauendorf

Dauendorf is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

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Daugavgrīva Abbey

Daugavgrīva Abbey or Dünamünde Abbey (Daugavgrīvas klosteris; Kloster Dünamünde; Mons S. Nicolai) was a Cistercian monastery in Daugavgrīva (Dünamünde) in Latvia, about 12 kilometres from Riga, of which Daugavgrīva has formed a district since 1959.

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Daugavgrīva castle

Daugavgrīva Castle (Dünamünde; Dynemunt; Усть-Двинск or Ust`-Dvinsk) is a former monastery converted into a castle, located at Vecdaugava oxbow on right bank of Daugava, in the northern part of Riga city, Latvia.

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David I and the Scottish Church

Historical treatment of David I and the Scottish church usually emphasises King David I of Scotland's pioneering role as the instrument of diocesan reorganisation and Norman penetration, beginning with the bishopric of Glasgow while David was Prince of the Cumbrians, and continuing further north after David acceded to the throne of Scotland.

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David I of Scotland

David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.

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Davidian Revolution

The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I (1124–1153).

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Découvertes Gallimard

Découvertes Gallimard (literally in English “Discoveries Gallimard”; in United Kingdom: New Horizons, in United States: Abrams Discoveries) is an encyclopaedic of illustrated, pocket-sized books on a variety of subjects, aimed at adults and teenagers.

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Düsseldorf-Düsseltal

Düsseltal is a borough of Düsseldorf with a rather well-off population and developed around an old convent.

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Dąbie, Szczecin

Dąbie (or Stettin-Altdamm) is a municipal neighbourhood of the city of Szczecin in Poland, situated on the Płonia river, on the south coast of Dąbie Lake, on the right bank of Oder river, east of the Szczecin Old Town and Middle Town.

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De laude Cestrie

De laude Cestrie ("On the Glory of Chester"), also known as Liber Luciani de laude Cestrie ("The Book of Lucian in Praise of Chester"Barrett 2009, pp. 1–2), is a medieval English manuscript in Latin by Lucian of Chester, probably a monk at the Benedictine Abbey of St Werburgh in Chester.

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De nugis curialium

De nugis curialium (Medieval Latin for "Of the trifles of courtiers") is the major surviving work of the 12th century Latin author Walter Map.

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De Verrekijker, Bergharen

De Verrekijker (The Spyglass) is a tower mill in Bergharen, Gelderland, Netherlands which was built in 1904 and has been converted to a holiday cottage.

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Deaths in September 2012

The following is a list of notable deaths in September 2012.

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Deer Abbey

Deer Abbey was a Cistercian monastery in Buchan, Scotland.

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Definitor

A definitor is, in Latin, he who defines.

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Degersheim

Degersheim is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of Wil in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.

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Deidesheim

Deidesheim is a town in the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany with some 3,700 inhabitants.

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Derrynaflan Chalice

The Derrynaflan Chalice is an 8th- or 9th-century chalice, that was found as part of the Derrynaflan Hoard of five liturgical vessels.

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Dervorguilla of Galloway

Dervorguilla of Galloway (c. 1210 – 28 January 1290) was a 'lady of substance' in 13th century Scotland, the wife from 1223 of John, 5th Baron de Balliol, and mother of John I, a future king of Scotland.

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Desiderius, Bishop of Csanád

Desiderius (Dezső; died 1228) was a prelate in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as Bishop of Csanád (now Cenad in Romania) between 1202 and 1228.

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Deudesfeld

Deudesfeld (in Eifel dialect: Deisseld) is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the southwest Vulkaneifel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Diarmait Mac Murchada

Diarmait Mac Murchada (Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, Dermot MacMorrogh or Dermot MacMorrow (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland.

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Diego Martínez de Villamayor

Diego Martínez de Villamayor (died 5 November 1176) was a noble of the Kingdom of Castile from the house of the counts of Bureba, who was very influential at court.

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Diepold III, Margrave of Vohburg

Diepold III, Margrave of Vohburg (c. 1079 – 1146), also known as Diepold von Vohburg and Diepold III von Giengen, was a Bavarian noble in the 12th century.

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Dieulacres Abbey

Dieulacres Abbey was a Cistercian monastery established by Ranulf, Earl of Chester at Poulton in Cheshire.

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Dieulacres Chronicle

The Dieulacres Chronicle is a 14th century English chronicle that was written at the Cistercian Dieulacres Abbey in Staffordshire.

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Differdange

Differdange (Déifferdeng, Differdingen) is a commune with town status in south-western Luxembourg, west from the country's capital.

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Dinefwr Castle

Dinefwr Castle (sometimes anglicised as Dynevor) is a Welsh castle overlooking the River Tywi near the town of Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire, Wales.

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Diocese of Aarhus

The Diocese of Aarhus (Danish: Århus Stift) is one of 10 diocese in the Church of Denmark, with headquarters in the city of Aarhus.

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Diocese of Blackburn

The Diocese of Blackburn is a Church of England diocese, covering much of Lancashire, created on 12 November 1926 from part of the Diocese of Manchester.

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Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross

The Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross, also referred to as the United Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross is a diocese in the Church of Ireland.

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Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough

The United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough is a diocese of the Church of Ireland in the east of Ireland.

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Diocese of Linköping

The Diocese of Linköping (Linköpings stift) is a diocese within the Church of Sweden administering the Östergötland County, the north eastern part of Jönköping County and the northern part of Kalmar County.

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Diocese of Ross (Ireland)

The Diocese of Ross was a separate diocese situated in south-west Ireland.

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Diocese of Skara

The Diocese of Skara (Skara stift) is the oldest existing diocese in Sweden, originally a Latin bishopric of the Roman Catholic church, and since Protestant reformation a Lutheran diocese of the Church of Sweden (the former state church of Sweden), with its seat at Skara in Västergötland (Skara Cathedral).

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Diocese of St Asaph

The Diocese of Saint Asaph is a diocese of the Church in Wales in north-east Wales, named after Saint Asaph, its second bishop.

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Diocese of Strängnäs

The Diocese of Strängnäs (Strängnäs stift) is a part of the Lutheran Church of Sweden and has its seat in Strängnäs Cathedral in Strängnäs, south of Lake Mälaren.

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Diocese of Västerås

The Diocese of Västerås (Västerås stift) is a division of the Church of Sweden.

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Dirleton Kirk

Dirleton Kirk is situated to the north of the village green in Dirleton, in East Lothian, Scotland.

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Discalced

A discalced congregation is a religious congregation that goes barefoot or wears sandals.

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Discipline (instrument of penance)

A discipline is a small scourge (whip) used by members of some Christian denominations (including Anglicans, Lutherans, and Roman Catholics, among others) in the spiritual discipline known as mortification of the flesh.

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Dispute between Darnhall and Vale Royal Abbey

In the early fourteenth century, villagers from Darnhall and Over, Cheshire, were in a major dispute with their feudal lord, the Abbot of Vale Royal Abbey, over their bond condition.

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Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.

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Districts of Kraków

The city of Kraków is divided into 18 administrative districts, each with a degree of autonomy within the municipal government.

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Diviš Bořek of Miletínek

Diviš Bořek z Miletínka (Diwisch Borek von Miletin) (died 8 January 1438) was a captain of the Hussites in eastern and central Bohemia.

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Divine Mercy image

The Divine Mercy image is a depiction of Jesus based on the devotion initiated by Saint Faustina Kowalska.

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Doberan Abbey

Doberan Abbey (Kloster Doberan) is a former Cistercian monastery in Bad Doberan, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Doberan Minster

The Doberan Minster is the main Lutheran Church of Bad Doberan in Mecklenburg, Germany.

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Doberlug-Kirchhain

Doberlug-Kirchhain is a town in the district of Elbe-Elster, Brandenburg, Germany.

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Dobrilugk Abbey

Dobrilugk Abbey (Kloster Dobrilugk) was a Cistercian monastery in Lower Lusatia in the territory of the present town of Doberlug-Kirchhain, Brandenburg, Germany.

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Doctor of the Church

Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.

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Dodcott cum Wilkesley

Dodcott cum Wilkesley is a civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.

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Domenico Capranica

Domenico Capranica (1400 – 14 July 1458) was an Italian theologian, canonist, statesman, and Cardinal.

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Domenico Xarth

Domenico Xarth, O. Cist. (died 1471) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Agrigento (1452–1471).

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Dominic Miskolc

Dominic from the kindred Miskolc (Miskolc nembeli Domokos; died before 1207) was a Hungarian lord, who served as Judge royal between 1188 and 1193.

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Domnall Mór Ua Briain

Domnall Mór Ua Briain, or Domnall Mór mac Toirrdelbaig Uí Briain, was King of Thomond in Ireland from 1168 to 1194 and a claimant to the title King of Munster.

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Don García (Grand Master of Calatrava)

Don García (b. ? Navarre – d. ?) was the first Grand Master of the Order of Calatrava from 1164 to 1169 and was responsible for the foundation of many of the order's rules and battle traditions.

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Don Vincente

Don Vincente, also known as Don Vicente and Fray Vicents, is a fictional character whose story was first published as an anonymous article in the French newspaper La Gazette des Tribunaux, in 1836.

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Donald Campbell (abbot)

Donald Campbell (Dòmhnall Caimbeul) (died 1562) was a 16th-century Scottish noble and churchman.

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Donnchad Ua Cerbaill

Donnchad Ua Cerbaill or Donnchadh Ó Cearbhaill, king of Airgíalla, fl.

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Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick

Donnchadh (Latin: Duncanus; English: Duncan) was a Gall-Gaidhil prince and Scottish magnate in what is now south-western Scotland, whose career stretched from the last quarter of the 12th century until his death in 1250.

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Dore Abbey

Dore Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey in the village of Abbey Dore in the Golden Valley, Herefordshire, England.

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Dorset

Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.

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Dotnuva

Dotnuva (Datnów) is a small town with a 2003 population of 775 in central Lithuania, 10 km northwest of Kėdainiai, in the Kėdainiai district municipality.

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Douro DOC

Douro is a Portuguese wine region centered on the Douro River in the Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro region.

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Downpatrick

Downpatrick is a small-sized town about south of Belfast in County Down, Northern Ireland.

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Drogo de la Beuvrière

Drogo de la Bouerer (also recorded as Drogo of la Beuvrière, Drogo de la Bouerer.) was a Flemish associate of William the Conqueror, who was rewarded after the conquest with a large grant of land in northern and eastern England, primarily in Holderness, where he built Skipsea Castle.

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Drolshagen

Drolshagen is a town belonging to the district of Olpe in the Regierungsbezirk of Arnsberg in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, lying roughly 5 km west of Olpe.

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Dromore, County Tyrone

Dromore (Irish: An Droim Mor (the large ridge)) is a village, townland and civil parish in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland.

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Drostan

Saint Drostan (d. early 7th century), also Drustan, was the founder and abbot of the monastery of Old Deer in Aberdeenshire.

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Dryburgh Abbey

Dryburgh Abbey, near Dryburgh on the banks of the River Tweed in the Scottish Borders, was nominally founded on 10 November (Martinmas) 1150 in an agreement between Hugh de Morville, Constable of Scotland, and the Premonstratensian canons regular from Alnwick Abbey in Northumberland.

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Duiske Abbey

Duiske Abbey National Monument, also known as Graiguenamanagh Abbey, is a 13th-century Cistercian monastery situated in Graiguenamanagh, County Kilkenny in Ireland.

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Duklja

Duklja (Διοκλεία, Diokleia; Dioclea; Serbian Cyrillic: Дукља) was a medieval Serb state which roughly encompassed the territories of present-day southeastern Montenegro, from the Bay of Kotor in the west to the Bojana river in the east, and to the sources of the Zeta and Morača rivers in the north.

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Dunajec river castles

The Dunajec river castles is a chain of thirteen medieval castles (some of which do not exist any longer), built in southern Lesser Poland, along the Dunajec river.

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Dunbrody Abbey

Dunbrody Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in County Wexford, Ireland.

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Dundrennan Abbey

Dundrennan Abbey, in Dundrennan, Scotland, near to Kirkcudbright, was a Cistercian monastery in the Romanesque architectural style, established in 1142 by Fergus of Galloway, King David I of Scotland (1124–53), and monks from Rievaulx Abbey.

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Dunkeswell

Dunkeswell is a village and civil parish in East Devon, England, located about north of the town of Honiton.

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Dunscore Old Kirk

Dunscore Old Kirk (NGR NX 92661 83241) was a pre-reformation kirk (church) situated on rising ground off a minor road to Merkland, Parish of Dunscore, Dumfriesshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland; about 3 km from Auldgirth.

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Dunstable Priory

The Priory Church of St Peter with its monastery (Dunstable Priory) was founded in 1132 by Henry I for Augustinian Canons in Dunstable, Bedfordshire, England.

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Dyffryn Clydach

Dyffryn Clydach is a community of Neath Port Talbot county borough, Wales.

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Dymokury

Dymokury (Dimokur) is a village and municipality in Nymburk District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Easby Abbey

Easby Abbey or the Abbey of St Agatha is a ruined Premonstratensian abbey on the eastern bank of the River Swale on the outskirts of Richmond in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England.

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East End of London

The East End of London, usually called the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, and north of the River Thames.

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East Haven, Angus

East Haven is a fishing village in the council area of Angus, Scotland.

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Eastminster

Eastminster (The Abbey of St. Mary de Graces) was a Cistercian abbey on Tower Hill in London, founded by Edward III in 1350 immediately outside the Roman London Wall and thus today in the E1 postcode district.

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Easton Neston (parish)

Easton Neston is situated in South Northamptonshire, England.

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Eberbach Abbey

Eberbach Abbey (German: Kloster Eberbach) is a former Cistercian monastery near Eltville am Rhein in the Rheingau, Germany.

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Ebrach

Ebrach is a community with market rights in the Upper Franconian district of Bamberg and the seat of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft (municipal association) of Ebrach.

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Ebrach Abbey

Ebrach Abbey (Kloster Ebrach) is a former Cistercian monastery in Ebrach in Oberfranken, Bavaria, Germany, now used as a young offenders' institution.

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Ebro

The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.

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Economics of English agriculture in the Middle Ages

The economics of English agriculture in the Middle Ages is the economic history of English agriculture from the Norman invasion in 1066, to the death of Henry VII in 1509.

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Economics of English towns and trade in the Middle Ages

The economics of English towns and trade in the Middle Ages is the economic history of English towns and trade from the Norman invasion in 1066, to the death of Henry VII in 1509.

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Economy of England in the Middle Ages

The economy of England in the Middle Ages, from the Norman invasion in 1066, to the death of Henry VII in 1509, was fundamentally agricultural, though even before the invasion the market economy was important to producers.

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Economy of Scotland in the Middle Ages

The economy of Scotland in the Middle Ages covers all forms of economic activity in the modern boundaries of Scotland, between the departure of the Romans from Northern Britain in the fifth century, until the advent of the Renaissance in the early sixteenth century, including agriculture, crafts and trade.

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Edenham

Edenham is a village in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Edmondus Bernardini

Dom Edmondus Bernardini, born Augusto was an Italian Abbot of the Common Observance, he became general-abbot of the Common Observance between 1937 and 1950.

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Edmund of Abingdon

Edmund of Abingdon (circa 1174 – 1240) was a 13th-century Archbishop of Canterbury in England.

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Edmund Sharpe

Edmund Sharpe (31 October 1809 – 8 May 1877) was an English architect, architectural historian, railway engineer, and sanitary reformer.

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Eduard Riedel

Eduard Riedel (February 1, 1813 – August 24, 1885) was a German architect and Bavarian government building officer.

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Eduard von Gebhardt

Franz Karl Eduard von Gebhardt (13 June 1838 – 3 February 1925) was a Baltic German historical painter.

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Edward Bruce

Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick (Norman French: Edward de Brus; Edubard a Briuis; Modern Scottish Gaelic: Eideard or Iomhair Bruis; – 14 October 1318), was a younger brother of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland.

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Egeln

Egeln is a small town in the Salzlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Egglestone Abbey

Egglestone Abbey is an abandoned Premonstratensian Abbey on the southern (Yorkshire) bank of the River Tees, south-east of Barnard Castle in County Durham, England, at.

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Eike of Repgow

Eike of Repgow (Eike von Repgow, also von Repkow, von Repchow or von Repchau; –) was a medieval German administrator who compiled the Sachsenspiegel code of law in the 13th century.

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Eimsheim

Eimsheim is a winegrowing Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Eisleben

Eisleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Elcho Priory

Elcho Priory was a Cistercian Priory four miles south-east of Perth, Scotland founded in the 13th century.

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Eldena Abbey

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Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress

Eleanor of Portugal (18 September 1434 – 3 September 1467) was Empress of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Eleanor of Woodstock

Eleanor of Woodstock (18 June 1318 – 22 April 1355) was an English princess and Duchess consort of Guelders by marriage.

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Eleanor, Princess of Asturias

Eleanor of Castile (Castilian: Leonor de Castilla; 10 September 1423 - 22 August 1425) was heir presumptive to the throne of the Crown of Castile and Princess of Asturias from 1424 until a few months before her death.

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Elena Guerra

Blessed Elena Guerra (23 June 1835 – 11 April 1914) was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious and the founder of the Oblates of the Holy Spirit.

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Elisabeth of Bavaria (1478–1504)

Elisabeth of Bavaria (1478 – 15 September 1504) was a member of the House of Wittelsbach and, by marriage, Electress of the Palatinate.

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Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Germany

Elisabeth of Bavaria (– 9 October 1273), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Queen consort of Germany from 1246 to 1254 by her marriage to King Conrad IV of Germany.

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Elisabeth of Cieszyn

Elisabeth of Cieszyn (Elżbieta cieszyńska; after 1340? – after 20 January 1364), was a Polish princess, member of the Piast dynasty in the Cieszyn branch.

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Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Bavaria

Elizabeth of Hungary (1236 – 24 October 1271) was a daughter of King Béla IV of Hungary and his wife Maria Laskarina.

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Elizabeth Richeza of Poland

Elizabeth Richeza of Poland (Eliška-Rejčka; Ryksa-Elżbieta; 1 September 1288 – 19 October 1335), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and by her two marriages Queen consort of Bohemia, Poland and Duchess consort of Austria and Styria.

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Ellerton in Swaledale Priory

Ellerton in Swaledale Priory was a Priory of Cistercian nuns in North Yorkshire, England.

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Elsie J. Oxenham

Elsie Jeanette Dunkerley (25 November 1880 – 9 January 1960), was an English girls' story writer, who took the name Oxenham as her pseudonym when her first book, Goblin Island, was published in 1907.

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Eltville

Eltville am Rhein (from Alta Villa, Latin for "high estate, high town", corrupted to Eldeville, Elfeld and later Eltville) is a town in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany.

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Emicho I, Count of Nassau-Hadamar

Emicho I, Count of Nassau-Hadamar (also known as Emich, first mentioned in 1289, died on 7 June 1334), was the second son of Count Otto I of Nassau and his wife Agnes (d. 1303), the daughter of Count Emich IV of Leiningen-Landeck.

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Emilia Jamroziak

Emilia Jamroziak is professor of medieval religious history at the University of Leeds.

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Empress Matilda

Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.

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Enclosed religious orders

Enclosed religious orders of the Christian churches have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world.

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Engelszell Abbey

Engelszell Abbey (Stift Engelszell) is a Trappist monastery, the only one in Austria.

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England in the High Middle Ages

England in the High Middle Ages includes the history of England between the Norman Conquest in 1066 and the death of King John, considered by some to be the last of the Angevin kings of England, in 1216.

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England in the Late Middle Ages

England in the Late Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the late medieval period, from the thirteenth century, the end of the Angevins, and the accession of Henry III – considered by many to mark the start of the Plantagenet dynasty – until the accession to the throne of the Tudor dynasty in 1485, which is often taken as the most convenient marker for the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the English Renaissance and early modern Britain.

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England in the Middle Ages

England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485.

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English Benedictine Congregation

The English Benedictine Congregation (abbr. EBC) unites autonomous Roman Catholic Benedictine communities of monks and nuns and is technically the oldest of the 18 congregations that are affiliated in the Benedictine Confederation.

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Enrico Dandolo (patriarch)

Enrico Dandolo (c. 1100-1182) was Patriarch of Grado, Italy, from 1134 to 1182.

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Ensheim

Ensheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Alzey-Worms district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Episcopal Conference of Austria

The Austrian Bishops' Conference (Österreichische Bischofskonferenz) is the official assembly of the Roman Catholic bishops of Austria.

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Erden

Erden is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Erfurt

Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.

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Erhard von Redwitz

Erhard von Redwitz, O. Cist. (died 1502) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Auxiliary Bishop of Mainz (1494–1502).

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Eric IX of Sweden

Eric IX of Sweden, (Swedish: Erik Jedvardsson; Erik den helige; died 18 May 1160), also called Eric the Lawgiver, Erik the Saint, Eric the Holy, and, in Sweden, Sankt Erik, meaning Saint Eric, was a Swedish king c. 1156-60.

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Ermelo's orange

Ermelo's Orange is a type of fruit from Miranda do Douro, Alto Trás-os-Montes, Norte Region in Portugal.

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Ermengarde of Anjou (d. 1146)

Ermengarde of Anjou (ca. 1068 – 1 June 1146) was a member of the comital House of Anjou and by her two marriages was successively Duchess of Aquitaine and Brittany.

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Ernest of Bavaria (1500–1560)

Duke Ernest of Bavaria (born 13 June 1500 in Munich – died: 7 December 1560 in Glatz) was Administrator of the dioceses of Passau and Salzburg and pledge lord of Glatz.

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Ernest, Duke of Austria

Ernest the Iron (1377 – 10 June 1424), a member of the House of Habsburg, ruled over the Inner Austrian duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola from 1406 until his death.

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Escaladieu Abbey

Escaladieu Abbey (French: l'Abbaye de l'Escaladieu) was a Cistercian abbey located in the French commune of Bonnemazon in the Hautes-Pyrénées.

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Eschweiler

Eschweiler is a municipality in the district of Aachen in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany on the river Inde, near the German-Belgian-Dutch frontier, and about east of Aachen and west of Cologne.

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Esholt

Esholt is a village between Shipley and Guiseley, in the metropolitan district of the City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England.

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Eskil (Bishop of Aarhus)

Eskil was a bishop of the Ancient See of Aarhus in Aarhus, Denmark, died c. 1165.

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Eskil of Lund

Eskil was a 12th-century Archbishop of Lund, in Skåne, Denmark (now in Sweden).

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Esotericism in Germany and Austria

This article gives an overview of esoteric movements in Germany and Austria between 1880 and 1945, presenting Theosophy, Anthroposophy and Ariosophy, among others, against the influences of earlier European esotericism.

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Esrum Abbey

Esrum Abbey, also Esrom Abbey (Danish: Esrum or Esrom Kloster) was the second Cistercian monastery founded in Denmark, located near Hillerød in Region Hovedstaden, on the island of Zealand (Sjælland), on the north side of the Esrum Sø (Lake Esrum) near Esbønderup and Græsted.

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Estefanía Ramírez

Estefanía Ramírez (died 1183), daughter of Count Ramiro Fróilaz, was the wife of Count Ponce de Minerva.

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Eußerbach

The Eußerbach forms the right, northwestern headstream, over 11 kilometres long, of the Eisbach river in the county of Südliche Weinstraße, in the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

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Eulgem

Eulgem is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Euphemia of Greater Poland

Euphemia of Greater Poland (Eufemia Odonicówna) (c. 1230 – 15 February after 1281), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast from the Greater Poland branch and by marriage was Duchess of Kalisz, Wieluń and Opole-Racibórz.

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Eusserthal Abbey

Eusserthal Abbey (Kloster Eußerthal) was a Cistercian abbey in Eusserthal near Annweiler am Trifels in the Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Everard of Calne

Everard (or Everard of Calne; died probably 1146) was a medieval Bishop of Norwich.

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Everard of Ypres

Everard of Ypres was a scholastic philosopher of the middle of the twelfth century, a master of the University of Paris who became a Cistercian monk of the abbey of Moutier of Argonne.

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Exbury

Exbury is a village in Hampshire, England.

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Eyguebelle

Eyguebelle is a traditional winery in France founded in 1239, the second oldest after the Château de Goulaine.

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Farewell Priory

Farewell Priory was a Benedictine nunnery near Lichfield in Staffordshire, England.

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Faringdon Abbey

Faringdon Abbey was a Cistercian abbey located at Wyke just north of the small town of Faringdon in the English county of Berkshire (now Oxfordshire).

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Farnham

Farnham is a town in Surrey, England, within the Borough of Waverley.

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Faxfleet Preceptory

The Faxfleet Preceptory is a former community of the Knights Templar located in what is now the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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Fürstenfeld Abbey

Fürstenfeld Abbey (Kloster Fürstenfeld) is a former Cistercian monastery in Fürstenfeldbruck (formerly known simply as Bruck) in Bavaria, Germany.

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Fürstenfeldbruck (district)

Fürstenfeldbruck is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.

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Fehl-Ritzhausen

Fehl-Ritzhausen is an Ortsgemeinde – a community belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde – in the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Felix Mary Ghebreamlak

The Venerable Felix Maria Ghebreamlak, O.Cist, (23 June 1895 – 8 June 1934) was an Eritrean monk and priest of the Ethiopian Catholic Church who worked to bring the Cistercian Order to his homeland.

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Felix Ua Ruanada

Felix Ua Ruanada was the third Archbishop of Tuam, Ireland, 1201–1235.

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Ferdinand III of Castile

Ferdinand III (Spanish: Fernando III), 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252, called the Saint (el Santo), was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231.

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Ferdinando Ughelli

Ferdinando Ughelli (21 March 1595 – 19 May 1670) was an Italian Cistercian monk and church historian.

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Ferenc Keszthelyi

Ferenc Keszthelyi, O. Cist (16 March 1928 – 6 December 2010) was the Roman Catholic Bishop Emeritus of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Vác, Hungary.

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Ferenc Polikárp Zakar

Ferenc Polikárp Zakar Ocist.

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Ferenc Zenthe

Ferenc Zenthe (born Ferenc Rameshofer; 20 April 1920 – 30 July 2006) was a Hungarian actor, honored with being chosen as an Actor of the Nation, the Kossuth Prize and the Meritorious Artist Award of Hungary.

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Fergus of Galloway

Fergus of Galloway (died 12 May 1161) was a twelfth-century Lord of Galloway.

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Fermoy

Fermoy is a town on the River Blackwater in east County Cork, Ireland.

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Fermoy (barony)

Fermoy (Mainistir Fhear Maí; formerly also Armoy) is a barony in County Cork in Ireland.

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Fernando González de Traba

Fernando González de Traba or Fernão Gonçalves (fl. 1159–1165) was a Galician magnate and the head of the House of Traba in the Kingdom of León during the reign of Ferdinand II.

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Fernando Pérez de Lara

Fernando Pérez de Lara (born c. 1115, fl. 1122–50), also called Fernando Furtado or Hurtado, was the illegitimate son of Urraca, queen regnant of León and Castile, and her lover, Count Pedro González de Lara.

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Fernando Pérez de Traba

Fernando (or Fernán) Pérez de Traba (c.1090–1 November 1155), also Fernão Peres de Trava in Portuguese, was a nobleman and count of the Kingdom of León who for a time held power over all Galicia.

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Fernando Ponce de Cabrera el Menor

Fernando Ponce de Cabrera (fl. 1163–1200), called el Menor ("the younger"), was an important nobleman of the Kingdom of León.

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Ferrous metallurgy

Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.

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Fife

Fife (Fìobha) is a council area and historic county of Scotland.

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Fife Opera

Fife Opera is a semi-professional grand opera company dating back to 1975, and based in Kirkcaldy, Scotland.

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First Council of Lyon

The First Council of Lyon (Lyon I) was the thirteenth ecumenical council, as numbered by the Catholic Church, taking place in 1245.

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Flaran Abbey

Flaran Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in Valence-sur-Baïse, in the département of Gers, France.

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Flaxley Abbey

Flaxley Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in England, now a Grade I listed manor and private residence, near the village of Flaxley in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire.

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Florence Charterhouse

Florence Charterhouse (Certosa di Firenze or Certosa del Galluzzo) is a charterhouse, or Carthusian monastery, located in the Florence suburb of Galluzzo, in central Italy.

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Florentius of Carracedo

Florentius of Carracedo was Benedictine abbot at Carracedo, Spain, who was held with great regard by King Aiphonsus VII of Leon and Castile, Spain.

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Florestano Di Fausto

Florestano Di Fausto (16 July 1890 – 11 January 1965) was an Italian architect, engineer and politician who is best known for his building designs in the Italian overseas territories around the Mediterranean.

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Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck

Florian Maria Georg Christian Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 2 May 1973) is a German film director, best known for writing and directing the 2006 Oscar-winning film The Lives of Others and 2010's The Tourist, starring Angelina Jolie and Johnny Depp.

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Florians

The Florians, in Latin Floriacenses, were an altogether independent order during the feudal era, and not, as some consider, a branch of the Cistercians.

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Folmar of Karden

Folmar of Karden (ca. 1135 – 1189), also occurring in the variant forms Fulmar, Vollmar, Formal, or Formator, was the Archbishop of Trier from 1183 and the last not also to be a prince elector.

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Folquet de Marselha

Folquet de Marselha, alternatively Folquet de Marseille, Foulques de Toulouse, Fulk of Toulouse (c. 1150 – 25 December 1231) came from a Genoese merchant family who lived in Marseille.

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Fonjallaz (vineyard)

Fonjallaz is a traditional winery in Epesses, Switzerland, the family business founded in 1552.

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Fontevivo Abbey

Fontevivo Abbey (Abbazia di Fontevivo; Fons Vivus) is a former Cistercian monastery in Fontevivo, Province of Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, about 15 kilometres west of Parma on the Via Emilia towards Fidenza.

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Fontfroide Abbey

Fontfroide Abbey (Abbaye Sainte-Marie de Fontfroide; Fons frigidus) is a former Cistercian monastery in France, situated 15 kilometers south-west of Narbonne near to the Spanish border.

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Forde Abbey

Forde Abbey is a privately owned former Cistercian monastery in Dorset, England, with a postal address in Chard, Somerset.

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Former religious orders in the Anglican Communion

Former religious orders in the churches of the Anglican Communion are those communities of monks, nuns, friars, or sisters, having a common life and rule under vows, whose work has ended and whose community has been disbanded.

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Fors Abbey

Fors Abbey was an abbey in Low Abbotside, Askrigg, North Yorkshire, England.

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Fossanova Abbey

Fossanova Abbey, earlier Fossa Nuova, is a Cistercian monastery in Italy, in the province of Latina, near the railway-station of Priverno, about south-east of Rome.

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Foundation of Wallachia

The foundation of Wallachia (Descălecatul Țării Românești), that is the establishment of the first independent Romanian principality, was achieved at the beginning of the 14th century, through the unification of smaller political units that had existed between the Carpathian Mountains, and the Rivers Danube, Siret and Milcov.

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Fountains Abbey

Fountains Abbey is one of the largest and best preserved ruined Cistercian monasteries in England.

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Fountains Fell

Fountains Fell is a mountain in the Yorkshire Dales, England.

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Fourteen Holy Helpers

The Fourteen Holy Helpers are a group of saints venerated together in Roman Catholicism because their intercession is believed to be particularly effective, especially against various diseases.

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François Blouet de Camilly

François Blouet de Camilly, Count de Saint-Pierre-sur-Dives, D.D., (22 May 1664, Rouen, Normandy, France – 17 October 1723, Ligueil, Touraine, France), a French Catholic clergyman of the 17th and 18th Centuries, was the 88th Bishop of Toul from 1706 to 1721 and, briefly, the 117th Archbishop of Tours from 1721 to 1723.

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Franca Visalta

Saint Franca Visalta (1170–1218), also known as Franca of Piacenza, was a Cistercian abbess.

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Francesco Carbone Tomacelli

Francesco Carbone Tomacelli (died 18 June 1405) was Italian cardinal at the time of the Great Western Schism.

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Francis Acharya

Francis Acharya (born Francis Mahieu 17 January 1912 in Ypres, Belgium; died 31 January 2002 in Thiruvalla, Kerala, India) was a Belgian Cistercian monk of Scourmont Abbey.

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Franciscan Crown

The Franciscan Crown (or Seraphic Rosary) is a rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the Seven Joys of the Virgin, namely, the Annunciation, the Visitation, the Nativity of Jesus, the Adoration of the Magi, the Finding in the Temple, the Resurrection of Jesus, and finally, either or both the Assumption of Mary and the Coronation of the Virgin.

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Franciscans

The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.

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Franciscus Janssens

Franciscus Janssens OCist (born Albert Henri Lucien; 20 February 1881 – 23 April 1950) was the 76th General Abbot of the Common Observance between 1927 and 1936.

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Franciszek Ścigalski

Vincent Francis de Sales Ścigalski Blazej (29 January 1782 in Grodzisk Wielkopolski – August 27 or September 27 in 1846 in Gniezno) was a Polish composer, violinist and conductor.

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Franz Pfanner

Franz Pfanner (born 1825, Langen, Vorarlberg – 24 May 1909) was an Austrian Trappist monk and founder of in South Africa and the Mariastern Abbey in Banja Luka, Bosnia.

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Franzburg

Franzburg is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Rügen district of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Fraubrunnen

Fraubrunnen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Fraubrunnen Abbey

Fraubrunnen Abbey (Kloster Fraubrunnen; Fons beatae Mariae; in English, "spring, or well, or fountain of Lady" and "of the Blessed Mary" respectively) is a former Cistercian nunnery in the municipality of Fraubrunnen in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Frauenroth Abbey

Frauenroth Abbey is a former Cistercian nunnery in Burkardroth in Bavaria, South Germany, in the bishopric of Würzburg The abbey, dedicated to Saint George and All Saints, was built in 1231 by Count Otto von Botenlauben and Beatrix de Courtenay, who were both later buried here.

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Frédéric Lornet

Frédéric Lornet is a wine producer who owns and runs the Abbaye de la Boutière in Montigny-lès-Arsures; a small village just outside Arbois in the Franche-Comté / Jura region of France.

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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

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Frederick IV, Duke of Austria

Frederick IV (1382 – 24 June 1439), also known as Frederick of the Empty Pockets (Friedrich mit der leeren Tasche), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1402 until his death.

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Frederiksværk

Frederiksværk is a town with a population of 12,076 (1 January 2015) in Halsnæs Municipality on Zealand in Region Hovedstaden in Denmark.

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Free Borough of Llanrwst

The Free Borough of Llanrwst was a special privilege granted to the Welsh town of Llanrwst by the Prince of Wales.

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Freidank

Freidank (Vrîdanc) was a Middle High German didactic poet of the early 13th century.

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French people in Hungary

Historically, there was a significant French community residing in Hungary, who firstly came during the 11–13th century and then, once more, in a separate wave of settlement starting in the 18th century.

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Friars Carse

Friars' Carse is a mansion house and estate situated (NX 926 850) southeast of Auldgirth on the main road (A76) to Dumfries, Parish of Dunscore, Scotland.

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Fribourg

Fribourg (Fribôrg or Friboua) or Freiburg (German, or Freiburg im Üechtland, Swiss German pronunciation:; Friborgo or Friburgo; Friburg) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district La Sarine.

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Frienisberg Abbey

Frienisberg Abbey is a former Cistercian religious house in the Swiss municipality of Seedorf in the Canton of Bern.

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Friso-Drentic War

The Friso-Drentic war was an assault by a Frisian army under the command of the Wilbrand van Oldenburg, Bishop of Utrecht, on the province of Drenthe which lasted from 1230 until 1233.

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Friso-Hollandic Wars

The Friso-Hollandic Wars, also called Frisian-Hollandic Wars (Fries-Hollandse Oorlogen, West Frisian: Frysk-Hollânske oarloggen), were a series of short medieval wars (ranging from single battles to entire campaigns) consisting of the attempts made by the counts of Holland to conquer the free Frisian territories, which lay to the north and east of their domain.

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Frohnlach

Frohnlach is located in Upper Franconia (Oberfranken) in the district of (Landkreis) Coburg.

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Froila Ramírez

Froila Ramírez, also spelled Fruela or Froilán (fl. 11501202), was a Leonese nobleman and a member of the Flagínez family.

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Frosinone

Frosinone (Ciociaro: Frusenone) is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, the administrative seat of the province of Frosinone.

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Frosta

Frosta is the smallest municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.

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Frumușeni Mosaics

The Frumușeni Mosaics are a set of millennium-old mosaics discovered in Romania at "Fântâna Turcului" (Turk's Well), close to the locality of Frumușeni, on the left bank of Mureş River, near the city of Arad.

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Fulk of Neuilly

Fulk of Neuilly (also appearing in the forms "Fulke," "Foulque," "Foulques," "Fulco," "Folco," etc., and as "de Neuilly") (died 1201) was a French preacher of the twelfth century, and priest of Neuilly-sur-Marne.

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Furness Abbey

Furness Abbey, or St.

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Gaels

The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.

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Galahad

Sir Galahad (sometime referred to as Galeas or Galath), in Arthurian legend, is a knight of King Arthur's Round Table and one of the three achievers of the Holy Grail.

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Galgano Guidotti

Saint Galgano (1148 – December 3, 1181) was a Catholic saint from Tuscany born in Chiusdino, in the modern province of Siena, Italy.

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García Fernández de Villamayor

García Fernández de Villamayor (1170 – 1241) was a Castilian nobleman.

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Garendon Abbey

Garendon Abbey was a Cistercian abbey located between Shepshed and Loughborough, in Leicestershire, United Kingdom.

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Garendon Hall

Garendon Hall is a former country home, near Shepshed, Leicestershire, England.

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Gaston I de Foix-Grailly

Gaston I de Foix-Grailly († post 1455) was from 1412 to 1451 Captal de Buch, Count of Bénauges, and Viscount Castillon.

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Gaussan Abbey

Gaussan Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame de Gaussan) is a Benedictine monastery situated at Bizanet in the Aude, France.

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Gémenos

Gémenos (Gèmas) is a commune located 20 kilometers east of Marseille in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France.

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Gérard II, Count of Looz

Gérard ("II" or "I") (died 1191), Count of Loon (1171–1191), was son and successor of Louis I, Count of Looz, and Agnes of Metz.

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Gómez González de Traba

Gómez González de Traba (fl. 1164–1209) was a Galician nobleman, a count from 1169, and a wealthy and influential figure in the Kingdom of León.

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Gómez Núñez

Gómez Núñez (or Gomes Nunes in Portuguese; floruit 1071–1141) was a Galician and Portuguese political and military leader in the Kingdom of León.

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Góra Kalwaria

Góra Kalwaria is a town on the Vistula River in the Mazovian Voivodship, Poland, about southeast of Warsaw.

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Günterstal Convent

The Günterstal Convent was a Cistercian convent that existed from 1221 to 1806 located in Günterstal, which today is a district in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

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Głos – Tygodnik Nowohucki

The Głos – Tygodnik Nowohucki is a weekly magazine published in Kraków, Poland, focused on regional news concerning the largest and most populous city district of Nowa Huta.

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Gdańsk

Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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Gdynia

Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Gelasius Ó Cuileanáin

Gelasius Ó Cuileanáin (Or Glaisne O'Cullenan) was a martyred Cistercian Abbot of Boyle, Ireland,.

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Genzano di Roma

Genzano di Roma is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, in the Lazio region of central Italy.

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Geoffrey de Burgh

Geoffrey de Burgh (c. 1180 – 8 December 1228) was a medieval Bishop of Ely.

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Geoffrey of Clairvaux

Geoffrey of Clairvaux, or Geoffrey of Auxerre, was the secretary and biographer of Bernard of Clairvaux and later abbot of a number of monasteries in the cistercian tradition.

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Geoffrey of Villehardouin

Geoffroi de Villehardouin (c. 1150–c. 1213-1218) was a knight and historian who participated in and chronicled the Fourth Crusade.

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Georg Hellmesberger Sr.

Georg Hellmesberger Sr. (24 April 1800 – 16 August 1873) was an Austrian violinist, conductor, and composer.

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George Ashby (martyr)

George Ashby (name uncertain) (died 1537) was an English Cistercian monk.

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Gerald of Salles

Gerald of Sales (c.1055 or 1070 – 1120) was a French monastic reformer from Salles, Lot-et-Garonne near Bergerac, Dordogne in the south-west of France.

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Gerard van Groesbeeck

Gerard van Groesbeeck (1517–1580) was a Belgian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.

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Gerardus Rubens

Pierre-Eugène-Aloys known as Gerardus Rubens, OCist.

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German Peasants' War

The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe from 1524 to 1525.

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German wine

German wine is primarily produced in the west of Germany, along the river Rhine and its tributaries, with the oldest plantations going back to the Roman era.

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Gertrude of Hackeborn

Gertrude of Hackeborn (1232–1292) was the abbess of the Benedictine convent of Helfta, near Eisleben in modern Germany.

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Gertrude of Sulzbach

Gertrude of Sulzbach (Gertrud; – 14 April 1146) was German queen from 1138 until her death as the second wife of the Hohenstaufen king Conrad III.

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Gilbert of Glenluce

Gilbert (died 1253) was a 13th-century Cistercian monk, abbot and bishop.

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Gilbert of Hoyland

Gilbert of Hoyland (11??–1172?) (Gilbert of Hoyt) was a twelfth-century abbot of Swineshead Abbey, the Cistercian monastery in Lincolnshire, between about 1147 and his death in 1172.

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Gilbert of Sempringham

Gilbert of Sempringham, CRSA (c. 1083 – 4 February 1190), the founder of the Gilbertine Order, was the only Englishman to found a conventual order, mainly because the Abbot of Cîteaux declined his request to assist him in organising a group of women who wanted to live as nuns, living with lay brothers and sisters, in 1148.

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Gilbertine Order

The Gilbertine Order of Canons Regular was founded around 1130 by Saint Gilbert in Sempringham, Lincolnshire, where Gilbert was the parish priest.

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Giles of Orval

Giles of Orval (Gilles d'Orval; Aegidius Aureaevallensis) was a Cistercian monk and historian.

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Gilles de Roye

Gilles de Roye (or Egidius de Roya) (died 1478) was a Flemish chronicler.

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Giovanni Andrea Cortese

Giovanni Andrea Cortese (his name in the Benedictine Order was Gregorio) (1483 in Modena – September 21, 1548) was an Italian Cardinal and monastic reformer.

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Giovanni Bona

Giovanni Bona (1609–1674) was an Italian Cistercian, cardinal, liturgist and devotional author.

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Giovanni Maria Gabrielli

Giovanni Maria Gabrielli (January 10, 1654 – September 17, 1711) was an Italian Catholic Church's cardinal.

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Giovanni Polani

Giovanni Polani (died 1164) was Bishop of Castello, Italy, from 1133 to 1164.

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Giovinazzo

Giovinazzo (Barese: Scevenàzze) is a town, comune (municipality) and former bishopric within the Metropolitan City of Bari, Apulia region, southeastern ('heel' of) Italy.

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Gisborough Priory

Gisborough Priory is a ruined Augustinian priory in Guisborough in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England.

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Gisela of Kerzenbroeck

Gisela of Kerzenbroeck or Gisela von Kerssenbrock (died by 1300) was a nun in the northern German city of Rulle who probably worked most of her life writing and illustrating manuscripts, as well as being choirmistress.

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Giudicati

The giudicati (Italian; judicati in Latin; judicadus, logus or rennus in Sardinian), in English referred to as Sardinian Judgedoms or Judicatures, were independent states that took power in Sardinia in the Middle Ages, between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.

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Giulio Bartolocci

Giulio Bartolocci (1 April 1613 – 19 October 1687) was an Italian Cistercian Hebrew scholar and author of the four volume Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica.

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Giuseppe Maggiolini

Giuseppe Maggiolini (13 November 1738 – 16 November 1814), himself a marquetry-maker (intarsiatore), was the pre-eminent cabinet-maker (ebanista) in Milan in the later 18th century.

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Glamorgan

Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, (Morgannwg or Sir Forgannwg) is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales.

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Glanbrücken

Glanbrücken is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Glasgow Zoo

Glasgow Zoo, or Calderpark Zoo, was a zoological park in Baillieston, Glasgow, Scotland.

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Glenluce

Glenluce (Clachan Ghlinn Lus) is a small village in the parish of Old Luce in Wigtownshire, Scotland.

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Glenluce Abbey

Glenluce Abbey, near to Glenluce, Scotland, was a Cistercian monastery called also Abbey of Luce or Vallis Lucis and founded around 1190 by Rolland or Lochlann, Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland.

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Globočice pri Kostanjevici

Globočice pri Kostanjevici (in older sources also Globočica,Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, pp. 70–71. Globoschitz) is a settlement southeast of Kostanjevica na Krki in eastern Slovenia.

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Glyndŵr Rising

The Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh between 1400 and 1415, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against the Kingdom of England.

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Gniew

Gniew (Mewe; Gniéw) is a town situated on the left bank of the Vistula River, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 6,870 inhabitants (2016).

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Gościkowo

Gościkowo, formerly Paradyż (German Paradies), is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Świebodzin, within Świebodzin County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.

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Gokewell Priory

Gokewell Priory was a Cistercian Catholic priory in Broughton, Lincolnshire, England.

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Golden Valley (Herefordshire)

The Golden Valley is the name given to the valley of the River Dore in western Herefordshire, England.

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Gomshall

No description.

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Gonario II of Torres

Gonario II (also spelled Gonnario or Gunnari; died between 1180 and 1190) was the giudice of Logudoro (a kingdom in Sardinia) from the death of his father to his own abdication in 1154.

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Gondon Abbey

Gondon Abbey (also Gondom; Abbaye de Gondon; Gondonium) is a former Cistercian monastery in Monbahus, Lot-et-Garonne, Aquitaine, France, about 21 kilometres to the north-west of Villeneuve-sur-Lot.

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Gonzalo de Marañón

Gonzalo de Marañón (floruit 1141–1178) was a Castilian magnate during the reigns of Alfonso VII (1126–57), Sancho III (1157–58), and Alfonso VIII (1158–1214).

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Gonzalo Fernández de Traba

Gonzalo Fernández de Traba (died 1160) was a Galician nobleman and the leader of the House of Traba.

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Gonzalo Ruiz

Gonzalo Ruiz or Rodríguez (fl. 1122–1180 or 1146–1202) was the feudal lord of La Bureba (or Burueba) throughout much of the mid-twelfth century.

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Gotha

Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, located west of Erfurt and east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Gothic art

Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.

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Gottfried Bernhard Göz

Gottfried Bernhard Göz, also Goez, Goetz or Götz (baptized 10 August 1708, Welehrad - 23 November 1774, Augsburg) was a German Rococo painter and engraver.

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Grace Dieu Abbey, Monmouth

Grace Dieu Abbey was a small Cistercian abbey established in 1226 near to the town of Monmouth in south east Wales.

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Grade I listed buildings in Cheshire East

There are over 9,000 Grade I listed buildings in England.

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Grade I listed buildings in Lancashire

This is a list of Grade I listed buildings in Lancashire, England.

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Grade I listed churches in Cumbria

Cumbria is a county in North West England.

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Grade II* listed buildings in Cheshire West and Chester

There are over 20,000 Grade II* listed buildings in England.

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Gradefes

Gradefes is a municipality located in the province of León, Castile and León, Spain.

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Graiguenamanagh

Graiguenamanagh or Graignamanagh is a town in County Kilkenny, Ireland.

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Grana Padano

Grana Padano is a hard, slow-ripened, semi-fat cheese from Italy, comparable to Parmigiano Reggiano ("Parmesan").

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Grandmontines

Grandmontines were the monks of the Order of Grandmont, a religious order founded by Saint Stephen of Thiers, towards the end of the 11th century.

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Grandpré Abbey

Grandpré Abbey (Abbaye de Grandpré) is a former Cistercian abbey located at Faulx-les-Tombes (in the present commune of Gesves), in the province of Namur, Belgium.

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Grandselve Abbey

The choir stall Grandselve Abbey (Abbaye de Notre-Dame de Grandselve) was a Cistercian monastery in south-west France, at Bouillac, Tarn-et-Garonne.

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Grange Barn, Coggeshall

Grange Barn is in Coggeshall, Essex, England.

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Grangetown, Cardiff

Grangetown (Welsh: usually Grangetown, also Trelluest) is a district and community in the south of Cardiff, capital of Wales.

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Granja de Moreruela

Granja de Moreruela is a municipality located in the province of Zamora, Castile and León, Spain.

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Grates nunc omnes

Grates nunc omnes is the title and first three words of the Latin sequence for Midnight Mass at Christmas.

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Grünhain Abbey

Grünhain Abbey (Kloster Grünhain) in Grünhain in the Saxon Ore Mountains, which was built and run by Cistercians, existed from 1230 to 1536.Today only its ruins remain.

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Grünhain-Beierfeld

Grünhain-Beierfeld is a town in the district of Erzgebirgskreis in Saxony, Germany lying 8 km east of Aue.

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Great Cefnyberen

Great Cefnyberen is a Grade II timber framed house in the township of Cefnyberen in the historic parish of Kerry, Montgomeryshire.

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Great Coxwell

Great Coxwell is a village and civil parish about southwest of Faringdon in the Vale of White Horse, England.

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Great Coxwell Barn

Great Coxwell Barn is a Mediæval barn at Great Coxwell, Oxfordshire (formerly Berkshire), England.

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Great Oakley, Northamptonshire

Great Oakley is a outer suburb of Corby situated approximately two miles south west of the town centre and five miles from Kettering.

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Green children of Woolpit

The legend of the green children of Woolpit concerns two children of unusual skin colour who reportedly appeared in the village of Woolpit in Suffolk, England, some time in the 12th century, perhaps during the reign of King Stephen.

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Greenfield Priory

Greenfield Priory was a Cistercian priory in Greenfield, near Aby, Lincolnshire, England.

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Gregor Erhart

Gregor Erhart (ca. 1470?–1540) was a German sculptor who was born at Ulm, the son of sculptor Michel Erhart.

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Gregor von Feinaigle

Gregor von Feinaigle (22 August 1760 — 27 December 1819) was a German mnemonist and Roman Catholic monk.

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Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Gregory of Rimini

Gregory of Rimini (c. 1300 – November 1358), also called Gregorius de Arimino or Ariminensis, was one of the great scholastic philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages.

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Greifswald

Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (German: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.

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Grey

Grey (British English) or gray (American English; see spelling differences) is an intermediate color between black and white.

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Grey Abbey

Grey Abbey is a ruined Cistercian priory in the village of Greyabbey, County Down, Northern Ireland, currently maintained by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency.

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Greyabbey

Greyabbey or Grey Abbey is a small village, townland (of 208 acres) and civil parish located on the eastern shores of Strangford Lough, on the Ards Peninsula in County Down, Northern Ireland.

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Gristmill

A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill or flour mill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.

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Großlittgen

Großlittgen (in Eifel dialect: Gruhssleehtchen) is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Großseifen

Großseifen (or Grossseifen) is an Ortsgemeinde – a community belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde – in the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Grodziec castle

Grodziec Castle (German: Gröditzburg or Gröditzberg) has a history dating back to 1155 and is located in the Silesia region of Poland.

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Grodzisk Wielkopolski

Grodzisk Wielkopolski (Grätz) is a town in western Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship (Wielkopolskie), with a population of 13,703 (2006).

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Grodziskie

Grodziskie (other names: Grätzer, Grodzisz) is a historical style of beer from Poland that is typically made from oak-smoked wheat malt.

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Grove, Buckinghamshire

Grove is a tiny village in the parish of Slapton, Buckinghamshire, England.

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Gualberto Fabricio de Vagad

Gualberto Fabricio de Vagad was an Aragonese Cistercian Benedictine monk and the first historian of the Kingdom of Aragon.

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Guðrøðr Óláfsson

Guðrøðr Óláfsson (died 10 November 1187) was a twelfth-century ruler of the kingdoms of Dublin and the Isles.

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Gubbio

Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia (Umbria).

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Gudhem

Gudhem is a locality situated in Falköping Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden.

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Gudhem Abbey

Gudhem Abbey, Swedish Gudhems kloster, in operation from 1152 to 1529, was a nunnery in Sweden, initially Benedictine and later Cistercian.

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Guerric of Igny

Guerric of Igny (c. 1070/80-1157) was a Cistercian abbot.

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Guglielma

Guglielma (died 1279-82) was an Italian woman of the 13th century, who practiced and preached an alternative, feminized version of Christianity in which she predicted the end of time and her own resurrection as the Holy Spirit incarnate.

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Gui Guerrejat

Gui Guerrejat ("the warrior") was the fifth son of William VI of Montpellier.

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Guilden Morden

Guilden Morden, England, is a village and parish located in Cambridgeshire about south west of Cambridge and west of Royston in Hertfordshire.

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Guillaume Court

Guillaume Court (died 1361) was a French Cistercian theologian and Cardinal.

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Guillaume de Deguileville

Guillaume de Deguileville (1295 - before 1358) was a French Cistercian and writer.

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Guimerà

Guimerà (Spanish: Guimerá) is a municipality and village in the comarca of Urgell in the province of Lleida in Catalonia, Spain.

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Guldholm Abbey

Guldholm Abbey (Güldenholm) was a short-lived Cistercian monastery on the Langsee near Böklund, formerly in Denmark, now in Schleswig-Holstein in Germany.

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Gunther of Pairis

Gunther of Pairis (c. 1150 – c. 1220) was a German Cistercian monk and author, writing in Latin.

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Gutenzell Abbey

Gutenzell Abbey (Reichsabtei Gutenzell) was a Cistercian nunnery in the municipality of Gutenzell-Hürbel in the district of Biberach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Guto'r Glyn

Guto'r Glyn (c. 1412 – c. 1493) was a Welsh language poet and soldier of the era of the Beirdd yr Uchelwyr ("Poets of the Nobility") or Cywyddwyr ("cywydd-men"), the itinerant professional poets of the later Middle Ages.

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Guy II of Ponthieu

Guy II of Ponthieu (–25 December 1147) was the son of William III of Ponthieu and Helie of Burgundy.

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Guy Paré

Guy Paré (died 1206) was a French Cistercian, who became general of his order, Archbishop of Reims, and a Cardinal.

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Guy V de Laval

Guy V de Laval (died 1210) was the Lord of Laval, Mayenne.

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Haapsalu Castle

Haapsalu Castle (also Haapsalu Episcopal Castle, Haapsalu piiskopilinnus) is a castle with cathedral in Haapsalu, Estonia, founded in the thirteenth century as the seat of the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek.

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Hachenburg

Hachenburg is a town in the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Hadamar

Hadamar is a small town in Limburg-Weilburg district in Hessen, Germany.

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Hadmar I of Kuenring

Hadmar I of Kuenring (alt. spelling Hademar; died 27 May 1138) was a German nobleman who served as a ministerialis in the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi).

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Hafod Uchtryd

Hafod Uchtryd (summer mansion of Uchtryd) is a wooded and landscaped estate, located in Ceredigion, west Wales, in the Ystwyth valley.

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Hailes Abbey

Hailes Abbey is two miles northeast of Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, England.

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Haina

Haina (Kloster) is a community in Waldeck-Frankenberg in northwest Hesse, Germany.

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Haldensleben

Haldensleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Haller von Hallerstein

Haller von Hallerstein is a Bavarian noble family.

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Halton (barony)

The Barony of Halton, in Cheshire, England, comprised a succession of 15 barons who held under the overlordship of the County Palatine of Chester ruled by the Earl of Chester.

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Hans Hermann Groër

Hans Hermann Wilhelm Groër OSB (13 October 1919 – 24 March 2003) was an Austrian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Hardehausen Abbey

Hardehausen Abbey (Kloster Hardehausen) is a former Cistercian monastery located near Warburg in the district of Höxter in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Hargesheim

Hargesheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Harly Forest

The Harly Forest (Harly-Wald, also Harlywald or just Harly) is a hill range up to above NN in the district of Goslar in southeastern Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Hartwig of Uthlede

Hartwig of Uthlede (died 3 November 1207) was a German nobleman who – as Hartwig II – Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (1185–1190 and de facto again 1192–1207) and one of the originators of the Livonian Crusade.

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Haugh, East Ayrshire

Haugh or The Haugh is a small village or hamlet in East Ayrshire, Parish of Mauchline, Scotland.

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Haughmond Abbey

Haughmond Abbey is a ruined, medieval, Augustinian monastery a few miles from Shrewsbury, England.

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Hautecombe Abbey

Hautecombe Abbey (Altæcumbæum) is a former Cistercian monastery, later a Benedictine monastery, in Saint-Pierre-de-Curtille near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, France.

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Hauterive Abbey

Hauterive Abbey (Abbaye d’Hauterive) is a Cistercian abbey in the Swiss municipality of Hauterive in the canton of Fribourg.

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Hauterive, Fribourg

Hauterive is a municipality in the district of Sarine in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland.

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Haverholme Priory

Haverholme Priory was a monastery in Lincolnshire, England.

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Hawise of Chester, 1st Countess of Lincoln

Hawise of Chester, 1st Countess of Lincoln suo jure (1180- 6 June 1241/3 May 1243), was an Anglo-Norman noblewoman and a wealthy heiress.

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Hayles Abbey Halt railway station

Hayles Abbey Halt railway station is a halt opened by the Great Western Railway on the Honeybourne Line from to Cheltenham which served the hamlet of Hailes in Gloucestershire, as well as the nearby Hailes Abbey, between 1928 and 1960.

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Hélinand of Froidmont

Hélinand of Froidmont (c. 1150—after 1229 (probably 1237)) was a medieval poet, chronicler, and ecclesiastical writer.

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Hôtel de Beauvais

The Hôtel de Beauvais is a hôtel particulier, a kind of large townhouse of France, at at 68 rue Francois-Miron, 4th arrondissement, Paris.

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Hülfensberg

The Hülfensberg (called Stuffenberg in the Middle Ages) is a 448 m high, heavily wooded mountain in the Geismar municipality in the Eichsfeld district, Thuringia, Germany.

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Hüttwilen

Hüttwilen is a municipality in Frauenfeld District in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

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Heart (symbol)

The heart shape is an ideograph used to express the idea of the "heart" in its metaphorical or symbolic sense as the center of emotion, including affection and love, especially romantic love.

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Hedd Wyn

Hedd Wyn (born Ellis Humphrey Evans, 13 January 188731 July 1917) was a Welsh-language poet who was killed on the first day of the Battle of Passchendaele during World War I. He was posthumously awarded the bard's chair at the 1917 National Eisteddfod.

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Hedwig of Brandenburg

Hedwig of Brandenburg, also called Hedwig of Ballenstedt (– end of March 1203), a member of the House of Ascania, was Margravine of Meissen from 1156 until 1190 by her marriage with Margrave Otto II.

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Hedwig of Habsburg

Hedwig (or Heilwig; – 1303), a member of the royal House of Habsburg, was Margravine of Brandenburg from 1279 until 1285/1286, by her marriage with the Ascanian margrave Otto VI of Brandenburg-Salzwedel.

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Hedwig of Silesia

Saint Hedwig of Silesia (Święta Jadwiga Śląska), also Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Heilige Hedwig von Andechs, Hedvigis; 1174 – 15 October 1243), a member of the Bavarian comital House of Andechs, was Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238.

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Hefersweiler

Hefersweiler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Heggbach Abbey

Heggbach Abbey (Reichsabtei Heggbach) was a Cistercian nunnery in Heggbach, now part of the municipality of Maselheim in the district of Biberach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Heiligenkreuz Abbey

Heiligenkreuz Abbey (Stift Heiligenkreuz; Holy Cross) is a Cistercian monastery in the village of Heiligenkreuz in the southern part of the Vienna woods, c. 13 km north-west of Baden in Lower Austria.

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Heiligenkreuz, Lower Austria

Heiligenkreuz is a municipality in the district of Baden, in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.

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Heilsbronn Abbey

Heilsbronn Abbey was a Cistercian monastery at Heilsbronn in the district of Ansbach in Middle Franconia, Bavaria, Germany.

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Heilwig of Lippe

Heilwig of Lippe, also known as Heilwig of Schaumburg (&ndash) was a German noblewoman.

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Heisterbach Abbey

Heisterbach Abbey (Kloster Heisterbach; also Petersthal, formerly Petersberg) was a Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near Oberdollendorf in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Hekla

Hekla, or Hecla, is a stratovolcano in the south of Iceland with a height of.

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Helena (empress)

Helena, or Saint Helena (Greek: Ἁγία Ἑλένη, Hagía Helénē, Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; –), was an Empress of the Roman Empire, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great.

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Helmshore

Helmshore is a village in the Rossendale Valley, Lancashire, England, south of Haslingden between the A56 and the B6235, north of Manchester.

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Hemming of Turku

Blessed Hemming of Turku was a Swedish Roman Catholic bishop and served as the Bishop of Turku from 1338 until 1366.

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Hendregadredd Manuscript

The Hendregadredd Manuscript (Llawysgrif Hendregadredd), is a medieval Welsh manuscript containing an anthology of the poetry of the "Poets of the Princes" (Gogynfeirdd); it was written between 1282 and 1350.

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Henri Baels

Henri Louis Baels (18 January 1878 – 18 June 1951), was a Belgian Catholic Party politician and ship-owner from Ostend.

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Henri Bourde de La Rogerie

Henri Bourde de La Rogerie (8 April 1873, Ernée – 31 January 1949, Rennes) was a French archivist and historian of Brittany.

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Henricus Smeulders

Dom Henricus Smeulders, OCist born as Joseph-Gauthier-Henri in 1826 Mol was a Belgian Abbot of the Common observance.

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Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon

Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon KG (4 March 1526 – 23 July 1596), was an English nobleman and courtier.

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Henry Crumpe

Henry Crumpe (fl.1380–1401) was Anglo-Irish Cistercian.

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Henry Gravrand

Father Henry Gravrand (France, 1921 - Abbey of Latrun, Palestine, 11 July 2003) was a French Catholic missionary to Africa and an anthropologist who has written extensively on Serer religion and culture.

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Henry III, Duke of Głogów

Henry III (I) of Głogów (Henryk III głogowski) (1251/60 – 3 December 1309) was a Duke of Głogów (Glogau) from 1274 to his death and also Duke of parts of Greater Poland during 1306–1309.

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Henry Murdac

Henry Murdac (died 1153) was abbot of Fountains Abbey and Archbishop of York in medieval England,.

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Henry of France, Archbishop of Reims

Henry of France (circa 1121 – 13 November 1175), Bishop of Beauvais (1149–1161), then Archbishop of Reims (1161–1175),Gislebertus of Mons, Chronicle of Hainaut, transl.

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Henry of Langenstein

Henry of Langenstein, also known as Henry of Hesse the Elder (c. 1325 – 11 February 1397), was a German scholastic philosopher, theologian and mathematician.

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Henry of Marcy

Blessed Henry of Marcy (c. 1136 – 1 January 1189 was a Cistercian abbot first of Hautecombe (1160) and then of Clairvaux from 1177 until 1179. He was created Cardinal Bishop of Albano at the Third Lateran Council in 1179. Henry was an important figure in the fight against the late twelfth-century movements of Catharism and Waldensianism and took a leading part at III Lateran. He strongly supported the use of force to suppress heresy and a strong alliance between secular and ecclesiastic authority in the use of force.

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Henry of Nördlingen

Henry of Nördlingen (Heinrich von Nördlingen) was a German Catholic priest from Bavaria, who lived in the 14th century, his date of death being unknown.

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Henry the Bearded

Henry the Bearded (Henryk Brodaty, Heinrich der Bärtige); c. 1165/70 – 19 March 1238), of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1201 and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland — internally divided — from 1232 until his death.

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Henry X, Duke of Bavaria

Henry the Proud (Heinrich der Stolze) (– 20 October 1139), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria (as Henry X) from 1126 to 1138 and Duke of Saxony (as Henry II) as well as Margrave of Tuscany and Duke of Spoleto from 1137 until his death.

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Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria

Henry I of Lower Bavaria, member of the Wittelsbach dynasty (19 November 1235 – 3 February 1290 in Burghausen) was Duke of Lower Bavaria.

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Herkenrode Abbey

Herkenrode Abbey (Abdij van Herkenrode) was monastery of Cistercian nuns located in Kuringen, part of the municipality of Hasselt, which lies in the province of Limburg, Belgium.

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Herman II, Count of Weimar-Orlamünde

Herman II, Count of Weimar-Orlamünde (– 27 December 1247) was a member of the House of Ascania.

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Hermann Wesel

Hermann Wesel (died June 1563) was a German ecclesiastic in Livonia, and the last Roman Catholic Bishop of Dorpat (Tartu).

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Hermenegildo Alóitez

Hermenegildo Alóitez (c. 898 – before 966), was a magnate and member of the highest nobility of Galicia in the 10th-century.

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Hermit

A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.

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Hermits of Saint William

The Hermits of Saint William was a monastic order founded by Albert, companion and biographer of William of Maleval, and Renaldus, a physician who had settled at Maleval shortly before the saint's death.

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Hernando de Aragón

Hernando de Aragón y de Gurrea, OCist (25 July 1498 – 29 January 1575), Archbishop of Zaragoza and Lieutenant General of Aragon, was an Aragonese humanist and historian.

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Herrenalb Abbey

Herrenalb Abbey (Kloster Herrenalb; Alba dominorum) is a former Cistercian monastery in the present Bad Herrenalb in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Herrevad Abbey

Herrevad Abbey (Herrevadskloster, Herrevads Kloster) was a Cistercian monastery near Ljungbyhed in Klippan Municipality, Scania, in the south of present-day Sweden, but formerly in Denmark until 1658.

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Heusden, Belgium

Heusden was a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders.

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Heynings Priory

Heynings Priory was a priory in Knaith, Lincolnshire, England.

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Hiddensee

Hiddensee is a car-free island in the Baltic Sea, located west of Germany's largest island, Rügen, on the German coast.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Hildegund (virgin)

Hildegund (died 1188) was a German woman who lived under the name Joseph disguised as a male in a monastery.

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Hillerød

Hillerød is a Danish town with a population of 32,689 (2018) located in the centre of North Zealand some 30 km to the north of Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Himmelpforten

Himmelpforten (Low Saxon: Himmelpoorten) is a municipality west of Hamburg (Germany) in the district of Stade in Lower Saxony.

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Himmelpforten Convent

Himmelpforten Convent (Low Saxon: Klooster Hemelpoorten, Kloster Himmelpforten; Conventus Porta Coeli) was founded as a monastery of nuns following the Cistercian Rule during the 13th century in Himmelpforten, in today's Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Himmelstadt

Himmelstadt is a community in the Main-Spessart district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany and a member of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft (Administrative Community) of Zellingen.

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Himmelthal Monastery

The Himmelthal Monastery (German: Kloster Himmelthal) was a Cistercian nunnery in Elsenfeld in Bavaria.

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Himmerod Abbey

Himmerod Abbey (Kloster Himmerod) is a Cistercian monastery in the community of Großlittgen in the Verbandsgemeinde of Manderscheid in the district of Bernkastel-Wittlich, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, located in the Eifel, in the valley of the Salm.

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Hinxworth Place

Hinxworth Place is a medieval manor house near Hinxworth, Hertfordshire, England.

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Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis

The Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis or History of the Church of Abingdon (sometimes known by its older printed title of Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon or occasionally as the Abingdon Chronicle) was a medieval chronicle written at Abingdon Abbey in England in the 12th century.

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History of Australia (1788–1850)

The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies and the beginnings of representative democratic government.

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History of Bedfordshire

Bedfordshire is an English shire county which lies between approximately 25 miles and 55 miles (or approximately 40 and 90 kilometres) north of central London.

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History of Bristol

Bristol is a city with a population of nearly half a million people in south west England, situated between Somerset and Gloucestershire on the tidal River Avon.

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History of Christianity

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

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History of Christianity during the Middle Ages

The history of Christianity during the Middle Ages is the history of Christianity between the Fall of Rome and the onset of the Protestant Reformation during the early 16th century, the development usually taken to mark the beginning of modern Christianity.

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History of Christianity in Hungary

The history of Christianity in Hungary began in the Roman province of Pannonia where the presence of Christian communities is first attested in the 3rd century.

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History of Christianity in Norway

The history of Christianity in Norway started in the Viking Age in the 9th century.

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History of Christianity in Romania

The history of Christianity in Romania began within the Roman province of Lower Moesia, where many Christians were martyred at the end of the 3rd century.

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History of Christianity in Slovakia

The beginnings of the history of Christianity in Slovakia can most probably be traced back to the period following the collapse of the Avar Empire at the end of the 8th century.

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History of Christianity in the Czech Lands

The history of Christianity in the Czech Lands began in the 9th century.

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History of construction

The History of construction overlaps many other fields like structural engineering and relies on other branches of science like archaeology, history and architecture to investigate how the builders lived and recorded their accomplishments.

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History of County Wexford

County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman) is a county located in the south-east of Republic of Ireland, in the province of Leinster.

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History of French wine

The history of French wine, spans a period of at least 2600 years dating to the founding of Massalia in the 6th century BC by Phocaeans with the possibility that viticulture existed much earlier.

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History of Gdańsk

Gdańsk (or;; Kashubian: Gduńsk; Danzig) is one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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History of Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages

The history of Gwynedd in the High Middle Ages is a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th through the 13th centuries.

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History of Ireland (800–1169)

The history of Ireland 800–1169 covers the period in the history of Ireland from the first Viking raids to the Norman invasion.

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History of Kirkstall

Kirkstall is a historically important area of Leeds.

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History of Leeds

Loidis, from which Leeds derives its name, was anciently a forested area of the Celtic kingdom of Elmet.

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History of Maidstone

The History of Maidstone and its environs goes as far back as Mesolithic times.

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History of Partick

This article deals with the history of the Partick area of Glasgow in Scotland.

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History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty

The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.

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History of Poland during the Piast dynasty

The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.

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History of Provence

The historic French province of Provence, located in the southeast corner of France between the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Rhone River and the upper reaches of the Durance River, was inhabited by Ligures since Neolithic times; by the Celtic since about 900 BC, and by Greek colonists since about 600 BC.

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History of science

The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.

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History of Shropshire

Shropshire was established during the division of Saxon Mercia into shires in the 10th century.

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History of Speyer

The history of Speyer begins with the establishment of a Roman camp in 10 BCE, making it one of Germany's oldest cities.

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History of the Catholic Church

The history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and His teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30), and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus.

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History of the Jews in Bratislava

The history of the Jews of Bratislava, today the capital of Slovakia reaches back the Middle Ages, the first record of the Bratislava Jewish community dates from 1251.

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History of the Knights Templar

The Knights Templar were the elite fighting force of their day, highly trained, well-equipped and highly motivated; one of the tenets of their religious order was that they were forbidden from retreating in battle, unless outnumbered three to one, and even then only by order of their commander, or if the Templar flag went down.

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History of the Ruhr

The actual boundaries of the Ruhr vary slightly depending on the source, but a good working definition is to define the Lippe and Ruhr as its northern and southern boundaries respectively, the Rhine as its western boundary, and the town of Hamm as the eastern limit.

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History of Wiltshire

Wiltshire is a historic county located in the South West England region.

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History of wine

The earliest archaeological evidence of grape wine has been found at sites in Georgia (BC), Iran (BC), Greece (BC), and Sicily (BC) although there is earlier evidence of a wine made from fermented grapes among other fruits being consumed in China (c. 7000–5500 BC).

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Hochspeyer

Hochspeyer is a municipality in the district of Kaiserslautern, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Holašovice

Holašovice (Holaschowitz) is a small historic village located in the south of the Czech Republic, 16 kilometres west of České Budějovice.

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Holmcultram Abbey

Holmcultram Abbey (alternatively Holm Cultram Abbey or Holme Cultram Abbey) was a Cistercian monastery in what is now the village of Abbeytown in Cumbria, United Kingdom.

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Holwell, Oxfordshire

Holwell is a village and civil parish about south of Burford in West Oxfordshire.

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Holy Corner (Begijnhof Ghent)

The Holy Corner is the English name for the Oud begijnhof or Old Saint Elisabeth beguinage in Ghent, Belgium.

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Holy Cross Abbey

The Holy Cross Abbey (Mainistir na Croise Naofa) in Tipperary is a restored Cistercian monastery in Holycross near Thurles, County Tipperary, Ireland, situated on the River Suir.

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Holy Cross Church, Binstead

Holy Cross Church, Binstead is a parish church in the Church of England located in Binstead, Isle of Wight.

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Holy Spirit Cathedral (Minsk)

The Holy Spirit Cathedral (Кафедральны сабор Сашэсця Святога Духа.) in Minsk, Belarus is dedicated to the Holy Spirit.

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Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral, Lutsk

The Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral in Lutsk, Ukraine, forms part of the Bernardine Monastery and Church.

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Holycross

Holycross is a village and civil parish in County Tipperary, Ireland.

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Holyrood (cross)

The Holyrood or Holy Rood is a Christian relic considered to be part of the True Cross on which Jesus died.

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Horatius Acquaviva d'Aragona

Horatius Acquaviva d'Aragona (died 13 June 1617) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Caiazzo (1592–1617).

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Hore Abbey

Hore Abbey (also Hoare Abbey, sometimes known as St.Mary's) is a ruined Cistercian monastery near the Rock of Cashel, County Tipperary, Republic of Ireland.

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Horses in the Middle Ages

Horses in the Middle Ages differed in size, build and breed from the modern horse, and were, on average, smaller.

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Horsforth

Horsforth is a suburb and civil parish within the City of Leeds metropolitan borough, in West Yorkshire, England, lying about five miles north west of Leeds city centre.

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House of Black Monk

House of Black Monk — according to a legend progenitor of this house was a Christian monk living in Nukha.

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House of Rapperswil

The House of Rapperswil respectively Counts of Rapperswil (Grafen von Rapperwil since 1233, before Lords) ruled the upper ''Zürichsee'' and Seedamm region around Rapperswil and parts of, as of today, Swiss cantons of St. Gallen, Glarus, Zürich and Graubünden when their influence was most extensive around the 1200s until the 1290s.

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Hovedøya

Hovedøya is one of several small islands off the coast of Oslo, Norway in the Oslofjord.

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Hovedøya Abbey

Hovedøya Abbey was a Cistercian monastery on the island of Hovedøya in Oslo Fjord, founded in 1147 and dissolved in 1532 just before the Reformation.

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Hugh (archbishop of Vienne)

Hugh (died 1155) was a Carthusian monk who served as the bishop of Grenoble from 1132 until 1148 and then as the archbishop of Vienne from 1148 until 1153, when he retired to his old priory of Portes.

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Hugh (Dean of York)

Hugh, first dean of York, was appointed by archbishop Thomas I before December 1093.

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Hugh of Beaulieu

Hugh of Beaulieu (died 1223) was a medieval English Bishop of Carlisle.

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Hugh of Noara

Saint Hugh of Noara or of Novara, also known as Ugo of Novara and Hugo of Novara, was a Cistercian monk and a disciple of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux.

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Hugh of Vaucemain

Hugh of Vaucemain (died 1341) was a French Dominican, who became head of his order in 1333.

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Hugh, Count of Champagne

Seal Hugh (1074 – c.1125) was the Count of Champagne from 1093 until his death.

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Hugo Darnaut

Hugo Darnaut, originally Hugo Fix (28 November 1851, Dessau - 9 January 1937, Vienna) was an Austrian landscape painter.

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Hugo of Ostia

Hugo (died 1 December 1158) was a French Cistercian and Cardinal.

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Hulton Abbey

Hulton Abbey is a scheduled monument in the United Kingdom, a former monastery located in what is now Abbey Hulton, a suburb of Stoke-on-Trent.

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Humphrey Jervis

Humphrey Jervis (1630 -1707) KBE was the first private improver in the history of Dublin.

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Humphrey Stafford (died 1442)

Sir Humphrey Stafford of Hooke, Dorset (c. 1379 – 27 May 1442) was a member of the fifteenth-century English gentry in the south west of England, where he was a Member of Parliament multiple times and an important royal official.

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Hunterian Psalter

The Hunterian Psalter (or York Psalter) is an illuminated manuscript of the 12th century.

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Huntingdonshire

Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire, as well as a historic county of England.

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Hurstbourne Tarrant

Hurstbourne Tarrant is a village and civil parish in Hampshire, England.

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Hutton Cranswick

Hutton Cranswick is a village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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Huw Cae Llwyd

Huw Cae Llwyd (c.1431 - c.1504) was a Welsh language poet from Llandderfel in the Dee valley of Merioneth as he witnessed in his Cywydd y Wennol (Poem to the Swallow).

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Hyacinth of Caesarea

Hyacinth (died 108) was a young Christian living at the start of the second century, who is honored as a martyr and a saint by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

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Hythe Bridge Street

Hythe Bridge Street is in the west of central Oxford, England, forming part of the A4144 road.

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Ibstock

Ibstock is a village and civil parish about south of Coalville in North West Leicestershire, England.

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Ickleton

Ickleton is a village and civil parish about south of Cambridge in Cambridgeshire, England.

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Idesbald

SaintSome sources refer to him as blessed or Beatus rather than Saint.

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Ignatius von Weitenauer

Ignatius von Weitenauer (November 1, 1709 – February 4, 1783) was a German Jesuit writer, exegete, and Orientalist.

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Ignác Raab

Ignác Viktorin Raab (5 September 1715 – 2 February 1787) was a Czech Jesuit brother and is considered one of the most important Czech painters of the 18th century.

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Igny Abbey

Igny Abbey or Val d'Igny Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame d'Igny; Abbaye Notre-Dame du Val d'Igny) is a Cistercian abbey located in Arcis-le-Ponsart, Marne, France.

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Igriș Abbey

Igriș Abbey (Egresi ciszterci monostor; (Mănăstirea Igriș; Abbaye de Hégerieux) is a former Cistercian monastery in Sânpetru Mare, Timiș County, Romania. The Igriș Abbey was founded in 1179 as a filial abbey of Pontigny. Here is attested the oldest library in the territory of present-day Romania. Here was buried king Andrew II of Hungary and his second wife, Yolanda de Courtenay.

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Ikšķile

Ikšķile (Uexküll; Ikškilā; Üksküla) is a town in Latvia, the administrative centre of Ikšķile municipality.

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Immaculate Heart of Mary Church (Cleveland, Ohio)

Immaculate Heart of Mary Church (Kościół Niepokalanego Serca Najświętszej Maryi Panny), is a Catholic parish church in Cleveland, Ohio and part of the Diocese of Cleveland.

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Infant Jesus of Prague

The Infant Jesus of Prague or Child of Prague (Pražské Jezulátko; Niño Jesús de Praga) is a 16th-century Roman Catholic wax-coated wooden statue of child Jesus holding a globus cruciger, located in the Discalced Carmelite Church of Our Lady Victorious in Malá Strana, Prague, Czech Republic.

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Inglesham

Inglesham is a small village and civil parish in the borough of Swindon, Wiltshire, England.

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Inishail

Inishail (alternate Inchald) is an island and former parish,Wilson, Rev.

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Inislounaght Abbey

Inislounaght Abbey, (Irish Inis Leamhnachta trans. 'island of the fresh milk'), also referred to as Innislounaght, Inislounacht and De Surio, was a 12th-century Cistercian settlement on the river Suir, near Clonmel in County Tipperary, Ireland.

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Innishannon Tower

Innishannon Tower is the ruin of a Huguenot chapel tower built beside the original church and graveyard in the town of Innishannon, County Cork.

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Innocenzo Migliavacca

Innocenzo Migliavacca, O. Cist. or Innocenzo Milliavacca (16 July 1635 – 21 February 1714) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Asti (1693–1714).

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International Congress on Medieval Studies

The International Congress on Medieval Studies is an annual academic conference held for scholars specializing in, or with an interest in, medieval studies.

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Into Great Silence

Into Great Silence (Die große Stille) is a documentary film directed by Philip Gröning that was released in 2005.

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Irish Catholic Martyrs

Irish Catholic Martyrs were dozens of people who have been sanctified in varying degrees for dying for their Roman Catholic faith between 1537 and 1714 in Ireland.

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Isaac of Stella

Isaac of Stella, also referred to as Isaac de l'Etoile, (c. 1100, in England – c. 1170s, Étoile, Archigny, France) was a monk, theologian and philosopher.

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Isenhagen Abbey

Isenhagen Abbey (Kloster Isenhagen) is a convent in Hankensbüttel in the district of Gifhorn in the German state of Lower Saxony.

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Isidore Bakanja

Blessed Isidore Bakanja (c. 1887 at Bokendela in Belgian Congo – 15 August 1909 at Busira, Belgian Congo) was beatified on 24 April 1994 by Pope John Paul II.

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Isole Tremiti

The Isole Tremiti are an archipelago in the Adriatic Sea, north of the Gargano Peninsula.

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Isova

Isova is a ruined Frankish monastery in the Peloponnese, Greece, which was built after the Fourth Crusade and inhabited by Cistercian monks.

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Italian Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture appeared in Italy in the 12th century.

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Ivančna Gorica

Ivančna Gorica (in older sources also Vanjčina Gorica)Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol.

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Jacek Rybiński

Józef Jacek Rybiński (born February 28, 1701 in Torczyn, died 1782 in Oliwa) was a Cisterian and the last abbot of the Oliwa monastery.

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Jacob of Juterbogk

Jacob of Juterbogk (c. 1381 – 30 April 1465) was a German monk and theologian.

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Jacobus Pamelius

Jacobus Pamelius (Jacob van Pamele) (13 May 1536 – 19 September 1587) was a Flemish theologian.

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Jacques de Baerze

Jacques de Baerze (active before 1384, died after 1399) was a Flemish sculptor in wood, two of whose major carved altarpieces survive in Dijon, now in France, then the capital of the Duchy of Burgundy.

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Jakub Wujek

Jakub Wujek (1541 – 27 April 1597) son of Maciej Wujek; a Polish Jesuit, religious writer, Doctor of Theology, Vice-Chancellor of the Vilnius Academy and translator of the Bible into Polish.

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James Elphinstone, 1st Lord Balmerino

James Elphinstone, 1st Lord Balmerino (1553? – 1612) was a Scottish nobleman and politician, disgraced in 1609.

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James Hay (bishop)

James Hay O. Cist.

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James III, Margrave of Baden-Hachberg

Margrave James III of Baden-Hachberg (26 May 1562 – 17 August 1590) was margrave of Baden-Hachberg from 1584 to 1590 and resided at Emmendingen.

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James K. Baxter

James Keir Baxter (29 June 1926 – 22 October 1972) was a poet, and is a celebrated figure in New Zealand society.

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James of Majorca (monk)

James of Majorca (Jaume; after 1275 – 1330) was a member of the House of Barcelona and of the Order of Saint Francis.

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James Salomoni

Blessed Giacomo Salomoni (1231 – 31 May 1314) was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member from the Order of Preachers.

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Jan Štěkna

Jan Štěkna (died c. 1407) was a Czech Cistercian who lived in the 14th–15th centuries and served as the pastor of Jadwiga of Poland.

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Jan Kryštof Liška

Jan Kryštof Liška (Johann Christoph Lischka; c. 1650 – August 23, 1712) was a Czech Baroque painter.

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Jan Madaliński

Jan Madaliński, O. Cist. (died 1644) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Auxiliary Bishop of Gniezno (1640–1644).

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Jan Piwnik

Jan Piwnik (1912–1944) was a Polish World War II soldier, a cichociemny and a notable leader of the Home Army in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains.

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Janet Burton

Janet Burton is professor of medieval history at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David.

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Jarler

Jarler (Latin Jarlerius) was Archbishop of Sweden from 1236 to 1255.

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Jaromar I, Prince of Rügen

Jaromar I was a Prince of Rügen between 1170 and 1218.

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Jaromar II, Prince of Rügen

Jaromar II, Prince of Rügen (– 20 August 1260) was a Danish nobleman.

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Javal family

The Javal family originated in Alsace.

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János Brenner

Blessed János Brenner (17 December 1931 – 15 December 1957) - in religious Anasztáz - was a Hungarian Roman Catholic priest and professed member from the Cistercians.

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Jérôme Souchier

Jérôme Souchier (1508–1571) was a French Roman Catholic cardinal.

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Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels

Adolf Josef Lanz a.k.a. Jörg Lanz, who called himself Lanz von Liebenfels (19 July 1874 – 22 April 1954), was an Austrian political and racial theorist and occultist, who was a pioneer of Ariosophy.

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Jüterbog

Jüterbog is a historic village in north-eastern Germany, in the Teltow-Fläming district of Brandenburg.

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Jędrzejów

Jędrzejów is a town in Poland, located in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, about southwest of Kielce.

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Jędrzejów Abbey

Jędrzejów Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey founded in the 12th century in Poland.

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Jean de Béthune

Jean de Béthune (died 1219), a member of the noble House of Bethune, was a French cleric who became the Roman Catholic bishop of the diocese of Cambrai and ruler of the principality of Cambrésis in the Holy Roman Empire.

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Jean de Montmirail

Jean de Montmirail (or Monte-Mirabili), Baron de Montmirail, O.S.B. Cist.

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Jean Wahl

Jean André Wahl (25 May 188819 June 1974) was a French philosopher.

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Jean-Louis de Cordemoy

The Abbé Jean-Louis de Cordemoy (1655–1714) was a French architectural historian, prior of St-Nicolas at La-Ferté-sous-Jouarre (Seine-et-Marne), and a canon at St-Jean-des-Vignes, Soissons (Aisne).

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Jeanne de Lestonnac

Jeanne de Lestonnac, O.D.N., (December 27, 1556 – February 2, 1640), alternately known as Joan of Lestonnac, was a Roman Catholic saint and foundress of the Sisters of the Company of Mary, Our Lady, in 1607.

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Jena

Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.

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Jerónimo de Pasamonte

Jerónimo de Pasamonte (1553 - after 1605) was a Spanish military man, monk of the Cistercian Order, and a Spanish writer of the Golden Age.

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Jerpoint Abbey

Jerpoint Abbey is a ruined Cistercian abbey, founded in the second half of the 12th century, near Thomastown, County Kilkenny, Ireland.

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Jervaulx Abbey

Jervaulx Abbey in East Witton near the city of Ripon, was one of the great Cistercian abbeys of Yorkshire, England, dedicated to St. Mary in 1156.

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Jesus bloodline

The Jesus bloodline is a hypothetical sequence of lineal descendants of the historical Jesus, often by Mary Magdalene, usually portrayed as his wife.

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Jesus Christus nostra salus

"" (Jesus Christ, our salvation) is a hymn in Ecclesiastical Latin celebrating the Eucharist.

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Jiří Kornatovský

Jiří Kornatovský (* 2 March 1952, Plasy, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech painter, draughtsman and printmaker.

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Joachim of Fiore

Joachim of Fiore, also known as Joachim of Flora and in Italian Gioacchino da Fiore (c. 1135 – 30 March 1202), was an Italian theologian and the founder of the monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore.

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Joan, Countess of Flanders

Joan, often called Joan of Constantinople (1200? – 5 December 1244), ruled as Countess of Flanders and Hainaut from 1205 until her death.

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Joanna de Hertoghe

Joanna de Hertoghe (c. 1566–1630) was an abbess of the Cistercian Oosteeklo Abbey in Ghent.

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Joannes van Heymissem

Joannes van Heymissen OCist, (born 's-Hertogenbosch, 1621; died Burtscheid, 1678) was the 36th abbot of Hemiksem Abbey.

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Jocelin of Glasgow

Jocelin (or Jocelyn) (died 1199) was a twelfth-century Cistercian monk and cleric who became the fourth Abbot of Melrose before becoming Bishop of Glasgow, Scotland.

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Jocelin of Soissons

Jocelin of Soissons (died 24 October 1152) was a French theologian, a philosophical opponent of Abelard.

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Jocelyn of Furness

Jocelyn of Furness (fl. 1175-1214) was an English Cistercian hagiographer, known for his Lives of Saint Waltheof, Saint Patrick, Saint Kentigern and Saint Helena of Constantinople.

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Johannes (Cistercian; Bishop of Leighlin)

Johannes (also known as John), O.Cist. was an Irish bishop in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries.

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John Abel

John Abel (1578/9 — January 1675) was an English carpenter and mason, granted the title of 'King's Carpenter', who was responsible for several notable structures in the ornamented Half-timbered construction typical of the West Midlands.

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John Almond (monk)

John Almond (1537 – 18 April 1585) was a Cistercian monk.

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John Butler of Clonamicklon

John Butler of Clonamicklon (or of Lismalin), (1305- January 6, 1330) was born in Arklow, Wicklow, Ireland the youngest son of Edmund Butler, Earl of Carrick and Joan FitzGerald.

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John Cassian

John Cassian (–), John the Ascetic, or John Cassian the Roman (Ioannes Eremita Cassianus, Ioannus Cassianus, or Ioannes Massiliensis), was a Christian monk and theologian celebrated in both the Western and Eastern Churches for his mystical writings.

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John de Courcy

Sir John de Courcy (also Courci; 1150–1219) was an Anglo-Norman knight who arrived in Ireland in 1176.

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John Dobree Dalgairns

John Dobree Dalgairns (21 October 18186 April 1876), English Roman Catholic priest, was born in Guernsey.

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John Griffith (monk)

John Griffith or Griffin (fl. 1553) was a Welsh præmonstratensian and a monk of the order of Cistercians in Halesowen Abbey, Worcestershire.

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John Hooper (bishop)

John Hooper, Johan Hoper, (1 March 1495 – 9 February 1555) was an English churchman, Anglican Bishop of Gloucester, and Worcester, a Protestant reformer and a Protestant martyr.

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John I, Count of Oldenburg

John I, Count of Oldenburg (&ndash) was a ruling Count of Oldenburg from 1233 until his death.

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John I, Margrave of Brandenburg

John I, Margrave of Brandenburg (– 4 April 1266) was from 1220 until his death Margrave of Brandenburg, jointly with his brother Otto III "the Pious".

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John II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal

John II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal (1237 – 10 September 1281) was co-ruler of Brandenburg with his brother Otto "with the arrow" from 1266 until his death.

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John Lexington

Sir John Lexington (or Lexinton or Lessington; also de Lexington) (died 1257) was a baron and royal official in 13th century England.

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John Lingo

John Lingo, born possibly ca. 1500-1510, was Vicar of St. Hilary, in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales from after 1554 through ca. 1560/1.

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John of Bohemia

John the Blind (Jang de Blannen; Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Jan Lucemburský; 10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland.

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John of Ford

John of Ford (c. 1140 – 21 April 1214) was the prior of the Cistercian monastery of Forde, then from 1186 abbot of its daughter house of Bindon, and between 1191 and 1214 the abbot of Forde.

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John of Mirecourt

John of Mirecourt, also known as Monachus Albus, was a Cistercian scholastic philosopher of the fourteenth century, from Mirecourt, Lorraine.

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John of Nepomuk

Saint John of Nepomuk (or John Nepomucene) (Jan Nepomucký; Johannes Nepomuk; Ioannes Nepomucenus) (1345 – March 20, 1393) is the saint of Bohemia (Czech Republic), who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia.

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John of Neumarkt

John of Neumarkt also Johannes von Neumarkt (Ioannes de Novo Foro, Jan ze Středy; 1310 in Neumarkt - December 24, 1380 in Modřice, Moravia) was Chancellor of Emperor Charles IV, elected Bishop of Naumburg, Bishop of Litomyšl, Bishop of Olomouc and Elector of Wroclaw.

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John of the Grating

John of the Grating was a Cistercian Bishop of Aleth.

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John of Toledo

John of Toledo (died 1275) was an English Cistercian and Cardinal.

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John of Viktring

John of Viktring (Johann von Viktring, Janez Vetrinjski, Iohannis abbatis Victorensis; 12 November 1347) was a late medieval chronicler and political advisor to Duke Henry of Carinthia.

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John of Wildeshausen

John of Wildeshausen, O.P., also called Johannes Teutonicus (c. 1180 – 4 November 1252) was a German Dominican friar, who was made a bishop in Bosnia and later the fourth Master General of the Dominican Order.

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John Richard Walbran

John Richard Walbran (24 December 1817 – 7 April 1869) was a British antiquarian.

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John Scudamore, 1st Viscount Scudamore

John Scudamore, 1st Viscount Scudamore (22 March 1601 – 19 May 1671) was an English diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1629.

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John Willem Gran

Willem Nicolaysen Gran (monastic name: John) (born 5 April 1920 in Bergen; died 20 March 2008 in Paris) was the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo from 1963 to 1983.

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Josceline de Bohon

Josceline de Bohon or Bohun (c. 1111–1184) was an Anglo-Norman religious leader.

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Joseph d'Ortigue

Joseph Louis d'Ortigue (22 May 1802 – 20 November 1866) was a French musicologist and critic.

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Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor

Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.

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Joseph Vaz

Joseph Vaz, CO, (Konkani: Sant Zuze Vaz; Portuguese: São José Vaz; புனித யோசப் வாஸ் Punidha Yosap Vaz; ශාන්ත ජුසේ වාස් මුනිතුමා, ලංකා අපොස්තුළුවරයා Santha Juse Vaz Piyathuma, Lanka Aposthuluvaraya), (21 April 165116 January 1711) was an Oratorian priest and missionary in Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon.

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Joseph-Marie Trịnh Như Khuê

Joseph-Marie Trịnh Như Khuê (December 11, 1898–November 27, 1978) was the first Vietnamese cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Jouy-le-Moutier

Jouy-le-Moutier is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz

Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz (Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz, May 23, 1606 in Madrid — September 7 or 8, 1682 in Vigevano) was a Spanish Catholic scholastic philosopher, ecclesiastic, mathematician and writer.

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Juan Conchillos Falco

Juan Conchillos Falco (1641 – 14 May 1711) was a Spanish painter.

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Juan Esteban Ferrero

Juan Esteban Ferrero, O. Cist. or Giovanni Stefano Ferrero (1568–1610) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Vercelli (1599–1610) and Apostolic Nuncio to Emperor (1604–1607).

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Juan Núñez de Prado (Grand Master of Calatrava)

Juan Núñez de Prado (died 1355), illegitimate son of Infanta Blanche of Portugal and a Portuguese nobleman named Pedro Nunes Carpinteyro, was a nobleman in the 14th century who became Master of the Order of Calatrava in 1325 after leading a revolt against the former Master.

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Juliana of Liège

Saint Juliana of Liège, O.Praem. (also called Juliana of Mount-Cornillon), (1192 or 1193 – 5 April 1258) was a medieval Norbertine canoness regular and mystic in what is now Belgium.

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Julita Abbey

Julita Abbey was a monastery for Cistercian monks in the parish of Julita in Oppunda Hundred, Södermanland, Sweden.

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Kaława

Kaława (Kalau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Międzyrzecz, within Międzyrzecz County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.

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Kabinett

Kabinett (literal meaning: cabinet), or sometimes Kabinettwein (literal meaning: a wine set aside in a cabinet), is a German language wine term for a wine which is made from fully ripened grapes of the main harvest, typically picked in September, and are usually made in a light style.

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Kail

Kail is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Kaisheim Abbey

The Imperial Abbey of Kaisersheim (German:Reichsstift Kaisersheim or Kloster Kaisersheim), was a Cistercian monastery in Kaisersheim (now Kaisheim), Bavaria, Germany.

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Kalán Bár-Kalán

Kalán from the kindred Bár-Kalán (Bár-Kalán nembeli Kalán, Calanus Coelius or Juvencius Coelius; died late 1218) was a prelate and royal official in the Kingdom of Hungary at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries.

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Kamieniec Ząbkowicki

Kamieniec Ząbkowicki (N.S.) is a village in Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Kamienna Góra

Kamienna Góra (Landeshut, Lanžhot, Kamenná Hora) is a town in south-western Poland with 21,440 inhabitants (2006).

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Kamp Abbey

Kamp Abbey (Kloster Kamp), also known as Altenkamp Abbey or Alt(en)feld Abbey (and in English formerly Camp Abbey) was the first Cistercian monastery founded in German territory, in the present town of Kamp-Lintfort in North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Kappel Abbey

Kappel Abbey is a former Cistercian monks monastery located in Kappel am Albis in the Swiss canton of Zurich.

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Kappel am Albis

Kappel am Albis is a municipality in the district of Affoltern in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.

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Karl Drerup

Karl Joseph Maria Drerup (1904 – 2000) was a leading figure in the mid-twentieth-century American enamels field.

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Kaunas Priest Seminary

Kaunas Priest Seminary (Kauno kunigų seminarija) is the largest seminary in Lithuania serving the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kaunas.

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Kärkna Abbey

Kärkna Abbey (Kärkna klooster; Kloster Falkenau or Valkenau), now ruined, was a former Cistercian monastery in Estonia.

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Königsbronn

Königsbronn is a municipality in the district of Heidenheim in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.

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Königsbronn Abbey

Königsbronn Abbey (Kloster Königsbronn) was a Cistercian monastery in Königsbronn in Heidenheim an der Brenz, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Königswinter

Königswinter is a city and summer resort in the Rhein-Sieg district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Külz

Külz is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Keddington

Keddington is a village and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Keswick, Cumbria

Keswick is an English market town and civil parish, historically in Cumberland, and since 1974 in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria.

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Khirbat al-Tannur

Khirbat al-Tannur (خربة التنور), also Allar al-Sifla ("Lower Allar"),Petersen, 2001, was a Palestinian Arab hamlet in the Jerusalem Subdistrict, near Allar.

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Kilbeggan

Kilbeggan is the main town in Barony of Moycashel, County Westmeath, Ireland.

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Kilburn, North Yorkshire

Kilburn is a village in the civil parish of Kilburn High and Low, in the Hambleton district in the county of North Yorkshire, England.

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Kilconquhar

Kilconquhar (or; Kineuchar, from the Cill Dúnchad or Conchad, Church of (St) Duncan or Conchad) is a village and parish in Fife in Scotland.

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Kilcooly Abbey

Kilcooley Abbey is a Cistercian abbey close to the village of Gortnahoe in Tipperary, Ireland.

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Kildare Poems

The Kildare Poems or Kildare Lyrics are a group of sixteen poems written in an Irish dialect of Middle English and dated to the mid-14th century.

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Kingdom of Albania (medieval)

The Kingdom of Albania (Regnum Albaniae) was established by Charles of Anjou in the Albanian territories he conquered from the Byzantine Empire in 1271.

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Kingdom of Castile

The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.

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Kingswood Abbey

Kingswood Abbey was a Cistercian abbey, located in the village of Kingswood near Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, England.

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Kingswood, Stroud District

Kingswood is a village and civil parish within the Stroud district of Gloucestershire, England.

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Kinloss

Kinloss (Gaelic: Cinn Lois) is a village in Moray, Scotland.

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Kinloss Abbey

Kinloss Abbey is a Cistercian abbey at Kinloss in the county of Moray, Scotland.

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Kirkburton

Kirkburton is a village, civil parish and local government ward in the metropolitan county of West Yorkshire, England, south east of Huddersfield, in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees.

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Kirklees Hall

Kirklees Hall is a 16th-century Grade I listed Jacobean hall, close to the English village of Clifton in Calderdale, West Yorkshire.

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Kirklees Priory

Kirklees Priory was a Cistercian nunnery whose site is in the present-day Kirklees Park, Clifton near Brighouse, West Yorkshire, England.

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Kirklees, West Yorkshire

Kirklees was the site of a Cistercian Priory north of Mirfield, in what is now West Yorkshire, in the metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, and close to the current site of the M62 motorway.

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Kirkstall

Kirkstall is a north-western suburb of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, on the eastern side of the River Aire.

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Kirkstall Abbey

Kirkstall Abbey is a ruined Cistercian monastery in Kirkstall, north-west of Leeds city centre in West Yorkshire, England.

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Kirkstead

Kirkstead is an ancient village and former parish on the River Witham in Lincolnshire, England.

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Kirkstead Abbey

Kirkstead Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in Kirkstead, Lincolnshire, England.

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Klaarkamp Abbey

Klaarkamp Abbey (Klooster Klaarkamp; Monasterium beatae Mariae de Claro Campo) was a Cistercian monastery in the community of Dongeradeel, about 4 kilometres southwest of Dokkum and 2 kilometres north of Rinsumageast in the Dutch province of Friesland.

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Klein-Sinaai

Klein-Sinaai is a village near the Dutch border in the Belgian municipality of Stekene in the province of East Flanders.

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Kleinlützel Priory

Kleinlützel Priory was a small religious house at Kleinlützel, a community in the district of Thierstein in the Canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.

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Kloster Mariensee

The Kloster Mariensee (i.e. Mariensee Convent) is an Evangelical Lutheran women's convent in Mariensee, a district of Neustadt am Rübenberge close to Hanover.

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Klosterkumbd

Klosterkumbd is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Knaith

Knaith is a village and civil parish about south of the town of Gainsborough in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Knardrup Abbey

Knardrup Abbey (Knardrup Kloster; Conventus regalis curiae) was the last medieval Cistercian foundation in Denmark.

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Knights Templar

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.

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Knights Templar in England

The history of the Knights Templar in England began when the French nobleman Hughes de Payens, the founder and Grand Master of the order of the Knights Templar, visited the country in 1128 to raise men and money for the Crusades.

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Knowth

Knowth (Cnóbha) is a Neolithic passage grave and an ancient monument of the World Heritage Site of Brú na Bóinne located 8.4 km west of Drogheda in Ireland's valley of the River Boyne.

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Kołbacz

Kołbacz (Kolbatz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Stare Czarnowo, within Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.

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Kołbacz Abbey

The Kołbacz Abbey was a Cistercian monastery located in Kołbacz, Poland.

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Koło Castle

Koło Castle - a Gothic castle, which according to Jan Długosz was raised by Casimir III the Great before the year of 1362 (when Koło received its town rights).

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Koenigsbruck Abbey

Koenigsbruck Abbey otherwise Königsbrück Abbey (Abbaye de Koenigsbruck; Kloster Königsbrück) was a Cistercian abbey in the Forest of Haguenau, near Leutenheim, Alsace, Bas-Rhin, France, on the River Sauer.

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Koksijde

Koksijde (Coxyde, West Flemish: Koksyde) is a town and a municipality in Belgium.

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Konrad of Eberbach

Konrad or Conrad of Eberbach (Konrad von Eberbach, Conradus Eberbacensis) (died 18 September 1221) was a Cistercian monk, and later abbot, of Eberbach Abbey, Germany, and historian of the early Cistercian Order.

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Koprzywnica

Koprzywnica is a town in Sandomierz County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,546 inhabitants (2004).

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Koronowo

Koronowo (archaic Polnisch Krone) is a town on the Brda River in Poland, located in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, 25 km from Bydgoszcz, with 11,029 inhabitants (2010).

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Kostanjevica na Krki

Kostanjevica na Krki (also Kostanjevica ob Krki, LandstraßLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 68.), is a small town in the historic Lower Carniola region of southern Slovenia.

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Krumme Lanke

is a lake in the south west of Berlin, in the Steglitz-Zehlendorf borough of the city and on the edge of the Grunewald forest.

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Krzeszów Abbey

Krzeszów Abbey, formerly known as Grüssau Abbey (Klasztor w Krzeszowie, Kloster Grüssau) refers to a historical Cistercian monastery in Grüssau, Lower Silesia, after 1945 Krzeszów, Poland.

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Krzeszów, Lower Silesian Voivodeship

Krzeszów (Grüssau) is a village in south-western Poland.

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Kurisumala Ashram

Kurisumala Ashram is a Cistercian Monastery in Syro-Malankara Catholic Church in the Sahya Mountains in Kerala, India.

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Kutjevo

The settlements included in the administrative area of Kutjevo include.

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Kutjevo Abbey

Kutjevo Abbey, also known as Gotó (Vallis honesta de Gotho) was a Cistercian monastery in what is now Croatia, in the area of Slavonia, 23 km north-east of Požega.

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Kutná Hora

Kutná Hora (medieval Czech: Hory Kutné; Kuttenberg) is a city situated in the Central Bohemian Region of Bohemia, which is now part of the Czech Republic.

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L'Aumône Abbey

L’Aumône Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame de l’Aumône, Eleemosynae; also known as Petit-Cîteaux, Cistercium minus) is a former Cistercian monastery in the commune of La Colombe, Loir-et-Cher, France, 34 kilometres north of Blois in the Forêt de Cîteaux, part of the Forêt de Marchenoir.

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L'Épau Abbey

L'Épau Abbey (Abbaye de l'Épau) is a former Cistercian abbey founded by the English queen Berengaria of Navarre in 1229.

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L'Étanche Abbey, Lorraine

L'Étanche Abbey, Lorraine, is a former Premonstratensian monastery founded in the 12th century, the ruins of which are near the modern village of Deuxnouds-aux-Bois, in the commune of Lamorville, Meuse, France.

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La Cambre Abbey

The Abbey of La Cambre or Ter Kameren Abbey (Abbaye de La Cambre, Abdij Ter Kameren) is a former Cistercian abbey in Ixelles, Brussels, Belgium.

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La Clarté-Dieu

The Abbey of La Clarté-Dieu was a Cistercian monastery located in Saint-Paterne-Racan, France.

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La Cour-Dieu Abbey

La Cour-Dieu Abbey (Abbaye de La Cour-Dieu; Curia Dei) is a former Cistercian monastery in the commune of Ingrannes in Loiret, France, situated about 19 km south of Pithiviers.

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La Ferté Abbey

La Ferté Abbey (Abbaye de la Ferté; Firmitas) was a Cistercian monastery founded in 1113 in La Ferté-sur-Grosne in the present commune of Saint-Ambreuil, Saône-et-Loire, France, the first of the four great daughter-houses of Cîteaux Abbey.

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La Granja d'Escarp

La Granja d'Escarp is a municipality in the ''comarca'' of the Segrià in Catalonia, Spain.

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La Lucerne Abbey

La Lucerne Abbey (Abbaye Sainte-Trinité de La Lucerne) is a Premonstratensian monastery situated in the forests of the Thar valley in the Manche department, near the commune of La Lucerne-d'Outremer, in France.

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La Magione, Palermo

The Basilica of the Most Holy Trinity (Italian: Basilica della Santissima Trinità), commonly known as Basilica del Cancelliere, Basilica La Magione or simply La Magione, is a Norman church of Palermo.

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La Maigrauge Abbey

La Maigrauge Abbey or Magerau Abbey (Abbaye de la Maigrauge; Abtei Magerau) is a monastery of Cistercian nuns located in Fribourg, Switzerland, and founded in 1255.

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La Trappe Abbey

La Trappe Abbey or La Grande Trappe is a monastery in Soligny-la-Trappe, Orne, France, and the house of origin of the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (O.C.S.O.: Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), Reformed Cistercians or Trappists, to whom it gave its name.

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La Valsainte Charterhouse

La Valsainte Charterhouse or La Valsainte (Latin: Vallis sanctorum omnium, later Vallis Sancta) situated in La Valsainte in the district of Gruyère, Canton of Fribourg, is the only remaining extant Carthusian monastery in Switzerland.

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Labergement-Sainte-Marie

Labergement-Sainte-Marie is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Lacock Abbey (monastery)

Lacock Abbey was a monastery founded at Lacock, in the county of Wiltshire in England, in the early 13th century by Ela, Countess of Salisbury, as a house of Augustinian Canonesses regular.

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Ladislaus Pyrker

Johann Ladislaus Pyrker (von Oberwart) (von Felsö-Eör) (felsőőri Pyrker János László, born at Nagyláng, Soponya, near Székesfehérvár, Hungary, 2 November 1772; died at Vienna, 2 December 1847) was a Hungarian Cistercian abbot, archbishop and poet.

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Lamezia Terme

Lamezia Terme, commonly called Lamezia, is an Italian city and comune of 70,452 inhabitants (2013) in the province of Catanzaro in the Calabria region.

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Lanciano

Lanciano (Abruzzese: Langiàne) is a town and comune in the province of Chieti, part of the Abruzzo region of central Italy.

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Lands of Tour and Kirkland

The Lands of Tour and Kirkland (NS416406) formed a small estate close to the old Kirktoun and St Maurs-Glencairn collegiate church about 1 km south-east of Kilmaurs, East Ayrshire, Parish of Kilmaurs, Scotland.

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Langenstein family

Langenstein is an extinct noble family that came from Langenstein Castle in Melchnau in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Langheim Abbey

Langheim Abbey was a well-known Cistercian monastery in Klosterlangheim, part of the town of Lichtenfels in Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany, in the Bishopric of Bamberg.

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Langley Priory

Langley Priory is a former Benedictine nunnery in Leicestershire, England.

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Langues d'oïl

The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.

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Lannoy Abbey

Lannoy Abbey, also called Briostel Abbey, was a Cistercian abbey in present-day Oise, France.

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Laskill

Laskill is a small hamlet in Bilsdale, 5 miles (8 km) north-west of Helmsley, North Yorkshire, England, on the road from Helmsley to Stokesley and is located within the North York Moors National Park.

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Lasne

Lasne (Lane) is a Walloon municipality in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant, south east of Brussels.

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Latin Bishopric of Salona

The Latin Bishopric of Salona was a Roman Catholic diocese centred on Amfissa (medieval Salona), in Central Greece, during the period of Frankish rule there after the Fourth Crusade.

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Latin Catholic Archdiocese of Baghdad

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baghdad (Bagdathen(sis) Latinorum.) is a Catholic diocese of the Roman/Latin Rite located in the city of Baghdad in Iraq.

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Latin Empire

The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

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Lawson Park

Lawson Park is a remote English Lake District hillfarm, leased by Grizedale Arts (a contemporary art commissioner) from the Forestry Commission.

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Lay brother

In the past, the term lay brother was used within some Catholic religious institutes to distinguish members who were not ordained from those members who were clerics (priests and seminarians).

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László Iván

Prof. László Iván (born May 9, 1933) is a Hungarian psychiatrist, neurologist, geriatrician, academic and politician, member of the National Assembly (MP) from Fidesz Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County Regional List from 2010 to 2014.

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Lérins Abbey

Lérins Abbey is a Cistercian monastery on the island of Saint-Honorat, one of the Lérins Islands, on the French Riviera, with an active monastic community.

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Lérins Islands

The Lérins Islands (in les Îles de Lérins) are a group of four Mediterranean islands off the French Riviera, in Cannes.

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Løgum Abbey

Løgum Abbey (Løgum kloster; Kloster Lügum) was a Cistercian monastery in the present town of Løgumkloster in North Schleswig in Denmark.

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Løgumkloster

Løgumkloster (Lügumkloster; both mean 'Løgum monastery'), is a town in Tønder municipality in Region of Southern Denmark on the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark with a population of 3,584 (1 January 2014).

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Ląd Abbey

Ląd Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in Ląd, Poland.

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Ląd, Greater Poland Voivodeship

Ląd is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lądek, within Słupca County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.

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Le Breuil-Benoît Abbey

Le Breuil-Benoît Abbey (Brolium Benedicti, Abbaye Notre-Dame du Breuil-Benoît) is a former Cistercian abbey in Marcilly-sur-Eure in the Eure department of Upper Normandy, France.

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Le Thoronet Abbey

Le Thoronet Abbey (L'abbaye du Thoronet) is a former Cistercian abbey built in the late twelfth and early thirteenth century, now restored as a museum.

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Leżajsk

Leżajsk (full name The Free Royal City of Leżajsk, Wolne Królewskie Miasto Leżajsk; Лежайськ, Lezhais’k; ליזשענסק-Lizhensk) is a town in southeastern Poland with 13,871 inhabitants.

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Lectio Divina

In Christianity, Lectio Divina (Latin for "Divine Reading") is a traditional Benedictine practice of scriptural reading, meditation and prayer intended to promote communion with God and to increase the knowledge of God's Word.

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Lee Abbey

Lee Abbey, founded in 1946, is an ecumenical Christian community between Woody Bay and Lynmouth in Devon, England.

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Leeds

Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.

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Lehnin Abbey

Lehnin Abbey (Kloster Lehnin) is a former Cistercian monastery in Lehnin in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Lekeberg Municipality

Lekeberg Municipality (Lekebergs kommun) is a municipality in Örebro County in central Sweden.

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Leopold Janauschek

Leopold Janauschek (13 October 1827 – 23 July 1898) was an Austrian Cistercian historian.

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Leopold VI, Duke of Austria

Leopold VI (Luitpold VI., 1176 – 28 July 1230Beller 2007, pp. 23.), known as Leopold the Glorious (Luitpold der Glorreiche), was the Duke of Styria from 1194 and the Duke of Austria from 1198 to his death in 1230.

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Leopold Wackarž

Leopold Anton Wackarž Ocist.

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Lepiel

Lepel (Ле́пель Lepiel; Lepel; Ле́пель,; ליעפּליע, Li'epli'e) is a town located in the center of the Lepiel Raion (district) in the Vitebsk Province of Belarus near Lepiel Lake.

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Les Feuillants Abbey

Les Feuillants Abbey, also Feuillant Abbey (Abbaye des Feuillants, Abbaye des Feuillans or de Feuillant, also Abbaye Notre-Dame-des-Feuillants, des Feuillans or de Feuillant; Fulium) was a Cistercian monastery located in the present commune of Labastide-Clermont, about 8 kilometres south of Rieumes, department of Haute-Garonne, France.

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Les Tavernes

Les Tavernes is a former municipality in the district of Lavaux-Oron in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Leutenheim

Leutenheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

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Levett

Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche, now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy.

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Liège Cathedral

Liège Cathedral, otherwise St.

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Liber Eliensis

The Liber Eliensis is a 12th-century English chronicle and history, written in Latin.

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Liberty of Rufford

The Liberty of Rufford was an extra-parochial liberty in the County of Nottinghamshire.

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Liberty Trail

A 28-mile (45.1 km) trail between Ham Hill in Somerset and Lyme Regis in Dorset, England.

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Lieu-Croissant Abbey

Lieu-Croissant Abbey (French: Abbaye de Lieu-Croissant) was a Cistercian abbey in Geney, a commune of Doubs in France.

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Lieudieu

Lieudieu is a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France.

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Lilbosch Abbey

Lilbosch Abbey (Abdij Lilbosch) is a monastery of the Trappists (Cistercians of the Strict Observance) founded in 1883 and located in Lilboscherveld in Echt, Limburg, in the Netherlands.

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Lilienfeld Abbey

Lilienfeld Abbey (Stift Lilienfeld) is a Cistercian monastery in Lilienfeld in Lower Austria, south of Sankt Pölten.

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Lilienfelderhof

Domaene Lilienfeld - Lilienfelderhof - is one of the oldest wine estates in Central Europe.

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Lilienthal, Lower Saxony

The municipality of Lilienthal belongs to the administrative district of Osterholz, Lower Saxony and borders Bremen (Free Hanseatic City of Bremen).

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Lilleshall Abbey

Lilleshall Abbey was an Augustinian abbey in Shropshire, England, today located 6 miles north of Telford.

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Lindow (Mark)

Lindow in der Mark, short: Lindow (Mark), is a town in the Ostprignitz-Ruppin district, in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Linquo coax ranis

Linquo coax ranis are the first words of a two-line poem in internally rhymed hexameters by Serlo of Wilton.

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List of abbeys and priories

List of abbeys and priories is a link list for any abbey or priory.

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List of Archbishops of Freiburg

The following men have been Archbishops of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Freiburg.

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List of Babylon 5 characters

The list of Babylon 5 characters contains major and minor characters from the entire Babylon 5 universe.

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List of Benedictine monasteries in France

This is a list of Benedictine monasteries, extant and non-extant, in the present territory of France.

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List of Bishops of Aarhus

The succession of bishops of Aarhus began when the bishop of Aarhus Reginbrand was first mentioned by Adam of Bremen as attending the Synod of Ingelheim.

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List of Brick Romanesque buildings

Brick Romanesque (Backsteinromanik) is an architectural style and chronological phase of architectural history.

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List of Burgundy Grand Crus

Grand Cru (great growth) is the highest level in the vineyard classification of Burgundy.

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List of Catholic Church artists

This list of Catholic artists concerns artists known, at least in part, for their works of religious Roman Catholic art.

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List of Catholic musicians

List of Catholic Church musicians is a list of people who perform or compose Catholic music, a branch of Christian music.

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List of Catholic religious institutes

The following is a list of current Catholic religious institutes.

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List of Christian monasteries in Austria

This is an incomplete list of Christian religious houses in Austria, including those in territory historically Austrian but now in other countries, both for men and for women, whether or not still extant.

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List of Christian monasteries in Belgium

This is a list, as yet incomplete, of Christian religious houses, both extant and dissolved, in Belgium, for both men and women.

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List of Christian monasteries in Denmark

The following is a list, as yet incomplete, of Christian religious houses in Denmark whether extant or not, for both men and for women.

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List of Christian monasteries in Switzerland

This is a list of Christian religious houses in Switzerland for either men or women, whether in operation or not.

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List of Christian religious houses in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

This is a list of Christian religious houses in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany, including Rügen, extant and non-extant, and including houses of both men and women.

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List of Christian religious houses in Saxony

This is an incomplete list of Christian religious houses in Saxony in Germany, extant and non-extant, and including houses of both men and women.

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List of Christians in science and technology

This is a list of Christians in science and technology.

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List of church ruins on Gotland

There are in total nineteen known ruined churches on the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea twelve of which lie in Visby, the island's main town.

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List of churches on Gotland

Of the churches of the Swedish island of Gotland, 93 – the vast majority – are medieval.

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List of Cistercian abbeys in Britain

This is a List of Cistercian monasteries (called abbeys) in Great Britain.

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List of Cistercian monasteries

The Cistercians are a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monks, whose monasteries and abbeys have been built from 1098.

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List of Cistercian monasteries in France

The following is a list of Cistercian monasteries in France, including current and former Cistercian abbeys, and a few priories, on the current territory of France, for both monks and nuns.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Aargau

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of Aargau from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Fribourg

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of Fribourg from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Schwyz

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of Schwyz from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: St. Gallen

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of St. Gallen from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Thurgau

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of Thurgau from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Vaud

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of Vaud from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Zürich

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of Zürich from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland: Zug

This list contains all cultural property of national significance (class A) in the canton of Zug from the 2009 Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance.

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List of cultural references in the Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is a long allegorical poem in three parts (or canticas): the Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise), and 100 cantos, with the Inferno having 34, Purgatorio having 33, and Paradiso having 33 cantos.

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List of current places of worship on the Isle of Wight

there are more than 130 places of worship in use on the Isle of Wight, England's largest island.

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List of ecclesiastical abbreviations

The ecclesiastical words most commonly abbreviated at all times are proper names, titles (official or customary), of persons or corporations, and words of frequent occurrence.

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List of English abbeys, priories and friaries serving as parish churches

Nearly a thousand religious houses; abbeys, priories and friaries were founded in England and Wales during the medieval period; accommodating monks, friars or nuns who had taken vows of obedience, poverty and chastity; each house being led by an abbot or abbess, or by a prior or prioress.

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List of English Heritage properties in Somerset

English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that looks after the National Heritage Collection.

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List of extant papal tombs

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church.

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List of former cathedrals in Great Britain

This is a list of former or once proposed cathedrals in Great Britain.

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List of former Catholic priests

This is a list of notable former Roman Catholic priests.

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List of Galician words of Germanic origin

This is a list of Galician words which have Germanic origin.

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List of Gothic brick buildings

By a lot of people, the term Brick Gothic is used for what more specifically is called Baltic Brick Gothic or North German Brick Gothic.

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List of Gothic brick buildings in Germany

This list is a part of the international List of Gothic brick buildings.

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List of living cardinals

Cardinals are senior ecclesiastical leaders of the Catholic Church, almost always ordained bishops and generally holding important roles within the church, such as governing prominent archdioceses or managing dicasteries within the Roman Curia.

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List of living centenarians

The following is a list of living centenarians (living people who have attained the age of at least 100 years) known for reasons other than their longevity.

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List of long-distance footpaths in the United Kingdom

The following long-distance footpaths can be found in the United Kingdom.

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List of monasteries dissolved by Henry VIII of England

These monasteries were dissolved by King Henry VIII of England in the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

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List of monasteries in Madrid

The following compilation of convents and monasteries in the city of Madrid includes monasteries past and present in Madrid, Spain, divided by the reign in which they were founded.

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List of museums in Baden-Württemberg

This is a list of museums in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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List of museums in Gloucestershire

This list of museums in Gloucestershire, England contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing.

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List of museums in Hampshire

This list of museums in Hampshire, England contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organisations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing.

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List of museums in North Yorkshire

This list of museums in North Yorkshire, England contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing.

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List of museums in Wales

This list of museums in Wales contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing.

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List of museums in West Yorkshire

This list of museums in West Yorkshire, England contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organisations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing.

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List of oldest buildings in Scotland

This article lists the oldest extant freestanding buildings in Scotland.

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List of participants at the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops

In addition to Pope Francis, who served as president of the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, which met on 5–19 October 2014, there were 15 other classes of participants.

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List of people associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas

This is a partial list of alumni, faculty and staff associated with the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum) in Rome, Italy.

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List of places of worship in Barrow-in-Furness

This article lists places of worship in the English town of Barrow-in-Furness.

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List of popes

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes.

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List of post-nominal letters (Ireland)

This is a list of post-nominal letters given in Ireland.

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List of post-nominal letters (Vatican City)

This is a list of post-nominal letters given in Vatican City.

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List of regional characteristics of Romanesque churches

Romanesque art is the architecture of Europe which emerged in the late 10th century and evolved into the Gothic style during the 12th century.

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List of Roman Catholic religious communities in Oregon

The Archdiocese of Portland of the U.S. state of Oregon is home to several monasteries and other Catholic religious communities.

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List of royal saints and martyrs

This list of royal saints and martyrs enumerates Christian monarchs, other royalty, and nobility who have been beatified or canonized, or who are otherwise venerated as or conventionally given the appellation of "saint" or "martyr".

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List of rulers of Duklja

This is a list of rulers of Duklja.

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List of scheduled monuments in Cheshire (1066–1539)

There are over two hundred scheduled monuments in Cheshire, a county in North West England, which date from the Neolithic period to the middle of the 20th century.

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List of scheduled monuments in South Kesteven

South Kesteven is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England, forming part of the traditional Kesteven division of the county.

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List of schools in Ethiopia

This article discusses primary and secondary schools in Ethiopia.

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List of settlements lost to floods in the Netherlands

This list of settlements lost to floods in the Netherlands is an adapted translation of from Dutch, plus some additions from other sources.

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List of statues on Charles Bridge

There are 30 statues mounted to the balustrade of Charles Bridge in Prague.

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List of titular churches

In the Catholic Church, a cleric who is created a cardinal is assigned a titular church, located in Rome, Italy.

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List of tourist attractions in Ireland

The following list cites some of the most popular tourist attractions on the island of Ireland.

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List of work on castles and country houses by Anthony Salvin

Anthony Salvin (1799–1881) was an English architect, born in Sunderland Bridge, County Durham.

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List of works designed with the golden ratio

Many works of art are claimed to have been designed using the golden ratio.

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List of World Heritage Sites in France

This is a list of World Heritage Sites in France with properties of cultural and natural heritage in France as inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List or as on the country's tentative list.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Germany

There are 43 official UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany, 40 cultural and 3 natural, with one additional previous site struck from the list.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Southern Europe

The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 168 World Heritage Sites in all of the 17 sovereign countries (also called "state parties") of Southern Europe: Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, San Marino, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, and Vatican City as well as one site in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Spain

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Western Europe

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has designated 132 World Heritage Sites in Western Europe.

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Listed buildings in Dodcott cum Wilkesley

A total of 21 buildings and other structures in the English civil parish of Dodcott cum Wilkesley have been officially designated as listed buildings for their "special architectural and historic interest".

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Listed buildings in Sawley, Lancashire

Sawley is a civil parish in Ribble Valley, Lancashire, England.

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Listed buildings in Whalley, Lancashire

Whalley is a civil parish in Ribble Valley, Lancashire, England.

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Listed buildings in Whitegate and Marton

Whitegate and Marton is a civil parish in Cheshire West and Chester, England.

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Little Coxwell

Little Coxwell is a village and civil parish about south of Faringdon and east of Great Coxwell.

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Little Faringdon

Little Faringdon is a village and civil parish in West Oxfordshire, about north of Lechlade in neighbouring Gloucestershire.

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Littlemore

Littlemore is a district and civil parish in Oxford, England.

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Livonia

Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Livonian Crusade

The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.

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Llanfihangel y Creuddyn

Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn, (is an ancient parish in the upper division of the hundred of Ilar, Ceredigion, West Wales, 7 miles south east from Aberystwyth, on the road to Rhayader, comprising the chapelry of Eglwys Newydd, or Llanfihangel y Creuddyn Uchaf, and the township of Llanfihangel y Creuddyn Isaf. It was also known as Lower Llanfihangel y Creuddyn, Lower Llanfihangel y Croyddin and Lower Llanfihangel y Croyddyn. This parish is situated on the rivers Ystwyth, Mynach and Rheidol and intersected by various other streams. An ancient parish was a village or group of villages or hamlets and the adjacent lands. Originally they held ecclesiastical functions, but from the sixteenth century onwards they also acquired civil roles. The parish may have been established as an ecclesiastical parish. Originally a medieval administrative unit, after 1597 ecclesiastical units acquired civil functions with the Elizabethan Poor Laws, which made the parishes responsible for welfare. The civil function was exercised through vestry meetings which administered the Poor Law and were responsible for local roads and bridges.Ceredigion, A Wealth of History.

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Llantarnam

Llantarnam (Llanfihangel Llantarnam) is a suburb of Cwmbran, and is a community and electoral ward in the county borough of Torfaen in south east Wales.

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Llantarnam Abbey

Llantarnam Abbey is a Grade II*-listed abbey of the Sisters of St Joseph of Annecy and a former Cistercian monastery located in Llantarnam, Cwmbran in the county borough of Torfaen in southeast Wales.

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Lleision ap Thomas

Lleision ap Thomas or Llyson Thomas etc.

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Llewellyn Xavier

Llewellyn Xavier OBE (born 12 October 1945) is a Saint Lucian artist.

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Llywelyn ap Gruffudd

Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, also known as Llywelyn the Last (lit), was Prince of Wales (Princeps Wallie; Tywysog Cymru) from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282.

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Llywelyn the Great

Llywelyn the Great (Llywelyn Fawr), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 117311 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales.

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Lobkowicz

The House of Lobkowicz (Lobkovicové in modern Czech, sg. z Lobkovic; Lobkowitz in German) is a Czech noble family that dates back to the 14th century and is one of the oldest Bohemian noble families.

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Loc-Dieu Abbey

Loc-Dieu Abbey is a Cistercian abbey located near Martiel, 9 km west from Villefranche-de-Rouergue, in the department of Aveyron in France.

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Loccum

Loccum is a village situated about 50 km north west of Hanover in the district of Nienburg in Lower-Saxony, Germany.

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Loccum Abbey

Loccum Abbey (Kloster Loccum) is a Lutheran monastery in the town of Rehburg-Loccum, Lower Saxony, near Steinhude Lake.

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Loch Etive

Loch Etive (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Eite) is a 30 km sea loch in Argyll and Bute, Scotland.

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Loibl Pass

The Loibl Pass (Loiblpass) or Ljubelj Pass (prelaz Ljubelj) is a high mountain pass in the Karawanks chain of the Southern Limestone Alps, linking Austria with Slovenia.

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Long Bennington Priory

Long Bennington Priory was a priory in Lincolnshire, England.

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Longinus cross

The Longinus cross (Longinuskreuz) is a special form of the Arma Christi cross, which occurs mainly in the Black Forest, but also occasionally in other regions of South Germany.

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Longpont Abbey

Longpont Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame de Longpont) was a Cistercian monastery, in present-day Longpont, Aisne, France.

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Longvilliers, Pas-de-Calais

- Longvilliers (until 1997 Longvillers) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

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Lope Díaz I de Haro

Lope Díaz I de Haro (c. 1105 – 6 May 1170) was the fourth Lord of Biscay (from at least 1162).

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Lordship of Cameros

The Lordship of Cameros (or Los Cameros) was a frontier lordship in the Sierra de Cameros in the province of La Rioja during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.

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Loretta of Sponheim

Loretta of Sponheim (born ca. 1300; died 1346) was a countess of the noble house of Sponheim-Starkenburg.

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Lorsch Abbey

The Abbey of Lorsch (Reichsabtei Lorsch; Laureshamense Monasterium, called also Laurissa and Lauresham) is a former Imperial abbey in Lorsch, Germany, about 10 km east of Worms.

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Louis Lekai

Louis Julius Lekai, O.Cist. (* 4 February 1916 in Budapest; † 1 July 1994 in Irving, Texas) was an American monk, historian and university professor born in Hungary.

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Louis the Junker

Louis the Junker of Hesse (1305 – 2 February 1345) was a German nobleman.

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Louise Hollandine of the Palatinate

Louise Hollandine of the Palatinate (18 April 1622 – 11 February 1709) was a painter and abbess.

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Louroux Abbey

Louroux Abbey (Abbaye de Louroux) was a Cistercian monastery located in Vernantes, Pays de la Loire, France.

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Louth Navigation

The Louth Navigation was a canalisation of the River Lud.

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Louth Park Abbey

Louth Park Abbey was a Cistercian abbey in Lincolnshire, England.

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Louth, Lincolnshire

Louth is a market town and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Lower Catesby

Lower Catesby is a hamlet in the civil parish of Catesby, Northamptonshire, about southwest of Daventry.

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Lubawka

Lubawka (Liebau) is a town in Poland, in Lower Silesia Voivodship, in Kamienna Góra County.

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Lubiąż

Lubiąż (Leubus) is a village on the east bank of the Odra (Oder) River, in the administrative district of Gmina Wołów, within Wołów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Lubiąż Abbey

Lubiąż Abbey (Kloster Leubus; Opactwo cystersów w Lubiążu), also commonly known in English as Leubus Abbey, is a former Cistercian monastery in Lubiąż, in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship of southwestern Poland, located about northwest of Wrocław.

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Lubmin

Lubmin is a coastal resort in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Lucedio Abbey

Lucedio Abbey (Italian: Abbazia di Santa Maria di Lucedio) is a 12th-century former Cistercian foundation near Trino, which is now in the province of Vercelli, north-west Italy.

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Lucelle

Lucelle (Lützel) is a village situated on the Franco-Swiss border.

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Lucelle Abbey

Lucelle Abbey or Lützel Abbey (Abbaye de Lucelle; Kloster Lützel) was a Cistercian monastery in the present village of Lucelle, in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace, France, but located right on the Swiss border.

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Ludźmierz

Ludźmierz is a village in Poland in the Lesser Poland voivodeship, in the county of Nowy Targ.

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Luigi Alidosi

Luigi Alidosi (also Ludovico, died 1430) was the lord of Imola (as Papal vicar) from 1391 until 1424, the last ruler of the city from his family.

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Lundy

Lundy is the largest island in the Bristol Channel.

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Lutgardis

Saint Lutgardis of Aywières (Sint-Ludgardis; 1182 – 16 June 1246; also spelled Lutgarde) is a saint from the medieval Low Countries.

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Luther von Braunschweig

Luther von Braunschweig (also known as Lothar of Brunswick; – 18 April 1335) was the 18th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1331 until his death.

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Lutsk

Lutsk (Luc'k,, Łuck, Luck) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine.

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Lyre Abbey

Lyre Abbey (L'abbaye Notre-Dame de Lyre) was a monastery in Normandy, founded in 1046 at what is now the village of La Vieille-Lyre.

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Lyse Abbey

Lyse Abbey or Saint Mary's Abbey, Lyse (Lyse kloster, Lyse Mariakloster) is a now-ruined Cistercian monastery in the municipality of Os in the county of Hordaland in south-western Norway.

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Macaire

The name "Macaire" appears to have several claims of origin.

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Macosquin

Macosquin is a small village and townland and civil parish in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland.

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Macosquin Abbey

Macosquin Abbey formally known as Clarus Fons was a Cistercian Monastery in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom.

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Madonna dell'Orto

The Madonna dell'Orto is a church in Venice, Italy, in the sestiere of Cannaregio.

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Madonna in the Church

Madonna in the Church (or The Virgin in the Church) is a small oil panel by the early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck.

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Madonna of Zbraslav

The Zbraslav Madonna (c. 1360) comes from the parish church of St James the Greater in Zbraslav.

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Maenan

Maenan is a rural settlement in Conwy, Wales, located approximately 4 miles to the north of Llanrwst and 3 miles to the south of the village of Eglwysbach.

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Maenan Abbey

Maenan Abbey (formally: The Abbey Church of Saint Mary and All Saints; alternatively: Abaty Maenan, or Maynan Abbey; now Maenan Abbey Hotel) was a monastic religious house located in Maenan, Conwy, Wales.

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Mafalda of Portugal

Infanta Mafalda of Portugal (c. 1195 – Rio Tinto, Gondomar, May 1, 1256) was a Portuguese infanta (princess), later Queen consort of Castile for a brief period.

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Mail

The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.

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Maison royale de Saint-Louis

The Maison Royale de Saint-Louis was a boarding school for girls set up in 1684 at Saint-Cyr (what is now the commune of Saint-Cyr-l'École, Yvelines) in France by king Louis XIV at the request of his second wife, Madame de Maintenon, who wanted a school for girls from impoverished noble families.

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Malchow Abbey

Malchow Abbey (Kloster Malchow) is a former Cistercian nunnery in Malchow in the district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Malcolm IV of Scotland

Malcolm IV (Mediaeval Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig), nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" (between 23 April and 24 May 11419 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria (died 1152) and Ada de Warenne.

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Mancetter

Mancetter is a village and civil parish on the southeastern outskirts of Atherstone in North Warwickshire, at the crossing of Watling Street over the River Anker.

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Manrique Pérez de Lara

Manrique Pérez de Lara (died 1164) was a magnate of the Kingdom of Castile and its regent from 1158 until his death.

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Marcel Audiffren

Marcel Audiffren, was a French priest, physicist, and inventor who promoted the residential refrigerator.

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Marcel Pérès

Marcel Pérès (born 15 July 1956, Oran, Algeria) is a French musicologist, composer, choral director and singer, and the founder of the early music group Ensemble Organum.

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March of Styria

The March of Styria (Steiermark), originally known as Carantanian march (Karantanische Mark, marchia Carantana after the former Slavic principality of Carantania), was a southeastern frontier march of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Marchenoir

Marchenoir is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department of central France.

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Maredsous Abbey

Maredsous Abbey is a Benedictine monastery at Denée near Namur in Belgium.

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Margam

Margam is a suburb of Port Talbot in the Welsh county borough of Neath Port Talbot, Wales, close to junction 39 of the M4 motorway.

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Margam Abbey

Margam Abbey (Abaty Margam) was a Cistercian monastery, located in the village of Margam, a suburb of modern Port Talbot in Wales.

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Margam Country Park

Margam Country Park is a country park estate in Wales, of around 850 acres (3.4 km²).

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Margam Stones Museum

Margam Stones Museum is a small Victorian schoolhouse near Port Talbot, South Wales, which now provides a home for one of the most important collections of Celtic stone crosses in Britain.

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Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln

Margaret de Quincy, 2nd Countess of Lincoln suo jure (c. 1206 – March 1266) was a wealthy English noblewoman and heiress having inherited in her own right the Earldom of Lincoln and honours of Bolingbroke from her mother Hawise of Chester, received a dower from the estates of her first husband, and acquired a dower third from the extensive earldom of Pembroke following the death of her second husband, Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke.

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Margaret II, Countess of Flanders

Margaret, often called Margaret of Constantinople (2 June 1202 – 10 February 1280), ruled as Countess of Flanders during 1244–1278 and Countess of Hainaut during 1244–1253 and 1257–1280.

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Margaret Kirkby

Margaret Kirkby (possibly 1322 to 1391–94), was an anchorite of Ravensworth in North Yorkshire, England.

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Margaret of Beverley

Margaret of Beverley (c.1150 – c.1215) also known as Margaret of Jerusalem, was a Christian pilgrim during the 1180s–1190s in the Holy Land.

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Margaret Sambiria

Margaret Sambiria of Pomerania (in Danish: Margrethe Sambiria, Sambirsdatter or Margrethe Sprænghest; c. 1230 – December 1282) was the Queen consort of Denmark by marriage to King Christopher I of Denmark, and regent during the minority of her son, King Eric V of Denmark from 1259 until 1264.

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Marguerite Legot

Marguerite Victorine Zéphirine Anne De Riemaecker-Legot (9 March 1913 – 7 May 1977) was the first Belgian woman to serve as a government minister, and the first to be appointed Minister of State.

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Maria of Brabant, Holy Roman Empress

Maria of Brabant (c. 1190 – May/June 1260), a member of the House of Reginar, was Holy Roman Empress and German Queen from 1214 until 1215 as the second and last wife of the Welf emperor Otto IV.

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Maria Pia Mastena

Blessed Maria Pia Mastena (7 December 1881 - 28 June 1951) - born Teresa Maria - was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious and the founder of the Religious Sisters of the Holy Face.

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Marianna Fontanella

Blessed Marianna Fontanella (7 January 1661 – 16 December 1717) – in religious Maria degli Angeli – was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious from the Discalced Carmelites.

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Marianowo, West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Marianowo (Marienfließ in Pommern) is a village in Stargard County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.

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Mariawald Abbey

Mariawald Abbey (Abtei Mariawald) is a monastery of the Trappists (formally known as the Cistercians of the Strict Observance), located above the village of Heimbach, in the district of Düren in the Eifel, in the forests around Mount Kermeter, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Mariánská Týnice

Mariánská Týnice is a former pilgrimage destination in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic, with the Baroque Church of the Annunciation and the Cistercian Provost Office built by Jan Santini Aichel in the 18th century.

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Marie Angélique Arnauld

Jacqueline-Marie-Angélique Arnauld, S.O.Cist. or Arnault, called La Mère Angélique (8 September 1591 in Paris – 6 August 1661 in Port-Royal-des-Champs), was Abbess of the Abbey of Port-Royal, which under her abbacy became a center of Jansenism.

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Marienfeld Abbey (Austria)

Marienfeld Abbey is a Cistercian nunnery in Marienfeld, Wullersdorf, eight kilometres north of Hollabrunn.

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Marienfeld Abbey (Germany)

Marienfeld Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey in the Marienfeld district of Harsewinkel, in the district of Gütersloh, Germany.

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Marienkamp Abbey

Marienkamp Abbey (Klooster Mariënkamp; Maria in Campis) was a Cistercian nunnery in the present province of Drenthe in the Netherlands.

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Marienrode Priory

Marienrode Priory is a Benedictine nunnery in Marienrode, a district of Hildesheim in Germany.

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Marienschloss Abbey

Marienschloss Abbey (German - Kloster Marienschloss) is a former Cistercian nunnery in Rockenberg, a town in Hesse, Germany.

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Marienstern Abbey

Marienstern Abbey (Kloster Marienstern, formerly also known as Kloster Güldenstern) was a Cistercian nunnery in Mühlberg in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Mariental Abbey

Mariental Abbey (Kloster Mariental), in the present-day municipality of Mariental in Lower Saxony, Germany, is a former Cistercian monastery founded in 1138, now used and owned by a Lutheran congregation of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick.

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Mark Horton (archaeologist)

Mark Chatwin Horton, FSA (born 15 February 1956) is a British maritime and historical archaeologist, television presenter and writer.

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Markersbach

Markersbach is a former municipality on the river Große Mittweida in the district of Aue-Schwarzenberg in Saxony, Germany.

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Marland Grange

Marland Grange was populated by Cistercian monks and was a grange of Stanlow, Cheshire, then of Whalley.

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Marlfield, Clonmel

Marlfield is a village three kilometres west of Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland.

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Marston Bigot

Marston Bigot is a small village near Nunney and south of Frome in Somerset, England.

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Martano

Martano (Griko: Μαρτάνα, translit. Martána; Salentino: Martanu) is a town and comune of 9,573 inhabitants in the province of Lecce in Apulia, Italy, from Lecce and from Otranto.

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Mary Berry (conductor)

Mary Berry, CBE (also known as Sister Thomas More, C.R.S.A., 29 June 1917 – 1 May 2008) was a canoness regular, noted choral conductor and musicologist.

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Mary Boleyn

Mary Boleyn, also known as Lady Mary (c. 1499/1500 – 19 July 1543), was the sister of English queen Anne Boleyn, whose family enjoyed considerable influence during the reign of King Henry VIII.

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Mary Immaculate Seminary

The Seminary of Mary Immaculate was a former Catholic seminary, located in Northampton, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

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Mary Magdalene

Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.

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Marzahn

Marzahn is a locality within the borough of Marzahn-Hellersdorf in Berlin.

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Master of Heiligenkreuz

The Master of Heiligenkreuz was an Austrian painter active at the beginning of the 15th century; a tentative lifespan of 1395 to 1430 has been put forth but this appears highly conjectural.

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Mateo Flecha

Mateo Flecha (Catalan: Mateu Fletxa) (1481–1553) was a composer born in Kingdom of Aragon, in the region of Prades.

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Matilda of Brandenburg, Duchess of Poland

Matilda of Brandenburg (Matylda Brandenburska, Matilda von Brandenburg; b. ca. 1270 – d. bef. 1 June 1298), was a German princess member of House of Ascania and by marriage Duchess of Wrocław and High Duchess of Poland.

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Matilda of Savoy, Queen of Portugal

Matilda of Savoy (Mathilde, Mafalda; – 3 December 1157/58) was Queen of Portugal.

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