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PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA TAHUN 1400-1450(WOMEN IN LEADER)

 

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1400-1450

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  Ca. 1400-? Queen Regnant Kalaimanuia of Oahu (Hawai’i)
12th Alii Aimoku in succession to her mother, Kukaniloko who ruled from 1375, and married to Lupe Kapukeahomakalii. Later she gave her position to her daughter, Kekala, a warrior Chiefess.

  Around 1400 Queen Regnant Kekala of Oahu (Hawai’i)
A warrior Chiefess, she was handed the position as Mo’iwahine or supreme female ruler by her mother, Queen Kalaimanuia.

  1400-17 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth de Sponheim of Vianden (Luxembourg)
1414-17 Countess of Sponheim-Kreutznach (Germany)
Daughter of Countess Maria von Vianden (ca 1337-1400) and Count Simon III von Sponheim, who was Count of Vianden by the right of his wife until his death in 1414. Her brother Walram von Sponheim died 1382 and her sister Maria von Sponheim ca. 1414. Elisabeth first married Engelbert III von der Mark and Ruprecht Pipan, Count Palatine of the Rhine, had no children and lived (1365-1417).

  Ca. 1400/08-27 Sultana Seri Ratu Nihrasyiah Rawangsa Khadiyu of Pasai/Pase (Samudra Pasai Kesepulih) (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father, Sultan Zainal Abidin, after she had gained the respect of the whole community and the royal family, who agreed to hand over the power of the state to her.  

  Around 1400-42 Titular Queen Yolande de Aragón of Sicily, Napoli, Jerusalem, and Aragón (Italy)
1417 Regent Dowager Duchess of Anjou and Provence (France)
1424-27 Presiding over the Estates General of Anjou and Provence
Daughter of Juan I, king of Aragón, she was initially called Violenta. Her father was succeeded by Martin as king of Aragón. Her marriage to Louis II of Anjou in 1400, who spent much of his life fighting in Italy for his claim to the kingdom of Napoli. She was appointed guardian of her son-in-law the Dauphin Charles, who became Charles VII in 1422, but his title was still challenged by the English and their Burgundian allies. In this struggle, she manoeuvred to have the duke of Bretagne break from an alliance with the English, and was responsible for the Breton soldier, Arthur de Richemont, becoming the constable of France in 1425. Her early and strong support of Jeanne d’Arc, when others had reasonable doubts, suggests the Duchess’ possible larger role in the orchestrating the Maid’s appearance on the scene. Her younger daughter, Yolanda, was married to the heir of Bretagne, her youngest son, René, inherited Lorraine in 1431 and after her older son’s Louis III’s death, and three years later he also became duke of Anjou and heir of Sicily. She lived (1379-1442).

  1400-34 Sovereign Duchess Marie d’Anjou of Auvergne (France)
1414-34 Regent of Bourbon
1416 Sovereign Duchess de Montpensier
Also known as Marie de Berry, she was daughter of Jean d’Anjou, Count de Poitiers, Duc de Berry, d’Auvergne and Jeanne d’Armagnac, and was married to Louis de Châtillon, Count de Dunois, Philippe d’Artois, Count d’Eu and finally to Jean I, Duc de Bourbon (1410-15-34), and regent during his imprisonment in England. He was succeeded by his son, Charles I (1401-34-56). The county of Auvergne had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d’Auvergne reigned the county 1424-37. Marie d’Anjou lived (1367-1434).

  1400-03 Princess-Abbess Ursula I von Brasberg of Baindt (Germany)
As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1400-17 Countess-Abbess Bertrade von Schneuditz of Gernrode and Frose
1417-25 Princess-Abbess of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The first ruler of the territory to be granted the rank of Princess of The Empire in 1417.

  1400-02 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Murach of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not certain who was chosen as her successor, but it is known that Margaretha I reigned until 1435.

  Around 1400 Military Leader Maire O’Ciaragain of Ireland
Led Irish clans against the English and was known for her ferocity in battle.

  14.. Rani Regnant Lakshimi Devi ofMithila (India)
Succeeded her husband, Siva Simh, who reigned around 1399. Mithila is an ancient cultural region of North India between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Ganges River. The Nepal border cuts across the top fringe of this region. The Gandak and Kosi Rivers are rough western and eastern boundaries of Mithila.

  14.. Rani Regnant Visvasa Devi ofMithila (India)
Ascended the throne after the death of Padma Sima Chaulukyas. In the thirteenth century Mithila was invaded by Afghans, who deposed the Kshatriya ruler and placed a Maithil Brahman in control of land revenues over much of this region. This family soon began calling themselves kings, distributing land to other members of their caste, so that gradually land passed into the control of Maithil Brahmans. 

  14… Queen Putri Kaumnu ofBandjermasin (Indonesia)
Ruler of the principality in southern Borneo.

  14… Queen Daroh Nanti ofSangau (Indonesia)
Born as Princess of Majapahit and founded the state in Borneo.

  14…. Tribal Leader Lalla Aziza in Morocco
Very influential during her lifetime in her Berber tribe, she is now considered a saint who protects chasseurs and the aèdes berbères.

  14…. Malika Tindu of the Jallarid Dynasty (Iraq)
Ruled sometime during the 15th century, and had the khubta – Friday’s prayers – preached in her name.

  1401-20 Reigning Dowager Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Oppeln (Opole) (At the time Germany, Now Poland)
Held the Duchy after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Władysław Opolczyk. She lived (1352-1418/24).

  1402-04 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina Visconti of Milano (Italy)
The widow of her cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who inherited the lands of his family. 1395 He bought his investiture as hereditary duke of Milan from Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus and later defeated Emperor Ruprecht who sought to restore imperial rule over Italy. During her regency for their son, Giovanni Maria Visconti (1389–1412). Many cities were lost and political chaos prevailed. On reaching his majority Giovanni Maria revealed himself a dissolute and cruel ruler. He was assassinated, and the duchy passed to his brother, Filippo Maria Visconti, (1392–1447). She lived (1360-1404).

  1402-08 Sovereign Lady Valentina Visconti of Asti (Italy)
1407-08 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess of Orléans and the Counties of Valois, Blois, Dunois, Angoulême, Périgod, Dreux and Soissons (France)
After her husband, Duke Louis d’Orléans et cetera, was assassinated on the command of the Duke of Burgundy she became guardian of her children and took over the fiefs of her husband. She became the leader of the Orléans-party and worked for the rehabilitation of her late husband. Daughter of Duke Gian Galeazzo I of Milano, Lord of Pavia, Novara, Como, Vercelli, Alba, Asti, Tortona, Alessandria e Vigevano (1355-1402) and Princess Isabella de Valois of France and mother of eight children. She lived (1366-1408).

  1402-13 Temporary Regent Hereditary Princess Infanta Juana of Navarra (Spain)
Recognised as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite 3 December 1402, and governed Navarre in the name of her parents, King Carlos II of Navarra,  (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León, during their absences abroad. 1401 she was bethrothed to King Martin I of Sicily, who instead married her sister, Blanca, who became Regent of Sicily in 1409 and Queen of Navarra in 1425. Their younger sister, Beatriz, was officially made third-in-line on the same occation in 1402. Juana lived (1382-1413)

  1402-04 Sovereign Princess Maria II Zaccharia of Achaia, Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)
Succeeded her husband Pierre Bordeaux de San Superan (1386-1402). She was daughter of Centurione I Zaccharia, Lord of Veligosi, Damala and Chalandritza and was deposed by her nephew, Centurione II, who was prince until 1432/39. His daughter, Catharina Zaccharia, was marred to Thomas Palaiologos, Despot of Morea 1428-60 and Prince of Achaia from 1432.

  1402-25 Sovereign Countess Bonne d’Artois of Auxerre, d’Eu, de Mâcon, de Vermandois, d’Amiens et de Ponthieu (France)
Inherited parts of the domains of Jean, Duke of Touraine, Dauphin de Viennous, Duke de Berry, Count of Poitiers and Ponthieu. First married to Philippe de Nevers and Rethel, with whom she had two sons, and then, as his second wife, her first husband’s nephew, Philippe de Bourgogne. Died in childbed, and lived (1393-1425).

  1402-10 Reigning Abbess Anna III von Gundelfingen of Buchau (Germany)
Probably daughter of Stephan von Gundelfingen. She was canoness around and 1385 and is confirmed as abbess in 1402. Her family was very influential in the Chapter during the 15th century, and she lived (Ca. 1360-1410).

  1402-20 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Schwandegg of Schänis (Switzerland)
In 1403 she entered a treaty of a Burgrecht (Borough right) with the City of Zürich. The chapter had since then in the Münsterhof its own office that collected the income of the chapter in the city. She was member of the Freiherrliche family, the Barons of Schwandegg, which build the borough of Schwandegg in the 13th century and died out in the 15th.

  1402-12 Countess Abbess Sophia III zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Restored the economic situation that had deteriorated during the reign of her predecessor, Luitgard III zu Hammerstein. She was the only child of Duke Ludwig and Mathilde zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. (d. 1412).

  1402-24 Politically Influential Empress Xu of China
In charge of the administration of the City of Yan while her husband Zhu Di (the Yongle Emperor), was pursuing his campaign and in the midst of fierce fighting, she ascended the city walls and personally encouraged the troops to defend it.

  1403-19 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Blois of Sancerre (France)
Daughter of Jean III and Marguerite, Dame de Marmande. Married Gerard VI Chabot, Baron de Retz (d. ca. 1364), Beraud II Dauphin d’Auvergne, Comte de Clermont (d. 1400), Jean de Saligny, Constable of Naples and Jacques de Montberon, Baron de Maulevrier (d. 1422).

  1403-06 Princess-Abbess Adelheid III Abtsreuter of Baindt (Germany)
As ruler of the principality, she had the right to a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1403-07 Princesse-Abbesse Catherine II von Blamont of Remiremont  (France)
Concurrently held the office of Abbess of Epinal. In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformance of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire. (d. 1408).

  1403-21 Political Advisor Lady Jelena Balšić of Zeta (Montenegro)
After her husband, Lord Durad II of Zeta, died in consequence of the injuries suffered in the Battle of Gračanica, she became the advisor of her 17-year old son, Balša III. She made him declare the Orthodox Church as the official confession of the state, while Catholicism became a tolerant confession. Her son waged two wars against Venezia, winning some territory and then loosing it again. He also became a vassal to the Ottoman Turks.  1419 he went to Belgrade to ask for aid from his mother’s brother, Despot Stefan Lazarević, but never returned and 1421 he passed the rule of Zeta to his uncle. She had married Vojvode Sandalj Hranić Kosača of Bosnia in 1411 and lived (1365/70-1443).

  1404-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig of Holstein (Germany)
After the murder of her husband, Gerhard IV, she was regent for their son, Heinrich IV, jointly with Bishop Heinrich of Osnabrück, Count of Holstein. Gerhard was count of Holstein-Rendsburg (1382-1404) before he was given Slesvig as a hereditary fief with the title of Duke by Queen Margrethe I of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1386. Elisabeth engaged in various disputes with Queen Margrethe and King Erik 6. of Pommern of Denmark over lands and incomes. Various dukes were asked to mediate, and in 1410 they made a truce. 1411 she gave the Shires of Søderup and Alslev to the Queen as security for lones. She was mother of 3 sons and two daughters, including Heilwig, who married Dietrich von Oldenburg, whose son, became Christian I of Denmark in 1448, and inherited Slesvig in 1459.

  1404-12 Princess-Abbess Benedicta von Bechburg of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
Member of an ancient Baronial (Freiherrliche) family in today’s Canton Solothurn with close links of the Canton of Bern.

  1405-57 Politically Influential Gawhar Shad of Herat (Afghanistan)
Also known as Gowhar Shād, Gauhar Shad or Goharshad, she exercised extraordinary influence at court during the reign of her husband, Shah Rukh of the Timurid Dynasty, and among others advised him on military campaigns. She was a patron of art and architecture, donated grants to mosques, She outlived her husband, who died 1445, by a decade, manoeuvred her favourite grandson onto the throne, and was executed on July 19th 1457 on the order of Sultan Abu Sa’id. Goharshad. (lived before 1377-1457).

  1405-17/18 Regent Dowager Signora Paola Colonna of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1441-45 (†) Regent of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
Following the death of her husband, Gherardo Leonardo Appiani, who was lord of Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, she was regent for their son, Iacopo II (1400/01-1441), who was succeeded by his sister Caterina. Paola was daughter of Agapito Colonna, Lord of Genazzano and sister of Pope Martinus V, and lived (1378/79-45).

  1405-35 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Isenburg of Quedlinburg (Germany)
1426 Quedlinburg joined the German Hanse, the most powerful trade association in Europe. In 1435 she resigned and died five years later. She was daughter of Count Heinrich and Countess Adelheid von Isenburg. Resigned in 1435. (d. 1441).

  Around 1405 Reigning Abbess Adelheid II von Hallwyl of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
She was member of an old Baronial (freiherrliche) family which was in the service of the Habsburgs and worked for the city of Bern, and was in charge of a number of lordships in Switzerland.

  1406-18 Regent Dowager Queen Catalina de Lancaster of Castilla (Spain)
Widow of Enrique III (1379-90-1406) she was joint regent with Fernando de Antequera for son, Juan II (1405-06-54). She was an active regent, involved in financial matters, using her influence in negotiation about matrimonies and peace-treaties in the most important European nations. She was daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Aquitaine (1340-99) and his second wife, Constance, titular Queen of Castile (1354-94) whose father, Pedro I of Castile and Leon (1350-69), was succeeded by a brother. Through her mother’s claims, Catalina was considered heiress of Castilla and married her half-cousin, King Enrique, and became the mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and lived (1374-1418).

  1406-20 County Sheriff/Reigning Lady Queen Philippa of England of Denmark of the County of Nøsbyhoved (Denmark), Romerike (Norway) and the County of Närke  with the Castle of Örebro (Sweden)
1420 and 1425-27 and 1429-30 In Charge of the Government of Denmark in Sweden
1420-30 County Sheriff/Reigning Lady of the County of Närke, most of the Mälar Area, all of the County of Västmanland with Västerås, the County of Uppland with Uppsala and the City, Castle and County of Stockholm
1423-25 Regent of Denmark, Norway and Sweden(August-May)
After her marriage to Erik VII of Pomerania, she was granted several fiefs in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. When Erik appointed his cousin, Duke Bugislav IX. of Pommern-Stolp, they made a settlement that meant that she was granted large parts of Sweden as her Dowry (livgeding) and she acted as her husband, ‘s representative in the country, and she spend much of her time here. During his pilgrimage to Jerusalem from 1423 she was Guardian of the Realm in Denmark. She made a treaty with some members of the North-German Confederation of so-called Hanse-States about the validity of the coin-system (A monitary union) using the titulature; “We, Philippa By the Grace of God, Queen in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths and Duchess in Pommerania…according the power and command that our dearest graceful Lord in his absence has commanded realm and land..”. After his return, she was in charge of the government in Sweden. In 1426 she met with the Swedish Council of the Realm in order to secure military help in the war against the counts of Holstein and the following year she met with the Council to discus the war and domestic matters. 1428 she successfully organized the defence of Copenhagen against the attacking Hanse-Cities. The following year she returned to Sweden, gave birth to a still-born child in 1429, and lived (1394-1430).

  1406-1408 Reigning Abbess Margaretha I von Wachingen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Related to Bishop Bertold von Wachingen. Her family originated in Mittenwald in Bavaria.

  Around 1406-09… Princess-Abbess Anna of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
In 1406 she instigated a day of memory of the late Abbess Katherina. Dorotha was mentioned as Prioress in 1409 and Katherina as Cutrix

  Until 1407 Chatelaine Jeanne de Luxembourg of Saint Pôl and Ligny, de Lille (France)
Daughter of Count Valeran III de Luxembourg-St-Pôl (1355-1415) and Lady Maud Holland (Half sister of King Richard II of England). Married to Antoine de Bourgogne, Duke of Brabant and Limbourg (d. 1415), and their son, Philippe succeeded her father as count.

  1407-18 Princesse-Abbesse Henriette II d’Amoncourt of Remiremont  (France)
Held the office of Secrète 1381, 1384 and afterwards. Her election was contested by the supporters of Catherine de Blamont and Henri de Blamont deployed his troops in the territory, making it impossible for her to take up her position until 1412.

  1408-38 Hereditary Countess Adelheid of the Wild- and Rheingrafschaft of Kyrburg and Schmidtburg (Germany)
Daughter of Gerhard III of Kyrburg und Schmidtburg, and Adelheid von Veldenz, and married to Johann III, Wild- und Rheingraf zu Dhaun (d. 1428). She (d. 1438).

  Until 1408 Princess-Abbess Catherine de Blamont of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)
In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformation of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire, and (d. 1408).

  1408-37 Reigning Abbess Bertha III von Freisingen of Gutenzell (Germany)
After the fall of the Stauffen kings the Chapter were able to became Imperial Immediate (reichsfrei), and in 1417 Emperor Sigismund granted certain privileges.

  1409-15 Vice-Reine Blanca I de Navarra of Sicilia (Italy)
1425-41 Queen Regnant Blanca I Navarra, Countess de Nemours and Everex  (Spain and France)
The daughter of King Carlos II of Navarra, Comte d’Évreux and Duc de Nemours (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León, she was recognised as second in line to the throne at Olite in 1402 and as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite in 1416, and succeeded her father in 1425. Her first husband was Martin I de Aragón (1392-1409), who had first been married to Queen Maria of Sicilia, Duchess of Athens, and was succeeded by his father, Martin II (1409-10), who named her as regent in Sicily. Her second husband was Federico I de Aragon, who became King Consort of Navarre in her right. Their son, Carlos de Aragón y Navarra (1421-61) was designated heir to Navarre from birth by the Cortes, but her husband was already trying in 1427 to change the order of succession in favour of their daughter Infanta doña Leonor. Infante Carlos was excluded from the succession on her death, with her husband as King. Carlos left Navarre 1451 for Guipúzcoa, supported by the Beaumont clan. Imprisoned 1453-1455, and after a brief reconciliation in 1460, Carlos was incarcerated at Lérida. And after his death in 1479 her daughter, Leonor became Queen. Blanca de Navarra lived  (1385-1441).

  1409-42 Reigning Abbess Mathilde III von Waldeck of Herford (Germany)
Also known as Mechtild, she was also Abbess of Heerse, and the daughter of Count Heinrich III von Waldeck and Elisabeth von Berg. Her sister, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Kaufungen until her death in 1495.

  1409-44 Politically Influential Margravine Paola Malatesta of Mantova (Italy)
Took an active part in the government during the reign of her husband Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, who was Lord of Mantova and Captain of Popolo (1407-33) before being granted the title of Marchese by the Emperor in 1433. She was daughter of the Venetian noble, Carlo I Signore di Rimini and his wife Elisabetta Gonzaga dei Signori di Mantova. She lived (1393-1449).

  1410-40 Temporary Regent Margravine Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
Often managed the affairs of state and functioned as an effective ruler and valuable aid to her husband, Margrave and Elector Friedrich Hohenzollern I von Brandenburg-Ansbach und Kumblach. He was Burgrave of Nürnberg 1397-1409 and Elector from 1410. She was mother of 11 children, and lived (1383-1442).

   1410-26 Reigning Abbess Agnes von Tengen of Buchau (Germany)
In the year of her death she laid the foundation of the chaplancy of the Holy Cross (Heligkreuzkaplanie). Possibly daughter of Johann the Younger, Lord of Elisau and Freeherr of Tengen and Margrethe von Nellenburg. Lived (ca. 1381-1426).

  1410-13 Reigning Abbess Katharina I von Egloffstein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a Swiss countly family, who were lords of the Castle of Egloffstein in the Swiss Franconia (Schweizische Franken).

  1411-19 Governor and Sultan Tandu of Baghdad (Iraq)
Also known as Tindu, she belonged to the Jalarid Dynasty, a branch of the Ilkhan Mongol rulers, and daughter of king Awis. She was first married to al-Zahir Barquq, the last Mameluk king of Egypt. She did not like life in Cairo and her husband let her go back to Baghdad, where she married her cousin Shah Walad bin Ali, the Governor for the Caliph, and after his death she acceded to the throne, had coins stuck in her name and the khutba (sovereign’s prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques. She was one of the last Mongol rulers in the area.

  1411-43 Elisabeth von Görlitz, by the Grace of God, Duchess of Luxembourg, of Brabant and of Limbourg, Margravine of the Holy Roman Empire and Countess of Chiny
Given the Dukedom of Luxembourg as mortgage (Pfandherzogin) by her uncle Emperor Sigismund von Luxembourg, who was also king of Hungary trough his marriage to Queen Maria of Hungary. Her first husband, Anton von Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, fought back three uprisings of the nobility until his death in 1415. Her next husband was Johann von Bavaria of Holland, and after his death in 1427, she became heavily indebted and sold her hereditary rights to Duke Philippe von Burgundy, but the Luxembourg states rejected this, but instead he invaded the duchy two years later. She was the only daughter of Duke Johann von Görlitz (d. 1396) and Ricardis von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, had no children and lived (1390- 1451).

  Until 1411 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Coucy of Soissons (France)
Daughter of Enguerrand de Coucy, Count de Soissons, and married Philippe de Bourgogne, Count of Nevers and Donzy, whose second wife was Bonne d’Artois, heiress d’Eu et cetera. They had no surviving children, and her husband inherited the county.

  1411 Regent Dowager Despotess Eudokia Balšić of Ioannina (Greece)
When her husband, Esau de’ Buondelmonti, died, she attempted to maintain control of Ioannina in the name of her infant son Giorgio, but she was not popular with the local nobility and when they learned that she was seeking to marry a Serbian nobleman, they promptly deposed her and her son just 20 days after his accession. He survived until at least 1453, and his name appears in various Ragusan documents.

  1411-15 Reigning Abbess Margaretha II von Grünenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Member of the Swiss noble family of the lords of Langenstein and Grünenberg.

  1412-25 Regent Dowager Countess Catherine d’Alençon of Mortain (France)
After the death of her husband, Pierre de Navarre, she was regent for Louis I, dauphin de Viennois, Duc de Guyenne, Comte de Mortain. In 1413 she married Louis II de Bavière, Duke of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who also became count of Mortain.

  1412-14, 1416-19 and 1431-33 “Stadholder” Queen Barbara von Cilli in Hungary and Croatia
1437 “Stadholder” of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1439-51 Reigning Dowager Lady of 28 Domains in the Czech Lands and Hungary
Her husband, Sigmund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary and King of Germany from 1410, king of Bohemia from 1419 and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433. In Hungary she took over the “regni curia” when he went to Italy, first supported by her brother-in-law the Palatine Garai Miklós and two bishops. 1414-16 she went to Aachen for the coronation and participated in the Council of Konstanz before she returned and took over the government in Hungary. In the 1420’s she followed her husband on his journeys during the Empire and he included her in the decision-making. During her second regency in Hungary she managed to maintain peace after a settlement was reached with the Hussites. After her coronation as Queen of Bohemia in 1437 she also acted as regent here for a few moths. After her husband’s death the same year she was arrested by his successor, Albrecht II, but was able to flee to Poland. 1426 she was granted 3 lordships in Mähren and given the incomes of several royal cities in Bohemia after her coronation in 1437, so that at the time of the death of her husband, she controlled 28 domains with a number of villages. After Albrecht’s death in 1439 she returned and settled at her dowry at Melnik near Prague for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Herman II, Count von Cilli and Countess Anna von Schaunberg, mother of one daughter, Elisabeth who inherited Hungary and Bohemia, and lived (1390/95-1451).

  1412-21 Lieutenant Queen Dowager Margarida de Prades of Aragón (Spain)
Though she held the title of Queen Lieutenant, she did not govern because she was only 15 when her husband, Martin I de Aragón died after 6 months of marriage. Since he had no children by any of his marriages, his death led to a 2 year interregnum, which was ended by the Pact of Caspe, in which Ferdinando I of Aragón, infante of Castile’s House of Trastámara, younger son of his sister Leonor de Aragon, was chosen as the next king from among at least five contenders. She married her second husband Juan of Vilaragut in 1414, and when he died 1422, she entered the monastery of Monrepes. The daughter of Pedro de Aragon, Baron of Entenza (1352-1395) and Juana of Cabrera, she did not have any children and lived (1395-1422).

  1412-29 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Hohenklingen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
Represented by her father, Walther IX, Lord von Hohenklingen, Guardian of Stein am Rhein, at the Council of Konstanz, which assembled under the presidency of Emperor Sigmund.

  Around 1412-about 1437 Princess-Abbess Lucia von Kerpen of Elten (Germany)
Founded the first public school in the area in 1412 and in 1437 she founded the chapter of Saint Ursula.

  1412-17 Countess Abbess Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
1417-39 Princess-Abbess
Received the rank and title of a Princess of the Realm in 1417. Daughter of Duke Erich I of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Göttingen. Her sister, Sophie, was de-facto ruler of the territory from 1443. Agnes lived (ca. 1406-39).

  1413-26 Princess-Abbess Margareta I von der Mark-Arenberg of Essen (Germany)
During the 1500th century Essen was the only Imperial Free Worldly Ladies Chapter to develop a full “land-constitution” as territorial state within the German Realm with three estates; The Ladies of the Chapter (chanonesses), the male canons in the Abbey and the Office-holders of low nobility of the chapter. She was daughter of Eberhard von der Mark, Lord of Arenberg etc and Marie von Looz. One of her sisters, Maria, was Lady of the Chapter until she left it to marry and the other, Anna, was elected Abbess in Freckenhorst in 1427.

  1413-17 Reigning Abbess Barbara I Höffer of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
In 1416 she and her chapter appointed the Provsosty of the Chapter to Heinrich V. Notthafft v. Wernberg as life-tenantcy from Georg v. Abensberg.

  1414-35 Queen Regnant Giovanna II d’Angiò of Napoli  (Italy) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem Cyprus and Armenia, Sicily, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Ramia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria
Also known as Jeanne d’Anjou, she succeeded her brother, and two years later, her second husband, Jean de Bourbon, was imprisoned after trying to seize power. She adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir in 1421. After he tried to take over power in 1423, she transferred the adoption to another relative Louis III d’Anjou, who she had expelled in 1420 for trying to seize power. After Louis’ death in 1434, his brother, Rene was appointed heir, but Alfonso took power after her death. She lived (1373-1435).

  1414-37 Sovereign Princess Fiorenza Sommaripa of Antiparos  (Greece)
Daughter Gaspare Sommaripa, Lord of Paros and Maria Sanudo of Naxos and Antiparos, and married to Jacopo I Crispo, 11th Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos (1383-1418). Their two daughters, Maria and Fiorenza, were Co-Ladies of Milos.

  1415-ca. 26 Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Agnes von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (Poland/Germany)
One of her close advisors, Kurt Bonow, an old enemy of Stralsund, was killed, probably in 1417, by a member of the Regency Council, Marshall Degner Buggenhagen, who found refuge in Stralsund, but its inhabitants could not prevent that Buggenhagen was killed by Heneke Behr and his followers at the table of her husband’s nephew, Duke Wartislaw IX of Pommern-Wolgast on her initiation in 1420. Consequently the cities of Stralsund and Greifswald to send troops to the Castle of Usedom, where Behr had sought refuge, he was caught and punished. She was widow of Wartislaw VIII. von Pommern-Wolgast (1373-1415) and mother of Barnim VIII, Duke of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (ca. 1405/07-51) and Swantibor IV (ca. 1408/10-32). Also mother of a daughter and another son that died in infancy, and (d. 1435).

  1415-59 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Pierrepont Bar of Soissons, Marle and Roucy (France)
Granddaughter of Marie de Coucy (1366-1405), who was the granddaughter of King Edward III of England, who was heiress of Soissons and most of the Coucy’s French estates. Her father, Robert, Count de Marle et de Soissons, was killed in battle in 1415. Her mother was Jeanne de Bethune (d. 1450) and she married Robert III de Sarrebruck, seigneur de Commercy (d. 1460), succeeded by son Jean VII, and lived (1415-62).

  From 1415 Regent Dowager Countess Marie de Bretagne of Alençon (France)
Widow of Pierre II le Noble she ruled in the name of her son Jean V le Beau (1409-15-75-76). She lived (1391-1446). 

  1415-48 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Melun of Tancarville, Vicomtess de Melun (France)
Successor of her father, Guillaume IV de Melun, Grand Bouteiller de France, who was killed at Agincourt, and married to Jacques II Baron de Montgomery, who had first been married to Leonore Jumelles, Dame de Cresèques. Her husband was killed in 1428. Her mother was Jeanne de Parthenay, Dame de Samblancay. She was first succeeded by her son, Guillaume and in 1484 by daughter Jeanne.

  1415 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von von Blankenheim of Blankenheim-Gerolstein and Kasselburg (Germany)
Her father, Gerhard VII died in 1406 and the territory was administered by her uncle, Prince-Bishop Friedrich von Utrecht until his death in 1415. Her husband Wilhelm I. von Loon of the house of Heinsberg, then came in possession of the County. 

  1415-31 Lady Philippa de Mohun of the Isle of Wright (United Kingdom)
Became Lady after her third husband Edward, Earl of Rutland and Duke of York was killed at Agincourt. She was first married to Lord Fitzwater and secondly to Sir John Golafre.

  1416 Regent Dowager Queen Nang Chlo Pumba of Lan-Xang (Laos)
After the death of Phya Ounmuong or Sam Sene Thai (1356-73-1416) she was regent for Lan Kamdaeng (1416-28). The name of the state is also spelled as Lan Ch’ang. 

  1416-56 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth II von Leiningen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Might have been the seventh child of Count Rudolf von Leiningen-Rixingen, and Agnes von Zweibrücken.

  1417-28 Sovereign Duchess and Countess Jacobäa von Bayern of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, Lady of Friesland and Countess of Ponthieu (The Netherlands and France)
1428-33 Titular Countess
Only child of Willem VI of Bayern-Straubing and Hainault-Holland. In 1415 she married the French Dauphin, Jean de Touraine, who died 1417. The following year she got papal acceptance to marry her cousin Jean IV of Brabant. With the support of Emperor Sigismund of Germany, her uncle, Johan VI of Bavaria demanded that she accepted him as regent. He persuaded the Pope to withdraw the dispensation and gave her lands to him. In 1419 Philippe of Bourgogne intervened. Johan got parts of southern Holland. The next year her husband gave Holland, Zeeland and Hainault as security to Johan. She die not accept this and had the marriage annulled. In 1422 she married Humphrey of Gloucester and in 1424 they launched an attack on her ex-husband. In 1424 she was taken prisoner and the following year her uncle died. He had given the countries to Philippe of Bourgogne. She escaped and fought against Philippe until 1428 until she had to capitulate. In 1432 she married Frank van Borsele and the next year she abdicated. Died of tuberculosis and lived (1401-36). 

  1417-20 Sovereign Countess Elénore de Beaufort of Touraine (France)
Succeeded brother, Raymond Louis de Beaufort. She was succeeded by her cousin Amanieu, who was first succeeded by his brother and in 1444 by niece, Anne. 

  1417-23 Princess-Abbess Isabelle II de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Also known as Belle, she was the 35th ruler of the territory and was succeeded three others of the same family, Christine, Agnès and Wilhelmine.

  1417-22 Reigning Abbess  Herzenleid von Wildenwarth of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Cordula von Wildenwarth was Coadiutrix (Deputy Reigning Abbess) 1417-27.

  1418-61 Fon Nguopu of Banum (Cameroon)
Ascended to the throne after the death of her brother, Share Yen, who founded the state around 1394, but wore male dress, so that her gender was not discovered, and she ruled as Fon – or king.

  1418-ca. 33 Regent Dowager Duchess Sofia von Schleswig-Holstein of Pommern-Stargard (Pomerze) (Poland)
Also known as Zofia Holsztyńska, she reigned in the name of her son Bogusław IX of Pommern-Stargard after the death of her husband, Bogislaw VIII. She was daughter of Count Heinrich II von Holstein-Rendsburg (1317-40-82-84) and Mechtild zur Lippe, and lived (ca. 1375-1448).

  1418-21 De-Facto Joint Ruler Dowager Queen Kujava of Bosnia
She married King Ostoja in 1399, shortly after he repudiated his first wife, Queen Vitača. He gained support of the noble family of Radenović by marrying her, as they were closely related to the new queen consort. When her husband was deposed in 1404, he left Bobovac and fled to Hungary, but she and her son remained in Bosnia whose crown was given to her brother-in-law, King Stephen Tvrtko II. Tvrtko II himself was deposed in 1409 when Kujava’s her returned from exile and resumed the throne, at which point she became queen of Bosnia once again, but the marriage started falling apart in 1415. Prince Pavle Radenović, her brother or cousin [1], was killed in a plot set by her husband. Duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić died soon after, leaving behind a wealthy widow, Jelena Nelipčić. Her husband saw the opportunity and divorced her and married Duchess Jelena, who brought Hrvoje’s lands into marriage. Three years later her ex-husband died and was succeeded by their son, Stephen Ostojić. She suddenly became very influential and powerful, de facto ruling along with her son. Her son’s short reign wa marked by her conflicts with Queen Jelena. Their conflicts stopped in the summer of 1419, when her son imprisoned the dowager queen. Jelena died under mysterious circumstances in 1422. After her son died in 1421 she supported various pretenders to the Bosnian throne.

  1418 Princesse-Abbesse Marguerite II de Salvain of Remiremont  (France)
Another version of her name is Grilde de Salverne.

  1418-21 Reigning Abbess….. von Schwandorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Her first name is to be checked.

  1418-38 Reigning Abbess Marie I de la Chapelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
The chapter was placed under the direct authority of the Pope.

  1419 Regent Dowager Queen Sophia of Bavaria of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
After the death of her husband, Václav IV of Bohemia (1378-1419), she acted as head of state until Sigismund of Luxembourg took over the throne. Her husband was king of Germany (1378-1400) and Duke of Luxembourg as Wenzel. She was the daughter of John II of Bayern-München and Catherine of Gorize, had no children, and lived (1376-1425).

  1419-30 Sovereign Lady Johanna van Boutershem of Bergen op Zoom and Grimsbergen, Bracht et cetera  (The Netherlands)
Succeeded father, Hendrik II, and was joint ruler with husband, Jan I van Glymes, until his death in 1427. Succeeded by son, Jan II, and lived (ca. 1330-90).

  Around 1419 Reigning Princess Bikhakhanim of “A small polity located on the Taman Peninsula” (Russia)
May have been of Circassian, Georgian, or Cuman origin, but it is suggested that she was Princess Bikhakhatun, daughter of the Georgian prince Beka II Jakeli (d. 1391), the ruler of Samtskhe and Klarjeti. She was married to Genoese Jew Simeone de Guizolfi, who through this marriage became ruler of that country under Genoese overlordship. One of his heirs, Zacharias de Guizolfi, was still reigning in 1482.

  1419-36 Reigning Abbess Brigitta Kopp of Rottenmünster (Germany)
Since 1227 the Abbey had been place directly under the Emperor as a Realm of the Holy Roman Empire. 

  1420-23 Lieutenant-General Queen Maria de Trastámara de Castilla of Aragon, Valencia and Mallorca
1432-58 Lieutenant-General of the Principality of Catalunya, (Spain)
Regent in Aragón and Cataluña during her cousin and husband, Alfonso V’s warfare in Italy, conquering Napoli from Giovanna II in 1442. He was king of Aragon (1416-58), Napoli (1435-58) and Sicily (1442-58) and spent most of the time in Italy from around 1435. She was daughter of king Enrique III of Aragon and Catherine of Lancaster, was heir to the Castillian throne as Princess of Asturias 1402-05, had no children and lived (1401-58).

  1420-36 Sovereign Countess Marie of Dammartin (France)
Married to Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and succeeded by daughter, Marguerite.

  1420-51 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Greiffensee of Schänis (Switzerland)
In 1438 the Lordship of Windegg became a possession of the Cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, and thereby the chapter became a part of the Swiss Confederation (schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft). And even though the emperor confirmed the rights of the chapter in 1442, Glarus and Schwyz from then on considered themselves to be the rightful successors of the Royal Stewards of the chapter. Elisabeth was member of an old noble family that originated near Zürich.

  1421 Hereditary Lady Luitgard von Bentheim of Steinfurt (Germany)
Inherited Steinfurt from her maternal grandfather, Ludolf VIII von Steinfurt, since her mother, Mechtild, had died the previous year. Luitgard ceded the lordship to her father, Everwin I, and thus to her stepbrothers. She later married Wilhelm von der Lecke, Lord van Berg-s’Herenberg.  

 

1421-28 Princess-Abbess Gertrud II von Helfenberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a Bavarian noble family.

  1421-44 Princesse-Abbesse Isabella de Demengeville of Remiremont  (France)
Also known as Yasbel de Demengevelle, she had been Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1414-21.

  1422-28 Guardian Dowager Queen Catherine de Valois of England
Her husband, Henry VI died suddenly in 1422 and she was effectively exiled from court, suspicion falling on her nationality, and passed over as regent for her son Henry V by her brothers-in-law and kept away from her son. She entered a relationship and later married Owen Tudor, a Welsh courtier, who would become the founding father of the Tudor dynasty. Of their five children, two sons, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford, were to play an important role in the future of the English monarchy. She was daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau de Bavière, and lived (1401-37).

  1422-24 Reigning Dowager Countess Rengarda di Brancaleoni of Cingoli (Italy)
Held the territory after the death of her husband, Giovanni Cima and in 1424 the county became part of the Papal State. 

  1422 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II von Bussnang of Säckingen (Germany)
Was in office for about 6 months before she died. The noble von Bussenang family had a tradition of occupying high clerical offices – Abbots of St. Gallen and high officials by the bishop of Konstantz and Zürich and other parts of Switzerland. Another member of the family, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Säckingen (1307-18) before it became a principality within the German Empire. 

  1422-28 Princess-Abbess Johanna von Hohenklingen of Säckingen (Germany)
Listed as Kellerin (Wine-maker) in 1395. She was sister of Klaranna (1379/80-1422), and daughter of Freiherr Walther von Hohenklingen, Lord of Stein. Her family was closely related to the Lords von Brandis im Emmental and the von Bechburg in the Canton Solothurn was of importance, and the family split into two lines in the 14th century –  Hohenklingen-Bechburg and Hohenklingen-Brandis.

  1422-27 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Lords of Streitberg were originally noble officials of the local Bishop they joined the service of the Duke of Meran. Throughout the years the various family-lines fought over the inheritance and who were to be in charge of the Castle of Streitberg in Bavaria.

  1423-27 Lady Maria d’Harcourt of Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot and Brebeke in Jülich and Geldern (Germany and the Netherlands)
Daughter of Count Jean VI d’Harcourt et Aumale and Catherine de Bourbon, Princess of France. After the death of her husband Duke Rainald IV, Duke of Jülich and Geldern, Count of Zutphen, she remained Lady of a number of possessions of Jülich. In 1424, she granted freedom to her serfs. Two years she married Duke Ruprecht von Jülich-Berg, Bishop of Passau and Paderborn. She lived (ca. 1389-1427)

  1423-41 Princess-Abbess Christine de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Succeeded her sister, Isabelle I, and was member of the family De Mérode who used the surname of Franckenberg. 

  1423-25 Reigning Abbess Henriette I de Mello of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
The chapter was still marked by the 100 years war, a conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet or Anjou.

  1424–ca. 1449 Sovereign Duchess Elena Korybutówna of Pszczyna within Racibórz-Karniów (Poland)
Widow of Prince Jan II and ruled together with Mikołaj III and Wacław of her dowry in Pszczyna, a part of the Slesian Duchy of Racibórz-Karniów.

  1424-37 Sovereign Countess Marie I of Auvergne (France)
1424 Sovereign Countess of Boulogne
Granddaughter of Robert VII (ca. 1282-1314-25), she succeeded her cousin, Jeanne II (1404-24), and was succeeded by husband, Bertrand I de la Tour and then by son, Bertrand II. The county had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d’Anjou, reigned as Duchess of Auvergne 1400-34. Marie d’Auvergne lived (1376-1437).

  Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)
Married to Pierre d’Alençon, Comte du Perche and d’Alençon.

  1425-30 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Sofia Vitovtovna of Moscow and Vladimir (Russia)
After the death of her husband, Vasiliy I, she was regent for her fourth and only surviving son, the 10-year-old Vasiliy II , who reigned until 1433 and again 1434-62. She was daughter of Grand Duke Vytautas the Great of Lithuania ( Lietuva) (1392-1430) and Anna of Smolensk, and lived (1371-1453).

  Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)
Married to Pierre d’Alençon, Comte du Perche and d’Alençon.

  1425-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Schenkin von Landsberg und Sydow of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Also known as Schenkin von Landsberg or Schenkin von Sydow, she brought the chapter in disrespute. Engaged in fights with the ladies of the chapter, who accused her of misusing the fortune of the stift. She got a warning letter from the pope and later also one from the Cardinal of St. Angelia and the Bishop of Halberstadt, but she did not change her ways and a court was put together consisting of the Bishop of Halberstadt and the Princes of Anhalt and Brandenburg, who removed her right to make decisions on her own. But at that time she had already died. Her family had been appointed to the office of “Schenk” of the Margraves of Landsberg in the beginning of the 12th century and after Duke Rudolf of Sachsen took over the territory in 1328, they were given the fief of Teupitz and were also lords of Sydow.

  Ca. 1425-ca. 30 Reigning Abbess Marguerite III de Bréban of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Admiral Pierre de Bréban.

  1425-38 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Member of the member of the family of Freiherren von Reischach and a decendant of Konrad von Reischach who married Titlar Queen Isabella of Mallorca.

  1426-45 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV Stecke van Beeck of Essen (Germany)
After the resignation of Margareta von der Mark, 10 of the ladies of the Chapter voted for her and 11 of the male canons voted for Margarete von Limburg, who had the support of the Duke Kleve. The ladies – referring to the fact that they alone had the right to vote according to the various royal ad papal privileges -proclaimed her as Abbess, the men, referring to their majority, proclaimed to Margareta. The pope first confirmed the latter, but soon after withdrew the confirmation and installed her. She had sought refuge at the castle of Borbeck with the ladies of the chapter and was siege by the forces of Limburg, not until 1428 did the Papal legates manage to establish a ceasefire and she was confirmed as Abbess and the following she also granted the imperial fief. (kaiserliche Belehnung).

  1426-49 Reignign Abbess Klara von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Daughter of Count Heinrich V von Montfort and Anna Truchsess von Waldburg and stepdaughter of Count Stephan von Guldenfingen, who was very influential in the chapter. Because of illness, she resigned in 1449 in favour of her relative Margarethe von Werdenberg, who was still a minor at the time, and died later the same year.

  1426-30 Army Leader Joan d’Arc in France
As a teenager, Joan believed she heard the voices of angels telling her to help the future Charles VII, who had been deprived of his inheritance by the English and the Burgundians, to regain his throne. Charles sent her to raise the siege at Orléans, which she did successfully, driving the English from the city and allowing him to be crowned at Rheims. She was soon captured by Burgundians and sold to the English, who found her guilty of witchcraft and wearing a man’s clothes. She was burned at the stake in 1431 and canonized in 1920. She lived (1412-31)

  1426-36 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Clermont-en-Auvergne and Sancerre, Dauphine of Auvergne (France)
The County of Auvergne had been divided into two – the Dauphinie and the County in 1155 and therefore there are Countesses and Dauphines with the same name. She was daughter of Berauld III, count of Clermont and Boulogne and Gabrielle de la Tour, Heiress of Auvergne. She married Louis de Bourbon, who was count of Clermont, Sancerre and Montpensier. She did not have any children, and lived (1412-34).

  1427-47 Queen Regnant Suhita Prabusti ofMajapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)
Daughter of king Wikramawardhana Bhre Lesem Sang Alemu and succeeded by two brothers after each other.

  1427-39 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Göttingen of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (Germany)
Widow of Erich II (ca. 1383-98-1427) and acted as regent for son Heinrich III (1416-27-64) . She lived (ca 1390-1444).

  1427 Reigning Abbess Beatrix von Rotheneck of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Since 1002 the Reichsstift was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany, and the chapter was granted royal protection and, immunity.

  1427-44 Acting Reigning Abbess Osanna von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
As Coadiutrix she acted as head of the chapter and territory.

  1428-42 Sovereign Duchess Euphemia of Münsterberg (Ziębice) (Poland)
Daughter of the Slesian Duke Boleslaw III of Münsterberg (1358-1410) and Euphemia of Schlesia-Beuthen-Kosel, and inherited the Principality after the death of her brother, Duke Jan (1380/90-1410-28). Married to Count Friedrich IV von Öttingen (d. 1423). She lived (1370/85-47).

  1428-30 Princess-Abbess Margareth II von Klingen of Säckingen (Germany)
Probably identical with Margareth von Altenklingen who is mentioned as Küsterin (Verge) and acted as “election officer” at the election of her predecessor.

 

1428-63 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Herbersdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Known in a folkstale as “Frau Hitt”, a cruel and despotic ruler of the Chapter and surrounding territories.


  1429-38 Regent Dowager Countess Elisabeth de Vaudemont of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Germany) 
Also known as Elisabeth von Lothringen, and was daughter of Duke Friederich of Lorraine and Marguerite de Vaudémont-Joinville and grew up in the boarder-area between France and Germany and was bilingual. After the death of her husband Count Philipp I. she took over the regency of the country for her under-age sons. She translated four “Chanson de geste” in German and wrote her own novels and is known as the first German female author. (After 1393-1456).

  1429-36 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Kijowska of Mazowsze-Warszawa (Poland)
Also known as Anna Holszańska or Anne of Kiev, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son Bolesław IV after the death of her husband, Bolesław Januszowic of Masovia-Warsaw. She was daughter of Ivan Olshanski and Agrypina, and mother of 2 sons and a daughter. (d. after 1458).

  1429-33 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen-Einbeck of Lippe (Germany)
When her husband, Simon IV, died her oldest son, Bernhard VII, was hardly one year old and she was pregnant with the second. She was in serious disputes with her brother-in-law, Otto, Dean of the Cathedral of Köln, who was named Guardian. In 1433 he gave part of the Lordship as security for loans he took out in order to secure her dowry at the Castle Brake, where she moved – without her sons. Otto died the same year and Archbishop Dietrich von Moers of Köln, the brother of her mother-in-law Elisabeth, was named regent. She lived (Ca 1411-56).

  1429-84 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Höwen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
Member of an old Swiss noble family, which saw several Prince-Abbots and Bishops.

  1427-34 Princess-Abbess Klara Strölin of Heggbach (Germany)
Also known as Ströl or Ströler, she was the first Abbess of the chapter to be given the rank of Princess of the Realm in 1429. Two of the three co-heirs to the lordship of Achstetten, Eberhard and Hans von Freyberg, had sold their rights of patronage over Burgrieden to Heggbach Abbey in 1420 and the Abbey possessed the right to dispense low justice from at least 1429 in Sulmingen and from 1491 in Baustetten. In Mietingen the abbey had acquired the right to dispense both low and high justice in 1442.
She was deposed and (d.  1460).

  1430-71 Politically Influential Duchess Isabelle de Portugal of Bourgogne (France) 
As the third wife of Duke Philippe of Burgundy (1396-1467), she exercised power in the very wearied domains of her husband. She acted as regent in his absence, was in charge of the finances, negotiated treaties and initiated reforms of religious orders. Daughter of King João I of Portugal and Philippa de Gent and mother of Duke Karl (1433-1477)  (The father of Duchess Maria of Burgundy).

  1430 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Saint-Pôl and Ligny and Dame de Roussy (France)
Known as La Demoiselle de Luxembourg, she was daughter of Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pol sur Ternoise and Guy de Luxembourg, Count de Ligny-en-Barrois (1335-60-78), she succeeded her grandnephew, Philippe, who was son of the Hereditary Countess Jeanne (d. 1407), daughter of Waléran III (d. 1415), and after her death, the two Counties were devided between two nepews, Pierre and Jean. She (d. 1430)

  1430… Sovereign Lady Ludovica of Monte Porzio, Consignora, Bernardovecchio, Busichio, Ghirardo, Monleone, Calbana, Calbanella, Ginestreto e Secchiano, Castiglione (Italy)
1438… Lady of San Mauro
Daughter of Gaspare and Novella dei Signori di Roello and married to Niccolò da Montefeltro, natural son of Count Conte Antonio da Montefeltro.

  1430-32 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Geroldseck of Säckingen (Germany)
First mentioned in documents from 1430 because of her dispute with Albrecht von Schönau and the compromise reached with his widow about the bailiffs’ office (Meieramt) in 1432. Her family were lords of the Lordships of Lahr and Hohengeroldseck by Strasbourg.

  1430-33 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Astúñiga of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As all the abbesses of the chapter, she was a member of one of the most illustrious noble families of Castillia.

  Ca. 1430-33 Reigning Abbess Marie II de Bréban of Jouarre (France)
Succeeded sister, but was deposed by king Charles VII.

  1431-53 Sovereign Duchess Isabella of Haut-Lorraine and Bar (France and Belgium)
1435-38 Regent Queen of Napoli (Italy)
Succeeded her father Karl I as Duchess of Lorraine. Her husband, René d’Anjou (d. 1480), Duke of Anjou from 1430 was Duke by the right of his wife of Bar from 1434, and when Queen Giovanna of Napoli died in 1435, she left him her throne. Isabella led the government during his warfare with Giovanna’s previous adopted heir King Alfonso of Aragón and Sicily and in 1442 he defeated René, took Naples, and the following year he was recognized as King by the Pope Eugene IV. Among Isabella’s six children was Queen Margaret d’Anjou of England. Isabel lived (1410-1453).

  1431-34 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Hanau of Rieneck (Germany)
1434-60 Reigning Lady of the Office and Castle of Mainberg bei Schweinfurt in Henneberg
After the death of her husband, Thomas II (1408-31), she was regent for their two sons Philipp the Older, Lord of Grünsfeld, Lauda und Wildenstein (d, 1488) and Philipp the Younger, Lord of Lohr, Gemünden, Brückenau und Schildeck (d. 1497), until her marriage to Count Wilhelm II von Henneberg-Schleusingen (1415-44). Instead her brother took over as regent. She declined any rights of the county of Rieneck but received her dowry of 8.000 Guilders and Mainberg from her new husband. Mother of another 5 children. She was oldest daughter of Reinhard II and Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, and lived (1408-60).

  1431-34 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Bayern of Haut-Lorraine (France and Belgium)
Apparently she took over the regency after her husband, Karl II von Ober-Lothringen died, since his successor, Isabella resided in Napoli. Her marriage was not very happy and she devoted her time caring for the poor and founded a number of hopitals. Later declared Holy. The daughter of the German Emperor Ruprecht van der Pfalz and Elisabeth von Hohenzollern and  mother of two surviving daughters and two sons who died young, and lived (1373-34).

  1431-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Successor of her cousin Blanche d’Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque dHarcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d’Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.

  1431-34 Contra-Abbess Marguerite II de Beaufort de Montmorency of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Elected in opposition to Marie II and was not recognized by the Pope.  

  1432 Regent Dowager Sultana Aisha Sia of Ternate (Indonesia)
After the death of her husband Paduka Sri Sultan Bessi Muhammad Hasan, Kaicili Komalo Pulu, Sultan of Ternate (1377-1432), who established himself as paramount ruler of the Moluccas, taking the title of Kolano ma-Lukku in 1380, for grandson Kaicili Ngolo-ma-Kaya, who succeeded as Paduka Sri Sultan Gapi Baguna II. She was daughter of another sultan of the state.

  1432-62 Sovereign Lady Aikaterina Asania Zaccariaina of Arcadia, Heiress of the principality of Achaia (Greece)
Also known as Aikaterina Asanina Zaccariaina, she succeeded her father, enturione II, who succeeded his father in 1401 as Lord of Arkadiak and was installed in 1404 as Prince of Achaia by Ladislas King of Sicily, but was dispossessed in 1430 by the Emperors of Byzantium. Her husband, Thomas Palailogos, Despot of Morea 1428-60, son of Emperor Manuel II of Byzantinium, was Lord of Archaia-by the right of his wife. She lived (1392-1462).

  1432-84 Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Sulz of Säckingen (Germany)
She got papal dispensation to assume the office as she was on 22 at the time of her election. She mediated in a dispute between the fishermen of Säckingen and Laufenburg in 1438, Emperor Friederich II confirmed the rights and privileges of the Chapter in 1442, which suffered under the dispute between Austria and the Swiss Confederates and she reached an agreement with the Austrian Lordship Rheinfelden about the rights of the town of Mumpf. Her son, Hohann Thurn, was granted a position as canon at Säckingen through Papal  intervention. She was daughter of Count Rudolf von Sulz and Ursula von Habsburg-Laufenburg, Heiress of her father, Hans von Habsburg-Laufenburg, and lived (1409-84).

  1433-43 Sovereign Countess Isabel de Urgell, (Titular Dame of Andorra) (Spain)
The daughter of Jaime II, Count de Urgell, etc, who died in jail in Jativa and Princess Isabel of Aragon (1380-1424), she was married to Pedro of Portugal, Duque de Coimbra (1392-1449). They did not have any children, and she lived (1409-43).

  1433-1447 Co-ruler Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Teschen-Freistadt  (Cieszyn) (Poland)
Reigned the Slesian Duchy together with her 4 sons. She lived (1395/8-1447).

  1433-57 Reigning Abbess-General María de Sandoval I of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her official title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals”.

  1433-62 Reigning Abbess Jeanne III de Melun of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Sister of Philippe de Melun, councillor of King Charles VII. After her death both Isabelle de Neuville and Marguerite de Levilly were elected abbesses. Jeanne d’Ailly took over in the end.

  1434-38 Possible Member of the Regency Council Dowager Queen Zofia Holszańska of Poland
1434-61 Politically Active
Also known as Sonka or Sofia of Holszany. After the death of her husband, king Władysław II Jagiełło, she lost the struggle over the regency for her son King Władysław III Warneńczyk of Poland and Hungary, though new research indicates that she might have been Regency Council Member. Anyhow she remained involved in politics, and in 1454 helped her younger son, Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk, to asume the throne after the death of his brother. She lived (1405-61).

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Medhyn Zemeda of Damot in Ethiopia
Held the additional high office of “keń bituedded”. She was daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub (ruled 1434-68), who appointed his daughters to high state offices and governors in the provinces. Her sister, Byrhan Zemeda, held the office of “gyr bituedded”.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Meszih of Amhara in Ethiopia
Their brother, Baeda Mariam I, also known as either Siryakos or Dawit II (ruled 1507-40), killed his mother, Tseyun Work, for attempting to usurp power.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Dyl Semra of Tigraj in Ethiopia
Another daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob, who was also known as Yaqub or Qwastantinos I or Constantine. He was father of one son.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Semra of Godzham in Ethiopia
Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Rom Genejda of Scheua in Ethiopia
One more daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Segedu of Geń in Ethiopia
Another daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Tsebele Marjam in Ethiopia
Also known as Abala Marjam.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Gijorgis of a Province in Ethiopia
The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Sofija of Gyddym in Ethiopia
Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Bahyr Mengyschain of a Province in Ethiopia
The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.

  1435-42 Regent Dowager Empress Zangof China
Widow of Emperor Hsuan Te (1425-35) and ruled in the name of her son, Zhu Qizhen (Zhengtong), who was Emperor (1435-49) and (1457-64). She was one of the most powerful of all Ming empresses was accompanied by her son, on a visit to Wansuishan, the artificial mountain just behind the palace. They also made a very public visit to the Ming tombs, thirty li northwest of the city. (d. 1442).). 

  1535-38 Regent Electress Mechtild von Savoien-Achaien of Pfalz (Germany)
From 1430 the progressing blindness of her husband Ludwig III von Wittelsbach, Elector of the Palatine, forced him to transfer more and more of his powers to his brother, Otto, and in 1435 she was appointed joint regent together with brother-in-law and a Council of 25. The following year she became regent for her son, Ludwig IV after his death, but died before he came of age. She lived (1390-1438)

  Until 1435 Princess-Abbess Margarethe I Sattelbogerin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not certain whom she followed on the post as Reichsfürstin and ruler of the ecclesiastical territory.

  1435-56 Princess-Abbess Barbara I von Absberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Head of the territory had been a Princess of the Realm since 1315.

  1435-38 Princess-Abbess Agathe II Grähter of Heggbach (Germany)
Another version of her surname is Gretterin.

  1435-58 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Plauen-Reuss of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Count Heinrich IX von Reuss, Lord of Plauen und Auerbach and Countess Anna von Riesenberg. (d. 1458).

  1436-38/39 Reigning Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg) (Poland)
1453-66 Regent of the Duchies
After the death of her husband, Ludwik II of Brzeg and Legnica, she ruled in her own name until she married her brother-in-law, Wacław I 1438/39, but the marriage ended in divorce. Later regent for son. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich I von Brandenburg and mother of four children, and lived (1403-49).

  1436… Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Dammartin (France)
Daughter of Marie Dammartin and Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and married to Antoine de Chabannes (d. 1488), one of the favourites of King Charles VII, who fought under the standard of Joan of Arc, became a leader of the Ecorcheurs, took part in the war of the public weal against Louis XI, and then fought for him against the Burgundians. Their son, Jean de Chabannes, left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the countship to Philippe de Boulainvilliers

  1436 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Rothenstein of Rottenmünster (Germany)
The Chapter became an Imperial Immediacy (achieved Reichsunmittelbarkeit) in 1442 and the Abbess became Lady of the Chapter and its possessions, and given the right to collect taxes and customs. After the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 6 administrative units, called Imperial Circles or Reichskreisen in 1495, in the Abbess of Rottenmünster became member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the Regional Assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis. 1521 the Abbess was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm – which meant that she was member of the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The next known Princess-Abbess was Ursula Scherlin, who was in office 1657-87.

  1436-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Successor of her cousin Blanche d’Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque d’Harcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d’Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.

  1437-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Francesca Morosini of Naxos et de L’Archipel (Greece Island-State)
After the death of her husband, Giovanni II Crispo of Naxos, she first imprisoned by her brother-in-law, Guglielmo Crispo, who claimed the regency for his son, but after 4 years she took over as regent for her son Giacopo II (1433-47). After the death of his cousin Andrea Zeno Lord of Andros in 1437, the Venetians installed their nominee Francesco Quirini to rule the island, Duke Giacomo being blackmailed into acceptance by threat of attack. In 1440 a Venetian court ruled in favour of Crusino I Sommaripa, son of Maria Sanudo, as ruler of Andros. Her daughter Adriana was deprived of her rightful inheritance by Guglielmo. She (d. after 1455)

  1437-40 Queen Elisabeth von Luxemburg of Bohemia and of Croatia-Dalmatia, Sovereign Duchess of Luxembourg
1439-1440 De-facto Regent of Hungary (27.10-29.07)
Known in Hungarian as Luxemburgi Erzsébet királyné, she was daughter of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, who was joint regent and successor of his first wife, Queen Maria d’Anjou of Hungary. Her mother was Barbara Cilli. After his death in 1437, the Hungarian Estates recognized her as sovereign or Lady of the Land (Landesherrin), which pawed the way for her first husband, Albert von Habsburg’s election as king of Hungary. After his death in 1439, she wanted to secure the throne for the unborn child. This would have meant that the reins of government would have been in her hands, but this the estates would not accept, and they offered the crown to Wladislas II Jagiello of Poland. In February, her son Lászlo was born and on 15 May, she had him crowned. However, the Estates declared that this had happened against the will of the people and in June, they invalidated her son’s coronation. Elisabeth had secured the holy Stephan-Crown and Wladislas had to be crowned with another crown. A civil war followed among her supporters and those of the Polish king. Lászlo V the Posthumous was recognised as king in 1446 with Hunyadi Janos (John Corvinius) as regent until 1453. When he died in 1457 her two daughters, Elisabeth and Anna, inherited some of the rights to the family lands. She lived (1409-42).

  1437-39 Regent Dowager Queen Joan Beaufort of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
After her husband, James I, was murdered, she reigned on behalf of their seven-year-old son James II. Despite her efforts he became the pawn of two unscrupulous Scottish lords, Sir William Crichton and Lord Livingstone. The Black Douglas entered the fray and succeeded in defeating and executing Livingstone. Crichton, in turn, manipulated James into killing the Black Douglas. Eventually, James II defeated the Douglas family at the battle of Arkinholm. Daughter of John Beaufort and Margaret Holland, she had eight children by James I of Scotland and one with her second husband, James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn (ca. 1383-ca. 1451) John Stewart, 1st Earl of Athol. (d. 1445).

  1437-44 Reigning Abbess Agnes of Gutenzell (Germany)
Emperor Sigismund confirmed the privileges of the Chapter in 1437, and they formed the legal foundation of the territory’s position as an independent state.

  1438-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I Hoffmann of Heggbach (Germany)
In old sources her surname is written as Hofmannin. The chapter aquired the right to dispence both low and high justice in one of its possessions, the village of Mietingen, in 1442.

  1438-40 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Aragón-Urgell of Portugal and The Agaves
Also Countess de Urgell and Duchess de Goimbra. Her husband, Duarte (1391-1433-38) had appointed her as regent of in his will for their son, Afonso V (1432-38-81). However, she was inexperienced and, as an Aragonese, unpopular with the people who preferred the late king’s brother Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. Negotiations for a compromise arrangement were drawn out over several months, but were complicated by the interference of the Count of Barcelos and the Archbishop of Lisbon, as also by her giving birth to a posthumous daughter in March 1439, and by the death of her eldest daughter, Philippa. Eventually the Cortes appointed Pedro the sole Regent, but Eleonore continued conspiring, but was forced to go into exile in Castile in December 1440. She was daughter of Fernando I of Aragón and Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque (1409-45).

  1438 Queen Regnant Samdach Brhat-Chao Nang Keo Phim Fa Mahadevi of Lan-Xang (Laos)
Took over as ruler after having placed various princes on the throne. She only reigned for a few months before she was deposed and killed. She lived (1343-1438).

  1438-62 Sovereign Duchess Eléonore de Bourbon-La Marche of Nemours, Countess of Castres and La Marche (France) 
Daughter of Jacques de Bourbon-La Marche (1370-1438) and Beatrix d’Évreux, the daughter of Carlos III of Navarra. Her father’s second wife was Giovanna II of Napoli. Eleonore was married to Bernard d’Armagnac, Count de Pardiac. 

  1438-44 Princess-Abbess Anna V Schenkin zu Limpurg of Baindt (Germany)
1437 Emperor Sigismund had granted the Princess-Abbess of Baindt the right to act as a low court judge (Niedere Gerichtshofheit).

  1438-65 Reigning Abbess Bonne de a Viefville of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Seigneur of Thiennes and Blaringhem.

  1439-ca. 46 Sovereign Princess Maria de Sommaripa of Antiparos  (Greece Island-State)
Succeeded father Crusino I. She was daughter of Princess Maria Saudos of Andros, Gespario and Samnaripa 

  1439-61 Reigning Dowager Duchess Scholastika von Sachsen of Naumburg am Bober (Nowogród Bobrzański) (Poland)
Also known as Scholastyka Wettin, she held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry after the death of her husband, Duke Johan von Sagan (Jan I of Żagań).

  1439-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Małgorzata of Wołów (Poland)
Following the death of her husband, Duke Konrad V Kantner of Oleśnica (Oels) and Kozielsk, she held the Slesian lordship as her dowry. 

  1439-92 Joint Hereditary Lady Anna von Wevelinghoven of Wevelinghoven (Germany)
Daughter of Wilhelm II von Wevelinghoven and married to Heinrich IV von Gemen and they were succeeded by their daughter, Cordula. She lived (1423-ca. 92).

  1439-? Joint Hereditary Lady Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of Wevelinghoven (Germany)
Sister of Anna, she married Johann VI. von Reifferscheid in 1433. She received the Lordship of Alfter and the Erbmarschallamt Köln after an agreement with her husband in 1461.

  1439 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Dorstadt of Gandersheim (Germany)
Succeeded Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen.

  1439-52 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
Also known as Ilse, she was sister of Agnes who reigned the territory (1412-39), she was elected Fürstäbtissin in the year she became widow of Duke Kasimir V of Pommern, even though – according to the statutes from 1357 – she would not have been allowed to enter the chapter as she was not unmarried. She lived (ca. 1409-52).

  Around 1440-46 Princess-Abbess Sophie of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)
Transformed the lower parts the north transept of the Chapel .

  1441 Hereditary Duchess Bianca Maria Visconti of Milano (Italy)
1466 Regent of Milano
Heiress of the duchy and married to Francesco Sforza. She was a very energetic woman who assisted her husband in the administration of the state. Her cultural engagement was one of the contributing factors to the Lombardian Renaissance. After her husband’s death she was in charge of the government and had the Privy Council elect her son, Galeazzo Maria Sforza – who was in France at the time – as Duke. She lived (1425-68).

  1441-51 Sovereign Signora Catarina Appiano of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriato, Abbadia, al Fango, Vignale, Valle, Montini and the Island of Elba (Italy)
Daughter of Gherardo Leonardo who was, Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, who lived (1375-1445), succeeded her brother, Jacopo II, and died of the plague. Married Rinaldo Orsini Conte di Tagliacozzo et Alba, and was succeeded by uncle Emanuele. She lived (1402-50).

  1441-54/55 Reigning Dowager Duchess Margareta von Oppeln in Ohlau and Niemcza (Oława)
Also known as Małgorzata Opolska, she held the principality after the death of her husband Ludwig III of Lüben, Hainau, Ohlau, Nimptich and Brieg. She was the daughter of Duchess Bolesław IV of Opole and Małgorzata of Gorycja, mother of 2 sons: Jan and Henryk, and lived (1412/14-1454/5).

  1441-49 Princess-Abbess Agnès I de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The third ruler of the territory from the Mérode-family that used the name of Franckenberg.

  1441-52 Reigning Abbess Barbara von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
One of many members of her family to be Abbesses of the chapter.

  1442-58 (†) De Facto Co-Regent Queen Helena Palaiologina of Cyprus
Probably the most important event in the reign of Jean II was his marriage to Helena of Byzantine-Morea. She was stronger in character than her husband, took over the running of the kingdom and brought Greek culture out of the oblivion in which it had languished for three centuries. Her actions in favour of the Orthodox faith and Greek culture naturally disturbed the Franks, who came to consider her a dangerous enemy, but she had become too powerful to attack. Greek Cypriots have always revered Queen Helena as a great heroine because of her boldness. Their daughter and heir, Charlotte, was married to João, duke of Coimbra, grandson of the king of Portugal, who used his influence in support of the Catholic party, and so incurred the enmity of the Queen that Helena persuaded King Jean II to exclude him from any share in the government, on the grounds that he might grow too powerful and attempt to seize the crown. João left the court with his wife and died within a year under circumstances, which led to the belief that he had been poisoned at the instigation of Helena. In 1458 Helena died and the king, now entirely under the influence of his illegitimate son, Jacques, thought to make him his heir. But a few months later Jean himself died and Charlotte succeeded him as Queen at the age of twenty-two. Helena lived (1432-58).

  1442-84 Reigning-Abbess Margaretha I von Gleichen of Herford Germany)
In dispute with the Hereditary Steward and Lords von Helfenstein-Sporkenburg about a number of tenants and villages and against her protests, Johann XII von Helfenstein, Lord of Sporkenburg, placed the villages Arnberg and Immendorf under the protection of the Archbishop of Trier. This created the situation where the Abbey were Lords of the Fief and the Bishopcy were Lord Guardians.

  1442-43 Contra-Abbess Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Herford (Germany)
In oppositon to Abbess Margarete von Gleichen. 1476-79 Jakobe von Neuenhar was Contra-Abbess.

  Until 1442 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de Bourgogne of Guyenne (France)
Daughter of Jean de Bourgogne, Duc de G. and Margareta of Bavaria. She was first married to Louis de France (1397-1415) and then to Arthur III de Montfort of Bretagne (193-1458).

  1442-76 Politically Influential Princess Magdalena Oppeln (Opole) (Poland) 
1474 Regent of Oppeln
Very influential during the reign of her husband Mikołaj I, and in 1474 she acted as regent for him. She lived (1426/30-1497).

  1442-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Margaretha von Ratibor of Gostynin in the Masovian Duchy of Rawa (Poland)
Also known as Małgorzata Raciborska, she received the town of Gostynin as her dowry after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Siemowit V of Masovia-Rawa, while the rest of the domain was joined with Płock.

  1442-59 Regent The Dowager Queen Nguyễn Thị Anh  of Vietnam
When Nguyen Thi Anh’s husband, King Lê Thái Tông, died, she took over the regency for her 1 year old son, Lê Nhân Tông. In reality, the real power behind the throne was Trịnh Khả and together they managed to rule Vietnam reasonably well, though there was some friction. Her son was officially given the powers of government in 1453 even though he was only 12 years old. This was unusual and seems to have made little real difference, the she continued to rule while the other noble families acted as a brake on her power. In 1459 her late husband’s oldest son staged a coup, killed the king and the next day she allowed herself to be killed by a loyal servant. She lived (circa 1422–1459).

  1444-(90) Sovereign Countess Agnes de Touraine (France)
Succeeded brother, Pierre. Her husband Agne de la Tour, was count by the right of his wife (1445-90).

  1444-60 Co-Ruler Duchess Margaret Cilly of Schlesien-Teschen-Gross-Glogau
1460-76 Titular Duchess of Głogów and Żagań
Also known as Małgorzata Cyllejska, and after the death of her husband, Władysław of Głogów and Cieszyn, she formally held Glogau and Sagan as her dowry until she was deposed and the principality was incorporated into Schlesien-Teschen-Freistadt. Daughter of count Herman III of Cilly. (d. 1480).

  1444-57 Princess-Abbess Wandelburgis of Baindt (Germany)
In the first year of her reign, she temporary took over the Patron-rights over Wechstsweiler.

  1444-52 Princesse-Abbesse Henrica III de Vienne of Remiremont  (France)
Also known as Henriette de Vienne.

  1444-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Hofmann of Heggbach (Germany)
Heggbach was the only ecclesiastical territory where the Princess-Abbess mainly came from peasant and merchant families.

  1444-59 Reigning Abbess Dorothea Neth of Gutenzell (Germany)
It is not clear when the abbesses became Princesses of Empire, Princess-Abbesses (title Reichsäbtissin zu Gutenzell), but in 1417 and 1437 the Chapter was granted certain privileges by Emperor Sigismund.

  1444-48 Reigning Abbess Ursula von Tauffkirchen-Hohenrain und Höchlenbach of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Originated from a family of Lords of the Watercastle in Taufkirchen near Munich and the lords of Hohenrain in Switzerland.

  1445-54 De-facto in charge of the Government Queen Margaret d’Anjou of England
1455-82 Leader of the Lancastrian Party
1460-61 Acting Regent of England
Dominated her husband, Henry VI, and was very determined to keep him on throne during the War of the Roses. She headed the Lancastrian forces, and also controlled the government during her husband’s fits of insanity (1445-53). When he became incapable of reigning in 1453 shortly after the birth of their first child, Edward of Lancaster, she presented a bill to the parliament which would have named her regent, but it was defeated and the following year she appointed Richard of York as Protector. The Yorkists deposed her husband in 1461, and she and her son fled to Scotland and then to France. The following year she invaded Northumbria, but it did not achieve anything, so she once again returned to France. Gathering her forces, she again landed in England in 1470, and this time her army prevailed and Henry was replaced on the throne of England. But soon after the Lancastrian forces were defeated by Yorkists at Tewkesbury, in the battle in which her son was killed. When Edward IV regained the throne, her husband was soon put to death. She was captured herself and imprisoned in Tower. Edward IV eventually ransomed her to King Louis XI and she was allowed to return to France, where she spent rest of her life in seclusion. She lived (1429-82).

  1445-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Brandenburg of the City of Friedberg in Bayern (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig VIII of Bayern-Inglofstadt (1403-45), she kept her father-in-law, Ludwig VII (1365-1447) imprisoned at the Neuburg in order to use him as exchange for the damage payment demanded by her brother, Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg-Ansbach until Heinrich the Rich of Bayern paid the ransom. She kept her residence at Neuburg even though her dowry was at the Castle of Friedberg, and she died in Landshut. (d. 1465).

  1445-1456 Politically Influential Duchess Małgorzata of Szamotuły in Racibórz (Poland)
1456-? Regent
Until 1464 Co-Ruler
Very active supporter of her second husband was prince Wacław II of Racibórz’ politics. After his death she became regent and (later) co-ruler of their son, Jan V. (d. 1464).

  1445-47 Princess-Abbess Sophia II von Daun-Oberstein of Essen (Germany)
Member of the family of the Counts von Daun-Falkenstein, Lords of Daun-Oberstein und Falkenstein, who were vassals, of the Duchy of Berg.

  1445-63 Princess-Abbess Mechtildis II von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Perhaps Coadjurix and Pröbstin (Deputy Abbess) from 1439. Also known as Mathilde, she was daughter of Siegmunt I von Anhalt-Dessau and Jutta von Querfurt. Her niece, Scholastika, was abbess from 1569. Mechtildis (d.1463).

  1445-49 15th Territorial Countess Anne de Beauchamp of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1447-49 Lady of the Isles (Dependency of the English Crown)
As the only daughter of Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and 14th Earl of Warwick, she was heir to the Warwick and the Despenser lands, the latter trough her grandmother, Isabel Despenser. When she died in January 1449, aged only five, her heir was her aunt Anne Neville, her father’s only sister in the full blood. His half-sisters were barred from any claim through common law to her estates. None the less a royal license dated 12 July 1449 described Margaret, Eleanor, Elizabeth and her as joint heiresses of Richard Beauchamp, but on July 23 of the same year, the king granted the title of Earl of Warwick to Richard and Anne Neville, declaring she was Henry Beauchamp’s heir. Anne de Beauchamp lived (1443-49). 

  1446-49 Regent Dowager Princess Maria of of Poland of Pommern-Stolp (Pomerze-Słupsk) (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Bogisław IX, she was regent during the absence of his nephew, King Erik VII of Denmark and Sweden, who had abdicated in 1438 and spend the years 1442-49 as a privateer in the Baltic Seas, until he retired to Pomerania with his partner, Cecilia and lived there until his death in 1459. He was succeeded by her daughter, Zofia. Maria was the daughter of Duke of Mazowsze Siemowit IV and Aleksandra of Poland, a sister of king Władysław II Jagiełło, and lived (1408/15-1454).

  1446-1528 Sovereign Princess Lucrezia Loredano of Antiparos  (Greece Island-State)
Succeeded sister. 1207 the Venetian noble Mario I Sanudo conquered the Cycladerna, Sporades and other islands in the Aegean Sea from the Byzantine Empire. Naxos became the centre, but later the Aegean was marred by pirates and some times the Island of Antiparos was abandoned all together. In 1537 the island was occupied by the Ottomans.

  1446/47 Reigning Dowager Lady of Dagno Danjë (Albania)
The Lordship was also known as Dagno or Danja. In 1444 Gjergji Skanderbeg liberated parts of Albania and united the Albanian Princes in the “Liga of Lezha” in the fight against the Ottoman Turks, but 1448 the city and lordship was lost.

  1446-54 Princess-Abbess Jakoba van Heinsberg-Loon of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Took over as acting sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Principality from Mechtildis, who vacated the position, but remained titular Abbess to her death. Jacobäa abdicated in 1454 and moved to the court of her half-brother, the Prince-Bishop of Liège, where she seems to have fallen in love with the Knight van der Marck. Since she was also very pious she withdrew to a Benedictine Chapter – another version of the story is that he died in a duel. She was daughter of Johann II von Loen, Lord of Jülich and Heinsberg and his second wife, Anna von Solms, and died 1466.

  1447-59 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth V von Saffenberg of Essen (Germany)
She might have been identical with the Elisabeth von Saffenberg, Lady of Saffenberg, Co-Heiress of Thomberg, Lanscroon, Koningsfeld and Meyl who was married Luther von Quadt zu Lantscroon, Knight from 1464 and Lord of Tomberg, Lanscroon, Hardenberg and Vorst. This Elisabeth was daughter of Croft van Saffenberg en Elisabeth Tomberg.

  1447-70 Abbess Nullius Sancia Fungetaof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among the many privileges she enjoyed as Abbess were that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.

  1448-49 Regent Dowager Empress Helena Dragaš of the Byzantine Empire (Greece)
Left the convent where she had stayed since the death of her husband, Emperor, Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-91-1425), and asserted her right to act as regent until the eldest of her surviving sons arrived from Greece, after the death of her oldest son, John VIII Palailogos, since the younger of the surviving sons, Demetrios, had hurried to the capital to stake his claim over the older Constantine XI. She sent George Sphrantzes to the Sultan Murad to seek his approval and recognition of Constantine as the new Emperor, and  commissioned two of her leading courtiers to go to Mistra to confirm the fact of his succession. On 6 January 1449 they proclaimed and invested Constantine, who died in 1453 as the last Byzantine Emperor. The daughter of Constantin Dragaš, Authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhesother of 9 sons and 1 or 2 daughters, and lived (ca. 1372-1450).

  1448 “Holder of the Royal Authority” Dowager Queen Dorothea zu Brandenburg of Denmark
1448-52 Mistress of the Counties of Örebro, Närke and Värmland (Sweden)
1481-90 Regent of Slesvig-Holsten (Schleswig-Holstein) (Germany)
The “royal authority” was vested in her after the death of her first husband, Christoffer 3 of Bayern. She contra signed and authorized the decisions made by the Council of State, which reigned the country. Later same year she married the new king Christian I of Oldenborg and often acted as regent during his many warfares. Her dowry included Roskilde Len and Ringsted Len, and held large parts of Lolland, Falster, Slesvig and Holsten together with Abrahamstrup, Kalundborg, Närke and Värmland (Sweden) as security for loans she granted her husband. She founded a convent in Køge and travelled twice to Rom on pilgrimages. A month before his death, Christian granted her Slesvig-Holsten as a personal fief, and after his death she acted as regent for son, Frederik, (later king) in the Dukedoms. She lived (1430-90).

  1448-54 Sovereign Countess Nicole de Châtillon de Blois of Penthièvre, Vicomtesse de Limoges, Dame de Thors, des Essars et de Reignac (France)
Married to Jean II de Brosse, Seigneur de Boussac et de Sainte-Severe. She (d. 1479).

  1448-69 Sovereign Lady Johanna von Loon zu Heinsberg of Heinsberg, Geilenkirchen, Dalenbroich, Diest, Sichem and Zeelhem (Germany and The Netherlands)
Daughter of Johann IV von Loon, Herr zu Heinsberg and Johanna von Diest and married to Johann II von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1423-72) and lived (1443-69).

  1448-68 Reigning Abbess Ottilia von Abensberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of an ancient Austrian noble family.

  1449-96 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I von Werdenberg of Buchau (Germany)
Only 12 when elected abbess, and the Pope appointed the Counts Ulrich and Ludwig von Württemberg and the City of Ulm to run the affairs of the Chapter, and her mother, Elisabeth von Württemberg, was also influential. First mentioned as Princess of the Realm in 1455. She problably took over the reigns herself around 1466 when she reached the age of 30, the normal minimum age for abbesses. Her father was Johann IV von Werdenberg of the House of Montfort, she was succeeded by sister, Anna, and ived (ca. 1436-66).

  1449-62 Princess-Abbess Marguerite I d’Escornais of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.

  1449-50 Territorial Hereditary Countess Anne de Beauchamp Neville of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1471-87 Lady of the Isles (Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Brechou, Herm, Jethou and Sark) (Dependencies of the English Crown)
Inherited the claim to the title of her brother’s daughter Anne de Beauchamp, though her half-sister claimed the lands and title. After an investigation into Anne de Beauchamp’s estates affirmed that she was the heir and on 2 March 1450 a fresh grant of the title of Warwick was made to her and her husband, Richard Neville, who became the 16th Earl, this time adding provision that her sister, Margaret would inherit if the Nevilles remained childless. Anne and her husband were also confirmed with the office of Chamberlain of the Exchequer, which was part of the earldom of Warwick, on 6 December 1450 and her husband took possession of the office. Her half-sisters and their husbands immediately protested, and in consequence, her husband was removed from the office and the king committed it to temporary custodians until the Exchequer court could determine the rightful owner. 1454 they were re-confirmed with the office. After his death in 1471, she took over as Lady of the Isles. Their daughter, Anne Neville, first married the Prince Edward of Wales, and then Richard III. Anne de Beauchamp Neville lived (1426-92).

 

Dr IWAN BOOK’S INTRODUCTIONS “THE DAI NIPPON WAR “(BUKU PERANG DAI NIPPON)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Dai Nippon Cybermuseum)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karangan Dr Iwan “Perang Dai Nippon)

 

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Island 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Perkenalan
1.Saya  memiliki koleksi lengkap sejarah pos dan dokumen serta gambar  selama Dai Nippon Menduduki Pulau Jawa  1942-1945  berupa kronologi hari per hari dari hari kapitulasi pada Maret, 8th.1945 sampai Agustus, 17, 1945 (2605), juga sampai Jepang Tentara kembali ketanah airnya , sampai untuk Dec.1945 Tentara Dai nippon masih memiliki kekuasaan yang dberikan oleh Sekutu sehingga prangko dan meterainya masih digunakan oleh Republik Indonesai hingga 1947.

2. Sekarang aku hanya menambahkan 1942 (2602) Koleksi, dan jika kolektor ingin terlihat koleksi lengkap, tidak hanya dari pulau Jawa tetapi juga dari Pulau sumatra, silakan berlangganan sebagai anggota premium blog melalui komentar, dan kami akan contack Anda melalui Anda pos udara. Kami akan membantu Anda untuk mengatur koleksi sangat langka dan amizing Dai Nippon Pekerjaan Indonesia pos dan dokumen khusus untuk Anda.

3.saya  telah menambahkan di blok saya, artikel perang Dai nippon dari seluruh negara asia timur, banyak kolektor dan teman meminta saya untuk mengedit  seluruh informasi tersebut dalam sebuah  buku, dan sekarang saya sudah menyelesaikan BUKU yang menarik ini.
4.Gambar  sejarah selama  periode ini,  kami ditemukan selalu dalam kondisi buruk dan  hitam putih dari  ilustrasi buku, saya berharap suatu hari nanti gambar warna terbaik akan ada untuk menambahkan dalam buku ini.
5.Tulisan ini  adalah bagian dari buku karangan saya : ” PERANG DAI NIPPON (THE DAI NIPPON  WAR)”
6. Koleksi saya masih perlu info dan koreksi dari kolektor di seluruh dunia, terima kasih atas partisipasit Anda untuk membuat koleksi ini lebih lengkap.7. terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu sya sehingga buku ini dapat terwijud, maaf namanya tidak saya tampilkan satu persatu.

Jakarta, April 2011

Salam  Dari

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 
_________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pasific War

__________________________________________________________________________

Showcase:

The Dai Nippon(imperial Japan) Military Postcard(Koleksi Kartupos Militer Balatentara Nippon)

Frame One:

The Dai Nippon Military Postcard(Dr Iwan Collections)

Please the native collectors help me to translate the postcard ‘s info from native Nippon katakana  or hiragana langguage to english languague thank(Dr Iwan S.)

A Japan

B.Occupation Indonesia

1.October 26th 2602(1942),Tamanan Gun Cho(Tamanan was  an area  at East java -military Command),used DEI postal Stationer because this time  Dai Nippon Military Postalcard  not exist.

2.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)

3.Military Postcard send via military courier from Magelang to Djatinegara.Read the translate .

Rare Dai Nippon Guntjo Pos Losarang with house of delivery(Rumah Pos) Stamped on postal stationer card 2603(1943)

Semarang Kezeibu Official CDS Semarang 27.12.03 card to Kudus

Frontside

Backside

Tekisan Kanribu(Dai Nippon Enemy Property Control) Bandung official Postal Used lettersheet homemade ,4.9.03(Sept.4th,1943)

C.Occupation South Korea

D.Occupation China

E.Occupation Malaya

F.Occupation Myanmar(Burma)

G.Occupation Phillipine

Frame Two:

The Dai Nippon Military Picture Postcard Found In Indonesia (Dr Iwan Collections)

A.The Central Museum Jakarta Indonesia Ethnic Pictures

1.the Picture postcard cover

Gunseikanbu(Dai Nippon Military Office) Moesioem Jakarta(Jakarta Museum)

2.The Indonesia Ethnic Picture

B.The Japanese Military Propaganda Pictures

FrameThree:The after of Dai Nippon War in Thailand

 Liberation and Heartbreak (August 1945 – May 1946)

 
Prisoner no more!
A jubilant Han Samethini symbolically tramples his POW identification tag
Caricature by J. Chevallier
Han Samethini Collection [1]

As Java plunged into revolutionary chaos in August 1945, Thailand was undergoing an orderly transfer of power. Incoming British troops quickly relieved the Japanese of their posts and weapons, while the RAPWI [2] organization began the formidable task of recovering thousands of Allied prisoners of war. Most of them were moved to large transit camps around Bangkok. Slowly at first, then more rapidly as logistics improved, survivors of the Burma Railway filtered through the city to board transport aircraft for the first stage of their long journey home: Rangoon for the Americans and the British, Singapore for the Australians. The POWs from these nations were repatriated by the end of October. [3]

Disarmed and humbled, Japanese military police and Kempei-tai await
outbound trains in the Bangkok railway station
Australian War Memorial

The 10,871 Dutch ex-POWs would remain in Thailand for a much longer period. Holland lacked the ability to evacuate her servicemen, being economically devastated after five years of Nazi occupation. Nor did she have the political clout to get her merchant vessels in the Pacific released from Allied naval control. But even had the Netherlands possessed the ships and the money to bring the men out of Thailand, home for the great majority of them was in the East Indies. Return there must await British permission. This state of affairs rankled Dutch pride, but worse for the men’s morale was news of the massacres on Java and the realization that they could do nothing to protect their families.

Perceiving early that the men would need more than material provisions to stave off boredom and demoralization, the Dutch command in Bangkok commissioned Han Samethini to organize entertainments. He started as soon as he was released from Tamuang, working alongside the best talent of the Railway camps, including the Tamarkan concert party and Postma’s show group from Chungkai.

Combined Concert Party of ex-POWs in Bangkok, September 1945.
Composed of Australians and Dutch from the Tamarkan and Chungkai groups.
Photo taken on the steps of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce building.
Joop Postma (dark suit) stands in the second row from the top, far left.
Conductor Han Samethini (white jacket) stands at bottom left.
See Footnotes for photo credit [4]

There was much to do, and few resources with which to do it. Saxophonist Lou Bloemhard recalls the origins and early work of the Samethini Band:

Immediately after the capitulation Lt. Colonel Mantel in Bangkok engaged Han Samethini to form an orchestra for the entertainment of the ex-POWs. This was the very first postwar band playing in Bangkok. The band featured mainly English and Dutch players, with a few Australians and Indians. The English and the Australians went home quite soon while the Dutch did not. Their departure greatly reduced Samethini’s orchestra. He therefore asked and received Mantel’s permission to tour the various camps to find additional musicians.

Aloysius “Lou” Bloemhard
Han Samethini Collection

In this way Sam, as we called him, came to Tamuan camp where I was bivouacked. He invited me to Bangkok and I, together with other musicians, drove there by truck the next morning. We were lodged in the buildings of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce on Sathorn Road. Thus the Dutch Samethini band was created, the first show and dance orchestra with mostly Dutch Indo guys. Together with the drama troupe of Joop Postma we were given the task of organizing cabaret and dance evenings for the army troops and ex-POWs in Bangkok, who would later be joined by the women and children evacuated from the Indies. For most people this meant reunions with the family.

But there were also outlying camps without any opportunity to get entertainment, and we had to travel there as well. The task finally became too large for just one orchestra and we needed help. Help came from up-country camps in the form of the Atomic Boys, led by the very popular prewar band leader Piet Bruyn van Rozenburg, a dance band led by Hofstede and also a trio consisting of Frans de Haan, Hans van Leeuwen and Jaap Schaap [in Dutch these surnames mean Rooster, Lion, and Sheep], nicknamed The Zoo.

The Samethini Band at the Chinese Chamber of Commerce
(Click on the smaller images to see the names of the musicians)
Han Samethini Collection
The Atomic Boys
Photo courtesy of Arno Ooms, Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

Our headquarters in Bangkok had leased a dance hall (a bankrupt Siamese establishment) and created a place for dancing and amusement for the Allied armed forces. Every POW returning from Siam to the Indies had to stay in Bangkok for a few days until transportation (usually by plane) became available. Every ex-POW in Bangkok came to know the Holland Club, where one of the above bands would play every evening. [5] [6]

From Nakhon Pathom arrived one of the brightest stars among Dutch POW entertainers, the famed cabaretier Wim Kan. Before the war he had been touring the Indies with his wife, Corry Vonk, and their ABC Cabaret. The fall of Holland made return to the mother country impossible, and when the Japanese conquered the Indies the couple was imprisoned. Corry was packed off to a women’s camp on Java. Kan was sent to the Burma Railway. Towards the end of the war he became gravely ill, but he had recovered and was now in fine fettle. In November he produced and headlined “Mystery in Budapest” at the Garrison Theater, a combination stage play and variety show where the Samethini Band provided much of the musical accompaniment. [7]

Poster for “Mystery in Budapest” (November 1945)
Produced by Wim Kan
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection
Review of “Mystery in Budapest”
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

The work of Kan, Samethini, and their fellow ex-POW entertainers revolutionized Bangkok’s night life. It was part of a larger, if ephemeral, transformation of the Thai capital into a virtual Dutch enclave, as great numbers of white and Eurasian refugees arrived from the East Indies in late 1945. This development was described in glowing terms by the Singapore-based Dutch language biweekly Oranje:

 
Netherlanders in Bangkok

Here follows a report from someone who has recently returned from Siam, where he visited all camps where Dutch ex-prisoners of war are quartered.

11,000 men are waiting anxiously in Thailand for the moment when they can return to Java and Sumatra. They have been quartered in the city of Bangkok and the surrounding areas.

Thanks to the good care of Rapwi, these guys are in very good health and all of them should be able to return to their prewar careers. Their condition compares favorably with the English troops in Bangkok.

(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

Also their morale is excellent. It seems as if Bangkok has been taken over by the Dutch. It even looks Dutch. The language heard in the streets is mostly Dutch, and everywhere one sees the uniforms of our POWs. Night life and Bangkok entertainment are mostly in their hands, thanks especially to Wim Kan and the band leader Samethini, who have managed with very limited resources to give an extraordinarily successful show which draws full audiences night after night…. [8]

Review of a Samethini Band charity concert given at the Chalerm Krung Theater
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

The Chalerm Krung Royal Theater today
Chatriumhotels.net

Review of “Eastward Ho”
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection
Chinese Chamber of Commerce auditorium

The Samethini Band also received favorable mention in the English language press. Articles clipped from an unknown source, probably the SEAC Services Newspaper, praise shows given at the Chalerm Krung Royal Theater and the Chinese Chamber of Commerce. “Eastward Ho,” performed at the CCC, was originally the 1944 Chungkai POW musical “Zijn Groote Reis” (His Big Trip). No review has been found for “The Black Cat,” an obscure Samethini production evidenced by a single surviving poster.

Poster for “The Black Cat” (November 1945)
Artwork by Piet van Velthuysen
Han Samethini Collection

String section of the Samethini Band
L-R: Johnny Ockerse, Harry Reinders, Bram Koot,
Fons Ockerse, Lex Koot, Tjalie Wagenaar
Han Samethini Collection

Hugo “Alie” Brinkman
Han Samethini Collection

Between performances, the band’s skill and finesse were honed by diligent rehearsing. Saxophonist Alie Brinkman recalled these sessions vividly when he spoke of the Bangkok days with his son, Hugh:

For years and years afterwards my father liked to reminisce on the happy “Samethini time”, as he used to call it. Han apparently had the gift, as my father frequently said, to meld the band in such a way together to be able to produce a specific full and rich sound! And that resulted in a very close comradeship of the band members. They were quite well known in Bangkok during that time. Plans to make a sound recording in Bangkok were made but unfortunately it never came off. [9]

The men of the Samethini Band shared qualities deeper than technical competence and enthusiasm for music. Theirs was a camaraderie forged in the terrible furnace of Japanese captivity, a unique bond shared and understood only by Allied ex-POWs of the Pacific War. They also had a common homesickness and longing for their beloved East Indies – a sentiment too intense for words and expressible, if it all, only in melody.

Han was not among those fortunate enough to be reunited with his family in Bangkok. Dutch women and children arriving at the Thailand refugee camps told of the horrors they had seen on Java. This and newspaper reports of the bloodbath in Surabaya led him to fear the worst. He’d received no letters from his wife, nor did Anna’s and Margie’s names appear on the Red Cross refugee lists that he searched daily. By late November he had given them up for dead. As he walked dejectedly down the street one day, he noticed a windblown sheet of paper in his path. He picked it up and saw that it was another Red Cross list. There were the names: Samethini, Anna C. and Samethini, Margareth J. They were alive, quartered in a refugee camp in Singapore!

Letter from the Red Cross thanking Samethini for
his work at the Alliance Francais dance hall in Bangkok
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

Taking leave of Bangkok and his bandmates in December, Han hurried to Singapore. His mind must have been a whirl of mixed emotions: gratitude, anticipation, and perhaps fear that the war might have changed Anna and her feelings towards him. He knew only too well the harm the Japanese Army could inflict on the bodies and souls of its subjects. Then there was Margie. He would be a stranger to her. Would she show affection for him? Would she even accept him?

Anna Samethini, 1946
Passport photo taken in Singapore
Courtesy of Margie Samethini-Bellamy

When he arrived at the entrance to the Nee Soon Hospital Camp, Anna met him at the gate. Jean stood beside her. Margie was nowhere in sight. Then the announcement, cold and curt: She had decided to spend her life with Jean. She wanted a divorce. Han was devastated. Probably he tried to persuade Anna to reconsider, and it seems incredible that he would not have demanded at least to see his daughter. Many years later he would say, vaguely yet with great vehemence and anguish, that he tried hard to put his family back together. Whatever the reason, Margie does not remember any visits from her father while she was in Singapore. On March 16, 1946 she and her mother left for Holland aboard the liner Nieuw Amsterdam. [10] [11]

Margie, 1946
Courtesy of Margie Samethini-Bellamy
Han in MP uniform
Han Samethini Collection

Han remained in Singapore, where he’d been assigned to the 2nd Military Police Brigade in Wilhelmina Camp. He was not long confined to the mundane duties of a sentry. This city, like Bangkok, hosted a sizable Dutch military and refugee community that was eager for amusements:

Together with their families, and other civilian support staff (for the Dutch merchant navy), the Dutch lived in two camps in the Katong district in the eastern part of Singapore. To make living more pleasant, the Dutch had organized their own newspaper, news service, a radio station, postal unit, and even entertainment outlets like cinemas and an orchestra. [12]

Samethini with fellow army musicians in Singapore, 1946
Singer’s and bass player’s names are unknown.
The guitarist has been tentatively identified as Jimmy van Lingen [13]
Han Samethini Collection

Samethini threw himself into this new project, driven by his love of music-making and the need to bury his pain under a mountain of work. The Singapore period is one of the briefest and most mysterious of his career, attested only by a photograph of him posing with an army entertainment troupe. He also seems to have directed an orchestra, a natural role given his training and experience. Of the orchestra we have only a fanciful illustration, drawn by a friend of Han’s who was not a witness to the events. It contains references to different themed performances (French Evening, Spanish Evening, Dutch Evening), and lyrics from one of his original compositions, “Sweet Muchachabelle of Spain.” Most striking are the depictions of the alluring Spanish maiden in roseate costume, the golden-haired chanteuse in white evening gown, and the bobbing and swaying jazz players in their immaculate tuxedos. They seem to express the refugees’ longing for the glamor of the prewar days in the Indies, the carefree evenings of dance and song whose spirit was epitomized in the popular Hollywood musicals shown at the cinemas. The merry strains of Samethini and his band brought back those happy memories, allowing audiences a few hours’ escape from the drabness of the present and uncertainty of the future.

Whimsical drawing of Han Samethini’s orchestra in Singapore
(Names of the people in the Volendammer costume photo unknown)
Artwork by Mieke Dusseldorp
Han Samethini Collection


But Singapore was more to the Dutch than a refugee settlement. It was the staging area for the return of colonial government and military forces to the East Indies. Already, in February, the British-trained Gadja Merah (Red Elephant) brigade, composed of the fittest Dutch survivors of the Burma Railway, had passed through the city. They wore different uniforms and carried better weapons than they’d shouldered in 1942, but they were still proud fighting men of the Royal Netherlands Indies Army. On March 2 the Gadja Merah landed on Bali and disarmed the Japanese garrison. On the 8th other units secured the Lesser Sundas, and the next day three Dutch battalions arrived in Batavia. The British were beginning their withdrawal from the Indies, glad to extricate themselves from a colonial war they had no intention of fighting. The last British troops would leave in November. It would be up to the Dutch either to defeat the Indonesian nationalists or come to terms with them.

In May 1946, Han himself received orders for transfer to Batavia. The colonial army’s Welfare Service needed musicians to entertain the troops, and no man was better qualified for the job. Packing his faithful accordion, Samethini boarded the trooper Tegelberg and sailed for Java. He had left the Indies as a wretched POW crammed in the hold of a Japanese slave ship. He was coming back as a soldier aboard a worthy Dutch vessel. Yet in another way he was returning as he had departed: outwardly surrounded by throngs, inwardly alone.

S.S. Tegelberg
blog.seniorennet.be

_______________________

Footnotes

[1] The towers in Chevallier’s caricature are probably the prangs of the Wat Arun Temple, a major Bangkok landmark. Compare also his drawing of the POW ID card with the third image below:

(Click images to enlarge)
Australian War Memorial

[2] RAPWI stands for Recovery of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees. This was the organization dedicated to the welfare and repatriation of ex-POWs and civilian internees in SEAC-administered areas of the former Japanese Empire.

[3] See the newspaper article below:

Canberra Times (October 29, 1945)
(Click image to enlarge)
National Library of Australia

[4] Photo credit: CU Nixon Combined Concert Party, Ted A. Weller Private Collection, courtesy of Sears Eldredge. Professor Eldredge is writing a book on the Burma Railway POW entertainments, which promises to be a unique and valuable contribution to the history of the Pacific War. His advice has been of great help in writing this biography.

The same photograph was used in a feature story in the Australian magazine PIX (February 9, 1946). The caption gives the names of the Australian musicians:

(Click image to enlarge)
PIX Magazine / Han Samethini Collection

[5] Dutch magazine article “Samethini’s Dans- en Showorkest”, by A. Bloemhard, (Moesson No. 2, August 15, 1989). Translated by Margie Samethini-Bellamy. The article concludes:

“Later on everyone connected to O & O [Ontwikkeling & Ontspanning / Rest & Recreation] was moved to Transit Camp, together with the by-then arrived families. We stayed there until September 1946, when we sailed home to the Indies on the liner Nieuw Holland. Upon arrival in Surabaya, those choosing to stay in the Indies left the ship, and the rest were repatriated to Holland.”

[6] Lt. Colonel P.G. Mantel was the highest ranking Dutch officer in Thailand. He had been a KNIL staff officer, and was present at the signing of the formal surrender of the Netherlands East Indies to the Japanese in March 1942. Here is a prewar photo of Mantel in Bandung, Java:

Lt. Colonel P.G. Mantel (center)

Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

[6] The Australian musicians of the Combined Concert Party left for home in early October. Samethini attended a farewell dinner in their honor given at the Ratanakosin Hotel. The Dutch and Australians passed around menus to collect autographs. A scan of Samethini’s menu appears below. Among the most prominent signatures are those of Ron Wells and Joop Postma. Wells was the producer of the Combined Concert Party show.

Ratanakosin Hotel, Bangkok
Circa 1946

Front of the Ratanakosin Hotel menu with ex-POW autographs
Samethini’s and Postma’s signatures visible above.

October 1, 1945
Han Samethini Collection

Reverse side of the Ratanakosin Hotel menu
Autograph of Ron Wells appears near the top.

Han Samethini Collection

[7] Wim Kan’s diary of his POW ordeal and postwar performances in Bangkok has been published in the Netherlands under the title Burma Dagboek.

Wim Kan
Sketch by Jack Chalker

Australian War Memorial

[8] The press clipping is not dated, but probably the article appeared in a November issue. The only clue to the source is a line of text on the reverse side: “Printed at the Straits Times.” Oranje was printed at the Straits Times Press Pte Ltd, as was the English language SEAC newspaper. The article concludes: “Even in outlying camps entertainments are being given. Our reporter witnessed a performance by Mary Honri at Pratchai camp. ”

Mary Honri (1910-1988) was a British music hall entertainer. A Honri-Samethini accordian duet would have been quite a show, but there is no evidence that they worked together. Below are two photos of the Pratchai performance:

British accordionist Mary Honri entertains
Dutch ex-POWs at Pratchai Camp

Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

[9] Personal e-mail from Hugh Brinkman (son of Alie Brinkman), November 23, 2009.

[10] The Nieuw Amsterdam arrived in Holland on April 10, 1946 at the port of Rotterdam. Below is a page of the passenger list, showing the names of Anna and Margie:


Courtesy of Jeroen Kemperman
Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

[11] Exactly one month before she left Singapore, Anna took part in a music and dance recital presented by Nee Soon Hospital. It was given in Sembawang, a northern area of the city. The program credits her as choreographer for “Arabian Nights”. Anna stands at far left in the photograph below:


Courtesy of Marge Samethini-Bellamy

(Click image to enlarge)
Courtesy of Marge Samethini-Bellamy

(Click image to enlarge)
Courtesy of Marge Samethini-Bellamy

[12] Yong Mun Cheong, The Indonesian Revolution and the Singapore Connection, 1945-1949 (Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press, 2003), p. 58.

[13] Identification made by British ex-POW Fergus Anckorn.

Frame Four:

The International Collections

1.Dai Nippon Prisoner Of War Java Card

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

DAI NIPPON WAR PART ONE “DAI NIPPON WAR IN INDONESIA 1942”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karang Dr Iwan “Perang Dai nippon)

Showcase:

The Dai Nippon Occupation Java ‘s Postal and document History 1942

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Idsland 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pasific War

__________________________________________________________________________

DAI NIPPON WAR PART TWO: CHAPTER ONE

 “THE DAI NIPPON WAR IN INDONESIA 1942”

1.Dai Nippon War in West Papua

Hamadi bay was once an ally of the first soldiers landed, which then goes and makes the defense barracks in the hills Mac Arthur (ordinary Papuans call Makatur hill), located in the hills Sentani. If the current travel there by car takes between 45-60 minutes from Jayapura, I can not imagine how long the first Allied troops reached the hill in one week

macarthur

Jend. D. MacArthur and Major General HH Fuller; commander Div # 41, shortly after landing on the beach Hamadi

Yes, hills Ifar Mountain, where the headquarters of the Pacific Southwest of the Mandala Command led by General MacArthur is located, held approximately 2-3 days after U.S. forces completed the 4-day military operation to master the three Japanese air base in Sentani area.
Allied military operation to seize Jayapura (then named Hollandia) and Sentani from the Japanese took place on 22 to 26 April 1944 and known as Operation Reckless, and usually called simultaneously with Operation Persecution run concurrently with the target of Aitape, 200km in east of Jayapura, Papua New Guinea in the region now.
I saw the scholar  never any attempt to study these events, unfortunately, the information obtained the  IMO rather vague and less specific about the Battle of Hollandia itself. So, this is a short version .

 3.1943.

peta #1
Allied counter-attack:
Mid-1943, the Pacific war had passed the turning point where the original Japanese in the offensive has turned into the defensive.

4. 1944
Purple arrows: invasion of the Allies until February 44, controls the eastern tip of New Guinea, and will jump straight to Madang to Wewak Hollandia

The absence of orientation in a long term war, and the leaking of secret code the Japanese military, played a role in the series of Japan’s defeat in the outer perimeter of the Japanese defense line in the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomons and the Huon Peninsula in the east end of New Guinea, while Rabaul, Japan’s leading bastion in the Pacific practical been isolated. Therefore the Japanese began to rewind the perimeter defenses in the north coast of New Guinea with the front line around Wewak, Madang, Hollandia, which is built into the main military base for the transit of troops and cargo from the sea, also the center of the new air force (moved from Rabaul).

Toward Hollandia:
Meanwhile, the Allied side (in this case General MacArthur and the Southwest Pacific Command Mandala lead) looking at Hollandia as a strategic stepping stone that will bring him and his soldiers 800km to the main targets in the Philippines. Leap frog strategy to seize Hollandia also means fighting in a place chosen the U.S., because Japan expects the Allies landed between Madang and Wewak, where the Japanese hold three infantry divisions of the Army # 18-automatic-insulated with Hollandia landings.
Tuk predict the failure of Japan to the Allied attack Hollandia Hollandia due to their calculations that are beyond the reach of allied fighter planes of their leading pengkalan in Nieuw Guinea (Nadzab). This is certainly easy to be overcome by utilizing the support Allied aircraft carriers and planes within the latest travel far. However, operations planners decided to occupy the Aitape also because there are air base that can be used Tadji allies, taking into account the Hollandia will be stubbornly defended. Moreover, because Japan is also building two air base in Wakde and Sarmi, over 200km southwest of Hollandia.

APRIL,1944

Operation target:
In the attack on Hollandia, in addition to the city and sea port, which became the main target is the three Allied air base in Sentani area, 40km west of Hollandia, which each called Lanud Sentani, Cyclops and air base air base Hollandia (Lanud Tami, the fourth, are near the border of RI-PNG now). Targets in Sentani is clamped with a planned simultaneous attack through the amphibious landing of two directions, ie from the direction of Humboldt Bay (Gulf Yos Sudarso now) and the Gulf Tanahmerah. The military operation is scheduled to take place on April 22, 1944.

Allied strength.
Air power in this attack is the U.S. Air Force # 5, Task Force 73 (land-based naval aircraft), Australia AU components, Task Force 78 (escort aircraft carriers of the Fleet # 7) and Task Force 58 (the major carriers of Fleet # 5, loaned by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, commander of the Pacific Ocean to the MacArthur Mandala tuk this attack).
Allied fleet was divided into Task Forces 77.1 (group assault center. Objective: Bay Tanahmerah); Task Force 77.2 (western assault group. Objective: Humboldt Bay); Task Force 77.3 (east assault group; Target: Aitape); Task Force 74 ( A bodyguard unit), Task Force 75 (bodyguard unit B) and several other Task Force (77.4-7) that serves as a reserve force and controlling the landing. Together with carriers, a total of 217 Allied ships deployed in this mission.
As the spearhead of the attack on Hollandia was the Task Force Reckless: two infantry divisions of the Corps # 1, # 6 U.S. Army; Infantry Division # 24 (Gulf Tanahmerah target) and the Infantry Division # 41 (Humboldt Bay target); while Aitape be occupied by Cluster Persecution task, namely Infantry Regiment # 163 of Divif # 41. Total of all ground forces numbered nearly 50,000 soldiers.

From H to H plus minus.
Beginning in late March, the Allied air forces conducted repeated bombings against all Japanese air and naval bases along the northern coast of Papua, to the Arafura Sea, also get to Kep. Caroline and Palau. In Hollandia course, this preemptive strike to destroy Japanese planes 300an per 3 April. Meanwhile, the Allies continued to deceive the Japanese with a variety of tactics so that Japan can not predict where the next invasion would be directed.
On 17 and 18 April 1944, a convoy of ships began to move from their base at the end of New Guinea. Of Goodenough Island brings Div # 24, and from Cape Cretin brings Div # 41. While the Task Force set out from Finschhafen Persecution. 20 April, the convoy headed north to play Admiralties islands, so as not observed from Hansa Bay coastline. From the north Admiralties convoy moving directly toward the target. 12km from the coast between Hollandia and Aitape, attacking the eastern breakaway group to execute Operation Persecution.
On the day 0130AM, 20 miles off the coast between the two bays target, a convoy of the remaining breakaway: group attacking the middle toward Humboldt Bay, while the western attack groups and task forces operating from headquarters + reservists to the Gulf Tanahmerah. 0700 planned landing simultaneously on the morning after a series of shore bombardment, and Reckless Operation officially begins.

Allied fleet movement from base to target

In the Gulf Tanahmerah, landings performed Infantry Division # 24 at two locations codenamed Red Beach 1 and 2. Due to take into account that the main Japanese force will be concentrated to maintain Hollandia (who invaded from Humboldt), the largest landing troops, including logistics and staff will put ashore here. But conditions in the field was not in accordance with the interpretation of aerial photographs of the operations planner. At Red Beach 2 there is no way to Red Beach 1, so that troops, equipment and supplies are piling up on the beach should be taken back to the small boats to Red Beach 1.

APRIL,25th.1944
LST at Red Beach 2

Meanwhile, from Depapre (Red Beach 1) to the target in Sentani turns out there is only a path that can not pass a vehicle up to much, even by tanks, there’s no way made in Japan as predicted. Therefore, troops from Div # 24 should move forward with a walk, bringing logistics chain. Meanwhile supplies, headquarters staff (some of which have gone down), reservists and support units are still on the ship diverted to Humboldt Bay. So is the status of forces transferred to the main bat Div # 41 which moves more smoothly.
That same morning the leading forces (Yon # 1) has reached Maribu without a fight, there are only remnants of the Japanese troops who fled equipment. Next to the Paipou. Jangkena, Waibron, Dazai (Dosai now) before reaching Sabron next day. In Sabron Japan had no resistance to withstand forces up to date 23. While the battalion # 1 opens the road. Battalion # 2, # 3 and the remaining forces preoccupied with carrying ammunition and rations in sequence, a walk from the beach until the troop leader (about 12 miles). These logistical problems inhibiting the movement of troops until the 25th, because the distance that must be taken to drain the logistics to forces that also more and more, not to mention the rain always falls. 25 April, where forces had received opposition leader again in Dejaoe River, about 3500 troops already assigned to just to bring the logistics alone. Even with all the limitations, the next day (26), Yon # 1 has been successfully mastered Lanud Hollandia, and some logistics successfully deployed using the aircraft in Dazai. Meanwhile the vehicle from both ends also have to get through some of the road. That day, around Weversdorp, a unit of Div # 24 was able to make contact with the unit from Div # 41.

The movement of Allied ground forces

peta #2

The beach is very narrow

In Humboldt Bay, the landing Div # 41 conducted at four locations codenamed White Beach 1-4. Here also the landing went smoothly and very few get resistance. The problem faced is also the same, namely the beach is too narrow to accommodate the cargo ship-landing craft, and endeavor to build a road from the beach to the highway Pim-Hollandia.
As soon as all the troops landed, the two regiments from Div # 41 split. # 162 Regiment moved to the town of Hollandia, while the Regiment # 186 moves toward Sentani. Pancake Day is also the hill and the hill Jarremoh (complex transmitter Polimaq now) can be controlled, and the date of 23 noon, the city of Hollandia, had fallen into the hands of U.S. troops.
On the other hand, forces that led to Sentani experienced little difficulty because of heavy rains that make roads full of puddles, also some sporadic resistance from Japanese forces. U.S. troops also could be saving rations and ammunition because on 23 midnight, a single attack Japanese fighter planes at White Beach, a chain explosion that destroyed 60% of U.S. logistics and ammunition up to H +1.
On the 24th afternoon, U.S. forces have control of small natural dock in koyabu (Yoka) which can be used for amphibious assault. 25 am, 2 companies of the 1st Battalion started the movement of amphibians through the village towards the lake Sentani Nefaar (Netar now), followed by the rest of the Battalion 1 in the afternoon. 25 afternoon, 3rd Battalion moving by land (Sentani lake side) has joined. On 26 morning, leading the troops that day divided by two and also controlled air base Cyclops (10:40 hours) and, after passing through the village Ifaar, controlled air base in Sentani (11:30). The entire target declared safe an hour later without combat means, and when the dusk, was able to make contact with a unit of Division # 21.

JUNE,1944

Allied troop movements to the phase of “clean”.

After all the main targets declared operations is achieved on 26, then proceed with the operation control of the area around and clean them from remaining Japanese forces. In the days that followed U.S. forces move to master the south side of Mount Cyclops (the Southwest Pacific Command headquarters Mandala later built), Tanjung Suaja (Tanjung Ria), Hollekang (Holtekamp now), Goya (Koya) and Tanjung Jar, then mastered Lanud Tami. This air base was later used as a bridgehead tuk air transport logistics of troop ships bound for the difficulties in the Sentani area ration. U.S. troops also spread and establish outposts to the Marneda, Gulf Demta, even Genyem. The “clean-up” is completed by June 6, 1944.

Survivors:
Unexpected ally, the attack on Hollandia did not get resistance from the Japanese meaning. In addition to its element of surprise, this is also due to the limited time and resources owned by the Japanese to move a significant ground combat element to the Hollandia or reinforce existing forces. As of 22 April 1944, from about 11,000 Japanese troops in Hollandia, 500an only just ground forces of anti-air attack unit. The rest comes from the air force, navy and other supporting units.

Japanese forces retreat

22 April morning, which took over the command of Major General Inada of Japan in Hollandia, prepare their best opposition and still managed to coordinate the resistance in Sabron. But most of the troops immediately fled to the mountains shortly after the U.S. ships do the bombardment, and in that night, Major General Inada already ordered retreat. Without the supplies which are all stored in the vicinity of Humboldt Bay, the Japanese retreated toward Genyem, where they held a farming project. April 30, about 7,000 Japanese troops in 10 groups to organize themselves, without a map and supplies are limited, began a long march toward Sarmi through the path in the woods; some one to Demta, 25km to the west coast village Depapre. Because the insulation of U.S. troops, stray, hunger, injury, fatigue and illness, the trip becomes deadly, and only about 7% up in Sarmi. In total, only about 1000an those Japanese soldiers who survived the invasion of Hollandia. 3300an people were killed or found dead, and the remainder (almost 7000) is lost. On the other hand, only 124 U.S. troops are killed, 1057 wounded and 28 missing.

Hollandia, after the invasion.
After the successful invasion, the Allies then build a variety of military facilities, especially for the Seventh Fleet, which spread from the Gulf to the Cape Suadja Tanahmerah. The entire military installations in the Hollandia and the surrounding area was then given an alphabetic code “Base G”.

The flurry of U.S. troops in the port that is being built

Jend. D. MacArthur moved his headquarters Mandala Command Southwest Pacific from Brisbane to Hollandia in August 1944, on a hill now called Ifar Mountain, about 4km Cyclops northern air base. Together with co-headquartered in SWPA headquarters also commands underneath al: Armada # 7, AD # 6, # 8 Army, Allied Force and Allied Land Army.
Later in the war, Hollandia became the starting point for subsequent Allied invasions into P. Wakde, P. Biak, P. Numfor, Sansapor, and P. Morotai, until landing in P. Luzon, Philippines. Meanwhile AD # 18 Japanese were locked around Wewak result of this operation, was defeated at the end of August.

5. 1945.

DECEMBER  ,1945

After the war.
Along with the end of World War II, in December 1945 to sell all U.S. military facilities in Hollandia, the Dutch East Indies government, which then pass it to the government of Indonesia after surgery Trikora (subsequently named Soekarnopura Hollandia, and Jayapura). Most of the military facilities are built MacArthur’s troops and fell into the hands of Indonesian military, especially to the military command Trikora XVII, including mako complex in Ifar Mount MacArthur, Sentani, who is now a Parent Regiment Kodam (Rindam), and the Regional Military installations around Kloofkamp, ​​including complex Kodam long. Allied landing site at White Beach 1 & 2 into Navy housing complex, while the air base used AFAIK Hollandia AU base in Jayapura (without aviation facilities). Fleet # 7 As for the port and air base in Sentani (Sentani airport now) functioned as a general entrance gate to Jayapura. There are also buildings controlled by civilians and was switching function or torn down. Only Lanud Cycloops which I can not be sure no place for them. Although there is a place which I suspect is based on the approximate position of the map and some of the Quonset hut-building half-cylindrical metal assemblies that characterized the construction of U.S. military engineer corps legacy of World War II-era near there.
As for heritage buildings is not like the carcasses of so many military vehicles scattered around the landing site, is up for sale as scrap metal by local communities. While the rest of the bombs, mortars and bullets that do not explode during the Allied attack, there is no end to be found and used as raw material for bomb fishing by local communities. BTW, a drum of fuel supertebal USAAF still remains as a drum of water I use in my home now.

20090414_024726_monumen
MacArthur Monument at Mount Ifar now. .

Encore:
A monument on the beach Hamadi events marking the Allied landings, while the other Abepantai monument marking the arrival of Japanese troops two years earlier. Both, along with dozens of Quonset hut that is still scattered throughout the city, and MacArthur in the complex Rindam Monument, a reminder of the war that never passes Jayapura, whose story is more vague and forgotten. There are even official information is false, too! So, while there has been no more wars, let us celebrate life

original information in Indonesia Language:
 

Teluk Hamadi ini dulu merupakan daerah awalnya para tentara sekutu mendarat, yang kemudian berjalan dan membuat barak pertahanan di bukit Mac Arthur (orang Papua biasa menamakan bukit Makatur), yang terletak di atas perbukitan Sentani. Jika perjalanan ke sana saat ini dengan kendaraan memakan waktu antara 45-60 menit dari Jayapura, saya tak terbayangkan berapa lama tentara Sekutu dulu mencapai atas bukit tsb. satu minggu.

 

macarthurJend. D. MacArthur dan Mayjen H.H Fuller; panglima Div #41, sesaat sesudah mendarat di pantai Hamadi

Ya, bukit Ifar Gunung, tempat markas Komando Mandala Pasifik BaratDaya yang dipimpin Jenderal MacArthur terletak, dikuasai sekitar 2-3 hari sesudah pasukan AS menyelesaikan 4 hari operasi militer untuk menguasai 3 pangkalan udara Jepang di daerah Sentani.
Operasi militer Sekutu untuk merebut Jayapura (saat itu bernama Hollandia) dan Sentani dari pihak Jepang ini berlangsung tanggal 22-26 April 1944 dan dikenal dengan nama Operation Reckless, dan biasanya disebut secara simultan dengan Operation Persecution yang dijalankan secara bersamaan dengan target Aitape, 200km di sebelah timur Jayapura, di wilayah Papua New Guinea sekarang.
Saya melihat pernah ada usaha Bu Enny untuk mempelajari peristiwa ini, sayangnya, informasi yang didapat Bu Enny IMO agak kabur dan kurang spesifik tentang Battle of Hollandia itu sendiri. Jadi, ini versi singkat dari saya.
*sok tahu mode: ON*

Serangan balik Sekutu:
Pertengahan 1943, perang Pasifik telah melewati titik baliknya dimana Jepang yang semula di pihak ofensif telah berganti menjadi pihak defensif.

peta #1Panah ungu: serbuan pasukan sekutu hingga Februari 44, menguasai ujung timur Nieuw Guinea, dan akan melompati Madang hingga Wewak langsung ke Hollandia

Ketiadaan orientasi dalam suatu perang jangka panjang, dan bocornya sandi rahasia militer Jepang, turut berperan dalam rangkaian kekalahan Jepang di garis terluar perimeter pertahanan Jepang di Kepulauan Bismarck, Solomons dan Semenanjung Huon di ujung timur Nieuw Guinea, sementara Rabaul, benteng terdepan Jepang di Pasifik praktis sudah terisolasi. Karena itu Jepang mulai memundurkan perimeter pertahanannya di pantai utara Nieuw Guinea dengan garis depan di sekitar Wewak-Madang, dimana Hollandia dibangun menjadi pangkalan militer utama untuk transit pasukan dan kargo dari laut, juga pusat kekuatan udara yang baru (pindah dari Rabaul).

Menuju Hollandia:
Sementara itu, pihak Sekutu (dalam hal ini Jenderal MacArthur dan Komando Mandala Pasifik Barat Daya yang dipimpinnya) memandang Hollandia sebagai batu loncatan strategis yang akan mendekatkan beliau dan tentaranya 800km ke sasaran utama di Filipina. Strategi lompat katak untuk merebut Hollandia juga berarti berperang di tempat yang dipilih AS, karena Jepang mengharapkan Sekutu mendarat diantara Madang dan Wewak, dimana Jepang menggelar tiga divisi infanteri dari AD #18 -yang otomatis terisolasi dengan pendaratan Hollandia-.
Kegagalan pihak Jepang tuk memprediksi serangan Sekutu ke Hollandia disebabkan perhitungan mereka bahwa Hollandia berada diluar jangkauan pesawat-pesawat tempur sekutu dari pengkalan terdepan mereka di Nieuw Guinea (Nadzab). Hal ini tentunya mudah diatasi Sekutu dengan memanfaatkan dukungan kapal-kapal induk dan pesawat-pesawat terbaru yang berjarak tempuh jauh. Namun demikian, perencana operasi memutuskan untuk menduduki juga Aitape karena disana terdapat lanud Tadji yang dapat digunakan sekutu, dengan mempertimbangkan Hollandia bakal dipertahankan mati-matian. Apalagi karena Jepang juga membangun 2 lanud di Wakde dan Sarmi, 200km lebih baratdaya Hollandia.

Target operasi:
Dalam serangan ke Hollandia, selain kota dan pelabuhan lautnya , yang menjadi sasaran utama Sekutu adalah tiga pangkalan udara di daerah Sentani, 40km di barat kota Hollandia, yang masing-masing disebut lanud Sentani, lanud Cyclops dan lanud Hollandia (lanud Tami, yang keempat, ada di dekat perbatasan RI-PNG sekarang). Sasaran-sasaran di Sentani ini direncanakan dijepit dengan penyerangan simultan melalui pendaratan amfibi dari dua arah, yaitu dari arah Teluk Humboldt (Teluk Yos Sudarso sekarang) dan Teluk Tanahmerah. Operasi militer dijadwalkan berlangsung pada 22 April 1944.

Kekuatan Sekutu.
Kekuatan udara dalam penyerangan ini adalah AU #5 AS, Gugus Tugas 73 (pesawat AL yang berpangkalan darat), komponen AU Australia, Gugus Tugas 78 (kapal-kapal induk pengawal dari Armada #7) dan Gugus Tugas 58 (kapal-kapal induk utama dari Armada #5, dipinjamkan oleh Laksamana Chester W. Nimitz, panglima Komando Mandala Samudra Pasifik ke MacArthur tuk serangan ini).
Armada laut sekutu dibagi dalam Gugus Tugas 77.1 (grup serbu tengah. Sasaran: Teluk Tanahmerah); Gugus Tugas 77.2 (grup serbu barat. Sasaran: Teluk Humboldt); Gugus Tugas 77.3 (grup serbu timur; Sasaran: Aitape); Gugus Tugas 74 (satuan pengawal A); Gugus Tugas 75 (satuan pengawal B) dan beberapa Gugus Tugas lain (77.4-7) yang berfungsi sebagai pasukan cadangan dan pengendali pendaratan. Bersama kapal-kapal induk, total Sekutu mengerahkan 217 kapal dalam misi ini.
Sebagai ujung tombak serangan ke Hollandia adalah Gugus Tugas Reckless: dua divisi infanteri dari Korps #1, AD #6 AS; Divisi Infantri #24 (sasaran Teluk Tanahmerah) dan Divisi Infanteri #41 (sasaran Teluk Humboldt); sementara Aitape akan diduduki oleh Gugus Tugas Persecution, yaitu Resimen Infanteri #163 dari Divif #41. Total semua pasukan darat berjumlah hampir 50.000 prajurit.

Dari H minus ke H plus.
Mulai akhir Maret, kekuatan udara Sekutu mengadakan pemboman berulang-ulang terhadap semua pangkalan udara dan laut Jepang di sepanjang pantai utara Papua, hingga laut Arafura, juga sampai ke Kep. Caroline dan Palau. Di Hollandia saja, serangan pendahuluan ini menghancurkan 300an pesawat Jepang per 3 April. Sementara itu, Sekutu terus menipu Jepang dengan berbagai taktik supaya Jepang tidak bisa memperkirakan dimana invasi berikutnya akan diarahkan.
Tanggal 17 dan 18 April 1944, konvoi kapal mulai bergerak dari pangkalannya masing-masing di ujung Nieuw Guinea. Dari Pulau Goodenough membawa Div #24, dan dari Tanjung Cretin membawa Div #41. Sementara Gugus Tugas Persecution berangkat dari Finschhafen. 20 April, konvoi menuju utara untuk memutar kepulauan Admiralties, supaya tidak terpantau dari garis pantai Teluk Hansa. Dari utara Admiralties konvoi langsung bergerak menuju sasaran. 12km dari pantai diantara Hollandia dan Aitape, grup serang timur memisahkan diri untuk mengeksekusi Operation Persecution.
Pada hari H 0130AM, 20 km dilepas pantai antara kedua teluk sasaran, konvoi yang tersisa memisahkan diri: grup serang tengah menuju Teluk Humboldt, sementara grup serang barat dan gugus tugas pasukan cadangan+mabes operasi menuju Teluk Tanahmerah. Pendaratan direncanakan serentak pada 0700 pagi sesudah serangkain bombardemen pantai, dan Operation Reckless resmi dimulai.

peta #2Gerakan armada Sekutu dari pangkalan ke sasaran

Di Teluk Tanahmerah, pendaratan dilakukan Divisi Infantri #24 pada dua lokasi yang bersandi Red Beach 1 dan 2. Karena memperhitungkan bahwa kekuatan utama Jepang akan terkonsentrasi mempertahankan Hollandia (yang diserbu dari Humboldt), maka pasukan pendarat terbesar, termasuk logistik dan para staf akan didaratkan disini. Tetapi kondisi di lapangan ternyata tidak sesuai dengan interpretasi foto udara para perencana operasi. Di Red Beach 2 tidak terdapat jalan ke Red Beach 1, sehingga pasukan, peralatan dan perbekalan yang menumpuk di pantai harus dibawa lagi dengan kapal-kapal kecil ke Red Beach 1.

ngp3LST di Red Beach 2

Sementara itu, dari Depapre (Red Beach 1) ke sasaran di Sentani ternyata hanya terdapat jalan setapak yang tak dapat dilalui kendaraan hingga jauh, bahkan oleh tank, tidak ada jalan buatan Jepang seperti yang diperkirakan. Oleh karena itu pasukan dari Div #24 harus bergerak maju dengan berjalan kaki saja, membawa logistik secara berantai. Sementara itu perbekalan, staf mabes (yang sebagian sudah turun), pasukan cadangan dan unit-unit pendukung yang masih di kapal dialihkan ke Teluk Humboldt. Begitu juga dengan status pasukan pemukul utama dialihkan ke Div #41 yang bergerak lebih lancar.
Pagi itu juga pasukan terdepan (Yon #1) sudah mencapai Maribu tanpa perlawanan, hanya ada sisa-sisa peralatan pasukan Jepang yang kabur. Selanjutnya menuju ke Paipou. Jangkena, Waibron, Dazai (Dosai sekarang) sebelum mencapai Sabron keesokan harinya. Di Sabron sempat ada perlawanan Jepang yang menahan pasukan hingga tanggal 23. Sementara batalyon #1 membuka jalan. Batalyon #2, #3 dan pasukan selebihnya disibukkan dengan membawa amunisi dan ransum secara berantai, berjalan kaki dari pantai sampai pasukan terdepan (sekitar 12 mil). Masalah logistik ini menghambat pergerakan pasukan hingga tanggal 25, karena semakin jauhnya jarak yang harus ditempuh untuk mengalirkan logistik ke pasukan yang juga semakin banyak, belum lagi hujan yang selalu turun. 25 April, dimana pasukan terdepan sempat mendapat perlawanan lagi di Sungai Dejaoe, sekitar 3500 pasukan sudah ditugaskan untuk hanya untuk membawa logistik saja. Meskipun dengan segala keterbatasan, hari esoknya (26), Yon #1 sudah berhasil menguasai lanud Hollandia, dan sebagian logistik berhasil diterjunkan menggunakan pesawat di Dazai. Sementara itu kendaraan dari kedua ujung juga sudah bisa melewati sebagian jalan. Hari itu juga, di sekitar Weversdorp, unit dari Div #24 sudah bisa mengadakan kontak dengan unit dari Div #41.

peta #3Pergerakan pasukan darat Sekutu
hollandiaPantai yang sangat sempit

Di Teluk Humboldt, pendaratan Div #41 dilakukan di empat lokasi yang diberi sandi White Beach 1-4. Disini juga pendaratan berjalan lancar dan hanya sedikit sekali mendapat perlawanan. Masalah yang dihadapi juga sama saja, yaitu pantai yang terlalu sempit untuk menampung segala muatan kapal-kapal pendarat, dan usaha keras membangun jalan dari pantai ke jalan raya Pim-Hollandia.
Sesegera semua pasukan mendarat, kedua resimen dari Div #41 berpencar. Resimen #162 bergerak menuju kota Hollandia, sementara Resimen #186 bergerak ke arah Sentani. Hari itu juga bukit Pancake dan bukit Jarremoh (kompleks pemancar Polimaq sekarang) bisa dikuasai, dan tanggal 23 siang, kota Hollandia sudah jatuh ke tangan pasukan AS.
Disisi lain, pasukan yang menuju Sentani mengalami sedikit hambatan karena hujan lebat yang membuat jalanan penuh kubangan, juga beberapa perlawanan sporadis dari pasukan Jepang. Pasukan AS juga sempat harus menghemat ransum dan amunisi karena pada tanggal 23 tengah malam, serangan tunggal pesawat tempur Jepang di White Beach 1 menimbulkan ledakan berantai yang menghancurkan 60% logistik dan amunisi AS hingga H+1.
Tanggal 24 sore, pasukan AS sudah menguasai dermaga alam kecil di Koyabu (Yoka) yang bisa digunakan untuk serangan amfibi. 25 pagi, 2 kompi dari Yon 1 memulai gerakan amfibi lewat danau Sentani menuju kampung Nefaar (Netar sekarang), disusul sisa Yon 1 pada siang harinya. 25 Sore, Yon 3 yang bergerak lewat darat (sisi danau Sentani) sudah bergabung. Tanggal 26 pagi, pasukan terdepan dibagi dua dan hari itu juga menguasai lanud Cyclops (jam 10.40) dan, setelah melewati kampung Ifaar, menguasai lanud Sentani (jam 11.30). Seluruh target dinyatakan aman sejam kemudian tanpa pertempuran berarti, dan ketika senja, sudah mampu mengadakan kontak dengan unit dari Divisi #21.

peta #4Pergerakan pasukan Sekutu hingga fase “bersih-bersih”.

Setelah semua target utama operasi dinyatakan tercapai tanggal 26, operasi kemudian dilanjutkan dengan menguasai wilayah sekitar dan membersihkannya dari pasukan Jepang yang tersisa. Pada hari-hari berikutnya pasukan AS bergerak menguasai sisi selatan Gunung Cyclops (tempat markas Komando Mandala Pasifik BaratDaya kemudian dibangun), Tanjung Suaja (Tanjung Ria), Hollekang (Holtekamp sekarang), Goya (Koya) dan Tanjung Jar, lalu menguasai lanud Tami. Lanud ini kemudian sempat dipakai sebagai pangkalan jembatan udara tuk mengangkut logistik dari kapal menuju pasukan di wilayah Sentani yang kesulitan ransum. Pasukan AS juga menyebar dan membangun pos-pos hingga ke Marneda, Teluk Demta, bahkan Genyem. Acara “bersih-bersih” ini selesai per 6 Juni 1944.

Yang bertahan:
Diluar perkiraan sekutu, serangan ke Hollandia ternyata tidak mendapat perlawanan berarti dari pihak Jepang. Selain karena unsur kejutannya, hal ini juga disebabkan oleh terbatasnya waktu dan sumberdaya yang dimiliki Jepang untuk memindahkan elemen tempur darat yang signifikan ke Hollandia atau memperkuat pasukan yang sudah ada. Per 22 April 1944, dari sekitar 11.000 pasukan Jepang di Hollandia, hanya 500an saja pasukan darat dari unit anti serangan udara. Sisanya berasal dari pasukan udara, laut dan unit-unit pendukung lainnya.

peta #5Gerakan mundur pasukan Jepang

22 April pagi, Mayjen Inada yang mengambilalih komando Jepang di Hollandia, menyusun perlawanan semampunya dan masih sempat mengkoordinasikan perlawanan di Sabron. Tetapi sebagian besar pasukannya segera kabur ke pegunungan sesaat setelah kapal-kapal AS melakukan bombardir, dan pada malam itu juga Mayjen Inada sudah memerintahkan mundur teratur. Tanpa perbekalan yang semuanya tersimpan di sekitar Teluk Humboldt, Jepang mundur ke arah Genyem, dimana mereka mengadakan proyek pertanian. Tanggal 30 April, sekitar 7000 tentara Jepang mengorganisasikan diri dalam 10 kelompok, tanpa peta dan perbekalan terbatas, memulai long march menuju Sarmi lewat jalan setapak di hutan; sebagian lagi ada yang ke Demta, desa pantai 25km di barat Depapre. Karena penyekatan pasukan AS, tersesat, kelaparan, luka, kelelahan dan penyakit, perjalanan ini menjadi mematikan, dan hanya sekitar 7% yang sampai di Sarmi. Secara total, hanya sekitar 1000an orang tentara Jepang yang selamat dari penyerbuan Hollandia. 3300an orang terbunuh atau ditemukan tewas, dan sisanya (hampir 7000) hilang. Di lain pihak, hanya 124 pasukan AS yang gugur, 1057 terluka dan 28 hilang.

Hollandia, sesudah invasi.
Sesudah invasi sukses, Sekutu kemudian membangun berbagai fasilitas militer, terutama bagi Armada Ketujuh, yang tersebar mulai dari Teluk Tanahmerah hingga Tanjung Suadja. Seluruh instalasi militer di Hollandia dan sekitarnya itu kemudian diberi kode alfabetik “Base G”.

bases2-p306Kesibukan tentara AS di pelabuhan yang sedang dibangun

Jend. D. MacArthur lalu memindahkan markas besar Komando Mandala Pasifik Baratdaya dari Brisbane ke Hollandia pada Agustus 1944, di sebuah bukit yang sekarang disebut Ifar Gunung, sekitar 4km diutara lanud Cyclops. Bersama mabes SWPA turut bermarkas di juga komando-komando dibawahnya a.l.: Armada #7, AD #6, AD #8, AU Sekutu dan Tentara Darat Sekutu.
Selanjutnya dalam perang, Hollandia kemudian menjadi titik awal bagi serbuan-serbuan Sekutu berikutnya ke P. Wakde, P. Biak, P. Numfor, Sansapor, dan P. Morotai, hingga pendaratan di P. Luzon, Filipina. Sementara itu AD #18 Jepang yang terkunci di sekitar Wewak akibat operasi ini, berhasil dikalahkan pada akhir Agustus.

Seusai perang.
Seiring dengan berakhirnya PD II, pada Desember 1945 AS menjual segala fasilitas militernya di Hollandia kepada pemerintah Hindia Belanda, yang lalu mewariskannya kepada pemerintah RI sesudah operasi Trikora (sesudah itu Hollandia dinamakan Soekarnopura, lalu Jayapura). Sebagian besar fasilitas militer yang dibangun pasukan MacArthur lalu jatuh ke tangan militer Indonesia, terutama ke Kodam XVII Trikora, termasuk kompleks mako MacArthur di Ifar Gunung, Sentani yang kini menjadi Resimen Induk Kodam (Rindam), dan instalasi Kodam di sekitar Kloofkamp, termasuk kompleks Kodam lama. Tempat pendaratan Sekutu di White Beach 1 & 2 menjadi kompleks perumahan AL, sementara Lanud Hollandia AFAIK dijadikan pangkalan AU di Jayapura (tanpa fasilitas penerbangan). Adapun pelabuhan Armada #7 dan lanud Sentani (bandar udara Sentani sekarang) difungsikan sebagai pintu gerbang umum masuk ke Jayapura. Ada juga bangunan-bangunan yang dikuasai sipil dan sudah beralih fungsi atau dirobohkan. Hanya lanud Cycloops yang tidak dapat saya pastikan lagi tempatnya. Walaupun ada tempat yang saya curigai berdasarkan perkiraan posisinya dari peta dan beberapa quonset hut -bangunan logam rakitan setengah silinder yang menjadi ciri khas konstruksi peninggalan korps zeni militer AS jaman PD II- didekat situ.
Akan halnya peninggalan bukan bangunan seperti bangkai-bangkai kendaraan militer yang begitu banyak terserak di sekitar lokasi pendaratan, sudah habis dijual sebagai besi tua oleh masyarakat lokal. Sementara sisa bom, mortir dan peluru yang tidak meledak saat serangan Sekutu, tak ada habis-habisnya ditemukan dan digunakan sebagai bahan baku bom ikan oleh masyarakat lokal. BTW, sebuah drum BBM supertebal peninggalan USAAF masih saya pakai sebagai drum air di rumah saya sekarang.

20090414_024726_monumenTugu MacArthur di Ifar Gunung sekarang. Klik untuk melihat prasastinya.

Encore:
Sebuah tugu di pantai Hamadi menandai peristiwa pendaratan Sekutu, sementara tugu lainnya di Abepantai menandai kedatangan pasukan Jepang 2 tahun sebelumnya. Keduanya, bersama puluhan quonset hut yang masih bertebaran di penjuru kota, dan Tugu MacArthur di kompleks Rindam, menjadi pengingat akan perang besar yang pernah melewati Jayapura, yang ceritanya makin samar dan terlupakan ini. Bahkan ada informasi resmi yang sesat pula! Jadi, mumpung belum ada perang lagi, mari kita rayakan hidup ini

2.Dai Nippon Occupation Sumatera under the command from Singapore(syonato) Dai Nippon Military administration (Gunseikanbu) Malaya .(from march 192=42 until march,1st 1943,after that the command at BukittinggI,except Riau Island still under Singapore)

(1) Pictures Collections

a.DAI NIPPON POSTER AT JAVA 1942

toon_a.jpg (46119 bytes)

(2) Postal History Collections

Due to diffucty of trasporatation and communicatiobs, each the command of each area issued their own overprint to the Dutch Queen (kon.) stamps and also numeric and dancer stamps.

Sumatra under Dai Nippon center Singapore)

 
24.8.1943 Fragment Dai nippon acheh star overprint used at Koetaraja(now bandar Aceh)
5.3.1943 Japan homeland stamp used at medan
28.3.1943 Violet Dai nippon est sumatra overprint Postcard staioner 31/2 cent DEI , postally used from Tarutung.
postally used Black Dai Nippon verprint east sumatra on Postcard Stationer DEI 31/2 cent
16.4.1943 .Small Dai Nippon west Sumatra overprint, postally used postcard cds Medan .
Rare DN overprint Hinomaru Tapanuli
2.7.1942 Fragment Dai nippon overprin west sumatra cross early used Sidjoendjoeng.
Used Dai nippon overprint Hinomaru tapanuli

The photocopy of ex Dr Iwan S collection : Nippon MA overprin Jambi on Tax stamps used as regular stamps

Dai Nippon Bold west sumatra Dai nippon Yubin overpint lettersheet 71/2 cent (restored) 23.12.1944. Japan homeland definitif stamp used at Batusangkar west sumatra. 6.10.1944 Dai nippon poostcard stationer 31/2 cent send from padang to Painan Rejoined middle sumatra dai Nippon cross overprint oh the photocopy of Didik coolection Postally used cover from Pakanbaru to Syonato(Singapore) return to sender because the written language forbidden. The photocopy of ex Dr iwan s. collection : Straits 1 cent overprint Dai Nippon single frame (type 2) cds Padang 5.2.1943, during under Singapore Dai nippn military administration. 8.12.1943.Rejoined Middle sumatra Dai Nippon yubin and cross overprin on the photocopy of postally used cove send from pajakumbuh to Padang rejoined oc Dai nippon Yubin overprin on Karbou Kriesrler stamp with the photocopy one.send from West sumatra Resident to ChicoSaibancho Boekittinggi, below wrong info sent from padang Pandjang to Solo. Rejoined fragment with photocopy, Japan postcard stationer 2c with DN overprint 1 1/2 cent used at Bukittinggi fromm Resident west sumatra padang to chicko Sai bancho Boekittinggi

13.7.1943 Rejoined fragment with the photocopy Japanese postal stationer 2c,overprint Dai nippon added 1 1/2 cent , used ad Bukittingi 18.3.17.
The photocopy of Straits postal stationer used at Bintan riouw Island, this area still under Singapore center DN military admin. from 1942 -1945 different from another sumatra island only until April 1st 1943 center move to Bukittingi(Didik collection)
Palembang Dai Nippon square overprin used cds Prabumoelih (King moved) the oil city south Sumatra ,my son work at Indonesia Oil company Pertamina sumatra center explortaion & production center.
Palembang Dai Nipponsquare overprint also used in other south sumatra , used CDS Pagaralam south sumatra.
2.3.1943. palembang Dai Nippon square overprint, used CDS 18.3.2,this time sumatra still under Singapore Dai nippon Military adminsitration, al Sumatra area had got permission to overprint the Dutch East Indie stamps with Ryal Head picture, but also the other deffinitive,but different in Java no emergency ovpt because different military administration.
Dai Nippon Postmaster Initial overprint on DEI Kon 10 cent, IPL(I.Piet lengkong) postmaster palembang first from his sihnet ring and hthen five type of IPL , the other Post office also issue the Ring signet or handsign overprint from all post office at south Sumatra-look at Dainippon occupation Sumatra catalogue, the guinined overprint very rare on postally used cover (please report)
Rare Dai nippon Bangka overprint on DEI kon 10 cent , used CDS Soegai Liat 17.10.1943.
3.8.1942. Dai nippon emergency overprint Lampong Hinomaru red ball , type 1 during Sumatra under DN Singapore administration(April 1st 1942-1943), very rare, Ihave sold one postally used cover with this stamps to bulterman that put in his catalogue.
26.12.1943 Rare Dai Nippon Lampong ovpt. on DEI Kon 10 cent CDS Telok Betong after Dai Nippon center move from Singapore to Bukittinggi

2. Eastren Area Of Indonesia Under dai Nippon  Naval Administration,

center at Macasar South Celebes)

(1) Pictures Collections

(2)Postal History Collections

(a) Borneo

(a1) West Borneo :

Pontianak

 Pemangkat

 Other city

(a2) South Borneo :

Banjarmasin

Other City

(a3) East Borneo :

Balikpapan

Samarinda

Tarakan

other city

(b) Celebes:

 (b1)Macassar

 (b2)Manado 

(c) Molluca

 (1) Ambon

\

(2) other area

(d) Small Sunda Island (Bali and Nusatenggara)

(d1) Bali

 (d2) Ampenan

(d3 )other area.

3.The Dai Nippon Occupation Java postal and Documen History 1945(March ,8th until Dec.31th 1945-2605 Dai nippon Year)

Prolog

1.January 1942

On the 10th of January 1942, the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies. The newspapers brought us a lot of bad news. My father had long ago advised me to read some of the articles I liked from the Malanger and the Javabode starting since I was almost eleven years old, so now I could read all the bad news in the papers when I was at our Sumber Sewu, plantation home near the East Java city of Malang during the weekends.

Now and then we saw Japanese planes flying over Java. I found it all strange and very unreal. The only Japanese I knew where those living in Malang; they were always very polite and friendly towards us. But from now on Japan was our enemy.(true story By Elma)

2.February 1942

(1)February,12th.1942.

The Battle Of Palembang

The Dai Nippon  paratroops army  by parachute landed at Palembang and the oil area at plaju near Palembang were attack and occupied ,look the pictures.

(2)FEBRUARY,14TH,1942

On Saturday the 14th of February 1942,

 my father came to fetch Henny (my younger sister) and I from our boarding-school for the weekend. We went into town where we did some shopping for my mother and next we went to the Javasche Bank. When my father came out of the bank, we heard and then saw Japanese planes coming over. This time they machine-gunned Malang. I saw two working men, who were hit, falling from the roof where they were busy. They were dead, we saw them lying in their blood on the street. I had never seen dead people before; Henny and I were deeply shocked. Henny started crying, my father took us both quickly away from this very sad sight.

(3)FEBRUARY,15TH. 1942

On Sunday the 15th of February we received the bad news over the radio that Singapore had fallen into Japanese hands. Indeed, that was a very sad Sunday. Who had ever thought that Singapore could fall? Were the Japanese so much stronger than the Allies? And then there was the Battle of the Java Sea from 27 February to 1 March 1942. The Dutch warships Ruyter and Java were hit by Japanese torpedoes; they sunk with a huge loss of life. The Allies lost this battle. The 8th of March 1942, the Dutch Army on Java surrendered to the Japanese Army.

..

.Jungle and Indian Ocean

Soon it was the New Year. We had no more Japanese visitors. There were not many Dutch or other Europeans outside of camps. In Malang there was already a camp for men called Marine Camp. And another camp, we were told, called De Wijk, prepared to house women and children. Taking a long, last walk through the rubber plantations and jungle, my father and I beheld the Indian Ocean. My father looked at me and said, “I have to ask you something, you are almost 16 so you are old enough. I want you to look after Mama and your sisters when I have to leave Sumber Sewa. Will you promise me that?” I remonstrated, but he insisted and I agreed.

And so, at the beginning of February 1942, my father received a phone call ordering him to leave our home in Sumber Sewu within six days and report to the Marine Camp in Malang. This would be a fateful separation. By now, most Dutch men were internees.

A Japanese visitor

(1)March,3th,1942

Gen.Immamura&staff.
Dai Nippon landing
Banten attack Map 1942
Indramajoe Landing Map 1942
Front Capitulation cover 1942
Back Capitulation cover 1942
DEI Marines 1942

THE DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION IN INDONESIA COLLECTION

1.MARCH 1st 2002

(1) Early in the morning this day, Dai Nippon forces landing in Java and succeeded withou any struggle by DEI forces(KNIL) and Indonesia Native people accepted DN Frces with up the DN and Indnesian national flag because Dai Nippon propaganda before the war that Indonesia will Independent when they occupied Indonesia,
Three Dai Nippon Forces Landing area in Java:
(a) Banten Beach at Merak with route Merak-Serang-Rangkasbitung-Leuwiliang-Buitenzorg(Bogor)-Kragilan-Tanggerang-Batavia under the command of the commander-in-chief 16th Dai Nippon forces Lt.Gen.Hitoshi Immamura, with the 2nd Division under Commander May.Gen. Maruyama, and the 49th Division under Commander May.Gen Tsuchi Hashi , also Brigade under commander May gen.
Sakaguchi and one Resimen under commander Col, Shoji.
Three Illustrations:
(ill.1) Gen.Immamura profile
(ill.2) Dai Nippon Landing
(1ll.3) The Vintage Dutch Map of Banten 1942: Merak beach landing area, and the route attack Searanf-Rangkasbitung,Leiwilliang Buitenzorg, Tanggerang- Batavia.
Caption : DN route map Banten 1942
(b) Eretan Wetan near Indramajoe
(ill 4) The Vintage Dutch Map of Indramjoe Dai Nippon landing area 1942,caption Indramajoe map 1942
(c) Krangan Rembang middle Java,
The fleet of Dai Nippon Naval Forces reach the Krangan coast ,a village between Rembang and Lasem, about 160 km west of Soerabaja.
The Sakaguchi detachment from Balikpapan joined this invasion fleet. After landing divided into 3 units with 1 battalion of 124th Infantry Regiment :
(c.1) Col.Yamamoto,1st Battalion unit.
(c.2) Mayor Kaneuji, 2nd Battalion unit.
(c.3) Let.Col.Matsimoto,3rd battalion unit.
In one week ,they advanced rapidly and overcome all Dutch army defended in Blora ,Solo ,Bojolali-Yogja ,Magelang and Ambarawa
the Map will illustrated

(2) All of the West Java Postal office were closed not opretated inculding Tjiandjoer.
(1ll.5) Postally free postally used Geadvisers (Registered) cover with Commander of the forces and the Departmen of War’s chief (Commandant Leger en hoofd departement van Oorlog ) official Headquaters Stamped send from The Dutch East Indie Forces Head Quaters Bandoeng CDS Bandoeng Riaow Str 27.2.42, arrival Cds Tjiandjoer 28.2.42 and after that the post office closed, open after capitulaition CDS Tjiandjoer 4.4.42 Onafgeh. and ret.afzd handwritten postmark (Cann’t delivered and return to sender) , arrived back CDS Bandoeng 6.4.42 (during dai nippon occupation0 to Dai Nippon Forces Headquaters in java .(The very rare Dai Nippon capitulation Postal History collection from the DEI forces headquaters back to Dai nippon forces Bandoeng Headquaters only one ever seen, if the collecters have the same collectins please send information via comment-Dr iwan S.)
Caption : capitulation cover 1942

(3) DEI Marine Defendwork Offive Letter during DN landing at west and Central Java.
Veryrare Letter from Marine Defensiewerk (Defense Worl office) sign by the chief van Schooninveld. the conduete latter of B Kasiman who work as opzichert (civilian official) at the Soerabaya Marine office from Augist 1941 to March 1942, the letter date April 1st 1942.
(Ill.6) The DEI Marine Soerabaya letter during DN landing west java, caption DEI Marine letter 1942

Dai Nippon Army Landed at Merak, and other area

 (2)March,5th.1942 Batavia(Jakarta) occupied by dai Nippon Army lead by Let.General Immamura

 

A Japanese soldier outside oil tanks near Jakarta destroyed by Dutch forces in March,5th. 1942

 (3)MARCH ,9th.1942.

The 9th of March, when we were in the recreation-room from our boarding-school while all the girls were looking through the windows into the streets, the Japanese entered Malang. Henny and I stood there together.

They came on bicycles or were just walking. They looked terrible, all with some cloth attached at the back of their caps, they looked very strange to us. This was a type of Japanese we had never seen before. Much later I learnt that many Koreans also served as shock-troops in the Japanese Army.

The nuns went to the chapel to pray for all those living in the Dutch East Indies.  But the Dutch East Indies is lost forever.

Dutch a forbidden language

My father found it too dangerous for my mother and youngest sister Jansje to stay with him at Sumber Sewu, because there were still small groups of Australian, English and Dutch military fighting in the mountains in East Java against the Japanese troops, notwithstanding the fact that the Dutch East Indies government and Army had surrendered.

My mother and Jansje came to stay at our boarding school [at Malang], where there were small guest rooms. We all stayed inside the building, only the Indonesians working for the nuns went outside to do the shopping.

A few days later we received the order that all Dutch schools had to be closed down, so several parents came to take their daughters. The school looked empty and abandoned. We all felt very sad, our happy schooldays were over.

Dutch became a strictly forbidden language. Luckily we had a huge library at school so I had lots of books to read in those days.

A few weeks later my father phoned my mother and said that the four of us should return to Sumber Sewu as he had heard that Malang was no longer a safe place for us to stay.

I was really very happy to be back home. Rasmina, our cook, and Pa Min, our gardener, were happy to have my mother back again. There was absolutely nothing to fear on the plantation, the “Indonesians” (actually Javanese and Madurese) on the plantation were nice as ever and we didn’t see any Japanese soldiers around.

Indeed we were safer at Sumber Sewu. Life began to feel like a vacation,

I started walking with my father again and visited the local kampung (village) and since we had no more newspapers to read, I started reading several of my parent’s books.

We received a Japanese flag, together with the order that the flag had to be respected and had to hang in the garden in front of our house.

My father no longer received his salary, just like all the other Dutch, British, Americans and Australians, living in Indonesia. All our bank accounts were blocked; no one was even allowed to touch their own money.

We still had rabbits and eggs to eat, and several vegetables my mother and Pa Min had planted long before the war in the kitchen garden, and we had many fruit trees.

The thought that we might have to leave Sumber Sewu made me feel very sad. To me this plantation was a real paradise on earth, with its pond in front of the house with the two proud banyan trees, the lovely garden my mother and Pa Min had made, the kitchen where Rasmina made so many delicious meals. The sounds early in the morning, and the sounds in the evening were also very special, I can still remember them so well.

Of course we hoped that this Japanese occupation would soon be over. My father had broken the seal of the radio, hoping that he could get some more news from outside Java.

 

 

My mother and her three daughters.

(4)

 In this month all the post office in Java not operational the letter send from Bandung February 17 1942 to Tjiandjoer arrived in february,28th,but cannot bring to sender because of the Dai nippon landed at Merak and marching to Jakarta (batavia) March,5th and capitulation Kalidjati Armyport March,8th 1942. this letter send to sender but cannot found  and the sletter send back to sender April, 4th 1942 . Please look carefully this  very rare historic postal used cover from DEI Armed forces Headquater Bandung official free stamp covers and return back to Dai Nippon Occupation Military Headquater Bandung below

front

back

2)March,8th 1942 Capitulation Dai nippon at Kalidjati military airport, The Dutch Armed Forces surrender (1) The House of capitulation’s Meeting now

(a) Interior still same meubeleur

(b)Exterior

(2)The Position of the capitulations meeting participant.

(c)The Original Photos

Let General Hitoshi Immamura the command of Dai nippon Army

had the cpitulation Meeting at kalidjati army port March 7th at night ,Immamura didnot want to meet with the ex DEI Govenorgeneral Tjarda

and the meeting only with the command od DEI Army General Ter Porten and Kastaf Col Bakkers

, and DEI Army surrender which announced at the newpaper morning March,8th, and the second meeting at Kalidjati 10 am with bring the list of DEI army powers. Immamura write in his memoir that they have sign the capitulation acta which never seen anymore (lost), after meeting they made a photo in the front of the meeting house which still exist now with the same meubelueur. look the photos below.

(c1) Interior

 (c2) exterior

very difficult to find the original clear photos of the kalidjati capitulation meeting, all the pictures were taken by Dr Huesein at the location now which given to me not so clear, who have the original clear photos please show us.

2.April 1942

1)except Surabaya the DEI Govement still operation :

(1)The DEI marine still issued the recomendations letter

(2)the PTT  still issued the telephone  bill for april 1942.look below at April collectionsApril.1st 1945 .Surabaja.Ned.indie.Revenue stamp .PTT Phone Bill.

a.Front

 b. back

(2) April,3rd1942,soerabaja,Recieved Of Buying Breadpaper, DEI Revenue stamped

(4) April,14th 1942,the DEI overtoon document (Surat hutang) handwritten sur charge to Indonesia Language ,the DEI change to Pemerintah balatentara Dai Nippon(DN army Government)

3.May 1942(1942)

(1) May,3th.1942, Koedoes,Recieved of Dai Nippon Postal saving bank(Chokin kyoku ) with the chokin  label and book

(2)May,14th 1942 ,Sitoebondo,Legalization of Radio Permit of DEI 1941 document with DEI revenue that time,no Dai Nippon special revenue (all the radio band were closed only open for Dai nippon channel only)

Inside

Frontside

Legalized DEI C7 Adress card with Kon stamp 10 cent issued at Batoe Malang east java ,by Dai nippon in Indonesia language with handwritten

 Beside the road in jakarta,dai nippon put their  propaganda radio on the pole,look the book illustration from magazine july 2602

4. June 2602(1) June 11th 2602 DEI Postal stationer CDS Bandoeng send to Semarang.(all DEI postal issued without Queen Wilhelmina picture permit to used without overprint in Java.This is the earliest postal stationer card used during Dai Nippon Occupation Java.

 5.July 2602

(1) july,7th 2602 billing recieved, DEI Revenue,and Dai nippon Calender date 2602

(2)July,11th 2602, The Dai nippon Liscence to print a book at the front page

6.August 2602 

on the 11th of August in , that I read in the Dutch newspaper, De Telegraaf, that many more people had seen what my father and I witnessed that day in 1942.  Other people had seen many of these men transported in bamboo baskets not only in trucks but also in trains. The article said that the men had been pushed into the bamboo baskets, transported, and then, while still in those baskets, thrown into the Java Sea. Most of the men in the bamboo baskets were Australian military.

I have often wondered: Did my father learn what happened to those poor men we saw that day? Did   the local people see it as well? I shall never know.

Come! Let’s walk home

It was strange that we didn’t get Japanese military visitors at Sumber Sewu since they went to Wonokerto the head plantation and other plantations as well, and asked many questions there. My parents were of course more than pleased that the Japanese hadn’t visited Sumber Sewu yet

7.September 2602The first Dai nippon 2602 Zegel van Ned indie Imprint used adi nippon year but still used the same imprint zegel of DEI emblem, used at Magelang Polytechnic middle school certificate

8.October 1942

(1)one day at the end of October 1942, when my father and I walked back home for lunch, we heard a lot of noise. It was the sound of trucks coming in our direction as we were walking on a main road. So we quickly walked off the road and hid behind some coffee bushes. We saw five trucks coming and we heard people screaming. When the trucks passed we could see and hear everything, especially since we were sitting higher than the road. What we saw came as a real shock to both of us.

We saw that the open truck platforms were loaded with bamboo baskets, a type of basket used to transport pigs. But the bamboo baskets we saw that day were not used for pigs but for men. They were lying crammed in those baskets, all piled up three to four layers of baskets high. This sight shocked us deeply, but the screaming of all those poor men, for help and for water, in English and Dutch, shocked us even more. I heard my father softly saying; “Oh my God?”

We walked home without saying a word. We had just come out of a nightmare. Even today I can still hear the harsh voices of these poor men crying and screaming for help and for water.

At lunch time my father told my mother the whole story — she could hardly believe that people could do such things. She asked who were driving the trucks. My father told her that in each truck he had seen a Japanese driver and another Japanese sitting next to them.

This tragedy that I saw together with my father happened in the mountains of East Java.

(2)October 26th 2602(1942)

Tamanan Gun Cho(Tamanan was  an area  at East java -military Command),used DEI postal Stationer because this time  Dai Nippon Military Postalcard  not exist.

9.November 2602

(1)one day in November 1942 my parents received a phone call from the police in nearby Ampelgading. My father had to bring his car to the police station. It was summarily confiscated. Still, he was happy to have my company on this very difficult afternoon.  We went by car but– a real humiliation – we had to walk back home.

When my father came back from work, he said that he really hoped that the Americans and Aussies would come soon to rescue us all from this Japanese occupation of Indonesia.  Many Dutch civilian men were now interned all over Java, but not only men, as the Japanese had also started to open camps for women with their children as well.

We were still “free” but for how long?

 (2) November,9th 2602.Solo, the earliest Dai Nippon Plakzegel revenue Stamped.

10.December 2602

(1) December,25th.1942

Christmas 1942

My mother did her utmost in the kitchen to prepare a nice Christmas meal. And then at last it was the 25th of December, 1942. It must have been around 12 noon when we started our delicious Christmas meal, sitting there all six happy around the table.

All of a sudden we heard Pa Min calling; “Orang Nippon, orang Nippon.” (lit. Japanese).  My father stood up and went to the front door, my mother took little Jansje by her hand and they went to the living room. Cora went to our bedroom with a book; she was very scared.  Henny and I stood at the back of the house and so we could see that there were about six or seven Japanese military getting out of two cars. One of them was an officer. Directly approaching my father, he said that his men had received an order to search the house for weapons. My father told him that there were no weapons hidden in the house. 

It was our last Christmas as a whole family together. I can still feel the special warmth of that gathering we had that day because, notwithstanding the Japanese military visit, we were still together

(2)December,31th 2602.

the document of Dai Nippon lend the Car

1)original document

 2) translate of the document

 

1943

1.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)

Bab Tiga(Chapter Three):

The Dai nippon Military Java Postal History  

1.October 26th 2602(1942),Tamanan Gun Cho(Tamanan was  an area  at East java -military Command),used DEI postal Stationer because this time  Dai Nippon Military Postalcard  not exist.

2.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)

3.Military Postcard send via military courier from Magelang to Djatinegara.Read the translate .

Rare Dai Nippon Guntjo Pos Losarang with house of delivery(Rumah Pos) Stamped on postal stationer card 2603(1943)

Semarang Kezeibu Official CDS Semarang 27.12.03 card to Kudus

Frontside

Backside

Tekisan Kanribu(Dai Nippon Enemy Property Control) Bandung official Postal Used lettersheet homemade ,4.9.03(Sept.4th,1943)

C.Occupation

Bab Empat(Chapter Four);

.The History of Japanese occupation  Indonesia

This article is part of the
History of Indonesia series
History of Indonesia.png
See also:
Timeline of Indonesian History
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Kutai (4th century)
Tarumanagara (358–669)
Kalingga (6th to 7th century)
Srivijaya (7th to 13th centuries)
Sailendra (8th to 9th centuries)
Sunda Kingdom (669–1579)
Medang Kingdom (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
Spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Sultanate of Ternate (1257–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1548)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s–1700s)
European colonialism
The Portuguese (1512–1850)
Dutch East India Co. (1602–1800)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National awakening (1899–1942)
Japanese occupation (1942–1945)
National revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal democracy (1950–1957)
Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Start of the New Order (1965–1966)
The New Order (1966–1998)
Reformasi era (1998–present)
v · d · e

The Japanese Empire occupied Indonesia during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of War in 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history.

The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch in Indonesia—it ended the Dutch colonial rule—and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesia Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier.[1] Under German occupation itself, the Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, and less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces, ending over 300 years of Dutch colonial presence in Indonesia. In 1944–45, Allied troops largely by-passed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra. As such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of their surrender in August 1945.

The most lasting and profound effects of the occupation were, however, on the Indonesian people. Initially, most had optimistically and even joyfully welcomed the Japanese as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters. This sentiment quickly changed as the occupation turned out to be the most oppressive and ruinous colonial regime in Indonesian history. As a consequence, Indonesians were for the first time politicised down to the village level. But this political wakening was also partly due to Japanese design; particularly in Java and to a lesser extent Sumatra, the Japanese educated, trained and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for a claim of Indonesian independence. Following World War II, Indonesians pursued a bitter five-year diplomatic, military and social struggle before securing that independence.

Contents

 

Background

Until 1942, Indonesia was colonised by the Netherlands and was known as the Netherlands East Indies. In 1929, during the Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian nationalists leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta (later founding President and Vice President), foresaw a Pacific War and that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might be advantageous for the independence cause.[2]

The Japanese spread the word that they were the ‘Light of Asia’. Japan was the only Asian nation that had successfully transformed itself into a modern technological society at the end of the nineteenth century and it remained independent when most Asian countries had been under European or American power, and had beaten a European power, Russia, in war.[3] Following its military campaign in China Japan turned its attention to Southeast Asia advocating to other Asians a ‘Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere’, which they described as a type of trade zone under Japanese leadership. The Japanese had gradually spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the twentieth century and during the 1920s and 1930s had established business links in the Indies. These ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade.[4] The Japanese population peaked in 1931, with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease, largely due to economic tensions between Japan and the Netherlands Indies government.[5] Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort. Dutch intelligence services also monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.[6] A number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists, particularly with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan. Such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an ‘Asia for the Asians’.[7]

In November 1941, Madjlis Rakjat Indonesia, an Indonesian organization of religious, political and trade union groups, submitted a memorandum to the Dutch East Indies Government requesting the mobilization of the Indonesian people in the face of the war threat.[8] The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people. Within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago.

The Invasion

Main article: Netherlands East Indies campaign

Japanese advance through Indonesia, 1942

On December 8, 1941, Netherlands declared war on Japan.[9] In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDACOM) was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia. On the night of January 10–11, 1942, the Japanese attacked Menado in Sulawesi. At about the same moment they attacked Tarakan, a major oil extraction centre and port in the north east of Borneo. On February 27, the Allied fleet was defeated in the Battle of the Java Sea. From February 28 to March 1, 1942, Japanese troops landed on four places along the northern coast of Java almost undisturbed. On March 8, the Allied forces in Indonesia surrendered. The colonial army was consigned to detention camps and Indonesian soldiers were released. European civilians were interned once Japanese or Indonesian replacements could be found for senior and technical positions.[10]

Outline of the Japanese entry in Batavia, as imagined by the Japanese

Liberation from the Dutch was initially greeted with optimistic enthusiasm by Indonesians who came to meet the Japanese army waving flags and shouting support such as “Japan is our older brother” and “banzai Dai Nippon“.

The Indonesians abandoned their colonial masters in droves and openly welcomed the Japanese as liberators. As the Japanese advanced, rebellious Indonesians in virtually every part of the archipelago killed small groups of Europeans (particularly the Dutch) and informed the Japanese reliably on the whereabouts of larger groups[11]

In Aceh, the local population rebelled against the Dutch colonial authorities, even before the arrival of the Japanese. As renowned Indonesian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer noted:

With the arrival of the Japanese just about everyone was full of hope, except for those who had worked in the service of the Dutch.[12]

The occupation

Indonesia under the Japanese occupation [13]

Initially Japanese occupation was welcomed by the Indonesians as liberators.[14] During the occupation, the Indonesian nationalist movement increased in popularity. In July 1942, leading nationalists like Sukarno accepted Japan’s offer to rally the public in support of the Japanese war effort. Both Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta were decorated by the Emperor of Japan in 1943.

Japanese rulers divided Indonesia into three regions; Sumatra was placed under the 25th Army, Java and Madura were under the 16th Army, while Borneo and eastern Indonesia were controlled by the Navy 2nd South Fleet. The 16th and 25th Army were headquartered in Singapore[1] and also controlled Malaya until April 1943, when its command was narrowed to just Sumatra and the headquarters moved to Bukittinggi. The 16th Army was headquartered in Jakarta, while the 2nd South Fleet was headquartered in Makassar.

Internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945

Experience of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia varied considerably, depending upon where one lived and one’s social position. Many who lived in areas considered important to the war effort experienced torture, sex slavery, arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes. Many thousands of people were taken away from Indonesia as unfree labour (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam Railway, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. People of Dutch and mixed Dutch-Indonesian descent were particular targets of the Japanese occupation and were interned.

During the World War II occupation, tens of thousands of Indonesians were to starve, work as slave labourers, or be forced from their homes. In the National Revolution that followed, tens, even hundreds, of thousands (including civilians), would die in fighting against the Japanese, Allied forces, and other Indonesians, before Independence was achieved.[15] A later United Nations report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labor during the Japanese occupation, including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths.[16]

Netherlands Indian roepiah – the Japanese occupation currency

Materially, whole railway lines, railway rolling stock, and industrial plants in Java were appropriated and shipped back to Japan and Manchuria. British intelligence reports during the occupation noted significant removals of any materials that could be used in the war effort.

The only prominent opposition politician was leftist Amir Sjarifuddin who was given 25,000 guilders by the Dutch in early 1942 to organise an underground resistance through his Marxist and nationalist connections. The Japanese arrested Amir in 1943, and he only escaped execution following intervention from Sukarno, whose popularity in Indonesia and hence importance to the war effort was recognised by the Japanese. Apart from Amir’s Surabaya-based group, the most active pro-Allied activities were among the Chinese, Ambonese, and Menadonese.[17]

Indonesian nationalism

Young Indonesian boys being trained by the Japanese Army

During the occupation, the Japanese encouraged and backed Indonesian nationalistic feeling, created new Indonesian institutions, and promoted nationalist leaders such as Sukarno. In the decades before the war, the Dutch had been overwhelmingly successful in suppressing the small nationalist movement in Indonesia such that the Japanese proved fundamental for coming Indonesian independence.[15]

The Japanese regime perceived Java as the most politically sophisticated but economically the least important area; its people were Japan’s main resource. As such—and in contrast to Dutch suppression—the Japanese encouraged Indonesian nationalism in Java and thus increased its political sophistication (similar encouragement of nationalism in strategic resource-rich Sumatra came later, but only after it was clear the Japanese would lose the war). The outer islands under naval control, however, were regarded as politically backward but economically vital for the Japanese war effort, and these regions were governed the most oppressively of all. These experiences and subsequent differences in nationalistic politicisation would have profound impacts on the course of the Indonesian Revolution in the years immediately following independence (1945–1950).

In addition to new-found Indonesian nationalism, equally important for the coming independence struggle and internal revolution was the Japanese orchestrated economic, political and social dismantling and destruction of the Dutch colonial state.[15]

End of the occupation

Japanese commanders listening to the terms of surrender

General MacArthur had wanted to fight his way with Allied troops to liberate Java in 1944-45 but was ordered not to by the joint chiefs and President Roosevelt. The Japanese occupation thus officially ended with Japanese surrender in the Pacific and two days later Sukarno declared Indonesian Independence. However Indonesian forces would have to spend the next four years fighting the Dutch for its independence. American restraint from fighting their way into Java certainly saved many Japanese, Javanese, Dutch and American lives. On the other hand, Indonesian independence would have likely been achieved more swiftly and smoothly had MacArthur had his way and American troops occupied Java.[18]

Liberation of the internment camps holding western prisoners was not swift. Sukarno, who had Japanese political sponsorship starting in 1929 and continuing into Japanese occupation, convinced his countrymen that these prisoners were a threat to Indonesia’s independence movement. Largely because they were political bargaining chips with which to deal with the colonizer, but also largely to humiliate them; Sukarno forced Westerners back into Japanese concentration camps, still run by armed Japanese soldiers. While there certainly was enough labor to garrison these camps with Indonesian soldiers, Sukarno chose to allow his former ally to maintain authority. Conditions were better during post war internment than under previous internment, this time Red Cross supplies were made available and the Allies made the Japanese order the most heinous and cruel occupiers home. After four months of post war internment Western internees were released on the condition they leave Indonesia.

Most of the Japanese military personnel and civilian colonial administrators were repatriated to Japan following the war, except for several hundred who were detained for investigations into war crimes, for which some were later put on trial. About 1,000 Japanese soldiers deserted from their units and assimilated into local communities. Many of these soldiers provided assistance to rebel forces during the Indonesian National Revolution.[19]

Japanese soldiers on trial.

The first stages of warfare were initiated in October 1945 when, in accordance with the terms of their surrender, the Japanese tried to re-establish the authority they relinquished to Indonesians in the towns and cities. Japanese military police killed Republican pemuda in Pekalongan (Central Java) on 3 October, and Japanese troops drove Republican pemuda out of Bandung in West Java and handed the city to the British, but the fiercest fighting involving the Japanese was in Semarang. On 14 October, British forces began to occupy the city. Retreating Republican forces retaliated by killing between 130 and 300 Japanese prisoners they were holding. Five hundred Japanese and 2000 Indonesians had been killed and the Japanese had almost captured the city six days later when British forces arrived

________________________________________________________________

The official Office Stamped during Dai nippon War In Java(restored)

1. Official Keraton Jogya

2.Dai Nippon Kanji Choped(?)

3.Postal Saving Office

 

4.Madioen Student(Pelajar)

5.District Karangan

6.chief of village

 

PSThe Dai Nippon Occupation postal and document history  from other time and area In Indonesia only for Premium Member,please subscribe via comment, and we will tell you the regulations via your e.mail adress.this improtant for security the web blog.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

PROFILE PENGUASA WANITA DI DUNIA ABAD KE -19 (1830-1899)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

The Dr Iwan Rare Book:

Profile Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia Abad Ke 19(1830-1899)

PROFILE PENGUASA WANITA DI DUNIA ABAD KE 19 (1830-1899)

1833-36 dan 1838-44 memerintah María Abbess Jenderal Rascon Benita dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Dia memegang otoritas kuasi keuskupan wilayah.
 

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  1834-1835 Theresia Maria Putri-Abbess von Habsburg dari Bab Theressian untuk Wanita Noble di Hradschin dari Praha (Austria-Hungaria (Österreich-Ungarn))
Dia mengundurkan diri sebagai Abbess dari Bab Royal untuk menikah raja Fernando II dari Dua Sisilia pada tahun 1835. Pada tahun 1859 anak tirinya menjadi raja, tetapi hanya satu tahun kemudian ia harus mengundurkan diri sebagai akibat dari penyatuan Italia. Dia adalah putri dari Archduke Karl dan Henriette von Nassau-Weilburg, ibu dari dua putri dan tinggal (1816-1867).

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  1835-42 Putri-Abbess Hermine von Habsburg-Lothringen dari Royal Theressian dan Bab Imperial untuk Wanita Noble di Hradschin di Praha (Austria-Hungaria)
Putri Josef Anton von Habsburg-Lothringen dan Putri Hermine von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, yang meninggal pada usia 20, setelah melahirkan diberikan kepada Hermine dan saudara kembarnya, Stefan Viktor. Sebagai kepala biara ia menikmati pangkat pangeran gerejawi. Dia didedikasikan sini hidup untuk amal tetapi meninggal pada usia hanya 25, setelah tinggal (1817-1842).

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  1836-38 dan 1847-50 memerintah María Abbess Jenderal Montoya Manuela dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Dilaksanakan otoritas sekuler terbatas selama lebih dari 60 lordships dan desa-desa dan memegang pengadilan sendiri.
 

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  1844-1852 Karolina Maria Putri-Abbess von Habsburg dari Bab Theressian untuk Wanita Noble di Hradschin dari Praha (Austria-Hungaria (Österreich-Ungarn))
Sebagai kepala biara Putri Bangsawan menikmati pangeran peringkat gerejawi (fürstliche würde geistliche), hanya tugas temporal dan pendapatan yang tinggi. Kakaknya, Maria Theresia, adalah kepala biara sekitar 1834-1835. Maria Karoline menikah sepupunya, Archduke Rainer, dan dikenal sebagai “Bibi Marie Rainer”, ia tidak punya anak, dan hidup (1825-1915).

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  Memerintah 1844-1847 Abbess Jenderal María Teresa Bonifaz Bustamante dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Dia memiliki hak untuk memberikan surat dismissorial untuk pentahbisan, dan menerbitkan izin otorisasi imam, dalam batas-batas yurisdiksi abbatial nya, untuk mendengar pengakuan, untuk berkhotbah, dan untuk terlibat dalam penyembuhan jiwa.
 

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  Memerintah 1850-1853 Abbess Jenderal María Concepción Casilda de Rozas dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Apakah hak istimewa untuk mengkonfirmasi Abbesses, untuk mengenakan mencela, dan untuk mengadakan rapat sinode.
 

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  Memerintah 1858-1861 Abbess Jenderal María Antonia González Agüero dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Judul lengkap nya adalah “Lady mulia, yang lebih unggul, uskup, dan administratrix sah dalam spiritual dan temporals dari biara kerajaan”.
 

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  1861-64 dan 1883-84 memerintah María Abbess Jenderal Bernarda Ruiz Puente dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Selama masa jabatan kedua di kantor ia tidak lagi memegang kekuasaan uskup kuasi, sebagaimana mereka telah dicabut pada tahun 1873 setelah Konsili Vatikan Pertama 1769-1770.
 

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  1864-67, 1876-79 dan 1884-87 memerintah Abbess Jenderal María de Bernarda Tagle Quevedo dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Selama dua tenor terakhir, dia tidak memegang kekuasaan uskup kuasi.
 

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  Memerintah 1867-1870 Abbess Jenderal María Benita Rodríguez dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Temporal dan penguasa sekuler wilayah yang milik biara.
 
 

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  1870-76 dan 1879-83 memerintah Ugarte María Abbess Jenderal Pilar dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Dia adalah kepala biara terakhir di mana saja untuk memegang kekuasaan uskup kuasi, ketika kanannya yurisdiksi dihapuskan pada tahun 1873. Semua lembaga itu harus diletakkan di bawah yurisdiksi uskup dari keuskupan di mana rumah-rumah itu terletak, ini sesuai dengan titik utama Konkordat diatur antara Paus Pius VII dan Napoleon, dan yang masih berlaku. Dia protes terhadap abolision dari privilleges kuasi-nya episkopal dan lainnya agama dan temporal kuno, namun Uskup Agung Burgos membuat keputusan yang menyatakan bahwa keputusan itu benar.
 

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  1875-79 Maria Putri-Abbess Christina von Habsburg-Este The Noble Bab Theresianian di Hradschin di Praha (Austria-Hungaria)
1885-1902 Ratu Bupati H.M. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo-Loreno y Habsurgo-Este Spanyol
Para Putri Bangsawan itu Bupati Spanyol dan koloni-koloninya, pertama selama kekosongan tahta dan menunggu kehamilan ahli waris anumerta – anaknya Alfonso XIII (1886-1931-41), yang lahir 6 bulan setelah kematian suaminya Alfonso XII. Sebagai Presiden Dewan Negara dia telah melakukan kontak dekat dengan Premier dan para menteri lainnya. Politik masa itu ditandai, dengan beralih konstan istilah dalam kantor oleh partai-partai politik liberal dan konservatif. Kuba, Filipina dan Puerto Rico hilang ke Amerika Serikat. Selama masa jabatannya di kantor, kebijakan bimbang digunakan untuk menghadapi masalah di Maroko selama perang pertama Melilla, (1893). Selain itu, dengan perjanjian dengan Perancis, perbatasan Spanyol Continental Guinea didirikan, (1900). Bupati selalu sangat dihargai karena kebijaksanaan yang besar dan bijaksana, dan setelah anaknya datang dari usia, ia mengabdikan dirinya secara eksklusif untuk kehidupan keluarga dan bekerja charible baik. Dia telah Putri-Abbess dari Praha sampai pernikahan mereka pada 1879, dan hidup (1859-1929).

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  Sampai 1893 Lothringen Margaretha Sophie Putri-Abbess von Habsburg-The Noble Bab Theresianian di Hradschin di Praha (Austria-Hungaria)
Biara ini didirikan oleh Ratu Maria Theresia pada tahun 1755. Sebagai kepala biara ia menikmati pangeran peringkat gerejawi (fürstliche würde geistliche), hanya tugas temporal dan pendapatan yang tinggi. Putri Ludwig Karl Archduke dari Austria (1833-1896) dan Annunziata Maria Dua Sisilia (1843-1871). Pada tahun 1893 ia menikah dengan Albrecht von Württemberg (1865-1939), ibu dari tiga anak dan tinggal (1870-1902).

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  1893-94 Putri-Abbess Immaculata Karoline von Habsburg-Lothringen The Noble Bab Theresianian di Hradschin di Praha (Austria-Hungaria)
Para Putri Bangsawan juga dikenal sebagai Carolina, ia adalah putri dari Archduke Karl Salvator dari Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1839-1892) dan Maria Immacolata The Dua Sisilia (1844-1899) dan menikah dengan Pangeran Leopold von Sachsen Agustus-Coburg-Gotha (1867-1922) dan tinggal (1869-1945).

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  1894-1918 Maria Putri-Abbess Annunziata von Habsburg-Lothringen The Noble Bab Theresianian di Hradschin di Praha (Austria-Hungaria)
Juga dikenal sebagai miana, yang Putri Bangsawan adalah putri dari Archduke Karl Ludwig dari Austria dan istri ketiganya, Maria Teresa da Bragança. Dia bertindak sebagai “Lady pertama” di pengadilan dari saudara ayahnya, Kaisar Franz Joseph setelah istrinya, Ratu Elisabeth, dibunuh pada tahun 1898. Kakaknya tertua, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, adalah Ahli Waris ke Takhta sampai ia dibunuh tahun 1914, dan anak saudara yang kedua adalah kaisar Karl I (1887-1916-18-2). Dia belum menikah dan tinggal (1876-1961).

THE END  @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011
 

Profil Penguasa Wanita DiDunia Abad Ke 14(1300-1324)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

The Dr Iwan Rare Book:

Profile Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia Abad Ke 14(1300-1324)

PROFIL PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA ABAD KE 14(1300-1324)

Wanita pemimpin
dan perempuan dalam posisi lain otoritas politik
negara independen dan
mengatur diri mengecilkan badan

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  1300-1320 Viscountess Sovereign Alix II de Clermont dari Châteaudun, Dame de Mondoubleau dan Calais Saint (Prancis)
Pengganti ibu, Alix aku de Dreux. Suami pertamanya adalah Guillaume de Dampierre dari Flanders, seigneur de Tenremonde et de Richebourg – anak bungsu dari Count Guy de Dampierre dari Flanders – dan Jean kedua de Chalon, seigneur d’Arly. Pada 1320 ia mengundurkan diri gelar di mendukung putranya Jean de Dampirre-Flandres, yang digantikan oleh putri sulungnya, Marie, pada tahun 1325. Alix II (w. 1330).

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  1300-1304 Abbess memerintah Adelheid von Treidenberg II dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
The Reichsstift – Imperial Langsung Bab – telah ditempatkan langsung di bawah otoritas raja Jerman sejak 1002, dan perlindungan kerajaan, dan kekebalan dikonfirmasi occations un banyak kemudian.

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  Sekitar 1300 Nang’oma Chiefess dari Bululi (Uganda)
Putri Kabaka Kato Kintu Kakulukuku, yang mendirikan kerajaan Buganda sekitar 1300.

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  13 … Sovereign Putri Maria Keos (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Menggantikan ayahnya. Dari abad ke-12 pulau itu dijajah oleh Ionians dari daratan dan menamakan pulau Keos – hari ini disebut Tzia (Kea).

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  13 …. Menteri Nayakuralu Nagamma dari Haihayas (India)
Lahir sebagai petani, tetapi naik menjadi posnya karena kemampuannya dan memungkinkan tuannya untuk mendapatkan kemenangan. Ketika salah satu raja-raja musuh menyatakan bahwa sebagai seorang perempuan ia tidak cocok untuk duduk di dewan militer dia menantang untuk duel. Dia hilang tapi akhirnya kemenangan milik sisinya.

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  1301-1304 Janda Lady Sophia Bupati van Heusden dari Horne (Belgia)
Setelah kematian suaminya Willem III (sebelum 1282-1300/01) dia mengambil alih kabupaten untuk dua anaknya Willem (1300-1301) dan Gerard I (1301-30-50).

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  1301 Countess herediter Richardis Bentheim von dari Tecklenburg (Jerman)
Ahli waris ayahnya, Otto von Bentheim V-Tecklenburg, dan menikah dengan Count Günzel VI von Schwerin.

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  1302-1329 Mahaut Countess Penguasa Artois, Dame de Conches (Belgia – Perancis)
1302-1321 Countess Janda Bupati Bourgogne
Sejak kakaknya, Philippe, dia adalah penerus ayahnya, Robert II, di bawah kekuasaan raja raja Perancis, daripada dia keponakan Robert, berdasarkan kedekatan darah. Dia adalah seorang administrator kuat dan mengalahkan pemberontakan dari para bangsawan dan terlibat dalam perselisihan mengenai suksesi dengan Robert. Setelah kematian suaminya, Othon IV Bourgogne (1248-1302), ia memerintah County. Dia digantikan oleh anak perempuannya, Jeanne II, Countess de Bourgogne sejak 1315, dan Robert mengklaim County lagi, tapi Jeanne digantikan oleh adik Mahaut’s – Jeanne III – setelah hanya satu tahun. Mahaut tinggal (1268-1329).

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  1303-17 De facto memerintah Ratu Violante Aleramo dari Tesalonika (Yunani)
1305-1306 Berdaulat Margravine dari Monferrato (Italia)
Menikah Kaisar Andronikos II Palailogos, kemudian Kaisar Konstantinopel, sebagai istri kedua di 1284 dan dikenal sebagai Yolanda, dan diberi Tesalonika sebagai mas kawinnya. Dia dalam sengketa dengan suaminya atas masa depan anak-anak mereka, sebagai anak-anaknya oleh perkawinan pertama diberi nama sebagai ahli waris. Dia ingin memiliki Kekaisaran diukir dalam kerajaan terpisah untuk masing-masing tiga anak. Mereka tumbuh lebih lanjut selain ketika suaminya menikahi putri mereka lima tahun untuk Raja Simonis Milutin dari Serbia yang berada di 50-an dan memaksa anak sulung mereka menikahi putri penasihat terdekatnya walaupun ia bangsawan rendah. Pada 1303 ia dikemas punggung dan mengambil tempat tinggal di Tesalonika, yang dianggap sebagai milik sendiri. 1309 upaya rekonsiliasi gagal dan ia meninggal di wilayah di 1317. 1305 ia mewarisi Monferrato dari saudara laki-lakinya dan tahun berikutnya ia lulus judul untuk putra keduanya, Theodore, yang menghabiskan sisa hidupnya di Italia. Dia adalah ibu dari tujuh anak.

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  Sampai 1303 Beatrice Countess Penguasa Chiaggiolo (Italia)
Menggantikan ayahnya dan menikahi Paolo Malatesta.

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  Memerintah 1303-1310 Abbess Agnès IV de Gloise dari Abbey Royal Jouarre (Perancis)
Seperti Abbess dia memiliki kewenangan yang besar di kawasan itu, mengorganisir pameran dan pasar, pengeluaran keadilan, mengangkat imam, mempunyai hak untuk arbitrase dalam distribusi tanah.

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  1304-1308 Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Bourgogne dari Tonnerre (Perancis)
Putri Mahaut de Tonnerre dan Duke Eudes de Bourgogne. Istri kedua dari Charles I dari Perancis, Count d’Anjou et du Maine, Provence et de Forcalquier dll Raja Sicilia (1265), tituler Raja Yerusalem (1267) dan Raja Napoli dan Yerusalem (1265), dia tinggal ( 1249-1308).

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  1304-1311 Countess Berdaulat Marguerite dari Touraine (Perancis)
Penerus ayahnya, Raymond VII dan memerintah sebagai raja bersama-sama dengan suami, Bernard II de Comminges, yang digantikan oleh anaknya, Jean pada 1335 dan kemudian oleh Cécile putri mereka.

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  Memerintah 1304-1314 Abbess Irmgard von II Köfering dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
Köferingen adalah sebuah desa terletak di dekat Regensburg.

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  1304-1306 feodal Baroness Giovanna Chevereuse de Di del Castello di Meta Rutigliano (Italia)
Menggantikan ayahnya Anselmo, bangsawan di Rutigliano dan di Sannicandro dan hak-haknya telah disetujui oleh Carlo II d’Anjou dari Napoli.

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  1305-1306 Margravine Janda Bupati Margherita de Savoia dari Monferrato (Italia)
Telah sangat berpengaruh pada masa pemerintahan suaminya, Giovanni aku, Tuhan Ivrea dan Astri (1277-95-1305) dan bertanggung jawab pemerintah sampai-kakak iparnya, Ratu Yolanda Konstantinopel, ditransfer Margravate untuk dia anak keempat, Theodoros Palailogos. Dia (w. 1339).

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  Memerintah 1305-1318 Janda Janda Countess Lady Margaretha von Kiburg Tanah Linner (Burg bei Linn Krefeld) di Berg (Jerman)
Janda VIII Dietrich von Kleve dan mengundurkan diri Dipertuan dalam mendukung anaknya yang lebih muda, Johann, ketika dia bergabung dengan Biara Bedburg di Kleve.

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  1305-1316 Abbess Countess Mechthild Wohldenberg zu II Gandersheim (Jerman)
Anggota keluarga countly Jerman.

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  1305-17 Juara II Mathilde Abbess d’Auchy dari Bourbourg, Lady dari Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont dan Coutiches (Prancis)
Juga dikenal sebagai Mahaut.

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  1306-1344 Countess Berdaulat Marguerite dari Soissons (Perancis)
Putri Hugues, ia menikah dengan Jean, seigneur de Beaumont, Valenciennes dan Conde, dan digantikan oleh Jeanne de Hainaut.

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  1306 Bupati Janda Ratu Eliška Rejčka Bohemia (Republik Ceko)
1306-1335 Lady of Königsgrätz
Elisabeth Ryksa, Richenza, Richsa atau Ryksa Elzbieta Polandia telah politik berpengaruh 1303-1305 pada masa pemerintahan suaminya, Václav II dari Bohemia, Hungaria dan Polandia, dan bupati dari bulan Agustus hingga Oktober, ketika ia menikah Rudolf III dari Austria, yang adalah raja tituler Bohemia, Hungaria dan Polandia sampai kematiannya satu tahun kemudian, namun pada kenyataannya Hungaria dan Bohemia berada di sebuah peralihan. Elzbieta menikah dengan suami ketiga, Heinrich zur Lippe di 1315 dan mereka terus sebagai pemimpin dari kaum bangsawan Bohemian terhadap Ratu Elisabeth. Setelah kematiannya pada 1329, ia mundur ke biara Sankt Aula Mariæ di Brunn. Dia adalah putri Raja Przemysl II dari Polandia dan Richeza, putri Raja Valdemar dari Denmark, dan tinggal (1288-1335).

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  1306 -… Bupati Janda Duchess Anna Czerska dari Raciborz (Ratibor) (Polandia)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Duke Przemysław dari Raciborz, dia bupati untuk Leszek putra mereka. Dia adalah putri dari Duke Konrad II Czersk dan Jadwiga, dan hidup (ca. 1270-1324)

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  1306-1316 Elisabeth Putri-Abbess II von Bussnang dari Säckingen (Jerman)
Raja Albrecht menamai dia Putri Kekaisaran pada 4 April 1307. Dia membela hak-haknya terhadap warga Laufenburg di Pengadilan Kota, dan memperbaharui hak-hak Kota Buruk Säckingen di 1316. Dia adalah anggota dari keluarga bangsawan dari Thurgau di Swiss yang memainkan peran penting di Keuskupan Konstantz.

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  1306-1326 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d’Oiselay dari Remiremont (Perancis)
Menjabat Doyenne dan Kedua-in-Command 1288-1292 sebelum menjadi mensekresikan, sedangkan canonnis yang bertanggung jawab atas pencahayaan mengubah lampu dll – pejabat tertinggi ketiga dalam bab ini. Dan ia menerima perlindungan kepausan kadang selama masa jabatannya di kantor. Dia adalah putri dari Jean d’Oyselet, seigneur de Flagey, isu cabang tidak sah dari Penghitungan Bourgogne. Versi lain dari nama keluarganya ditemukan dalam sumber-sumber asli d’Oyselet, Oiselet atau Oizelay.

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  1306-1326 Pemimpin Militer Lady Kristen Bruce di Skotlandia (United Kingdom)
Selama Perang Kemerdekaan dan pemerintahan Edward I, Lady Bruce Castle membela Kildrummy ketika Daud Strathbogie, yang melayani kepentingan Inggris, mengepung kota itu. Ketika ia jatuh dalam pertempuran itu diserahkan kepada janda untuk membela (selama tujuh bulan) pulau benteng Lochindorb terhadap tiga ribu Skotlandia dendam. “Adalah Dia adik dari Raja Robert I dan adik-adiknya, Marjory Bruce dan Mary Bruce, juga mengambil bagian dalam pertempuran seperti yang dilakukan pendukung saudara mereka, Isobel, Countess dari Buchan.

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  1306 “Enthroner” Lady Isabel Macduff di Skotlandia (United Kingdom)
Dilaksanakan di sebelah kanan rumahnya, dan membawa sanksi penggunaan kuno untuk upacara, dengan memimpin Raja Robert the Bruce ke tempat penobatan. Saudara laki-lakinya, Duncan, Earl of Fife, adalah sekutu Inggris dan menikah dengan Maria de Monthermer, keponakan Edward I. dari Inggris. Dia kemudian ditangkap oleh Inggris dan ditempatkan di kandang pada dinding Berwick, sementara kakaknya dan istrinya ditangkap oleh Bruce dan dipenjarakan di kastil Kildrummie di Aberdeenshire, di mana Earl meninggal pada 1336. Isabel menikah dengan John Comyn, Earl dari Buchan, adalah seorang pejuang Skotlandia bersemangat. Setelah empat tahun ia diselamatkan oleh pasukan Bruce.

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  Ca. 1306-1361 Countess herediter Hedwig dari Dhaun Wildgrafschaft dan Grumbach (Jerman)
Putri Konrad IV, Wildgraf di Dhaun und Grumbach dan Hildegard von Hunolstein, dia pertama kali menikah dengan Rheingraf Johann saya vom Stein, dan kedua untuk Gerlach von Brunshorn.

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  1307 Janda Kaisar Khanum Bulugan dari Dinasti Yuan di China
Janda Temur Oljetu (Chengzong) yang memerintah (1294-1307) sebagai pengganti Setsen Khubilai Khan (Shizu) dan bertindak sebagai bupati untuk Wuzong langkah-cucunya, juga dikenal sebagai Khaishan, Hai San atau Taji. Ia dilahirkan sebagai Putri Bulukhan dari Baya’ud.

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  1307-1310 Ratu Anna Přemyslova Bohemia (Republik Ceko)
Putri Raja Václav II dan istri pertamanya Guta, dan menikah dengan Heinrich von Kärnten tahun 1306, yang bernama Deputi Bidang ayahnya. Setelah pembunuhan kakaknya, Václav III, dan mengambil alih kekuasaan oleh sepupunya Rudolf von Habsburg (anak saudara ibunya, Raja Albrecht von Habsburg Jerman) – yang menikah dengan ibu tirinya Elzbieta Ryksa dari Polandia – ia melarikan diri dengan dia suami untuk Kärnten. Setelah kematian Rudolf, Heinrich terpilih raja Bohemia – dilegitimasi oleh-hak suksesi nya. Ketika mereka mencoba untuk menikahi adiknya, Eliška untuk Otto von Berg, dia menolak dan mengambil tawaran dari kaum bangsawan Bohemia untuk bergabung oposisi terhadap Heinrich. Pada 1310 Eliška menikah Johann von Luxemburg yang menduduki Praha dan Anna dan suaminya menghabiskan sisa hidupnya di pengasingan di Kärnten. Dia tidak memiliki anak, dan hidup (1290-1313).

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  1307-1310 Pemimpin Oposisi Eliška Přemyslova di Bohemia
1310-1325 politis Berpengaruh Ratu Bohemia (Republik Ceko)
Juga dikenal sebagai Elisabeth dari Bohemia, dan setelah kematian ayahnya, Václav II dari Bohemia dan Polandia dan pembunuhan kakaknya, Václav III ia bergabung dengan bibinya, Abbess Kunigunde (Kuhnuta) di Biara dari Georg Kudus di Kastil dari Praha. Dia menyadari kelemahan kakaknya iparnya Raja Heinrich, dan menerima tawaran dari kaum bangsawan Bohemia ulama untuk menikah lagi penguasa masa depan. Pada musim panas 1310 ia mengambil bagian dalam Majelis Tanah, yang terpilih pada pencalonan Johann von Luxemburg (1296-1346). Ia menerima tawaran itu, dan mereka menikah pada bulan September dan kembali ke Praha pada bulan Desember tahun yang sama dan digulingkan kakaknya dan saudara-di-hukum. Dia disukai garis keras terhadap oposisi dan karena tekanan suaminya dipenjara juru bicara dari kaum bangsawan Bohemia, Heinrich von Lipa (Jindřich z Lipe) yang menyebabkan perang saudara dan hampir biaya mereka mahkota dan itu tidak sampai 1318 bahwa perdamaian dipulihkan ketika suaminya mengakui posisi kaum bangsawan. Eliška bertentangan ini dan bertentangan dengan suaminya. Dia tinggal di pengasingan Bavaria sampai 1325 dan mengambil bagian dalam tindakan terakhir politiknya – penghapusan para tuan dari Dukes Slesian. Tetapi pada saat ini ia sudah hidup terpisah dari suaminya, yang merawat tugas-tugasnya di Eropa, di mana anak-anak mereka juga didistribusikan di berbagai pengadilan. tahun terakhir wanita itu dipengaruhi oleh kurangnya nya keuangan, yang membuat ia tidak mampu mempertahankan pengadilan. Juga dikenal sebagai Elizabeth, dia tinggal (1292-1330).

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  1307-1326 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d’Oyselet dari Remiremont, Dame Saint Pierre dan Metz (Prancis)
Baik nama pendahulunya atau penggantinya dikenal.

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  1307-1317 Countess-Abbess Hedwig von IV Gernrode dan Frose (Jerman)
Dalam dokumen hanya dikenal dari pemerintahannya adalah dari 1311, dimana ia menjual salah satu kebun bab ini dalam rangka untuk melepaskan “harta gereja” yang telah diserahkan sebagai jaminan untuk lones.

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  1307-1311 Abbess memerintah Mechtild Hasenstein von dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Mengundurkan diri dari pos. Milik 2 kebun bersama-sama dengan anak-anak perempuannya Anna dan Ita, yang canonesses dalam bab tersebut.

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  1307-1313 Pretender Marguerite de Villehardouin dari Akhaya dan Morea (Yunani)
Setelah kematian adiknya, Isabelle de Villehardouin ia mengklaim azas, dan sekali lagi pada tahun 1313. Ketika terbukti tidak berhasil, ia dipindahkan hak-haknya untuk putrinya Isabelle dari Sabran, istri Ferdinand dari Majorca. putra putrinya, Yakobus Unfortunate Mallorca, adalah pangeran diproklamasikan dari Morea di 1315 di bawah Kabupaten ayahnya, yang menaklukkan kerajaan antara 1315 dan 1316 namun dikalahkan dan dieksekusi oleh dia keponakan Mathilda de Savoie dan suaminya, Louis dari Burgundi , yang digulingkan tahun yang sama oleh Raja Robert dari Napoli setelah Louis meninggal.

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  1308-1346 Sovereign Dame Catherine II de Valois dari Courtenay, Blacon dan Montargie (Prancis) dan Ratu tituler Konstantinopel
1333-1346 Berdaulat Putri Akhaya (Yunani)
Gubernur 1341-1346 Kephalliena (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Mewarisi judul Ratu tituler dari ibunya, Chatherine aku de Courtenay (1283-1308), dan terlibat dalam intrik-intrik dari pengadilan Giovanna I dari Napoli dan mungkin terlibat pembunuhan suami Giovanna’s, Andreas Hungaria. Dia menikah dengan Philippe II de Taranto, dan semua ketiga putranya menggantikannya sebagai Prince of Taranto. Robert anaknya tertua yang masih hidup dan berhasil suaminya sebagai Pangeran dari Taranto. Pada 1333 ia menerima azas Achaea oleh perjanjian dengan pamannya, Jean de Gravina. Namun anak laki-laki berusia 13 tahun dianggap terlalu muda untuk memerintah sendiri dan ibunya menjadi rekan-penguasa selama sisa hidupnya. Pada 1339 ia tiba di Achaea dan mengambil bagian aktif dalam pemerintahannya. Dia memberikan perlindungan untuk Nikephoros II Orsini dari Epirus dan mendukung dia dalam usahanya untuk menegaskan dirinya sendiri di tanah melawan Andronikos Kaisar Byzantine III Palaiologos. Kehadirannya dalam Achaea tidak lagi diperlukan pada saat Robert mencapai dewasa di 1341. Dia menjadi Gubernur Cephalonia dan menghabiskan lima tahun terakhir hidupnya dalam tanggung jawab ini. Robert berhasil sebagai Pangeran Akhaya oleh istrinya, Maria II Zaccharia di 1364. Catherine adalah ibu dari 5 anak-anak dan ayahnya Count Charles III de Valois, dan Maine Anjou dan Raja tituler Aragon dan Sisilia dan tituler Kaisar Kekaisaran Bizantium (dengan hak istrinya). Dia tinggal (1301-1346).

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  1308-1309 Countess Yolande Berdaulat de Lusignan La Marche dan Sancerrez (Prancis)
Setelah kematian dua saudara Hugues V (XIII) et Gui saya, dia mewarisi negara dan menjualnya kepada Raja Philippe dari Perancis tahun berikutnya. Pada 1314 ia memberikan county kembali ke anak ketiga, Charles.

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  1308-1347 Jutta Putri-Abbess von Kranichfeld dari Quedlinburg (Jerman)
Pada 1320 ia bertanya Duke Rudolf von Sachsen untuk memperbaharui penyewa-perjanjian demikian mengkonfirmasikan status wilayah independen nya. 1326 kota Halberstadt, Aschersleben dan Quedlinburg membuat perjanjian pertahanan bersama. Selama perkelahian antara jumlah Albrecht II. von Regenstein dan Uskup Halberstadt, hitungan menyerang Quedlinburg dan Neustadt pada 1336, namun kastilnya – Burg Gersdorfer – diduduki dan dia dipenjarakan. Setelah dua tahun, Uskup Quedlinburg mencapai kesepakatan damai di mana Penghitungan Regenstein menerima “perlindungan” dari kota. Jutta adalah putri Count Volrad VIII von Kranichfeld dan Countess Mechtild von Blankenburg, dan tinggal (ca. 1285-1347).

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  1308-1340 Elisabeth Putri-Abbess IV von Matzinger dari Frauenmünster, Dame dari Zürich (Swiss)
Wilayah Gerejawi termasuk Kota Zurich dan banyak harta Uri Schwyz.

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  Duchess 1309-12/14 Janda Bupati Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg dari Gniezno (Polandia)
1309-12 Bupati Glogau dan Sagan (Głogów i Żagań)
1312-14 Bupati Poznan (Posen)
Juga dikenal sebagai Matylda Brunszwicka, ia mengambil alih kabupaten untuk putra-putranya oleh Henryk I (III) dari Głogów: Primko, Henryk IV, Konrad, Jan dan Bolesław. Putri Duke Albrecht dari Braunschweig-Lüneburg, dia juga ibu dari empat anak perempuan Agnieszka, Katarzyna, Jadwiga dan Salomea. Dia tinggal (ca. 1276-1318).

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  1310 (April-Juni) Letnan Ratu Blanche d’Anjou dari Aragón (Spanyol)
Bupati ketika suaminya, Jaime II dari Aragon, adalah pada perang salib di Almeria. Putri Carlos II dari Napoli dan Maria Arpad dari Hungaria, dia ibu dari 10 anak, dan hidup (1280-1310).

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  1310-1313 Co-Berdaulat Putri Alix dari Oroeos (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Narzotto ayahnya memerintah (1247-1264).

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  1310-1322 Co-Berdaulat Putri Maria Oroeos (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Ayahnya, Gaetano memerintah (1264-1280). Kedua Sovereign Putri adalah kerabat jauh.

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  1310-1329 Lady Sovereign Sophia Berhout dari Mechelen (Belgia)
Ahli waris ayahnya, Floris Berhout, Tuhan Mechelen atau Malines (dalam bahasa Perancis) seorang pedagang. Dia adalah gadis terkaya di Eropa dan sangat berpendidikan baik dalam urusan ekonomi dan negara. Dia menikah Reinald, Pangeran dari Gelders dan Züpten (1326-1343) dan membantunya mengelola tanah dan meningkatkan kekayaan. Dia adalah ibu dari empat anak perempuan. dan digantikan oleh tertua, Margaretha (1320-1344).

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  1310-1322 dan 1326-1334 Penguasa Dame María Díaz de Haro I dari Vizcaya (Spanyol)
Ayahnya adalah Señor 7 de Bizkaia, Lopez Díaz de Haro III, meninggal pada 1288 dan digantikan oleh adiknya, Diego López de Haro IV, yang meninggal pada tahun berikutnya. Raja Castilla kemudian merebut seigneurity tersebut. Ia digantikan oleh pamannya, Diego López de Haro II, yang menyatakan ahli waris di 1307. Pada 1322 ia mengundurkan diri demi anaknya, Juan de Haro, dan setelah kematiannya ia menjadi signora sekali lagi. Pada 1334 ia mengundurkan diri mendukung keponakannya, María Díaz de Haro II. Doña María I (w. 1342).

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  1310-37 Putri-Abbess Margaretha aku van Pietersheim dari Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler dan Molenbeersel (Belanda)
Pada 1310 Abbess Margaretha bepergian ke paus di Avignon dan memperoleh posisi kedaulatan Wilayah Gerejawi dari Thorn.

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  Memerintah 1310-1313 Abbess Elisabeth von Goritz dari Königsfelden (Swiss)
Para kepala biara pertama dari Bab Königsfelden dan sekitarnya. Ini diperoleh banyak harta di Aargau, Swabia dan Alsace.

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  Memerintah 1310-1345 Hélissent Abbess I de Noyers dari Abbey Royal Jouarre (Perancis)
Tetapi Perang Seratus Tahun menghancurkan seluruh Brie dan para biarawati terpaksa melarikan diri. Biara dan Menara dibakar dan gereja sebagian jatuh ke dalam reruntuhan. Digantikan oleh keponakan, Hélissent II.

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  1311-1330 Sovereign Yolanda Countess de Dreux dari Montfort (Montfort-L’Amauri (Prancis)
Pengganti ibu, Beatrice de Montfort (1249-1311). Dia menikah dengan suami pertamanya, Alexander III dari Skotlandia, di autum dari 1285, ia meninggal Maret 1286 dan satu bulan kemudian ia melahirkan seorang putra yang masih lahir, dan karenanya Penjaga Kerajaan dipilih cucunya, Margaret, yang Pembantu dari Norwegia sebagai Ratu Skotlandia. Yolanda menikah Arthur II de Bretagne (1262-1312) pada tahun 1292 dan memiliki setidaknya 6 anak-anak dengan dia. Dia digantikan oleh anaknya, Jean II, dan hidup (1263-1330).

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  1311 Janda memerintah Duchess Jeanne de Châtillon of Athens (Yunani)
Suaminya, Gautama V de Brienne berhasil pamannya, Guy aku de la Roche sebagai Duke di 1308 – ibunya, Isabella telah meninggal 1291. Suaminya tewas dalam Pertempuran Halmyros terhadap Perusahaan Catalan. Dia mungkin telah mencoba untuk memegang Acropolis Athena melawan mereka, tapi akhirnya menyerah itu. Dia kembali dengan anaknya Gautama IV ke Prancis, meskipun pengikut-nya terus memiliki Argos dan Nauplia bawah Gauthier de Foucherolles. Pada April 1318, ia dan ayahnya mengirim permohonan kepada Republik Venesia mencari uang dan kapal untuk ksatria dan infanteri untuk Negroponte atau Nauplia. Permintaan, bagaimanapun, adalah menolak, sebagai pengikut Briennist di Yunani telah berpaling kepada Catalans dalam sementara. Tahun berikutnya Namun, Gautama dari Foucherolles masih memuji vessals di Argolid untuk tetap setia untuk dia dan anaknya. Dengan permohonan konstan Raja Napoli, Raja Perancis, dan Paus, dia terus klaim ke Athena hidup untuk anaknya sampai ia cukup umur untuk kampanye untuk hak-haknya di Laut Aegea. Pada bulan Januari 1321, Philip V dari Perancis mediasi gugatan diajukan terhadap dirinya oleh anaknya sendiri, yang menuntut untuk pembayaran utang besar beberapa ayahnya. Dia mempertahankan gelar yg berkenaan dgn duke dia sampai kematiannya. makam nya, di gereja Santo Jacobin di Troyes memiliki prasasti Duchess d’Athènes. Dia adalah putri Gaucher de Porcien, polisi dari Perancis dan (w. 1354).

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  1311-1327 Jacqueline Countess Penguasa de la Roche dari Veligosti dan Damala (Yunani)
Pewaris terakhir keluarga De la Roche yang telah memerintah Kadipaten Athena 1204-1308. Dia adalah putri dan ahli waris dari Renaud de la Roche. 1327 menikah Martino Zaccaria, Tuhan Chios, sebagai istri keduanya. Ketika ia ditangkap dan mengangkut ke Konstantinopel oleh Andronicus III Palaeologus pada 1330, ia dibiarkan bebas dengan anak-anaknya “dan semua yang bisa mereka bawa.” Dia mungkin telah menjadi ibu Bartolommeo, Margrave dari Bodonitsa, dan mungkin ibu dari Centurione Aku, Tuhan Arcadia.

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  1311-1322 Sovereign Marchioness Maria Dalle Carceri dari Bodonitza, Co-ahli waris dari Euboea (Yunani)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Albert Pallavicini, ia berhasil setengah dari marquisate dari Bodonitsa. Sementara dia menghindari mengirimkan azas ke Perusahaan Catalan, ia tidak bisa menghindari membayar upeti tahunan dari empat destriers. Dia adalah keturunan dari keluarga Lombard Verona yang telah datang ke Yunani pada Perang Salib Keempat. Dia membagi warisan dengan putrinya, Gugliema dan menikah Andrea Cornado, Baron dari Skarpanto, yang memerintah bersama-sama dengan dia. Dia adalah anak dari Gaetano Dalle Carceri dan juga ahli waris dari keenam Euboea. Suaminya meninggal tahun setelah dia dan putrinya mewarisi seluruh wilayah. (W. 1322).

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  1311-1358 Marchioness Pallavicini Guglielma Penguasa Bodonitza, Lady of Thermopylae, Co-ahli waris dari Euboea (Yunani)
Kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Wilhelmina. Suksesi dari semua para tuan Latin di Yunani telah diatur pada saat itu oleh ‘Kitab Bea Cukai Kekaisaran Rumania’ dengan mana, warisan terpecah antara janda dan anak perempuan. Ketika suami pertamanya, Bartolomeo Zaccaria meninggal pada 1334, ia menikah Niccolò Zorzi, sesuatu yang memungkinkannya untuk tetap di rumah pada Negroponte dan untuk mendamaikan klaim ke benteng Larmena dengan La Serenissima’s. Mereka terus upeti tahunan empat destriers dibuat untuk Catalans Athena. Perdamaian tidak hadir rumah mereka, namun. Venesia melanjutkan sengketa Larmena dan bahkan meminta arbitrasi juru sita Catherine II, Putri Achaea, yang souzerain hukum Euboea dan Bodonitsa. juru sita memutuskan untuk Venesia. Ini pernikahan tegang, dengan dia menuduh suaminya “pengecut dan bias terhadap Venesia Dia lebih lanjut. Percaya bahwa dia mengabaikan kepentingan anaknya oleh Bartolomeo, Marulla, demi anak sendiri la. Menyelamatkan sejumlah besar uang untuk putrinya, tetapi disimpan di sebuah bank Venesia marchioness itu akhirnya kocok ke kemarahan dengan pelaksanaan nya Manfredo relatif, memerintahkan oleh suaminya.. Sementara eksekusi itu telah hukum, ia mengaduk orang terhadap Zorzi, yang terpaksa melarikan diri untuk Negroponte dan kemudian pergi ke Venesia dan banding ke Senat, yang menuntut kembalinya dia posisinya atau melepaskan harta, yang ia memegang Dia menolak. dan juru sita Negroponte adalah perintah untuk memutuskan semua komunikasi antara Bodonitsa dan Pulau Catalans,. yang semula diminta untuk tetap berada di luar keributan, kini ditekan oleh Venice untuk campur tangan untuk penyelesaian damai, bersama dengan Juana I dari Naples, kepala Angevins, dan Humbert II, Dauphin dari Vienne, maka komandan angkatan laut paus ini gagal, uang Marulla itu disita dan Niccolò kompensasi dari dana. Dia masih menolak untuk mengizinkan masuk kembali suaminya ke pengadilan itu.. Meskipun permohonan dari Paus Clement VI, ia lebih suka mendengarkan nasihat dari Nitardus sendiri nasionalis uskup Thermopylae. Pada tahun 1354, Niccolo akhirnya meninggal dan dia segera diinstal putra tertua mereka, Francis, sebagai co-penguasa Dengan dia berkuasa. sampingnya, dia hubungan baik lagi dengan Venesia dan termasuk dalam perjanjian kemudian ditandatangani dengan Catalans. Dia meninggal pada 1358 dan digantikan oleh Francis dan yang lain dua orang putra, Giacomo dan Niccolò III, juga kemudian memerintah Marquisate tersebut. (w. 1358).

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  1311 Sovereign Baroness Margherita di Savoia dari Karytaena (Yunani)
Marguerite berhasil ibunya, Isabelle II de Villehardouin – Putri Morea dan Akhaya di Karytaena, tapi baron itu diambil alih oleh penguasa baru kerajaan tersebut.

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  1311 … Bersama Berdaulat Baroness dari Chalandritsa (Yunani)
1311 … Bersama Berdaulat Baroness dari Chalandritsa (Yunani)
Dua saudara, yang namanya telah hilang, menggantikan ayah mereka Peter Carker, dan memerintah sebagai raja bersama-sama dengan suami dari anak perempuan muda, Martin Zaccarias (1311-1345).

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  1311-1356 Baroness Berdaulat Niccola Foucherolla dari Naupila (Yunani)
Negara berada di tangan keluarga De La Roche Athena 1212-1311. Dia digantikan oleh Vonna.

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  1312-ca. 16 Janda memerintah Duchess Anastazja dari Dobrzyń (Polandia)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Duke Siemowit, ia menjadi bupati untuk anak-anaknya. Dia adalah putri dari Pangeran Lew dari Halicz (di Ukraina).

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  1312/13-53 Lady Sovereign Mathildis van Wesemaele dari Bergen op Zoom (Belanda)
Menggantikan ayahnya, Arnold. Ibunya Johanna van Loon mungkin bertindak sebagai Bupati pada tahun-tahun pertama. Mathildis menikah Albrecht van Voorne, yang meninggal 1331 dan Reinhoud van Kleef. Putrinya, Johanna van Voorne adalah Dame selama beberapa tahun sampai ia kembali mengambil alih sebagai bupati sampai dia turun tahta demi relatif jauh, Maria van Merksem van Wezemaal dan suaminya, Hendrik I van Boutersem. Mathildis (b. 1310).

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  1313 dan 1316-1331 Penguasa Putri Mathilde d’Avesnes-Hainault dari Akhaya dan Morea, Ratu Tesalonika, (Yunani) Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal (Belgia)
Juga dikenal sebagai Mahaut, ia adalah putri dari Isabelle de Villehardouin, yang telah Putri Akhaya (1289-1307) sampai dia digulingkan. Suami pertamanya, Guido II de la Roche, Duke of Athena, Tuhan de Theben meninggal pada 1308 dan 1313 Philippe d’Anjou-Sisilia, Principe di Tarento, mengalihkan haknya untuk Akhaya padanya, pada kondisi ia dipindahkan mereka untuk kedua suami, Louis de Bourgogne. Dia menolak pernikahan ketiga yang diajukan oleh Philippe di Tarento, tapi dibawa ke Napoli dari Morea dengan paksa dan dipaksa untuk menikah Jean dari Sisilia, Conte di Gravina, tapi pernikahan ini dibatalkan pada 1321 untuk non-penyempurnaan. Dia terus menolak untuk mentransfer hak ke Akhaya kepada suami barunya dan mengajukan banding, tidak berhasil, ke Venesia dan keluarga Burgundy untuk bantuan. Dia dibawa ke Avignon di mana Paus Yohanes XXII memerintahkan dia untuk mematuhi tapi kemudian diakui pernikahan rahasianya dengan Hugo de La Palice. warisan wanita itu disita oleh Raja Robert d’Anjou dari Sisilia untuk melanggar kondisi kontrak perkawinan 1289 dari ibunya, yang diperlukan persetujuan raja untuk pernikahannya. Dia dipenjarakan di dell’Uovo Castell di Naples, dituduh bersekongkol dengan suaminya untuk membunuh raja, dipindahkan ke kastil Aversa di 1328. Sebelum meninggal, dia mewariskan semua hak-haknya secara lisan kepada sepupunya Jaime II Raja Mallorca tetapi dibuat tidak ada bukti. Kakaknya, Marguerite, adalah Lady dari Karytaena dari 1311. Mathilde tidak memiliki anak, dan hidup (1293-1331).

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  Sekitar 1313 Abbess Hedwiga Kuntzlau von memerintah dari Königsfelden (Swiss)
Pikir Abbesses memerintah atas suatu wilayah yang cukup besar, mereka tampaknya tidak menjadi Putri Kekaisaran banyak tidak seperti Abbesses memerintah lainnya.

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  Sampai 1314 Nemanjic Janda Duchess Jelisaveta Bupati Bosnia
Setelah 1283 ia menikah dengan larangan Stjepan Kotroman (meninggal tahun 1314) dari Atas dan Bawah Bosnia. Mereka memiliki enam anak. Bupati Bosnia sampai Apr 1314, setelah itu ia melarikan diri dengan anaknya ke Dubrovnik. Putri Raja Stefan Dragutin Serbia dan Katalin dari Hungaria, dia tinggal (1270-1331).

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  1314-1327 Sovereign Countess Teresa de Entenza dari Urgell, Co-Putri Andorra (Spanyol)
1324-27 Letnan Aragón
Putri pewaris Gombaldo, Baron de Entenza, Bupati selama ilness suaminya, Alfono IV de Aragón, tetapi tidak jelas apakah ia letnan sebelumnya. Tidak ada hak istimewa resmi atau dokumen lain yang menyebut dirinya sebagai letnan dan karena suaminya tidak mampu memerintah dia bertindak lebih sebagai bupati dari letnan. Setelah kematiannya, Alfonso menikah Leonor dari Castilla (1307-1359). Teresa tinggal (1300-1327).

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  1314-1317 Lady Eleanore de Clare of Glamorgan dan Wales (United Kingdom)
Ibunya, Putri Joan dari Inggris, adalah Lady dari dua wilayah sampai 1307. Eleanore tinggal (1292-1337).

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  1314 … Sovereign Countess Guillerma dari Passava (Yunani)
Pengganti suami Nicolas de St Omer.

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  1314-1333 Abbess memerintah Euphemia von Winzer dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
Bab untuk wanita mulia adalah biara yang penting berkaitan erat dengan Obermünster juga terletak di Regensburg, kursi Diet Imperial.

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  1315-1330 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne I de Chalons dari Franche-Comté dan Bourgogne (Prancis)
1329-1330 Berdaulat Countess Artois, Flanders dan Brabant (Perancis dan Belgia)
Dalam Artois, ia dikenal sebagai Jeanne II.

1315-1330 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne I de Chalons dari Franche-Comté dan Bourgogne (Prancis)
1329-1330 Berdaulat Countess Artois, Flanders dan Brabant (Perancis dan Belgia)
Dalam Artois, ia dikenal sebagai Jeanne II. Pengganti: Robert dan menikah dengan Raja Philippe V dari Perancis, yang berhasil naik tahta pada 1316, setelah bertindak sebagai wali bagi almarhum kakaknya’s anumerta lahir putra, Jean I, yang meninggal setelah beberapa bulan. Pada 1314 ia menjadi terlibat dalam skandal mengenai berbagai ekses seksual bersama-sama dengan adiknya, Blanche dan adik ipar Marguerite (The Skandal de Tour de Nesle) dan jatuh dari kasih karunia dan internated di Castle de Dourdan, tetapi dibebaskan segera setelah di pencarian dari suaminya, yang akan kehilangan Franche-Comte yang merupakan bagian dari mas kawinnya jika mereka bercerai. Suaminya meninggal pada 1322 dan digantikan oleh adiknya sebagai Raja. Dia berhasil baik ayahnya, Otto I dari Bourgogne dan ibu, Mahaut d’Artois dan digantikan oleh anak tertua dari lima anak perempuannya, Jeanne II dan III di semua barang miliknya. Dia meninggal karena plauge, dan hidup (1294-1330).

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  1315 … Sovereign Grand Putri Maria Rurikova dari Vitebsk (Belarus)
Memerintah bersama-sama dengan Olgerd, yang Grand Prince 1316-1377 dan tetap di Lithuania dari 1345. Ia digantikan oleh Juliana Rurikova. Maria (d. 1326 belakang.).

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  Baroness 1315 Berdaulat Marguerite Villehardouin dari Akova (Yunani)
Pengganti: Marguerite de Passavas-Neuilly, dan digantikan oleh Izebel Villehardouin.

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  1315-1316 Baroness Berdaulat Izebel Villehardouin dari Akova (Yunani)
Juga dikenal sebagai Isabella, ia berhasil Marguerite Villehardouin. Akova terletak di Daerah Gortyna dari Arcadia.

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  Sampai 1315 Maria Countess Berdaulat I dari The Triarchy Pertama Euboea (Yunani)
Memerintah bersama-sama dengan suaminya, Albert Pallavicini, Marchese dari Boudonitza, yang tewas dalam pertempuran Kephissos Sungai, dekat Thebes pada tahun 1311, dan Andrea Cornaro. Nya keenam pulau Euboea, yang diselenggarakan oleh kanan istrinya, ditangkap pada 1323 dengan terlebih dahulu sepupunya Pietro istrinya Dalle Carceri.

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  1315 Countess Berdaulat Beatrice Pallavizzini The Triarchy Pertama Euboea (Yunani)
Pengganti: Maria I dan memerintah bersama dengan Jean de Maisy.

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  Ca. 1315-1327 Baroness Maria van Sovereign Voeren-Montaigue dari Ravenstein (Belanda)
Menyelenggarakan baron kecil di timur laut provinsi Belanda Brabant, di tepi kiri Maas bersama dengan Jan van Valkenburg-Cleves 1328-1356.

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  1316-17 Bupati dan Kepala Qutlug Menteri Hatun Sah Persia dan Irak
Setelah kematian suaminya, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad Uljaytu (1282-1304-16) Il 8 Khan ia memerintah atas nama putra mereka, l-din Abu Said (1304-1317 ‘Ala al-Dunaya wa’ – 1335). Dinasti telah memerintah Persia, Irak dan Cina sejak Kubilai Khan Mongolia dan Cina menunjuk saudaranya, Halagu (1256-1265) sebagai penguasa sungai-sub. Dengan kematian Abu Sa’id dinasti Il-lkhanid di Iran hampir tiba berakhir.

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  1316 Juara Dawlat Khatun dari Luristan (Persia) (Iran)
Berhasil suaminya, Izz al-Din Muhammad, berdaulat 13 dari dinasti Bani Mongol Kurshid, yang memerintah Luristan di Persia selatan barat. Dia terbukti menjadi administrator miskin, dan karena itu dia turun tahta setelah jangka waktu pendek dalam mendukung-kakak iparnya, Izz al-Din Hassan.

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  1316-1360 Countess Sovereign Beatrix de Bourbon dari Charolais (Perancis)
Putri Jean comte de Charolais, seigneur de Saint-Just dan Jeanne d’Argiès dame et de Calku dan menikah dengan Jean aku comte d’Armagnac, yang meninggal 1373.

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  1316 Bupati Janda Ratu Clémence d’Anjou-Napoli Perancis
Ketika suaminya Louis X (1289-1314-16) meninggal dia hamil, sehingga mustahil untuk mengetahui pengganti Louis sampai saat anaknya lahir. Jika anak seorang putra, ia akan berhasil Louis sebagai raja: memiliki anak menjadi seorang putri, Louis akan digantikan oleh saudaranya Philip V. (Yohanes Jeanne I setengah-adik, sebagai perempuan, tidak bisa berhasil takhta Perancis, dia itu, bagaimanapun, mempertahankan hak dalam suksesi Navarre). Dia Bupati bersama saudara iparnya Philip selama lima bulan yang tersisa sampai kelahiran anaknya, yang ternyata laki-laki. Namun, Jean I, hanya tinggal lima hari digantikan oleh pamannya Philippe V.

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  1316-1321 Berdaulat Countess Beatrix dari Geraki-Nivelet (Greece)
Pengganti suami Jean II.

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  1317-1338 Countess Sovereign Maruella da Verona The Triarchy Kedua Euboea, Karystos dan Aegina (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Juga dikenal sebagai Maria, ia adalah putri dari Bonifacio da Verona, Tuhan Negropont, ia menikah dengan Alfonso Fadrique de Aragon, Count Malta dan Gozzo, Tuhan Salona dan wilayah-wilayah tertentu di Yunani. Dia (d. ca. 1338)

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  1317-1339 Lady Sovereign Margherita Orsini dari Zakinthos (Zante) (Greece)
Pewaris setengah ketuhanan tersebut. Dia menikah Guglielmo II Tocco, Gubernur Corfu 1328. Dia adalah putri dari Giovanni Orsini, Tuhan Leukas dan Count dari Kefalonia dan Maria Komnene Dukaina Angelina dari Epirus. Dia (w. 1339).

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  1317-1328 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Castilla dari Limoges (Prancis)
Menikah dengan Jean I, yang adalah Duke dari Bretagne dari 1312. 1314-1317 saudaranya, Gui VII, adalah menghitung, sampai ia mengambil alih sebagai Countess. Setelah kematiannya, suaminya menghitung lagi, sampai ia berhasil 1341 oleh keponakan, Jeanne, yang telah menggantikan ayahnya (kata Gui VII) sebagai Countess Penthièvre di 1331. Isabella (w. 1328).

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  1317-1358 Mahaut Berdaulat Countess de Châtillon Saint-Pol (Prancis)
Putri Guy I de Châtillon-sur-Marne (1254-1317) dan Marie de Bretagne dan menikah dengan Charles de Valois. Dia adalah ibu dari Marie (1309-1332), Isabelle (1313-1383), Blanche (1317-1348) dan Jean (w. 1344), dan tinggal (1293-1358).

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  1317-1324 Gertrudis Countess-Abbess II von Boventhen dari Gernrode dan Frose (Jerman)
Juga dikenal sebagai Gertrud, dia mengalami perselisihan dengan para bangsawan von Hadmersleben atas gereja-gereja di Ströbeck dan Siestedt, dan dalam rangka untuk memiliki hak-haknya diakui dia harus memberikan hak pelindung di atas gereja Ammendorf sebagai suatu penyewaan. Kesulitan keuangan bab itu begitu besar, bahwa ia tidak mampu membayar “biaya pengakuan” tahunan dari berat 2 perak merek. Dia juga mengalami perselisihan dengan para Pangeran dari Anhalt atas supremasi wilayah.

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  1317-1331 Countess Abbess Sophia II von Buren dari Gandersheim (Jerman)
Warga kota Gandersheim membeli “kebebasan abadi” mereka untuk 100 Silver Mark dari bab di 1329, yang memungkinkan untuk membayar kedalaman nya oleh Paus.

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  Memerintah 1317-1332 Abbess Johanne de Rassenghem dari Bourbourg, Lady dari Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont dan Coutiches (Prancis)
Dimiliki wewenang semi-bishopal dan yurisdiksi sekuler wilayah nya.

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  Countess 1318-63/69 Margarethe von Sovereign Görtz und Tirol, Duchess of Kärnten (Austria)
Juga Putri Bohemia dan dikenal sebagai “Die Maultasch”. Menikah dengan Johan Heinrich von Böhmen von Tirol dan von Mähren dan kemudian untuk Ludwig V dari Bavaria dan Brandenburg. Setelah kematian anaknya Meinhard pada 1363, ia memberikan kepada negara-putri mertuanya, keluarga Margarethe von Habsburg di Austria. Countess Margarethe tinggal (1318-63/69).

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  Sekitar 1318 Marie d’Enghien Burgravine Ghent, Lady dari Zotteghen (Belgia)
Menikah dengan Guy de Dampierre, Tuhan de Richebourg (1286-1345) dan ibu dari Alix, ahli waris de Ricebourg (1322-1346), yang menikah dengan Jean I de Luxembourg, Tuhan de Ligny.

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  1318-28 Putri-Abbess Adelheid von Ühlingen dari Säckingen (Jerman)
Menjabat Kellerin (Yang bertanggung jawab atas ruang bawah tanah) 1316-1318. Anggota keluarga mulia dari Schaffenhausen di Swiss.

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  1318-24 memerintah-Abbess Guta von Bachenstein dari Königsfelden (Swiss)
Anggota dari sebuah keluarga bangsawan Jerman, yang penguasa berbagai wilayah kecil.

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  Duchess 1319-24/30 Janda Bupati Ingebjørg Håkonsdotter dari Södermaland (Swedia)
1319-1326 County Sheriff Halland Norra, Älvsyssel, 5 shires di Västergötland dan Värmland dan Estate Lödöse
1319-23 Bupati Norwegia
1330-50 Bupati Halland Södre
Juga dikenal sebagai Ingeborg, dia anaknya Magnus VII menyatakan raja suksesi ayahnya, Håkon V dari Norwegia, dan memerintah bersama-sama dengan dewan negara. Setelah suaminya, Duke Erik av Södermanland, Östergötland dan Gotland telah meninggal di penjara, dan saudaranya Birger telah digulingkan, ia anaknya terpilih sebagai Raja Swedia pada 1319 dengan Helvig grand-ibunya sebagai bupati di sini (dia pertama kali bupati di 1290). Pada 1321 Ketua Dewan Kabupaten mengundurkan diri dan menyerahkan Negara Seal padanya, yang dia memiliki sampai ketua baru terpilih tahun setelah. Dia Lady (Frue) dalam haknya sendiri dari Vest-Gautland, Nord-Halland dan Värmland di Swedia. Anaknya, Magnus Eriksson VII dari Norwegia adalah raja Norwegia (1318-1355), Swedia (1319-1363) dan Skåne (1332-1360). Putranya, Håkon Norwegia menikah dengan Ratu Margrethe dari Denmark, Norwegia dan Swedia. Ingeborg dijatuhkan sebagai bupati karena pemerintahan despotik nya, tapi terus sebagai wali bagi anak-adiknya Håkon dan Knut Porse di Selatan Halland Dia tinggal (1301-1360).

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  1319-1320 Margravine Janda Bupati Agnes Bayern von Brandenburg (Jerman)
Suaminya, Heinrich saya, memerintah setelah 1293 sampai 1308-1309 dan meninggal 1318. Setelah kematiannya, ia menjadi bupati untuk anak Heinrich II Anak (1319-1320), yang menggantikan sepupunya Waldemar. Pada 1322 Ludwig V dari Bavaria mewarisi Margravate tersebut.

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  132 ..- 29 Putri Sophia Berdaulat Charitena dari Cerigo (Kythera) dan Cerigollo (Pulau Negara-Yunani)
Berhasil suami.

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  1320-1354 politis Berpengaruh Ratu Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene dari Kekaisaran Bizantium (Menutupi yang sekarang Yunani dan Turki)
1348 Yang bertanggung jawab atas Administrasi dan Pertahanan Konstantinopel
1318 ia menikah dengan Jean Cantacuzene, Tuhan Kalliopolis di Thrace. Pada 1320 ia meninggalkan belakangnya di kota Didymoteichou sementara ia mengambil bagian dalam pemberontakan Andronikos III Palaiologos melawan kakeknya, Andronikos II. Dia memegang ford sepanjang perang sipil seluruh yang berlangsung sampai 1238, ketika Andronikos II turun tahta. Juga bertanggung jawab atas pertahanan kota selama perang sipil melawan Anna dari Savoia atas kabupaten di atas anak bayi Anna 1341-43. Jean Kaisar memproklamirkan dan dimahkotai di 1346 oleh Patriark Yerusalem, yang telah mengambil bagian terhadap Anna dan Patriark Konstantinopel, dan tahun berikutnya patriark baru dimahkotai Jean dan Eirene. 1348 dia meninggalkan bertugas Konstantinopel sementara suaminya melanjutkan kampanye melawan Bulgaria. Enam tahun kemudian ia turun tahta dan mereka berdua bergabung dengan biara. Dia adalah cucu dari Tsar Asen Jean II dari Bulgaria dan (w. 1361-1379).

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  1320-1339 politis Ratu Berpengaruh Jadwiga Kaliska Polandia
1334-1339 Duchess Penguasa dari Stary Sacz
Mempengaruhi urusan negara pada masa pemerintahan raja suaminya Władysław I Łokietek dan putranya Kazimierz III yang Agung. putri gadis itu Elzbieta Łokietkówna, Ratu Hungaria dan Bupati Polandia dan Kunegunda, Putri Bupati Swidnica. Dia mengambil alih kabupaten di Stary Sacz saat cucunya, Konstancja z Swidnica, mengundurkan diri untuk menjadi biarawati. Jadwiga adalah putri dari Pangeran Bolesław yang taat dari Małopolska (Polandia Minor) dan Putri Hungaria Jolanta-Helena, dan tinggal (1266-1339).

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  1320-1326 Lady Sovereign Adelheid van Leuven-Gassebeek dari Breda (Belanda)
ayah Pengganti, Philips dan memerintah sebagai raja bersama-sama dengan suami, Gerad van Rasseghem. Pada 1326 Dipertuan itu diduduki oleh Duke of Brabant. Dia tinggal (ca. 1300-1336).

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  1321-1342 Ratu MBAM Wad dari Walo (Senegal)
Yang pertama dari empat Queens berturut-turut, ia diikuti oleh Ratu Fijo Wad.

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  Janda 1321/4-1325 Bupati Duchess Eufrozyna Mazowiecka dari Auschwitz (Oswiecim) (Polandia)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Duke Slesian Władysław dari Cieszyn dan Oswiecim, ia memerintah bersama-sama dengan anaknya Jan aku Scholastyk. Dia adalah putri dari Duke Bolesław II Mazowsze dan Kunegunda, dan hidup (1292-1329).

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  1322-38/39 Putri-Abbess Bertha von Pux dari Goss (Austria) Leoben bei
 
The Abbess dari Bab ini telah menjadi petinggi agama dari Alam di 1242 dan anggota bank para pejabat gereja Swabia dari Alam di Diet Imperial.
 

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  Memerintah 1322-1323 Abbess Adellint dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Hal ini tidak diketahui apakah ia identik dengan di 1313 disebutkan biarawati, Adelling Zimlich atau dengan Ädellint, yang disebutkan dalam 1355.

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  1323-1329 Janda Bupati Loretta Countess von Salm dari Sponheim-Starkenburg (Jerman)
1329 -… Dame dari Frauenberg
Diatur county saja untuk anaknya setelah kematian suami. Dia berhasil mengkonsolidasikan pemerintahan keluarga county dan menciptakan sebuah ekonomi berkembang. Setelah anaknya datang dari usia, ia mundur ke mas kawinnya, di mana dia memiliki kekuatan agung penuh. (B. 1297).

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  1323-1328 Countess Janda Bupati Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern dari Görz (Jerman)
1323-26 dan 1335-38 Bupati Treviso (Italia)
1332-1334 Kapten Jenderal Aquileia dan Administrator Friuli (Italia)
Setelah kematian suaminya yang kedua, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, ia memerintah atas nama anaknya, Johann Heinrich IV, Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). Dia adalah putri dari Duke Stephan I Nieder-Bayern dan Jutta von Schweidnitz, dan hidup (1302-1360).

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  1323-29 Bupati Margravine Janda Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk dari Meissen (Kemudian bagian dari Sachsen) (Jerman)
Memerintah 1329-1359 Janda Lady of Gotha
Ketika suaminya, Friedrich I. von Meissen (1257 -1323) meninggal, ia menjadi bupati untuk putra mereka, Friedrich II. Landgraf von
Thüringen und Markgraf Meissen von (1310-1349). Dia adalah putri dari Elisabeth von Orlamünde dan Tuhan Otto zu Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, yang meninggal ketika dia masih 4 dan setelah siapa ia mewarisi istana dari Arnshaugk bei Neustadt an der Orla, Triptis, dan Oppurg dan tanah di daerah sekitar Schleiz, dan juga ibu dari satu putri, Elisabeth (1306 -1367), yang menikah Heinrich II. von Hessen. Elisabeth von Arnshaugk tinggal (ca. 1284-1359).

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  1323-1329 Abbess memerintah Mechtild Digisheim von dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Anggota keluarga bangsawan, yang dimulai sebagai pegawai negeri sipil di salah satu pengadilan Duchal Jerman (Ministerialadel).

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  1323-41 ahli waris Maria dari Duchies dari Galicia dan Lvov (Polandia)
Pada 1323 dia saudara Andrei dari Galicia dan Volynia dan Lev II Lutsk tewas, dan ia dan keponakannya, Eufemia, ahli waris dari Volynia-Lutsk, mewarisi tanah. Dia adalah putri Raja Yuriy I dari Galicia (1252-1301-08) dan istri keduanya, Eufemia dari Kujavia (d.1308), dan menikah dengan Pangeran Trojden I Masovia (wafat 1341). Kakeknya, Lev, telah raja Galicia 1269-1301 dan ia memindahkan ibukota dari Galich (Halicz) ke kota baru didirikan Lvov / Lwow (Lemberg). Dia tinggal (sebelum-1293-1341)

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  1323-49 ahli waris Eufemia dari Duchies dari Volynia dan Lutsk (Polandia)
Bersama dengan bibinya, Maria, ahli waris dari Galicia-Lvov, dia mewarisi tanah keluarga, setelah ayahnya, Lev II Lutsk, dan saudaranya, Andrei dari Galicia dan Volynia, tewas. Dia menikah dengan Lubart Gediminovich Lithuania (wafat 1384).

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  1324-1351 Sovereign Countess Johanna Rougemont Pfirt von und (Austria)
Putri Count Ulrich von III Pfirt dan Jeanne de Bourgogne, dan ahli waris lahan yang luas di Austria dan dengan demikian menambah kekayaan suaminya, Albrecht von Habsburg, Pangeran dari Pfirt, Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola dan Tirol Selatan (1330-1358). Ia menderita penyakit rematik dan lumpuh sebagian di kali, dan dia yang tersisa bertugas pemerintah pada kesempatan itu dan tetap sangat berpengaruh. Setelah 15 tahun menikah, ia melahirkan anak pertamanya pada usia 39 dan memiliki lima anak-anak lain di 1342, 1346, 1347, dan 1348 dan meninggal dua minggu setelah melahirkan yang terakhir pada usia 51. Dia tinggal (1300-1351).

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  1324/26-47 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont dari Remiremont (Perancis)
Putri Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d’Ariano dan Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay, dan tinggal (ca. 1267-1347).

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  1324-1360 Abbess memerintah Ludgard II von Bicken dari Herford (Jerman)
Versi lain dari namanya Luitgard von Bickenem

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr iwan suwandy 2011
PS.SILAHKAN MELIHAT PROFIL PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA LEBIH LANJUT TAHUN 1325-1350.
 
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THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr iwan suwandy 2011
PS.SILAHKAN MELIHAT PROFIL PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA LEBIH LANJUT TAHUN 1325-1350.

The Rise of Majapahit ‘s War as the First part of Book :” The Majapahit Kingdom During War and Peace” (Perang Saat Berdirinya Kerajaan Majapahit)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

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     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections

                          

             Edited By

               

     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

       special for premium member hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011

___________________________________________ 

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.The Rise of Madjapahit war 1293-1309(Perang Pada saat Majapahit Timbul)

3.The Golden Age of Madjapahit  War(Perang saat Masa Jayanya  Majapahit)Timbul 1309-1389

4.The Declining Of Madjapahit War(Perang Pada Saat Mundurnya Kerajaan Majapahit) 1389-1476

5.The Setting Of Madjapahit War  (Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )1478-1525

_______________________________________________________________

THE MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM DURING WAR AND PEACE PART ONE 1293-1309

 

THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM(TIMBULNYA KERAJAAN MAJAPAHIT)

PREFACE 

Until  this day I have never seen a book about the kingdom of Majapahit which arranged in chronological order with the relevant illustrations, such as coins, ceramics and other artifacts. As an example of a brief article below

Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains,[7] and some details of the history are rather abstract.[8] The main sources used by historians are: the Pararaton (‘Book of Kings’) written in Kawi language and Nagarakertagama in Old Javanese.[9] Pararaton is focused upon Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk after which some events are covered narratively.[8] There are also some inscriptions in Old Javanese and Chinese.

The Javanese sources incorporate some poetic mythological elements, and scholars such as C. C. Berg, a Dutch nationalist, have considered that the entire historical record to be not a record of the past, but a supernatural means by which the future can be determined.[10] Despite Berg’s approach, most scholars do not accept this view, as the historical record corresponds with Chinese materials that could not have had similar intention. The list of rulers and details of the state structure, show no sign of being invented.[8]

Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He visited Majapahit. Zheng He’s translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description about Majapahit and where the king of Java lived.[11] New findings in April 2011, indicate the Majapahit capital was much larger than previously believed after some artifacts were uncovered.[12]

 History

Formation

The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar and the statue is now preserved at National Museum of Indonesia.

After defeating Melayu Kingdom[13] in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the region. Kublai Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and the Emperor of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused to pay the tribute, insulted the Mongol envoy and challenged the Khan instead. As the response, in 1293, Kublai Khan sent a massive expedition of 1,000 ships to Java.

By that time, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. After being pardoned by Jayakatwang with the aid of Madura’s regent, Arya Wiraraja; Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, was given the land of Tarik timberland. He then opened that vast timberland and built a new village there. The village was named Majapahit, which was taken from a fruit name that had bitter taste in that timberland (maja is the fruit name and pahit means bitter). When the Mongolian Yuan army sent by Kublai Khan arrived, Wijaya allied himself with the army to fight against Jayakatwang. Once Jayakatwang was destroyed, Raden Wijaya forced his allies to withdraw from Java by launching a surprise attack.[14] Yuan’s army had to withdraw in confusion as they were in hostile territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds home; otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a hostile island.

In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14] Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.

According to tradition, Wijaya’s son and successor, Jayanegara was notorious for immorality. One of his sinful acts was his desire on taking his own stepsisters as wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or “weak villain”. Approximately during Jayanegara’s reign, the Italian Friar Odoric of Pordenone visited Majapahit court in Java. In AD 1328, Jayanegara was murdered by his doctor, Tanca. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni, was supposed to replace him, but Rajapatni retired from court to become a Bhikkhuni. Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, or known in her formal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni’s auspices. Tribhuwana appointed Gajah Mada as the Prime Minister in 1336. During his inauguration Gajah Mada declared his Sumpah Palapa, revealing his plan to expand Majapahit realm and building an empire. During Tribhuwana’s rule, the Majapahit kingdom grew much larger and became famous in the area. Tribhuwana ruled Majapahit until the death of her mother in AD 1350. She abdicated the throne in favour of her son, Hayam Wuruk.

Golden age

The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as “the golden age” of the archipelago.

The terracotta portrait of Gajah Mada. Collection of Trowulan Museum.

Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in AD 1350–1389. During this period, Majapahit attained its peak with the help of prime minister, Gajah Mada. Under Gajah Mada’s command (AD 1313–1364), Majapahit conquered more territories and become the regional power. According to the book of Nagarakertagama pupuh (canto) XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, and some parts of Philippines islands as under Majapahit realm of power. This source mentioned of Majapahit expansions has marked the greatest extent of Majapahit empire.

Next to launching naval and military expeditions, the expansion of Majapahit Empire also involved diplomacy and alliance. Hayam Wuruk decided, probably for political reasons, to take princess Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) of neighboring Sunda Kingdom as his consort.[15] The Sundanese took this proposal as an alliance agreement. In 1357 the Sunda king and his royal family came to Majapahit, to accompany and marry his daughter with Hayam Wuruk. However Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand Sunda’s submission to Majapahit overlordship. The skirmish between the Sunda royal family and the Majapahit troops on Bubat square were unevitable. Despite the courageous resistance, the royal family were overwhelmed and decimated. Almost whole of the Sundanese royal party were viciously massacred.[16] Tradition mentioned that the heartbroken Princess committed suicide to defend the honour of her country.[17] The Pasunda Bubat tragedy become the main theme of Kidung Sunda, also mentioned in Pararaton, however it was never mentioned in Nagarakretagama.

The Nagarakertagama, written in 1365 depict a sophisticated court with refined taste in art and literature, and a complex system of religious rituals. The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. Local traditions in many parts of Indonesia retain accounts in more or less legendary form from 14th century Majapahit’s power. Majapahit’s direct administration did not extend beyond east Java and Bali, but challenges to Majapahit’s claim to overlordship in outer islands drew forceful responses.[18]

In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada’s death, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang,[4] contributing to the end of the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada’s other renowned general was Adityawarman[citation needed], known for his conquest in Minangkabau.

The nature of the Majapahit empire and its extent is subject to debate. It may have had limited or entirely notional influence over some of the tributary states in included Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia over which of authority was claimed in the Nagarakertagama.[19] Geographical and economic constraints suggest that rather than a regular centralised authority, the outer states were most likely to have been connected mainly by trade connections, which was probably a royal monopoly.[4] It also claimed relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent missions to China.[4]

Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytizers began entering the area.

Sampai hari ini saya belum pernah melihat buku tentang Kerajaan Majapahit yang disusun secara kronologis dengan illustrasi yang terkait seperti koin

,keramik

 , dan artefak lain . Sebagai contoh suatu artikel yang singkat dibawah ini.

Tetap masih sedikit bukti fisik terkait KerajaanMajapahit , [7] dan beberapa rincian sejarah agak abstrak [8] Sumber utama yang digunakan oleh sejarawan adalah: Pararaton (‘Kitab Raja-raja’) ditulis dalam bahasa Kawi dan Nagarakertagama dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno.. [9] Pararaton berfokus pada Ken Arok (pendiri Singhasari) tetapi mencakup beberapa fragmen cerita pendek mengenai terbentuknya Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, adalah sebuah puisi epik tua Jawa ditulis pada masa keemasan Majapahit di bawah pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk setelah beberapa peristiwa dilindungi naratif. [8] Ada juga beberapa prasasti dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno dan Cina.Sumber Jawa menggabungkan beberapa unsur mitologis puitis, dan sarjana seperti CC Berg, seorang nasionalis Belanda, telah mempertimbangkan bahwa seluruh catatan sejarah tidak akan catatan masa lalu, tetapi sebuah sarana supranatural dimana masa depan dapat ditentukan. [10 ] Meskipun pendekatan Berg, kebanyakan sarjana tidak menerima pandangan ini, sebagai catatan sejarah Cina sesuai dengan bahan yang tidak bisa memiliki niat serupa. Daftar penguasa dan rincian struktur negara, tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda yang diciptakan. [8]Laksamana Dinasti Ming Zheng He mengunjungi Majapahit. Zheng penerjemah Ma Huan Dia menulis sebuah deskripsi rinci tentang Majapahit dan di mana raja Jawa tinggal [11] Temuan baru pada bulan April 2011., Menunjukkan modal Majapahit jauh lebih besar dibandingkan sebelumnya percaya setelah beberapa artefak yang ditemukan. [12] Sejarah
PembentukanPatung Harihara, dewa gabungan Siwa dan Wisnu. Itu adalah penggambaran didewakan kamar mayat dari Kertarajasa. Awalnya berlokasi di Candi Simping, Blitar dan patung sekarang diawetkan di Museum Nasional Indonesia.Setelah mengalahkan Kerajaan Melayu [13] di Sumatra pada 1290, Singhasari menjadi kerajaan paling kuat di wilayah ini. Kubilai Khan, Khan Besar Kekaisaran Mongol dan Kaisar Mongol Dinasti Yuan, ditantang Singhasari dengan mengirim utusan menuntut upeti. Kertanegara, penguasa terakhir Singhasari, menolak untuk membayar upeti, menghina utusan Mongol dan menantang Khan sebagai gantinya. Sebagai respon, pada 1293, Kubilai Khan mengirim ekspedisi besar-besaran dari 1.000 kapal ke Jawa.Pada saat itu, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) dari Kediri, sebuah negara bawahan Singhasari, telah merebut dan membunuh Kertanegara. Setelah diampuni oleh Jayakatwang dengan bantuan dari bupati Madura’s, Arya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara anak-in-hukum, diberi tanah hutan Tarik. Dia kemudian membuka tanah hutan yang luas dan membangun sebuah desa baru di sana. Desa itu dinamai Majapahit, yang diambil dari nama buah yang memiliki rasa pahit di hutan yang (maja adalah nama buah dan pahit berarti pahit). Ketika tentara Mongol Yuan dikirim oleh Kubilai Khan tiba, Wijaya bersekutu dengan tentara untuk melawan Jayakatwang. Setelah Jayakatwang dihancurkan, Raden Wijaya memaksa sekutu-sekutunya untuk mundur dari Jawa dengan meluncurkan serangan mendadak tentara [14] Yuan sudah. ​​Untuk menarik dalam kebingungan ketika mereka berada di wilayah bermusuhan. Itu juga kesempatan terakhir mereka untuk menangkap angin monsun rumah, jika tidak, mereka akan harus menunggu selama enam bulan di sebuah pulau yang bermusuhan.Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14] Wijaya dirinya. Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.Menurut tradisi, putra dan penerus Wijaya, Jayanegara itu terkenal imoralitas. Salah satu tindakan berdosa sedang keinginannya pada stepsisters sendiri sebagai istri. Ia berhak Kala Gemet, atau “penjahat lemah”. Sekitar selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, para Pastor Italia Odoric dari Pordenone mengunjungi pengadilan Majapahit di Jawa. Di AD 1328, Jayanegara dibunuh oleh dokternya, Tanca. Ibu tirinya, Gayatri Rajapatni, seharusnya menggantikannya, tetapi Rajapatni pensiun dari pengadilan untuk menjadi bhikkhuni. Rajapatni menunjuk anak perempuannya, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, atau dikenal dalam nama resmi dirinya sebagai Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, sebagai ratu Majapahit di bawah naungan Rajapatni’s. Tribhuwana ditunjuk Gajah Mada sebagai Perdana Menteri di 1336. Selama pelantikannya Gajah Mada menyatakan Sumpah Palapa-nya, mengungkapkan rencananya untuk memperluas wilayah Majapahit dan membangun sebuah imperium. Selama pemerintahan Tribhuwana itu, kerajaan Majapahit berkembang jauh lebih besar dan menjadi terkenal di daerah tersebut. Tribhuwana menguasai Majapahit sampai kematian ibunya pada tahun AD 1350. Dia turun tahta takhta demi anaknya, Hayam Wuruk.Golden usia
The Bidadari anggun Majapahit, Bidadari langit emas dalam gaya Majapahit sempurna menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai “zaman keemasan” Nusantara.
Potret terakota Gajah Mada. Koleksi Museum Trowulan.Hayam Wuruk, juga disebut Rajasanagara, memerintah Majapahit di AD 1350-1389. Selama periode ini, Majapahit mencapai puncaknya dengan bantuan perdana menteri, Gajah Mada. Di bawah komando Gajah Mada’s (AD 1313-1364), Majapahit menaklukkan wilayah lebih dan menjadi kekuatan regional. Menurut kitab Nagarakertagama Pupuh (canto) XIII dan XIV disebutkan beberapa negara bagian di Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, kepulauan Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, New Guinea, dan beberapa bagian pulau Filipina sebagai wilayah Majapahit di bawah kekuasaan. Sumber disebutkan ekspansi Majapahit telah menandai semaksimal kerajaan Majapahit.Next untuk meluncurkan ekspedisi angkatan laut dan militer, perluasan Kerajaan Majapahit juga terlibat diplomasi dan aliansi. Hayam Wuruk memutuskan, mungkin untuk alasan politik, untuk mengambil putri Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) dari tetangga Kerajaan Sunda sebagai permaisuri nya [15]. Orang Sunda mengambil proposal ini sebagai perjanjian aliansi. Pada 1357 raja Sunda dan keluarga kerajaan-Nya datang ke Majapahit, untuk menemani dan menikahi putrinya dengan Hayam Wuruk. Namun Gajah Mada melihat acara ini sebagai kesempatan untuk menuntut penyerahan Sunda ke Majapahit penguasa atasan. Ini pertempuran antara keluarga kerajaan Sunda dan pasukan Majapahit di alun-alun Bubat adalah unevitable. Meskipun perlawanan berani, keluarga kerajaan kewalahan dan hancur. Hampir seluruh pihak kerajaan Sunda yang kejam dibantai. [16] Tradisi menyebutkan bahwa bunuh diri patah hati Putri berkomitmen untuk membela kehormatan negaranya [17] Tragedi Bubat Pasunda menjadi tema utama Kidung Sunda, juga disebutkan dalam Pararaton,. namun tidak pernah disebutkan dalam Nagarakretagama.The Nagarakertagama, yang ditulis pada 1365 menggambarkan pengadilan yang canggih dengan cita rasa halus dalam seni dan sastra, dan sistem yang kompleks ritual keagamaan. Penyair menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai pusat mandala raksasa yang membentang dari New Guinea dan Maluku ke Sumatra dan Semenanjung Melayu. tradisi lokal di banyak bagian Indonesia mempertahankan rekening dalam bentuk yang lebih atau kurang legendaris dari kekuasaan Majapahit abad ke-14. administrasi langsung Majapahit tidak melampaui Jawa Timur dan Bali, tapi tantangan untuk mengklaim Majapahit penguasa atasan di pulau-pulau terluar menarik tanggapan kuat. [18]Pada 1377, beberapa tahun setelah kematian Gajah Mada’s, Majapahit mengirim menghukum serangan laut terhadap pemberontakan di Palembang, [4] memberikan kontribusi ke ujung kerajaan Srivijayan. umum lainnya yang terkenal adalah Gajah Mada Adityawarman [rujukan?], yang dikenal karena penaklukannya di Minangkabau.Sifat dari kerajaan Majapahit dan luasnya adalah subjek untuk diperdebatkan. Ini mungkin memiliki pengaruh yang terbatas atau seluruhnya nosional atas beberapa negara jajahan di termasuk Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan dan Indonesia timur di mana wewenang diklaim dalam Nagarakertagama [19]. Geografis dan kendala ekonomi menunjukkan bahwa lebih dari biasa otoritas terpusat, negara-negara luar yang paling mungkin telah terhubung terutama oleh hubungan perdagangan, yang mungkin sebuah monopoli kerajaan. [4] Ia juga menyatakan hubungan dengan Champa, Kamboja, Siam, Birma bagian selatan, dan Vietnam, dan bahkan mengirim misi ke Cina. [4]Walaupun penguasa Majapahit diperpanjang kekuasaan atas pulau-pulau lain dan menghancurkan kerajaan tetangga, fokus mereka tampaknya telah pengendalian dan mendapatkan bagian yang lebih besar dari perdagangan komersial yang melewati nusantara. Tentang waktu Majapahit didirikan, pedagang Muslim dan proselytizers mulai memasuki daerah tersebut

Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas saya berusaha menyusun suatu buku yang menarik secara kronologis dengan illustarsi yang langka agar lebih menarik untuk dibaca oleh generasi muda yang sudah mulai banyak yang lupa dengan Kerajaan Majaphit yang sangat populer baik didalam maupun diluar negeri.Karya tulis ini masih banyak kekurangnya,oleh karena itu koreksi,saran dan tambahan informasi sangat diharapkan,atas eprhatiannya saya ucapkan terima kasih.

 Jakarta Mei 2011

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

 A.PROLOG

1266

year’s King of the kingdom Singosari Kertanegara have created the  inscription (discovered in 1911 in Pakis Kedu area) which contains writings in  Kawi language Pada tahun ini Raja Kertanegara dari kerajaan Singosari membuat prasasti (ditemukan tahun 1911 di Pakis daerah Kedu) yang berisi tulisan dalam bahasa kawi  1269

In 1269 the king kertanagara make seven pieces of inscriptions found in 1898 on the slopes of Mount Wilis, this inscription dating back to Kertanegara still in power at Singosari Kingdom.

Pada tahun 1269 raja kertanagara membuat 7 keping prasasti yang ditemukan tahun 1898 di lereng gunung Wilis, prasasti ini berasal dari zaman Kertanegara masih berkuasa di singosari.

.

1289

(1) Padang Roco Statue Inscription

Padang Roco Inscription

 

The statue of Amoghapasa on top of the inscription.

The Padang Roco Inscription, in Indonesian Prasasti Padang Roco, is an inscription dated 1286 CE, discovered near the source of Batanghari river, Padangroco temple complex, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

Pagaruyung Kingdom

Main Article: Rumah Gadang

Minangkabau royal seal from
the 19th century.

Pagaruyung (also Pagarruyung and Pagar Ruyung) was the seat of Minangkabau kings, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia.

History

Adityawarman statue in the
National Museum of Indonesia

Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artifacts recovered from Adityawarman’s reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, and it is believed a royal palace was located here.Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats (Rajo Tigo Selo).

An inscribed stone from
Adityawarman’s kingdom

The above information was inaccurate, because according to a report from Prof. Dr. Arlo Griffiths from Ecole institutions’ Francaise D’Extreme-Orient, published in the Jakarta newspaper Kompas, 1 June 2011, are as follows:
Adityawarman has a son named Ananggawarman, padalah according to the reading of Griffith on the inscriptions found in the District Danah Army in 1900, it Ananggawarman ayng emeiliki ana named Aditywarman. Ananggawarman likelihood of having another name that is Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma who is known sebayai Adityawarman father. According to experts from mingkabau Budi, Adityawarman’s mother was a Malay princess named Dara Orange with a father named Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma. Dara Orange is one of the daughters of other Malays who with daughter Dara Petak Malay King submitted that time domiciled in Calendar, western Sumatra, from Singasari, east Java now. Submission melayu daughter was related to the transfer Amongphasa statue to be placed in Dhamasraya of the kingdom under King Kertanegara Singosari in Pamalayu expedition. Later, Dara Petak married to Raden Wijaya (In laws Kertanegara) and then Dara Petak Jaynegara birth who later became king of Majapahit replace Raden wijaya. Also important findings by Griffiths is the mention of the name Melayupura which has been commonly used in archaeological treasures, it turns out after re-read selbai Melayupura. One expert from West Sumatra alone, which is already 18 years Bob served in the BP3 Batusangkar say, a figure known to be King Malay Adityawarman Dhamasraya based watershed Batanghari. The county is now included in West Sumatra region Sijunjung District. According to Budi, Adityawarman who called himself as Sri Maharaja Royal was in power between the years 1347-1375, covering the area that is now called Calendar, flat land, up to Pasaman Sumabr. He added, “so far that has not been widely accepted is the fact bhwqa no direct relationship between Adityawarman with Pagaruyung kingdom which is also located in Tanah Datar. So far Adityawarman always regarded as the founder of the Kingdom Pagaruyung, whereas between Adityawarman and royal Pagaruyung no relationship. arkeologisnya yet discovered facts, at least until today, “said Budi

 
 

PRASATI PADANG ROCO

  

Prasasti Padang Roco, dalam Bahasa Indonesia Prasasti Padang Roco, adalah prasasti 1286 Masehi, ditemukan di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, kompleks candi Padangroco, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Kabupaten Dharmasraya, Sumatra Barat, Indonesia.Prasasti ini ditemukan pada tahun 1911 di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, Padangroco. prasasti ini diukir pada empat sisi dari batu berbentuk persegi panjang disajikan sebagai dasar patung Amoghapasa. Di sisi belakang patung ukiran prasasti disebut prasasti Amoghapasa dari periode kemudian di 1347 CE (NBG 1911: 129, 20e). Prasasti diukir dalam huruf Jawa kuno, menggunakan dua bahasa (bahasa Melayu Kuno dan Sansekerta) (Krom 1912, 1916, Moens 1924; dan Pitono 1966). Saat ini prasasti tersebut disimpan di Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan nomor kode inventaris D.198-6468 (dasar atau bagian prasasti) dan D.198-6469 (bagian patung)
 
.Pada Tahun 1930,Patung tersebut dipindahkan ke Kebun Binatang di Bukittinggi,lihatlah foto ibu saya dan ibu mertua Dr Ronny Handoko ahli kulit terkenal duduk dikaki patung tersebut.
kemudian patung dipindahkan ke Museum Gajag(museum pusat Jakarta),lihatlah kartu pos bergambar yang dieterbitkan Museum tersebut tahun 1940
 
bandingkan dengan foto dibawahn ini dalam posisi berbeda,saya sudah mnelihatnya,dipahanya ada tanda bekas tergeser lama, menurut ceritanya dulu saat patung ada didalam sungai,diperguankan bagian paha tersebut untuk mencuci karena bagian lain tidak kelihatan karena terbenam dalam sungai.(apakah hal ini benar,harap konfirmasi dari para ahli arkeologi Indonesia,)
 
Patung Adityawarman di
Museum Nasional Indonesia
 
Adityawarman diyakini telah mendirikan kerajaan dan memimpin wilayah Sumatera tengah antara 1347 dan 1375, kemungkinan besar mengendalikan perdagangan emas lokal. Beberapa artefak pulih dari pemerintahan Adityawarman’s termasuk jumlah batu yang mengandung prasasti, dan patung. Beberapa item ditemukan di Bukit Gombak, sebuah bukit dekat Pagaruyung modern, dan diyakini sebuah istana kerajaan yang terletak di sini.
 
Informasi diatas ternyata kurang tepat sebab berdasarkan laporan dari Prof Dr Arlo Griffith dari lembaga Ecole’ Francaise D’Extreme-Orient Jakarta yang dimuat dalam surat kabar Kompas,1 juni 2011,adalah sebagai berikut:
Adityawarman memiliki anak bernama Ananggawarman, padalah menurut pembacaan Griffith pada prasasti yang ditemukan di Kabupaten danah Darat  tahun 1900, justru  Ananggawarman ayng emeiliki ana yang bernama Aditywarman. Ananggawarman kemungkina besar memiliki nama lain yaitu Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma yang selama ini diketahui sebayai ayah Adityawarman. Menurut Pakar dari mingkabau Budi, ibunda Adityawarman adalah seorang putri Melayu bernama Dara Jingga dengan ayah bernama Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma. Dara Jingga adalah salah satu putri Melayu yang bersama putri lainya Dara Petak yang diserahkan Raja Melayu waktu itu berkedudukan di Kabupaten Dharmasraya,Sumatera barat, dari Singasari,Jawa timur sekarang. Penyerahan putri melayu itu terkait dengan pengiriman Arca Amongphasa untuk ditempatkan di Dhamasraya dari kerajaan singosari dibawah Raja kertanegara dalam ekspedisi Pamalayu . Kelak, Dara Petak menikah dengan Raden Wijaya(Menantu Kertanegara) dan kemudian Dara Petak melahirkan Jaynegara yang kemudian menjadi raja Majapahit mengantikan Raden wijaya. Selain itu temuan penting oleh Griffiths ialah penyebutan nama Melayupura yang selama ini lazim digunakan dalam khazanah arkeologis, ternyata setelah dibaca ulang selbai Melayupura. Salah sorang pakar dari sumatera barat,yaitu Budi yang sudah 18 tahun bertugas di BP3 Batusangkar mengatakan, sosok Adityawarman diketahui menjadi Raja Melayu Dhamasraya yang berpusat di daerah aliran sungai Batanghari. Wilayah itu kini termasuk dalam kawasan Kabupaten Sijunjung Sumbar. Menurut Budi, Adityawarman yang menyebut dirinya sebagai Sri Maharaja Diraja itu berkuasa antara tahun 1347-1375, meliputi kawasan yang sekarang dinamakan Kabupaten Dharmasraya,Tanah datar, hingga Pasaman Sumabr. Ia menambahkan,”sejauh ini yang belum pernah diterima secara luas ialah fakta bhwqa tidak adanya hubungan langsung antara Adityawarman dengan kerajaan Pagaruyung yang juga berada di Kabupaten Tanah Datar. Sejauh ini Adityawarman selalu dianggap sebagai pendiri Kerajaan Pagaruyung,padahal antara Adityawarman dan kerajaan Pagaruyung tidak ada hubungannya. Belum ditemukan fakta arkeologisnya,setidaknya sampai hari ini”, kata Budi

(2)Pertulisan Kertanegara Pada patung Joko Dolok

 

 Joko Dolog Statue

 
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko Dolog
Arca Joko Dolog
One of the heritage which is also a place that often visit or as tourist attractions. Because of that  Indonesia that is why very importon to  write the information  about one of heritage in the center of Surabaya, precisely in Apsari Park, near Grahadi and Tunjungan Building Plaza, which is in the area Embong Trengguli Road near the school building Petra Christian Junior High 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy is a statue of Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas, called the Holy Land Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG.. Maybe this is not one interesting sights for someone who didnot now history , but it can make a tour to the historian who wants to know the historical developments in Indonesia, especially Java island. From the statue’s why we included Joko Dolog as one international destination on the island of Java, Indonesia. In accordance with the topic of Java Indonesia International Destination.
Holy Land called Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG. There is an inscription on the lapiknya a poem, using the ancient Javanese characters, and the Sanskrit language. In the inscription is mentioned a place called Wurare, so called by the name prasastinya inscription Wurare. Joko Dolog  is known by locals as the “fat boy” or “fat boy”.
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko Dolog
Joko Dolog
Mahasobya Buddha statue is from the Cage Gajak. In 1817 moved to Surabaya by Resident de Salis. Elephant stables area was once a Kedoeng Wulan area, the area under the power of Majapahit. In the Dutch colonial period included in Surabaya residency, while the present including rural areas Bejijong, Trowulan Sub-district, Mojokerto – East Java. There are also saying that this Dolog Joko statue came from Candi Jawi notes related to the Buddha statue is missing Akshobya in the Temple. Mahasobya Buddha statue, made famous by the name of this Dolog Joko, now visited by many people who beg a blessing. But if you see lapiknya, called prasati Wurare, very interesting because it contains some historical data in the past.
 
Arca Joko Dolog
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko DologSalah satu warisan yang juga merupakan tempat yang sering dikunjungi atau sebagai tempat wisata. Karena itu perlu ditulis informasi dari  tentang salah satu warisan di pusat kota Surabaya, tepatnya di Taman Apsari, dekat Grahadi dan Gedung Tunjungan Plaza, yang berada di kawasan Jalan Embong Trengguli dekat gedung sekolah SMP Kristen Petra 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy adalah patung Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – salah satu dari Lima Dhyani Buddha, yang disebut Tanah Suci Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG .. Mungkin ini bukan merupakan salah satu pemandangan yang menarik bagi  pribadi yang tidk mengerti sejarah , tetapi bisa membuat tur ahli sejarah yang ingin mengetahui perkembangan sejarah di Indonesia, khususnya pulau Jawa. Dari patung sebabnya aku termasuk Joko Dolog sebagai salah satu tujuan internasional di pulau Jawa, Indonesia. Sesuai dengan topik Jawa Indonesia Internasional Destination.Holy Tanah disebut Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG. Ada sebuah prasasti di lapiknya puisi, menggunakan karakter Jawa kuno, dan bahasa Sansekerta. Dalam prasasti tersebut disebutkan tempat yang bernama Wurare, sehingga disebut dengan nama prasasti Wurare prasastinya. Joko Dolog ini dikenal oleh penduduk setempat sebagai “fat boy” atau “fat boy”.
 
 

1294

Pertulisan Kertarajasa Gunung Butak Mojokerto

B.THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM 

1292 Tentara Jayakatong Kediri meruntuhkan Tumapel(SingasarI)

1293

  The Mongol (Yuan) invasion of Java in 1293 crushed the Hindu Kingdom of Singhasari, which only recently in 1290 by a victory over Srivijaya had become the foremost political power in the Malay Archipelago. In 1293 the Hindu Majapahit Empire, capital Trowulan, was established; it grew to become the dominant political power in eastern and central Java. According to the Nagarakertagama much of the Malay archipelago was recognizing the suzerainty of Majapahit

1. The Tartar Army Landed At Java Beach which bring the imperial ceramic for the General

Tentara Tartar mendarat Di pantai Pulau Jawa yang membawa keramik kerajaan untuk para jendral.

(1) Prasati indonesia

Landing troops Kublai Khan begins with a poklamation  which states that the purpose of landing soldiers  that Java island  is going to punish premises avenge the insult kepad a Kertanegara Ambassador of China (China) in 1289 due to chopping (tattoos) Mengki face (Men-chi), in accordance international law , proklamation  it is around declaration stating reasons why the weapons removed from the sovereignty violated and declared war.Raden Wijaya run tactics by sending a first ministers (prime minister) of the Majapahit kingdom as his envoy to the Headquarters of the Chinese troops who landed, so Majapajit became companion in arms with the army to overthrow the kingdom of Kublai Kan Jayakatong in Kediri sehngga Tartar army gives recognition to the minister who was sent Wijaya. After the confession were traveling siasast armed conflicts to destroy the power of mid Brantas river flow with the help of foreign armed forces (tartar), and this pekrjaan successful, so after that stay clean majapahit area of ​​influence of Tartars who many times deceived anymore, so finally at the beginning of the year 1294 only there is a power that is in East Java that is Majapahit.Penyusunan powers initially took place within the borders keuasaan Jayakatong, then nexus of power anatar majapahit with Daha decided by way of rebellion took up arms. Tentaraa Pemberontakn with the help of foreigners, who then destroyed as well. There are two events that took place when tenatara Tartar landed on the shore of Java and this incident raises concerns for the study of communication between Asian countries during the 13th century.Ratification of the Majapahit Kingdom can be read in its charter, written on 11 September 1294 (Saka 1216), in which rewarded the village charter Kudadu, when read carefully:(1) The first in when before the king is still named Naraya Sanggramawijaya (2) Series bagimnda has now become king,  as descended guardian  from heaven to earth , (3) Rise of penance became King of Majapahit as mentioned in the inscription Butak: “After the King Jayakatong die face of the earth became bright kembali.Pada saka year-arja 1216nmaka Nara became Queen, and the ruling dipura majapahit, loved (the people) and above all musuhnya.Sebagai king Jaya Seri Baginda called “Queen Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. On 11 September 1294 according to the inscription Butaki, he already holds biseka (ie rajahbiseka = rose nobat be a king) and was named King with the official

Pendaratan tentara Kubilai Khan dimulai dengan suatu poklamasi yang menyatakan bahwa maksud tentara mendarat  kepulau Jawa itu ialah hendak menghukum denga membalas dendam kepad a Kertanegara  yang menghina Duta Tiongkok(Cina)  pada tahun 1289 karena mencacah(mentatto) wajah Mengki(Men-chi) ,sesuai hukuj internasional ,proklamsi ini adaalh pernyataan yang berisi sebab -sebab mengapa senjata diangkat akibat kedaulatan dilanggar dan memaklumkan perang.

Raden Wijaya menjalankan siasat dengan mengirim seorang menteri pertama(perdana Menteri) dari Kerajaan Majapahit sebagai utusannya ke Markas Besar tentara  Tiongkok yang mendarat, sehingga Majapajit menjadi teman seperjuangan dengan Tentara Kublai Kan untuk meruntuhkan kerajaan Jayakatong di Kediri sehngga tentara Tartar memberikan pengakuan kepada menteri yang diutus Wijaya. Setelah pengakuan itu berjalanlah siasast perperangan untuk menghancurkan kekuasaan dipertengahan aliran sungai Brantas dengan bantuan angkatan bersenjata asing (tartar), dan pekrjaan ini berhasil ,sehingga sesudah itu tinggal membersihkan daerah majapahit dari pengaruh Tartar yang sekian kalinya tertipu lagi, sehingga akhirnya pada permulaan tahun 1294 hanya ada satu kekuasaan yang ada di jawa Timur yaitu Majapahit.Penyusunan kekuasaan mula-mula berlangsung didalam perbatasan keuasaan Jayakatong,kemudian perhubungan anatar kekuasaan majapahit dengan DAHA diputuskan dengan jalan pemberontakan mengangkat senjata. Pemberontakn dengan bantuan tentaraa asing,yang kemudian dihancurkan pula. Ada dua peristiwa yang berlangsung ketika tenatara Tartar mendarat dipantai Jawa dan peristiwa ini menimbulkan perhatian bagi orang penelitian perhubungan antar negara asia pada abad 13.

Pengesahan Kerajaan Majapahit dapat dibaca dalam Piagam yang ditulis tanggal 11 September 1294(saka 1216) ,dalam piagam yang menghadiahkan desa Kudadu, bila dibaca secara saksama :

(1)Yang dahulu pada ketika sebelum menjadi raja masih bernama Naraya Sanggramawijaya(2) Seri bagimnda kini telah menjadi raja,sehimngga sebagai turun dari kayangan menjadi eplindung bumi,(3) Naik tobat jadi Prabu Majapahit seperti tersebut dalam prasasti Butak :” Setelah Raja Jayakatong meninggal muka bumi menjadi terang benderang kembali.Pada tahun saka 1216nmaka Nara-arja menjadi Ratu, dan berkuasa dipura majapahit,disayangi(rakyat) dan Jaya atas segala musuhnya.Sebagai raja Seri Baginda bernama “Ratu Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. Pada tanggal 11 September 1294 menurut prasasti Butaki, beliau sudah bergelar biseka(yaitu rajahbiseka=naik nobat jadi raja) dan sudah bernama prabu dengan resmi.

(2)China Source(Dokumen Tiongkok)(a) History of the Yuan Dynasty 1280-1367 book 210

Pada bulan kedua tahun 1292, kaisar mengeluarkan perintah untuk gubernur Fu-Kien, mengarahkan dia untuk mengirim Shi-pi, Ike Mase dan Kau Hsing di perintah tentara untuk menaklukkan Jawa, untuk mengumpulkan tentara dari Fukien, Kiangsi dan Hukuang dengan jumlah 20000, untuk menunjuk Komandan Wing kanan dan salah satu Waktu, serta Empat Komandan Sepuluh Ribu, untuk mengirim seribu kapal serta melengkapi mereka dengan ketentuan selama satu tahun dan dengan empat puluh ribu batang Silver.

Kaisar lebih lanjut memberikan lencana sepuluh harimau, lencana emas dan seratus empat puluh lencana perak bersama-sama dengan sepotong seratus sutra, bordir dengan emas, untuk tujuan merit bermanfaat.

Ketika Ike Mese dan associetes temannya penonton terakhir mereka, kaisar berkata kepada mereka: “Ketika Anda tiba di Jawa Anda jelas harus menyatakan kepada tentara dan rakyat negeri itu, bahwa Pemerintah Kekaisaran telah dulunya punya hubungan  dengan Jawa oleh utusan dari kedua belah pihak dan telah selaras baik dengan itu, tetapi bahwa mereka memiliki akhir-akhir ini memnyayat (codet)  wajah utusan Imperial Me’ng Chi dan bahwa Anda telah datang untuk menghukum mereka untuk itu ”

Pada bulan kesembilan beberapa tentara dikumpulkan pada Chingyuan (nama lama Ning Po), Shi-pi dan Ike Mese pergi dengan tentara darat untuk Chuan-chou (Tjiang Tjioe), sementara Kau Hsing membawa bagasi dengan kapal. Dalam rangka 11 bulan pasukan dari tiga provinsi Fukien, Kiangsi dan Hukuang semua berkumpul di Chuan-Chou dan pada bulan berikutnya ekspedisi menaruh ke laut. Pada bulan pertama tahun 1293 mereka tiba di pulau lan Ko’-(Billiton) dan ada dibahas rencana mereka kampanye.

Pada bulan kedua Ike Mese dan salah satu komandan bawahannya membawa dengan mereka sekretaris dan didampingi oleh tiga petugas dari Kantor Pengamanan, yang dibebankan untuk mengobati Wirth Jawa dan countrtries lain, dan oleh Komandan Sepuluh Ribu, yang memimpin 500 laki-laki dan 10 kapal, masuk terlebih dahulu untuk membawa commandands Kaisar ke negara ini. Tubuh tentara diikuti untuk Karimon (Karimon Jawa) dan dari sini ke sebuah tempat di Jawa disebut tsuh Tu–ping (Tuban) dimana Shi-pi dan Kau Hsing bertemu Ike Mese lagi dan ditentukan, bersama dengan para pemimpin lain, bahwa setengah tentara harus dikirim ke darat dan setengah lainnya proceeed pada saat yang sama di pi-ships.Shih pergi melalui laut ke mulut sungai Sugalu (Sedayu) dan dari sana ke sungai kecil Pa-tsieh (Kali Mas) . Di sisi lain Kau Hsing dan Ike Mese memimpin sisa pasukan, cavalary sedang dan infanteri, dan berbaris dari tsuh Tu-ping-darat (Tuban), salah satu Komandan Sepuluh Ribu memimpin officiers unggul vanguard.Three dikirim di kapal cepat dari Sugalu (Sedayu), dengan perintah untuk pergi dulu ke jembatan mengambang Majapahit dan kemudian bergabung kembali tentara dalam perjalanan ke sungai Pa tsueh kecil (Kali Mas).

Para petugas dari Kantor Pacifications segera melaporkan bahwa anak-dalam-hukum pangeran Jawa, yang disebut Tuhan Pidjaya (Raden Wijaya) ingin membuat negaranya submit, tetapi karena ia tidak bisa meninggalkan pasukannya, orxder diberikan kepada tiga petugas untuk pergi dan membawa perdana menteri nya ch’aya Sih-la-nan-da dan empat belas orang lain, yang ingin datang dan menerima tentara Kaisar.

Pada hari 1 bulan ke-3, pasukan berkumpul di sungai Pa kecil-Tsieh (Kali Mas). Sungai ini telah di udik nya istana raja Tumapan (Tumapel) dan disxcharged dirinya ke laut yang disebut Pou-pa’n (laut Selatan Madura), adalah pintu masuk ke Jawa dan tempat yang mereka bertekad untuk melawan. Oleh menteri pertama dari kuan, Jawa Hi-ning-, tetap dalam sebuah perahu untuk melihat bagaimana peluang untuk melawan pergi, dia Ewas memanggil berulang kali, tapi tidak akan menyerah.

Para komandan tentara kerajaan (Tartar ) membuatbuat sebuah kamp dalam bentuk bulan sabit di tepi sungai dan meninggalkan feri memimpin sebuah komandan  Sepuluh Ribu, armada di sungai dan cavalary dan Infanteri di pantai kemudian maju bersama dan Hining-kuan melihat ini, meninggalkan perahu dan melarikan diri dimana semalam lebih dari seratus kapal-kapal besar, dengan kepala-setan   tertangkap.

 Diperintah agar menyusun  kekuatan yang kuat untuk menjaga muara sungai Pa-Tsieh (Klai Mas) dan Badan pasukan  tentara kemudian maju.

Utusan yang  berasal dari Tuhan Pidjaya (Raden Wijaya), mengatakan bahwa Raja Kalang telah mengejarnya sejauh Majapahit dan meminta pasukan untuk rpotect dia, Ike Mese dan salah satu letnannya bergegas kepadanya, dalam rangka untuk mendorong dia dan petugas lain diikuti dengan tubuh pasukan untuk Chnag-ku, dengan tujuan untuk membantu mereka. Kau Hsing maju ke Majapahit, tapi mendengar bahwa itu tidak diketahui apakah prajurit Kalang jauh atau dekat, jadi ia kembali ke sungai tsueh Pe-(Kalia Mas), akhirnya ia mendapat informasi dari Ike Mese bahwa musuh akan tiba malam itu dan diperintahkan untuk kembali ke Majapait.

Pada hari ke-7 tentara Kalang tiba dari tiga sisi untuk menyerang Tuan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) dan pada hari ke-8, pagi-pagi, Ike Mese parert memimpin pasukan untuk terlibat musuh di selatan-timur dan membunuh beberapa ratusan dari mereka, sementara sisanya lari ke mountains.Towards tengah hari musuh datang juga dari barat-Selatan, Kau Hsing bertemu mereka lagi dan menjelang malam mereka kalah.

Pada tanggal 15 tentara dibagi menjadi tiga badan, dalam rangka untuk menyerang Kalang, disepakati bahwa pada hari ke-19 mereka harus bertemu di Taha (Daha) dan memulai pertempuran di mendengar suara p’au tersebut. Terlepas dari pasukan naik sungai, Ike Mese berjalan dengan jalan eastren dan Kau Hsing mengambil westren itu, sementara Raden Wijaya dengan tentara membawa Facebook rear.On yang ke-19 mereka tiba di Taha mana pangeran dari Kalang membela diri dengan lebih kemudian seorang tentara seratus ribu. Pertempuran berlangsung dari 6 pagi sampai 14:00 dan tiga kali diperbaharui menyerang, ketika musuh dikalahkan dan flef, beberapa ribu memadati ke sungai dan tewas di sana, sedangkan lebih dari 5000 telah disembelih, Raja beristirahat   ke dalam kota, yang segera dikelilingi oleh tentara kita dan raja dipanggil untuk menyerah, pada malam hari raja yang bernama Haji katang (Jayakatong atau Jayakatwang) keluar dari benteng dan menawarkan penyampaian nya, atas perintah kaisar yang dikirim ke dia dan dia diberitahu untuk kembali.

Pada hari ke-2 bulan Tuahn ke Piajaya (Raden Wijaya) dikirim kembali ke kerajaan-nya dalam rangka untuk membuat persiapan untuk mengirim upeti, dua perwira dan 200 prajurit pergi dengan dia sebagai pendamping. Pada Pijaya Tuhan 19 diam-diam meninggalkan tentara kita dan menyerang mereka dengan yang eto seluruh partai cam kesedihan.

Pada hari ke  24 tentara kembali, mengambil isteri  dengan  anak-anak dan petugas Haji katang (Jayakatong), sama sekali lebih dari seratus orang, mereka membawa juga peta negara, register penduduk dan surat dalam tulisan emas disajikan oleh raja.

In the second month of the year 1292 , the emperor issued an order to governor of Fu-kien, directing him to send Shi-pi,Ike Mase and Kau Hsing in command of an army to subdue Java, to collect soldiers from Fukien,Kiangsi and Hukuang to the number of 20000, to appoint a Commander of the right Wing and one of the Left, as well as Four Commander of Ten Thousand, to send out a thousand ships and to equip them with provisions for a year and with forty thousand bars of Silver.

The emperor futher gave ten tiger badges,forty golden badges and a hundred silver badges together with a hundred piece of silk,embroidered with gold , for purpose of rewarding merit.

When Ike Mese and his associetes had their last audience, the emperor said to them :” When you arrive at Java you must clearly proclaim to the army and the people of that country, that the Imperial Government has formerly had intercouse with Java by envoys from both sides and has been in good harmony with it,but that they have lately cut the face of the Imperial envoy Me’ng Ch’i  and that you have come to punish them for that”

In the ninth month some troops were collected at Chingyuan (old name of Ning Po) ,Shi-pi and Ike Mese went with the soldiers overland to Chuan-chou(Tjiang Tjioe),whilst Kau Hsing brought the baggage with ships. In the course of the 11th month the troops from the three province of Fukien,Kiangsi and Hukuang were all assembled at Chuan-Chou and in the next month the expeditions put to the sea. In the first month of the year 1293 they arrived at the island Ko’-lan (Billiton) and there deliberated on their plan of campaign.

In the second month Ike Mese and one of his subordinate commanders taking with them their secretaries and accompanied by three officers of the Office of Pacification, who were charged to treat wirth Java and the other countrtries, and by a Commanders of Ten Thousand, who led 500 men and 10 ships , went first in order to bring the commandands of the Emperor to this country. The body of the army followed to Karimon(Karimon Java) and from here to a place on Java called Tu-ping-tsuh(Tuban) where Shi-pi and Kau Hsing met Ike Mese again and determined, together with the other leaders,that half the army should be sent ashore and the other half proceeed at the same time in the ships.Shih-pi went by sea to the mouth of the river Sugalu(Sedayu) and from there to the small river Pa-tsieh(Kali Mas). On the other hand Kau Hsing and Ike Mese led the rest of the troops,being cavalary and infantry, and marched from Tu-ping-tsuh(Tuban)  overland, one of the Commanders of Ten Thousand leading the vanguard.Three superior officiers were sent in fast boats from Sugalu(Sedayu) , with the order to go first to the floating bridge of Majapahit and then to rejoin the army on its way to the small river Pa-tsueh(Kali Mas) .

The officers of the Office of Pacifications soon reported that the son-in-law of the prince of Java,called Tuhan Pidjaya(Raden Wijaya) wished to make his country submit,but as he could not leave his army, orxder was given to three officers to go and bring his prime minister Sih-la-nan-da ch’aya and fourteen others ,who wanted to come and recieve the army of the Emperor.

On the 1st day of the 3rd month,the troops were assembled at the small river Pa-Tsieh(Kali Mas) . This river has at its upper course the palace of the king of Tumapan(Tumapel) and disxcharged itself into the sea called Pou-pa’n (the sea South of Madura),it is the entrance to Java and a place for which they were determined to fight. Accordingly the first minister of the Javanese ,Hi-ning-kuan, remained in a boat to see how the chances to the fight went, he ewas summoned repeatedly, but would not surrender.

The commanders of the Imperial army made a camp in the form of a crescent on the bank of the river and left the ferry in charge of a Commnder of Ten Thousand, the fleet in the river and the cavalary and Infantry on shore then advanced together and Hining-kuan seeing this, left his boat and fled overnight whereupon more that a hundred large ships,with devil-heads on the stem were captured.

Order was now given tp a strong force to guard the  mouth of the river Pa-Tsieh(Klai Mas)  and the body of the army then advanced.

Messengers came from Tuhan Pidjaya(Raden Wijaya) , telling that the King of Kalang had pursued him as far as Majapahit and asking for troops to rpotect him, Ike Mese and one of his lieutenants hastened to him, in order to encourage him and another officer followed with a body of troops to Chnag-ku, for the purpose of assisting them. Kau Hsing advanced to Majapahit, but heard that it was not known whether the soldiers of Kalang were far or near, so he went back to the river Pe-tsueh(Kalia Mas) , at last he got information from Ike Mese that the enemy would arrive that night and was ordered to again to Majapait.

On the 7th day the soldiers of Kalang arrived from three sides to attack Tuan Pijaya(Raden wijaya) and on the 8th day, early in the morning, Ike Mese led parert of the troops to engage the enemy in the south-east and killed several hundreds of them ,whilst the remainder fled to the mountains.Towards the middle of the day the enemy arrived also from the South-west,Kau Hsing met them again and towards evening they were defeated.

On the 15th the army was divided into three bodies, in order to attack Kalang, it was agreed that on the 19th day they should meet at Taha(Daha) and commence the battle on hearing the sound of the p’au. Apart of the the troops ascended the river,Ike Mese proceeded by the eastren road and Kau Hsing took the westren,whilst Raden Wijaya with his army brought up the rear.On the 19th they arrived at Taha where the prince of Kalang defended himself with more then a hundred thousand  soldier. The battle lasted from 6 AM till 2 PM and three times the attacked was renewed,when the enemy was defeated and flef, several thousand thronged  into the river and perished there,whilst more than 5000 were slain,The King retired into the inner city,which was immediately surrounded by our army and the king summoned to surrender, in the evening the king whose name was Haji Katang(Jayakatong or jayakatwang) came out of the fortress and offered his submission, on the orders of the emperor were delivered to him and he was told to go back.

On the 2nd day of the  th month Tuahn Piajaya(Raden Wijaya) was sent back to his dominions in order to make preparation for sending tribute, two officers and 200 soldiers went with him as an escort. On the 19th Tuhan Pijaya secretly left our soldier and attacked them by which the whole party cam eto a grief.

On the 24th the army went back,taking with it the children and officers of Haji Katang(Jayakatong), altogether more than a hundred persons, they brought also a map of the country, aregister of the population and a letter in golden characters presented by the king.

 (b)Account of Shi-pi.History of Yuan Dynasty book 162

Pada saat itu Jawa dilakukan pada perseteruan lama dengan negara tetangga Kalang, dan raja Jawa, haji Ka-ta-na-ka-la (Kertanegara) nbeen telah dibunuh oleh para pangeran dari Kalang haji disebut katang (Jayakatong atau Jayakatwang ), Anak-in-hukum mantan Tuan Raja Pijaya (Wijaya raden) telah menyerang Haji katang, tapi tidak bisa mengatasinya, ia telah Majapahit sehingga retiredento dan ketika ia mendengar bahwa Shi-pi dengan pasukannya telah tiba, ia mengirim utusan dengan sebuah akun sungai dan xeaports dan peta dari negara Kalang (Kediri), menawarkan submisssion dan meminta bantuan.

Shi-pi kemudian maju dengan seluruh pasukannya, menyerang tentara Kalang dan diarahkan sepenuhnya, di mana Haji katang melarikan diri kembali ke dominons nya. Kau Hsing sekarang berkata: “Meskipun Java telah menyampaikan, masih jika keputusan bertobat dan bersatu dengan Kalang, armynmight kami berada dalam posisi yang sangat sulit dan kita tidak tahu apa yang mungkin terjadi” Shi-pi kemudian membagi pasukannya menjadi tiga bagian. , himsels, Kau Hsing dan Ike Mese mendarat divisi masing-masing dan berbaris untuk menyerang Kalang. Ketika mereka tiba di kota berbenteng Daha, lebih dari seratus ribu prajurit dari Kalang datang foward untuk menahan mereka. Mereka berjuang dari pagi sampai tengah hari, ketika tentara Kalang itu dialihkan dan pensiun ke kota untuk menyelamatkan dirinya sendiri. Tentara Cina mengepung kota dan segera Haji katang datang foward untuk menawarkan pengiriman, istrinya, anak-anaknya dan petugas diambil ny para pemenang yang kemudian kembali.

Tuah n Pijaya (raden wijaya) meminta izin untuk kembali ke negaranya untuk mempersiapkan surat baru diserahkan kepada Kaisar hinese dan untuk mengambil barang berharga miliknya untuk mengirimkan mereka ke pengadilan. Shi-pi dan Ike Mese setuju untuk ini dan mengirim dua perwira dengan 200 laki-laki untuk pergi dengan him.Tuahan Pijaya membunuh dua petugas di perjalanan dan memberontak lagi, setelah itu ia penarikan diri dari keadaan yang wasreturming yhe tentara, untuk menyerang dari kedua sisi. Shi-pi berada di belakang dan terputus dari seluruh tentara, ia terpaksa berjuang jalan untuk 300 li (km) sebelum ia tiba di kapal, akhirnya ia memulai lagi dan mencapai Chuan-chou setelah suatu perjalanan 68 hari. Dari tentara yang lebih dari 3000 orang telah meninggal. perwira kaisar membuat daftar berharga, dupa, perfumeries, textureds, dll yang ia membawa dan menemukan mereka bernilai lebih dari 500.000 tail perak. Dia juga dibawa ke huruf di cgaracters emas dari negara Muli (atau Buli) dengan barang emas dan perak, badak-tanduk, gading, dan hal lainnya. Untuk lebih khusus lihat artikel tentang Kau Hsing dan di Jawa.

Pada rekening-nya telah kehilangan begitu banyak pria, kaisar memerintahkan Shi-pi untuk menerima enam belas kali  cambukan dan menyita sepertiga dari hartanya.Pada tahun 1295, ia dibesarkan lagi ke kantor dan peringatan telah disampaikan kepada Kaisar, menunjukkan bahwa Shi-pi dan gelar yang terkait telah pergi ke laut untuk jarak 25.000 li, telah memimpin pasukan ke negara-negara yang belum pernah dicapai dalam berlangsung memerintah, telah memikat seorang raja dan kagum menjadi tunduk negara-negara tetangga yang lebih kecil, dan bahwa , untuk alasan ini, rahmat harus ditampilkan untuk him.TKaisar  kemudian memulihkian  kembali barang-barangnya yang telah disita dan meningkatkan kariernya  secara bertahap ke peringkat tertinggi, sampai ia meninggal pada usia 86 tahun.

 

At that time Java carried on an old feud with the neighbouring country Kalang, and the king of Java, haji Ka-ta-na-ka-la(Kertanegara) had already nbeen killed by the prince of Kalang called haji Katang(Jayakatong or Jayakatwang) , The son-in-law of the former King Tuan Pijaya(raden Wijaya)  had attacked Haji Katang, but could not overcome him, he had therefore retiredento Majapahit and when he heard that Shi-pi with his army had  arrived, he sent envoy with an account of his rivers and xeaports and a map of the country Kalang(kediri) , offering his submisssion and asking for assistance.

Shi-pi then advanced with all his forces, attacked the army of Kalang and routed it completely, on which Haji Katang fled back to his dominons. Kau Hsing now said:” Though Java has submitted, still if it repents its decision and unites with Kalang , our armynmight be in a very difficult position and we do not know what might happen”.Shi-pi therefore divided his army into three parts, himsels,Kau Hsing and Ike  Mese  each landing a division and marched to attack Kalang. When they arrived at the fortified town Daha, more than a hundred thousand soldier of Kalang came foward to withstand them. They fought from morning till noon, when the army of Kalang was routed and retired into town to save itself. The Chinese army surrounded the town and soon Haji Katang came foward to offer his submission, his wife,his children and officer were taken ny the victors who then back.

Tuan Pijaya(raden wijaya) asked permission to return to his country in order to prepare a new letter of submission  to the chinese Emperor and to take the precious articles in his possession for sending them to court. Shi-pi and Ike Mese consented to this and sent two officers with 200 men to go with him.Tuahan Pijaya killed the two officers on the way and revolted again, after which he availed himself of the circumstance that yhe army wasreturming, to attack it from both sides. Shi-pi was behind and was cut off from the rest of the army, he was obliged to fight his way for 300 li(km)  before he arrived at the ship, at last he embarked again and reached Chuan-chou after a voyage of 68 days.  Of his soldiers more than 3000 men has died. The emperor’s officers made a list of the valuable, incenses,perfumeries,textureds,etc which he brought and found them worth more than 500.000 taels of silver. He also brought to the letter in golden cgaracters from the country Muli(or Buli) with golden and silver articles,rhinoceros -horns , ivory,and other thing. For more particular see the articles on Kau Hsing and on Java.

On account of his having lost so many men, the emperor ordered Shi-pi to recieve seventeen lashes and confiscated a third of his property.In the year 1295 , he was raised again to office and a memorial was presented to the Emperor , pointing out that Shi-pi and his associated  had gone over the sea to a distance of 25.000 li , had led the army to countries which had never been reached in the lasts reigns,had captivated a king and awed into submission the neighbouring smaller countries, and that,for these reasons , mercy should be shown to him.The emepror then restored his goods which has been confiscated and reised him gradually to the highest ranks,until he died at the age of 86 years. 

(c)Account of Kau Hsing.History of the Yuan dynasty book 162

Kau Hsing styled Kung-chi was a man from Ts’ai-chou. When he returned of the fortified town Daha(Taha) , Shi-pi and Ike Mese had already allowed tuhan pijaya(raden Wijaya to go back to his country, but Kau Hsing had taken no part  in this decision, after killef Haji Katang(Jayakatong or Jaya Katwang)  and his son , he return to China.

By on imperial decree  Kau Hsing  rewarde by emperor with 50 tael of gold, he didbnot punished like Shi-pi and Ike Messse because he had taken no part in the decision to allow Tuhan Pijaya (Raden wijaya)  to go back to his own country.

Kau Hsing gaya Kung-chi adalah seorang manusia dari Ts’ai-chou. Ketika ia kembali dari kota dibenteng Daha (Taha), Shi-pi dan Ike Mese sudah mengizinkan Tuhan pijaya (raden Wijaya untuk kembali ke negaranya(keputusan keliru karena raden wijaya meniounya dan membunuh pengawal dari tentara Tartar serta menyerang pasukan Kublaikan yang menimbulkan banyak korban-Dr Iwan)) , tetapi Kau Hsing tidak  ambil bagian dalam keputusan ini, setelah  Haji katang (Jayakatong atau Jaya Katwang) dan anaknya dibunuh , ia kembali ke Cina.

Oleh pada dekrit kaisar Kau Hsing dihargai oleh kaisar dengan 50 tael emas, ia tidak bicara dihukum seperti Shi-pi dan Ike Messse karena ia tidak ambil bagian dalam keputusan untuk mengizinkan Tuhan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) dan setelah selesai bertugas kembali ke tanah airnya .

(d) Account of Ike Mese.History of the Yuan dynasty book 131.

Ike mese was a man from the land of Uigurs.

Ike Messe and Shih-pi had allowed Tuan Pijaya(Raden Wijaya) to go back to his country after returned at the fortified towb Taha(Daha), the wrong decision which made many Kublaikan Soldier died, the empror of china punished him.It became Raden wijaya turn to pay for the srvices which the Mongol army had rendered him , as however, his opponent was dead and the force of his country broken, he did not require these services any more and sought to avoid  his obligations. He therefor pretexted that he had to go back to his capital  i n oder to prepare adequate present for teh  Emperor andthat was why he was aloowed  to depart for this propose , escorted by few Chinese troops. On his way he trew  of the mask. The Chines escort was treacherously massacred and he at once began hostilities against his former allied. By rthis time the Mongol generals had found out how difficult it was to carry on war in these parts, they did not think it advisable to begin a new struggle and taking with them the more important prisoners from Daha and whatever treasure they could collectt, they retunred to their ships and left the island after a stay of about four month,(In Indonesian information that some of the chinese soldier didnot want to beack home because thay afraid to punished by the emperor, and they landed at West Borneo, near Kupang City, at Pawan River, because we found some imperiar Yuan Ceramic here ,may be they stay there, and also teh Majapahit statue also found there  , Buddhist eathenware -gerabah there may be bring by the Majapahit sldiers and Gnenarals or prince, this fact mus be search more -Dr Iwan) 

In the year 1265 he entered the office of the night guard. In the year of 1272 he was s ent by the Emperor across the sea  as an envoy to the kingdom Pa-lo-pei, he come back in 1274 bringing with him people of this country,who carried precious articles and a letter of tribute. The emperor praised him and gave him a golden tiger badge. In the year 1275 he went again to some country and brought back a functionary who offered a famous medicine to the emperor on this occasion he got again most valuable present. In 1277 he became a vice president of the board of war,in 1261 Resident of King-hu and Champa, in 1284  he was sent as envoy to Ceylon, In 1285 after came back from Ceylon he was appointent as resident at the court of the king of Chin-nan. In 1281 he was sent to the kingdom of Mapar, next in 1292  he was appointed as the gouvernor of Chang-Chou which therte he made the army for Fukien with Ike Mese and Kau Hsing  got the command with him.

Ike mese  adalah seorang jendral Mongol yang berasal  dari tanah Uigurs.

Ike Messe dan Shih-pi telah membiarkan Tuan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) untuk kembali ke negaranya setelah kembali di towb yang Taha diperkaya (Daha), keputusan yang salah yang membuat banyak Kublaikan Soldier meninggal, empror dari him.It cina dihukum menjadi Raden wijaya gilirannya untuk membayar srvices yang tentara Mongol telah diberikan kepadanya, seperti Namun, lawannya telah mati dan kekuatan negaranya rusak, ia tidak memerlukan layanan ini lagi dan berusaha untuk menghindari kewajibannya. Dia penyemprot pretexted bahwa ia harus kembali ke ibukota di oder untuk mempersiapkan persembahan, hal ini cukup alsan mengapa  para jendral Tartar   memberi  ia izinkan untuk berangkat , dikawal oleh pasukan Cina sedikit. Dalam perjalanan ia Trew dari topeng. Pengawalan Chines adalah setia dibantai dan ia sekaligus memulai permusuhan terhadap mantan nya bersekutu. Pada saat rthis para jenderal Mongol telah mengetahui betapa sulitnya untuk melakukan perang di daerah ini, mereka tidak berpikir itu dianjurkan untuk memulai sebuah perjuangan baru dan mengambil dengan mereka para tahanan lebih penting dari Daha dan apa saja harta mereka bisa collectt, mereka retunred untuk kapal mereka dan meninggalkan pulau itu setelah tinggal sekitar empat bulan, (Dalam informasi Indonesia yang beberapa didnot prajurit cina ingin beack Thay rumah karena takut dihukum oleh kaisar, dan mereka mendarat di Kalimantan Barat, dekat Kota Kupang , di Sungai Pawan, karena kami menemukan beberapa imperiar Yuan Keramik di sini, mungkin mereka tinggal di sana, dan juga patung Majapahit juga ditemukan di sana, Buddha eathenware-gerabah mungkin ada membawa oleh sldiers Majapahit dan Gnenarals atau pangeran, fakta ini akan mus pencarian yang lebih-Dr Iwan)

Pada tahun 1265 ia masuk kantor penjaga malam. Pada tahun 1272 ia dikirim oleh Kaisar melintasi laut sebagai utusan ke kerajaan Pa-pei-lo, dia datang kembali pada tahun 1274 membawa bersamanya rakyat negeri ini, yang membawa barang berharga dan surat upeti. Kaisar memuji dia dan memberinya lencana emas harimau. Pada tahun 1275 ia pergi lagi ke beberapa negara dan membawa kembali pejabat yang menawarkan obat terkenal untuk kaisar pada kesempatan ini dia kembali hadir paling berharga. Pada 1277 ia menjadi wakil presiden dewan perang, dalam 1261 Resident Raja-hu dan Champa, pada 1284 ia dikirim sebagai utusan ke Sri Lanka, Pada 1285 setelah kembali dari Ceylon ia appointent sebagai penduduk di pelataran raja Chin-nan. Pada 1281 ia dikirim ke kerajaan Mapar, berikutnya pada tahun 1292 ia ditunjuk sebagai gouvernor Chang-Chou yang therte ia membuat tentara untuk Fukien dengan Ike Mese dan Kau Hsing mendapat perintah dengan dia.

 
 

2.Raden wjaya founded Majapahit Kingdom.

1.In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana

Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

2.At saka year 1297, within months Asjwina, on a good day when a full moon, then arrange the powers of government This is the end rakawi which made  people happy under the Majesty (Deca Wardana Prapanca). So in this paradise region tersebutlah the land (Deca)and the  King (narendra), powers that be happy (kadigwijayan) (Dr. iwan notes:the government of the People’s welfare by government sources that are true and correct in compliance with the terms of a complete political organizations, such as praised in the phrase “iti Negarakrtagama Samapta, contains the history of greatness or grandeur Majapahit state)

Pada tahun saka 1297 ,dalam bulan Asjwina,pada hari baik waktu bulan purnama penuh ,maka tamatlah rakawi mengarangkan kekuasaan pemerintah  membahagiakan rakyat dibawah sang prabu (deca wardana prapanca).Maka dalam surga ini tersebutlah anazir daerah tanah(deca) raja(narendra) ,kekuasaan yang berbahagia (kadigwijayan) (catatn Dr iwan: pelaksaaan pemerintahan atas Rakyat  yang sumber sejahtera oleh pemerintah yang benar dan betul tersebut telah memenuhi dengan  lengkaplah syarat-syarat suatu organisasi politik, seperti dipujikan dalam kalimat “iti Negarakertagama samapta ,berisi sejarah kebesaran atau kemegahan negara Majapahit)

1294

(1) Majapahit Faced Challenges

1.The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14]

Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14].

 

Rangalawe Story(Kisah Rangalawe)

(1)Pinten Ing Warsa kaduemanggalan in rat

This is the second part of the first sharp double kidung gesecheiden and the reader in a completely different environmentally moved. Wiajaya the battlefields of the Krtarajasa of the audience hall became combative and companions have become fashionable empire great. Nambi is patih become Wiraraja Aryadhikara and Lawe-Nagara Amanca of Tuban and Adhipati of Dataran. Of the other great empire, the following lists (VII.65-169): Tuan Wiraraja was ready with its preparatory maatragelen come quantile with his troops and with all its seams to Majapahit, Wijaya took himself off in Wirasabha. On the first sitting following Wiraraja audience of the outcome of his efforts to the Emperor of China. He was just so brutal it was the two princesses of Tumapel, who were renowned for her beauty, to offer, which the Chinese had promised to Waicakha Java will come, no deer came out so nicely with Wijaya’s plans. Lawe suggested the army in two groups divide, the one group would be along the northern route go up on the highway, through Linggasana, the other along along the southern route, via Singasari, Siddhabhawana and Lawor, on the same road so, Kebo-Mundarang at the time that had followed. The two groups would meet again Barebeg then take (?). Wiraraja could unite with this plan. Wijaya entrusted Wiraraja in command of the Northern Army and asked him also oderweg messengers to send to the coast to the Chieesen upon their arrival in luicten about the situation, to Wiraraja he added the Majapahitsche mantri’s Jagawastra, Wirasanta, Sura-Sampana and Rara -Sindura. Since Rent Egen, the twins (Singhanuwuk and Singhandaka), Kapal-Acoka, Caritangca, Jajaka-Pidikan, Wiro and Parijata under command of Wijaya the Southern Army Command honor Zoo was agreed and so pass also when to Jaya-Katong message was that he Wijayas and Wiraraja attacked, he called dadelilk his native male’s meeting with them to discuss what to do stand.De King was really the case, shy and under his mantri’s deigde it a twist to come, Tuan Kebo-Rubuh the blame for everything Sagara-Winotan gave, which had provided false information about Majapahit and thereby betrayed had committed against the Koning.Winotan bleediging not let himself this pleasure and drew his sword, but the king knew them came sussen.Plotseling akuwu of Tuban make his debut and he brought the Bricht that Chineesenche Emperor, Taru-Laksana, had arrived with a great army, which has already landed a part in Dataran wqas, and it was rumored that he had come at the instigation of wijatya and Wiraraja. The troops were landed along the coast and had to blaze destroyed Tuban, whose inhabitants had fled in fear, Jaya-Katong realized that there was not postponed worden.Hij Dahasche army he divided into three sections: a Northern Front, with Mahisantaka Bowong to senapati and a Southern Front, Kebo-Mundarang with Pangelet to senapati, or they had to fight. against the Chinese. Wiraraja and Wijaya. Soon the troops marched out, unfavorable omens foretold Jaya Katong-certain defeat (VII 0.18 to 38) 

Ini adalah bagian kedua dari dua kidung yang tajam dan pembaca di lingkungan bergerak geheeel lain. Medan perang Wijaya  dari Krtarajasa dari balairung menjadi agresif dan sahabat telah menjadi kerajaan besar modis. Patih Nambi adalah menjadi Wiraraja Aryadhikara dan Lawe-Nagara Amanca Tuban dan Adhipati dari Dataran. Dari kerajaan besar lainnya, daftar berikut (VII.65-169): Tuan Wiraraja sudah siap dengan persiapan maatragelen berasal kuantil bersama pasukannya dan dengan semua lapisan untuk Majapahit, Wijaya membawa dirinya pergi di Wirasabha. Pada penonton duduk pertama Wiraraja berikut hasil usahanya untuk Kaisar Cina. Dia begitu brutal dia telah Tumapel dua putri, yang terkenal karena kecantikannya, untuk menawarkan, yang Cina telah berjanji untuk Waicakha Java akan datang, tidak ada rusa keluar begitu baik dengan rencana Wijaya. Lawe menyarankan tentara membagi dalam dua kelompok, satu kelompok akan sepanjang jalur utara naik di jalan raya, melalui Linggasana, yang lain sepanjang sepanjang rute selatan, melalui Singasari, Siddhabhawana dan Lawor, di jalan yang sama begitu, Kebo-Mundarang pada waktu yang telah diikuti. Kedua kelompok akan bertemu lagi Barebeg kemudian mengambil (?). Wiraraja bisa bersatu dengan rencana ini. Wijaya dipercayakan Wiraraja dalam komando Angkatan Darat Utara dan menanyakan juga oderweg utusan untuk dikirim ke pantai ke Chieesen pada saat kedatangan mereka di luicten tentang situasi, untuk Wiraraja ia menambahkan Jagawastra, Wirasanta, mantri Majapahitsche’s Sura-Sampana dan Rara -Sindura. Sejak Sewa Egen, si kembar (Singhanuwuk dan Singhandaka), Kapal-Acoka, Caritangca, Jajaka-Pidikan, Wiro dan Parijata bawah komando Wijaya Angkatan Darat kehormatan Komando Selatan Zoo disepakati dan begitu lulus juga saat pesan Jaya-Katong adalah bahwa dia Wijayas dan Wiraraja menyerang, ia memanggil dadelilk pertemuan laki-laki asli-nya dengan mereka untuk membahas apa yang harus dilakukan Raja stand.De benar-benar kasus, pemalu dan di bawah deigde mantri nya itu twist untuk datang, Tuan Kebo-Rubuh menyalahkan untuk segalanya Sagara-Winotan memberi, yang telah memberikan informasi palsu tentang Majapahit dan dengan demikian mengkhianati telah melakukan terhadap bleediging Koning.Winotan tidak membiarkan dirinya kesenangan ini dan menghunus pedangnya, tetapi raja itu tahu mereka datang sussen.Plotseling akuwu Tuban membuat debutnya dan dia membawa Bricht yang Chineesenche Kaisar, Taru-Laksana, telah tiba dengan pasukan besar, yang sudah mendarat bagian dalam wqas Dataran, dan itu desas-desus bahwa dia datang atas prakarsa wijatya dan Wiraraja. Pasukan yang mendarat di sepanjang pantai dan harus nyala hancur Tuban, yang penduduknya telah melarikan diri dalam ketakutan, Jaya-Katong menyadari bahwa tidak ada tentara ditunda worden.Hij Dahasche ia dibagi menjadi tiga bagian: sebuah Front Utara, dengan Mahisantaka Bowong untuk Senapati dan Front Selatan, Kebo-Mundarang dengan Pangelet untuk Senapati, atau mereka harus berjuang. terhadap orang Cina. Wiraraja dan Wijaya. Segera pasukan berbaris keluar, pertanda kurang baik menubuatkan kekalahan Jaya Katong-tertentu (VII ,18-38)

 
and very comprehensive report giving an Strid is a habit of kidungdichter, which we will follow at least not since. gevecten of a mass hero against hero described, of which only a few our particular attention. So being told that Gajah-Pagon, Wiajya that at the time of his flight from Tumapel injured in Pandakan hat left, now back on the srijdtooneel appeared, with the village chief and his son Macan_Kuping Chevrotains-Bang. it was a waste of time for Mother Nature to Gajah-Pagon in the heart of the wilderness back to kanappen, because soon after his comeback joyeuse he was a heroic battle with many opponents afgemaaks. Having Pang was slain by nambi, Mahisa Rubuh-by-Mahisa Wagal. Sora had a very bad moment in a fight and Mundarang Drawalika together, but finally wewrd Mundarang but to flee. This all happened on the South Front, where the army Dahasche ba Mandurang’s flight was utterly defeated. Also on the Osstelijk front achieved the Allies victory after a span fiery battle between Lawe and Sagara-Winotan which Lawe his horse Anda-Wesi on Winotan’s car jumped and finally Winotan on the bank of his own car had slain him so toonend, whatever Madhureezen do konden.terwijl so too the Dahasche army was defeated and the Tropic of Wiajaya and Wiarraja were able to unite, put Kebo-Mundareang, due meanwhile back mantri and troops gathered around and had to the North Front pulled was, standing there, the Javanese and Chinese fearsome losses. When the Majapahit mantris, here’s defeated, it was worthless Chinese people on foot, and it soon began to withdraw. The Chinese leaders were patih’s Jana Pati and Taru-Janaka, are held with some Javaneb, Dahasche the attack the troops, which Katong self-Jaya participated very actively against. In the ensuing battles killed the Chineeche patih and the Javanese mantri’s, so that finally the king of Daha against the Emperor of China came to stand. The outcome of this struggle was that Jaya-Katong was seized and that the Emperor ordered him imprisoned for the time being, he wanted him to surrender and then Wiraraja time for his reward, the two princesses Tumapellsche, vragen.Ook Patih Mundarang had to be at finally give up the struggle, he fled and was chased by Sora in the gorge (or on the plain) Trini-Panti ingehaald.Mundarang asked for their lives and promised his daughter, Sora, but Sora did not doodle ham and entreated, That was In the battle geendigd Wijaya’s advantage (VII 35-111)

 
  
dan laporan yang sangat komprehensif memberikan Strid adalah kebiasaan kidungdichter, yang kita akan mengikuti paling tidak sejak. gevecten seorang pahlawan massa terhadap pahlawan dijelaskan, yang hanya beberapa perhatian khusus kami. Jadi diberitahu bahwa Gajah-Pagon, Wiajya bahwa pada saat terbang dari Tumapel terluka di topi Pandakan kiri, sekarang kembali pada srijdtooneel muncul, dengan kepala desa dan putranya Macan_Kuping Chevrotains-Bang. itu buang-buang waktu untuk Ibu Alam untuk Gajah-Pagon di jantung padang gurun kembali ke kanappen, karena segera setelah joyeuse comeback ia adalah pertempuran heroik dengan afgemaaks banyak lawan. Memiliki Pang dibunuh oleh Nambi, Mahisa Rubuh-oleh-Mahisa Wagal. Sora sempat sangat buruk dalam perkelahian dan Mundarang Drawalika bersama-sama, tapi akhirnya  melarikan diri ke Mandurang . Ini semua terjadi di Front Selatan, di mana tentara Daha benar-benar dikalahkan saat  melarikan diri   ke Mandurang . Juga pada bagian depan sekutu  mencapai kemenangan  setelah pertempuran span berapi-api antara Lawe dan Sagara-Winotan yang Lawe kudanya Andari-Wesi di kendaraan  Winotan melonjak dan akhirnya Winotan di tepi kendaraan  sendiri telah membunuh begitu toonend, apapun orang Madura melakukan  demikian juga sehingga  tentara Daha  dikalahkan dan  Wiajaya dan Wiraraja mampu bersatu, menempatkan Kebo-Mundareang, sedangkan pasukan kembali mantri dan karena berkumpul sekitar dan harus Front menarik Utara itu, berdiri di sana, kerugian yang menakutkan Jawa dan Cina. Ketika mantris Majapahit, inilah dikalahkan, itu adalah orang Tionghoa berharga dengan berjalan kaki, dan segera mulai menarik. Para pemimpin Cina patih’s Jana Pati dan Taru-Janaka, diadakan dengan beberapa Javaneb, serangan pasukan daha ,Partisipasi  perlawanan Jaya Katong sendiri  sangat aktif . Dalam pertempuran berikutnya membunuh patihTionghoa  dan mantri Jawa, sehingga akhirnya raja Daha terhadap Kaisar Cina datang untuk berdiri. Hasil dari perjuangan ini adalah bahwa Jaya-Katong ditangkap dan bahwa Kaisar memerintahkan dia dipenjarakan untuk sementara waktu, ia ingin dia untuk menyerah dan kemudian waktu Wiraraja untuk upahnya diminta  dua putri Tumapel , kendatipun  Akhirnyna Pejuang Patih Mundarang  harus  menyerah , ia melarikan diri dan dikejar oleh Sora di ngarai (atau di dataran) Trini-Panti ingehaald.Mundarang meminta kehidupan mereka dan berjanji menyerahkan putrinya Sora, namun Sora tidak setuju dengan permohonan  Itu , Dalam pertempuran geendigd keunggulan Wijaya (VII 35-111)
 
In the himself  time was around the time of the Service Master troops that were sent earlier to the Nusantara, who had been successful, and brought Grost treasures, testimonials of vanquished princes, returned home. Their leader was given the title name Mahisa-Anabrang Ooki and other mantri’s. omderscheiden who had been elevated in rank and otherwise rewarded. Of the two princesses, who came along to Majapahit, married the eldest, Jinggå-dara, with a dewa, tewrwijl the youngest-Dara Petak, the third wife of Wijaya was Wiraraja not returned back to Madura, he established itself in Tuban and given the name Aryadhikara. PanjiWijayakrama was gehuidig ​​as monarch and his kingdom was blessed by the priests, he was a prince wereldbeheerschend, spared by the Nusantara (VII, 147-155)

 
Dalam Dirinya sendiri  saat itu sekitar waktu pasukan Pelayan Pemimpin  yang dikirim sebelumnya ke Nusantara, yang telah berhasil, dan membawa banyak harta , testimonial para pangeran kalah,  kembali ke rumah. Pemimpin mereka diberi judul nama Mahisa-Anabrang Ooki dan lainnya mantri’s. omderscheiden yang telah meningkat pada peringkat dan sebaliknya dihargai. Dari dua putri, yang datang ke Majapahit, menikah, tertua Jingga-dara, dengan dewa yang, tewrwijl para-bungsu Dara Petak, istri ketiga Wijaya Wiraraja tidak kembali ke Madura, ia mendirikan sendiri di Tuban dan diberi nama Aryadhikara. PanjiWijayakrama adalah gehuidig ​​sebagai raja dan kerajaannya diberkati oleh imam, ia adalah seorang wereldbeheerschend pangeran, terhindar oleh Nusantara (VII, 147-155)

 

(2) RANGGA LAWE

Ing Ing Pinte’n Warsa Kadurmangallan Rat. With these words, the second part of the double kidung focus of the first separated and d elezer moved in an entirely different environment. The Wijaya of the battlefields, the Krtarajasa of the audience hall now, and the difficult struggle for dignified companions werworden great empire. Nambi is patih become Wiraraja Aryadhikare and Lawe-Nagara amnfica of Ruban and adhipati of Dataran. Of the other great empire, the following lists (VII 165-169)

Ing Ing Pinte’n Tikus Warsa Kadurmangallan. Dengan kata-kata ini, bagian kedua dari fokus kidung ganda pertama dipisahkan dan d elezer bergerak dalam suatu lingkungan yang sama sekali berbeda. The Wijaya dari medan perang, yang Krtarajasa dari balairung sekarang, dan perjuangan sulit bagi rekan yang bermartabat werworden kerajaan besar. Patih Nambi adalah menjadi Wiraraja Aryadhikare dan Lawe-Nagara amnfica dari Ruban dan adhipati dari Dataran. Dari kerajaan besar lainnya, daftar berikut (VII 165-169)

ZANG VIII

NOW IT WAS RANGGA Lawe AGAINST CASES IS NOT HE OR SORA BUT NAMBI MANGKU-Bhumi BECAME: HE FELT THAT, WHICH IS THE WAR THE MEET DESERVING HAD ALSO THE FIRST TIME FOR COATING HOOGE POSITIONS ACCOUNT HAD COME.

Convinced him that the prince did this injustice, though in other things he had shown his favor, he once went to Majapahit to audience of Tuban and had soon occasion to show his discontent. First he broke Nambi, who are now in peacetime played the great lord, but in war the Lawe had had affairs refurbishing. Then he tried to make demands for Sora, which reach a protesteerde.Ten Finally he spat on his hole and all challenged Nambi into a showdown, how, when and where Nambi wanted. Nambi was violently angry, and just today the hero of the prince prevented him Lawe to answer, as he wanted. Also Kebo-Anabrang could only with difficulty restrain his anger. Sat konig the case with the severely confused. The hofkapelaan (Brahmaraja) Lawe tried to reason and found while most mantri’s consent. Lawe but remained angry at his own bravery and bluster continued on asfgeven Nambi, when he and Sora were not there, how soon would it be done with Majapahit! When was Kebo-Anabrang himself no longer, walked off deigend on Lawe, and defied him but once his men to call and show what he could. Lawe stood up and withdrew without pamit, while on their thighs hit. He went to the bale scared, close to the Pasir-Pasiran, hung his clothes on a boomtsk and was waiting Nambi (VIII 1-41)

Lawe’s departure after the raadpleedde konig Sora omtent against the Lawe to follow the geragslijn.Maar Sora strongly advised him to make sense, because in the first place would be a precedent, and second, it would be a recognition that the other’s mantri, Nambi, Kebo-Anabrang and himself, who nevertheless were able Lawe under the dune was asked what their attitude in this case was the me’esten the arches, but all admitted that he was wrong and had the cheeky gehanded.Nambi raade konig in any case not to act hastily, and Kebo-Anabrang and the others agreed with him (VIII 1941-1949)

SEKARANG TERHADAP KASUS  RANGA LAWE BUKAN DIA ATAU SORA TETAPI  YANG MENJADI  MANGKU-BHUMI ADALAH BUKAN NAMBI  : DIA YANG DIRASAKAN PANTAS MERAIH POSISI LAPISAN ATAS KARENA   IA YANG PERTAMA KALI  PERANG 

Untuk Meyakinkannya bahwa penunjukan pangeran itu  adalah tidak adil, meskipun dalam hal-hal ini yang  lainnya   telah berusaha  menyejukkan hati, ia harus segera  pergi ke Majapahit dari Tuban  untuk menunjukkan ketidakpuasan nya. NAMBI Pertama dia patah , yang sekarang di masa damai bermain tuan besar, tetapi dalam perang Lawe punya merenovasi urusan. Lalu ia mencoba untuk membuat tuntutan untuk Sora, yang mencapai protes. Akhirnya ia meludah di lubang dan  Nambi menantang ke pertarungan, bagaimana, kapan dan di mana Nambi inginkan. Nambi sangat marah , dan hanya hari ini para pangeran pahlawan mencegah dia agar tuntutan  Lawe  dijawab, seperti yang diinginkannya. Juga Kebo-Anabrang hanya bisa dengan susah payah menahan kemarahannya. Hal ini membuat Raja  sangat bingung. Kepala Vihara (Brahmaraja) Lawe mencoba untuk mecari  alasan dan ditemukan pada saat persetujuan dari kebanyakan  mantri. Lawe tapi tetap marah pada keberaniannya sendiri dan nambi  marah-marah terus  , ketika ia dan Sora itu tidak ada, bagaimana hal itu akan segera dilakukan dengan Majapahit! Kapan-Kebo Anabrang  berjalan pergi kepada Lawe, dan menantang dia tapi sekali anak buahnya untuk memanggil dan menunjukkan apa yang dia bisa. Lawe berdiri dan pergi tanpa pamit, sementara di paha mereka hit. Dia takut  pergi ke bale , dekat dengan Pasir-Pasiran, menggantungkan pakaiannya di atas gantungan dan menunggu Nambi (VIII 1-41)

keberangkatan Lawe’s setelah raadpleedde Konig omtent Sora terhadap Lawe untuk mengikuti Sora geragslijn.Maar sangat anjurnya  masuk akal, karena di tempat pertama akan menjadi preseden, dan kedua, itu akan menjadi pengakuan bahwa mantri lain, Nambi, Kebo-Anabrang dan dirinya sendiri, yang tetap berada Lawe bertahan dalam gundukan itu ditanya apa sikap mereka dalam hal ini adalah me’esten lengkungan, tapi semua mengakui bahwa dia salah dan memiliki raade gehanded.Nambi cheek Raja  dalam hal apapun untuk tidak bertindak tergesa-gesa, dan Kebo-Anabrang dan yang lainnya setuju dengan dia (VIII 1941-1949)

 ZANG IX

 After the audience’s mantri remained together in the carangcang Kawat. There ontsatond after a time a nervous mood, since he was rumored that Lawe, who are still on the bale was scared, wanted to run amuck on the puri. Sora took the view that Nambi, for whom this conflict had arisen, with zigzag charge of the arrangements are agreed to moest.Nambi risking his life for the vorat and Kebo-Anabrang wanted to go there but pull . Pmandana held them back, and pointed out that it was not so desirable to seal the craton to provoke a fight. Singhacardula gave finally the best advice that Sora, Lawe’s best friend, to him was going to try to convince him peaceably away gaan.Sora went and Pangrupak, Sad0-Bhaya and Tanjek-Areneng have him as a guide added (IX 1-11)

Lawe was alarmed when he saw them coming Sora, he stopped everything to small store, which came oder his reach, and asked him to kill Sora, now so far had come with him. Sora is not wanted, Lawe exhorted to think of the past, the many favors that he had received the Prince and told him quietly to Tuban and returning the case to his father to leggen.Tewn Finally he succeeded Lawe so moving.

A funny interlude, a sce’ne, which would be in a banolan lakon. Parangpak that first great boasted had his heroism, thirst, the conversation between Sora and Lawe not just around the corner to watch, when Lawe him sarcatisch asked if he could sent out was to kill him, and him uitnoodigde it’s getting closer to recover, his heart sank into the shoes and thirst he did not even reply, so Tanjek_Areneng even the word for him to do

Lawe LEFT THE KRATON, ZOO GREAT THREAT THAT MANY OF THE FRIGHTENING TO HIT THE HEART AND MANY CONSIDERED THAT YOU HAVE HAD Lawe PREFER untouched, because the evil consequences were not inevitable. The alarm was beaten but kuta and troops were called on to go belegeren.Tosan Tuban, Kidang-Galatik, Siddhi, Cek Muringang and Kala-Bang-Curing Lawe joined in, besides the whole Noordhoek Mbang Lor. (XI 11 – 36)

When the rumor spread themselves Tuban, Tuban LWam to the Lawe, was Adhikara (Wiraraja) tegenmoet.Al him soon he saw that his son something was wrong, and inquired about the reason there van.Toen Lawe him everything had told him more silent hij.Zijn son was dear to the king, but he had an open eye for the difficulties which now awaited Lawe, and advised him to prefer not to act recklessly and zig to abide by its obligations as a citizen, there was heavy penalty of treason in the hereafter and in the Weser births. Lawe felt that his father was right, but his pride prevented him now to back out and confront his father, the onbetemelijk for heroes was to depart, when danger loomed. it went for him for his rep [utatie that he and Sora the bravest hero of Mjapahit region was high houden.Zijn goal was not even now zig heroic deeds or rights to mitigate the prince, he just wanted to sacrifice his life in future existences the position to preserve that he had.Zijn father, who saw nutttelooze further argue, Lawe had now been further ahead but go, although he was sorry that his son hit his advice in the wind (IX, 36-54) 
Lawe cried his native male’s together: but his mantri’s pura, Garangang and Tambak-Wisti (T_Bhaya) came from the Akuwu and the mantri’s Tuban on; Dhemang WiraPramoda, Tumengung Wyaghranggarit, Gelap_Angampar, Prabhongcara the nghabehi, Jaga Rudi (t) Tameng-Gita, Wira-Prabhongcara, Anapak-Bhaya, Sawung-Indra, Salam Dhemang WiraPrahara, rangga Suranggana, Jaran-Pikatan, rangga Dadali the kanuruhan, tumenggung Katiga-Barat, Gereh-Kasapta, rangga Sapu-Jagat, tumenggung Puspalaya, Dhemang Wulung-Rat, and Lang Lang-Bhuwånå. They all promise him faithfully even unto death will be, and the general desire was that the Nambi Majapahitsche troops could aanvoren, because then he would lusten.Nadat Lawe of the usual dispenser provisions (of clothes) was held, he returned to home needed to prepare to go to take the expected hostilities (IX 0.54 to 70) 
In Tambak-Beras, on the eastern bank of the river to the quantitative measures between between the forces of the Majapahit Nambi and supporters of Lawe. Tuban they had to reach the river, but could not because it just came flooding was.Zoo that Nambi who chased them with a great force majeure, overtook and attacked them there. In the battle, which follow and which the outcome had no other choice than a destruction of the followers of Laqwe, fell to the Majapahit side Medang, while the other group Siddhi and chitosan were killed, Kala Bang Muringang seriously wounded fled and thus only Kidang-Gelatik overbleef.Toen it from all sides into a corner and with broken arms, by Jaran-wahan would be attacked, Nambi took this back and asked for their lives and offered his submission to. Jaran-wahan suggested that one Gelatik would give an opportunity to show that he sincerely believed by him to contribute his two wounded comrades Kelabang gun and go kill Muringang. Indeed Gelatik Nambi gave that command and Gelatik accepted them. He went to his two comrades, exhausted and bleeding on the stones were, leaning against a panda tree, surrounded by their troops, which were hurt When they come konigde Gelatik them, that he desire for self-preservation had undertaken them dooden.Kelabang Muringang and he thought well, gave up their swords and let themselves with perfect indolence death.Hun men fled in Tuban and swim across the river drowned many. The troops of Majapahit were, at sunset when the tide arose, without any difficulty to cross the river (IX 0.70 to 91)The next morning was to Tuban known that Lawe’ Majapahit’s  friends at Tambak-Beras (here Wosi T) are outdated and were slain, and that the enemy crossed the river was. Garangangan Tambak and went Bhaya-impart the message to Lawe, who thereupon ordered all ready to come out (IX.101-104)
 
 Versi Indonesia:

Setelah audiensi ,mantri tetap bersama di Kawat carangcang. Ada ontsatond setelah waktu suasana hati yang gelisah, karena ia adalah desas-desus bahwa Lawe, yang masih di bale takut, ingin lari mengamuk di puri. Sora mengambil pandangan bahwa Nambi, untuk siapa konflik ini telah muncul, dengan zigzag bertanggung jawab atas pengaturan yang setuju untuk moest.Nambi mempertaruhkan nyawanya untuk vorat dan Kebo-Anabrang ingin pergi ke sana tetapi menarik . Pamandana menahan mereka kembali, dan menunjukkan bahwa itu tidak begitu diinginkan untuk menutup Kraton untuk memprovokasi perkelahian. Singhacardula akhirnya memberi nasihat terbaik yang Sora, Lawe sahabat terbaik, dia akan mencoba meyakinkan dia untuk pergi damai .Sora pergi dan Pangrupak, Sad0-Bhaya dan Tanjek-Areneng memiliki dia sebagai panduan tambah (IX 1-11)

Lawe terkejut ketika melihat mereka datang Sora, ia berhenti di toko kecil  segalanya , yang datang perintah sesuai  jangkauannya, dan memintanya untuk membunuh Sora, sekarang jadi jauh telah datang dengan dia. Sora tidak diinginkan, Lawe mendesak untuk memikirkan masa lalu, banyak nikmat yang ia telah terima dari  Pangeran dan menyuruhnya diam-diam ke Tuban dan menyampaikan  kasus kepada ayahnya untuk dimaklumi .Akhirnya ia berhasil MENGERAKAN Lawe

Sebuah selingan lucu, sebuah sce’ne, yang akan berada dalam lakon banolan. Parangpak yang pertama yang membual telah kepahlawanan nya, haus, percakapan antara Sora dan Lawe bukan hanya sekitar hal yang  menonton, ketika Lawe   bertanya secara sakarstik , apakah ia bisa dikirim keluar untuk membunuh dia, dan dia uitnoodigde itu semakin dekat untuk memulihkan,Bahkan  dia tak menjawab karena hatinya kering dan  tenggelam dalam sepatu dan haus ,  bahkan Tanjek_Areneng  berkata padanya  ,apa yang dia harus  lakukaN.

LAWE  MENINGGALKAN   KRATON, HATINYA TAKUT ATAS  ANCAMAN BESAR DAN BANYAK DIANGGAP TERSENTUH BAHWA IA TELAH MEMILIH  , karena akibat buruk tidak terhindarkan.

 Alarm dipukuli tetapi kuta dan pasukan yang dipanggil untuk pergi Tuban .Tosan, Kidang-Galatik, Siddhi, Cek Muringang dan Kala-Bang-BERGABUNG DENGAN LAWE, selain Mbang  seluruh PENJURU UTARA  Lor (XI 11. – 36)

Ketika rumor menyebar dengan sendirinya di  Tuban, sampai ke Lawe bahwa  Adhikara (Wiraraja) tegenmoet. Segera ia melihat bahwa sesuatu yang salah pada anaknya, dan bertanya tentang alasan van.Toen segalanya ada Lawe dia telah mengatakan kepadanya anak hij.Zijn lebih diam adalah sayang kepada raja, tetapi ia memiliki mata terbuka untuk kesulitan yang sekarang ditunggu Lawe, dan menyarankan dia untuk memilih untuk tidak bertindak sembarangan dan zig mematuhi nya kewajiban sebagai warga negara, ada hukuman berat pengkhianatan di akhirat dan di kelahiran Weser. Lawe merasa bahwa ayahnya benar, tapi harga dirinya dicegah dia sekarang untuk mundur dan menghadapi ayahnya, onbetemelijk untuk pahlawan adalah untuk berangkat, ketika bahaya menjulang Ia pergi. bagi dia untuk reputasinya , bahwa tujuannya ialah  ia dan Sora adalah  pahlawan paling berani di daerah Majapahit .Bahkan  tingginya  tidak seperti sekarang dengan  perbuatan heroik atau hak untuk mengurangi pangeran, ia hanya ingin mengorbankan hidupnya dalam masa keberadaannya posisi untuk mempertahankan bahwa ia had. ayahnya , yang melihat nutttelooze lebih lanjut berpendapat, Lawe kini telah lebih jauh ke depan, tetapi pergi, meskipun ia menyesal bahwa anaknya memperlakukan sarannya seperti  pukulan  angin saja (IX, 36-54)

Serunya Lawe bersama-sama   laki-laki asli : tapi mantri nya dipura, Garangang dan Tambak-Wisti (T_Bhaya) datang dari akuwu dan mantri’s Tuban ; Dhemang WiraPramoda, Tumengung Wyaghranggarit, Gelap_Angampar, Prabhongcara nghabehi itu, Jaga Rudi (t) Tameng-Gita, Wira-Prabhongcara, Anapak-Bhaya, Sawung-Indra, Salam Dhemang WiraPrahara, rangga Suranggana, Jaran-Pikatan, rangga Dadali kanuruhan itu, Tumenggung Katiga-Barat, Gereh-Kasapta, rangga Sapu-Jagat, Tumenggung Puspalaya, Dhemang Wulung-Tikus, dan Lang Lang-Bhuwana. Mereka semua berjanji dengan akan setia bahkan sampai mati , dan keinginan umum adalah bahwa pasukan Nambi dari Majapahit bisa aanvoren, karena dengan begitu ia akan lusten.Nadat Lawe ketentuan dispenser biasa (pakaian) diadakan, ia kembali ke rumah yang dibutuhkan untuk mempersiapkan diri untuk pergi untuk mengambil permusuhan yang diharapkan (IX,54-70)

Pada Tambak-Beras, di tepi timur sungai untuk secara kuantitatif antara antara pasukan Nambi Majapahit dan pendukung Lawe. Tuban mereka harus mencapai sungai, tapi tidak bisa karena hanya datang banjir was.Zoo bahwa Nambi yang mengejar mereka dengan force majeure besar, menyalip dan menyerang mereka di sana. Dalam pertempuran, yang mengikuti dan yang hasilnya tidak memiliki pilihan lain dari penghancuran pengikut Laqwe, jatuh ke sisi Medang Majapahit, sementara kelompok lain Siddhi dan kitosan tewas, Kala Bang Muringang luka parah melarikan diri dan dengan demikian hanya Kidang-Gelatik overbleef.Toen dari semua pihak ke sudut dan dengan lengan yang patah, oleh Jaran-wahan akan diserang, Nambi mengambil kembali ini dan meminta kehidupan mereka dan menawarkan pengiriman ke. Jaran-wahan menyarankan bahwa satu Gelatik akan memberikan kesempatan untuk menunjukkan bahwa ia tulus dipercaya oleh dia untuk memberikan kontribusi dua sahabat terluka Kelabang pistol dan pergi membunuh Muringang. Memang Gelatik Nambi memberi perintah itu dan Gelatik menerima mereka. Dia pergi ke dua sahabat, kelelahan dan pendarahan pada batu itu, bersandar pohon panda, dikelilingi oleh pasukan mereka, yang terluka Ketika mereka datang konigde Gelatik mereka, bahwa ia keinginan untuk pemeliharaan diri telah dilakukan mereka dooden.Kelabang Muringang dan dia berpikir dengan baik, pedang mereka menyerah dan membiarkan diri mereka dengan laki-laki dooden.Hun kelambanan sempurna melarikan diri di Tuban dan berenang menyeberangi sungai tenggelam banyak. Pasukan Majapahit itu, saat matahari terbenam ketika pasang timbul, tanpa kesulitan untuk menyeberangi sungai (IX ,70-91)

Keesokan paginya adalah Tuban diketahui bahwa teman-teman  Lawe dari Majapahi berada  di Tambak-Beras (di sini Wosi T) sudah ketinggalan jaman dan dibunuh, dan bahwa musuh menyeberangi sungai itu. Garangangan Tambak dan pergi Bhaya-menyampaikan pesan ke Lawe, yang kemudian memerintahkan semua siap untuk keluar (IX.101-104)

ZANG X

Lawe HERSELF SAYING GOODBYE TO HIS TWO WIFES, MRTARAGA (AMRTARAGA AMPRTAWATI) AND TIRTHAWATI, AND FOR GOOD.

In sinoms is now told of the despair and the wails of women and of Lawe’s attempts to appease them to sterken.Mrtaraga begged him not to leave anyway, because she had that night get  a dream. They both were in her dream Lawe went into the garden to pick flowers and had picked the flowers in a kortje done. Suddenly there was a crow perched on, the kortje had fallen, the flowers were fallen  and consumed to ashes. Lawe now knew that his death was inevitable. Nevertheless he was not influenced by the dream, nor its subsequent lamentations. Finally, let the women out Lawe calm, they were reconciled to her fate and decided Lawe, he could die in the death zollegen follow. Lawe then went to toilet, and when he had finished, he took leave of his wives and ordered his son-Kuda Afijampyani, Dena rmen​​, now his father would forever be left in her love. The boy began to huit, when he saw his mother so sad, when a IFIA Tirthawati to order him to the palace of his grandfather to bring. Father, so are soothed the boy, his appearance make him the king of Majapahit, when he returned, he would bring him a little golden carriage, drawn by the Kuda Sembrani, the flying horse. So let it kindf to spawn, and Ina took him away. For the last time exchanged Lawe and women can Sirihpruim. Repeatedly he kissed heathen. Then he went away, slowly and conspicuously always looking back, decayed with compassion at the sight of his wives and burdened by love (X 0.1 to 31)

VERSI INDONESIA

Lawe SENDIRI PERIBAHASA GOODBYE ATAS DUA ISTERINYA, MRTARAGA (AMRTARAGA AMPRTAWATI) DAN TIRTHAWATI, DAN UNTUK BAIK.

Dalam sinomstropen sekarang menceritakan keputusasaan dan meraung perempuan dan upaya Lawe untuk menenangkan mereka untuk sterken.Mrtaraga memohon tidak meninggalkan pula, karena dia punya mimpi  malam. Mereka berdua dalam mimpinya Lawe pergi ke taman untuk memetik bunga dan telah memilih bunga dalam kortje dilakukan. Tiba-tiba ada burung gagak bertengger dan  kortje telah jatuh, bunga-bunga itu juga jatuh  dan dikonsumsi untuk abu. Lawe sekarang tahu bahwa kematiannya tak terhindarkan. Namun demikian ia tidak dipengaruhi oleh mimpi itu, atau keluhan berikutnya. Akhirnya, membiarkan wanita keluar tenang Lawe, mereka telah dirujuk ke nasib dan memutuskan Lawe, ia bisa mati dalam kematian zollegen ikuti. Lawe kemudian pergi ke toilet, dan ketika dia telah selesai, ia meninggalkan istri-istrinya dan memerintahkan anak-Kuda nya Afijampyani,  ​​Dena, sekarang ayahnya selamanya akan tertinggal di mencintainya. Anak itu mulai huit, ketika ia melihat ibunya begitu sedih, ketika Tirthawati IFIA untuk memesan dia ke istana kakeknya untuk membawa. Bapa, begitu juga ditenangkan anak itu, penampilannya membuat dia raja Majapahit, ketika ia kembali, ia akan membawa dia  emas kereta yang kecil , ditarik oleh Kuda Sembrani, kuda terbang. Jadi biarkan  untuk bertelur, dan Ina membawanya pergi. Untuk terakhir kalinya ditukar Lawe dan perempuan dapat Sirihpruim. Berulang kali dia mencium kafir. Kemudian ia pergi, perlahan dan mencolok selalu melihat ke belakang, dan membusuk dengan belas kasihan saat melihat istri-istrinya  dibebani oleh kasih (X ,1-31)

 

ZANG XI.

De talrijke tweegevechten, die de tekst uitvoerig vermeldt, kunnen we hier overslaan. Lawe reed vechtend over het slagveld rond zijn paard Nilambara. Toen de koning hem daar zag, week zijn toorn en werd hij neerslachtig , daar hij bedacht, welk zwaar verlies Majapahit zou lijden door Lawe’s dood; dam zou ook hem hel leven niets meer waard zijn. Niettemin gaf hij Sora verlof, op diens verzoek, om Lawe te bestrijden. Sora organiseerde den strijd aldus; Kebo Anabrang in het Oosten,Gagak Carkara in het Westen en Mayang Mekar in het Noorden. De beslissende strijd werd gestreden tusschen Lawe en K_Anabrang. Lang streden ze met elkaar. een oogenblik was het, alsof K_Anabrang het verliezen zou; zijn paard werd onder hem gedood en hij viel op den grond.Tevergeefs probeerde hij Lawe’s paard te krissen en Lawe zelf voordeel geen goed gebruik,want ze raakten toen weer een poosje van elkaar gescheiden. Voor den tweeden keer ontmoetten ze elkaar aan den oever van de rivier.K_Anabrang stond in het water en verfrischte zich na de hitte van den strijd. Zonder zich te bedenken sprong Lawe ook in het water zijn tegenstander daar te bestrijden.Eerst wist Lawe K_Anabrang onder water te duwen,maar deze kon ten slotte weer overeind komen en doodde Lawe’s paard.Lawe sprong op een rots en vocht in het water staande verder.Maar in dezen waterstrijd was K-Anabrang de meerdere en na veel moeite wist hij Lawe te dooden.Op dat oogenblik kwan Sora aanrijden,en toen hij zag, wat er gebeurd was,doodle hij op zijn beurt K_Anabrang, meegesleept door zijn toorn(XI,170-234)

 Their commander with spiritual passion and with various expressions of militancy. Lawe set them up in the battle “with gapendem crocodile jaws. ” At the moment of departure came one of Lawe’s fathers, kyayi Ge’ng Palandongan ing, another scrub trying to move him from his intention to abandon, but Lawe stuck to his decision. Soon after leaving they met the Majapahit troops, a wild fight broke out, which many dead vielen.Het climax of the battle he was fighting between Lawe, seated on his stridros Megha-Lamat, and Nambi, Nambi which conquered and put to flight werd.Toen were hunted Majapahittters defeated and chased back across the river, where many tengelam(verdronken).Lawe she would have gone Tambak Be’ras-chase, but his comrades ontrieden him because he would be in hostile territory, and moreover Not all troops Mjapahitsche hatched waren.Lawe concurred. When night fell and the fight moost provisionally discontinued (XI 0.1-67)

Told then that the next morning in Majapahit audience was. Had just Sora reported that the troops a victory had to Tambak-Osi (T. Wosi, T_beras), the river had gone and at that moment might Tuban already reach had when Hangsa Terik bin nine was worn and the unfavorable state of unreported . The king was angry and wanted to raise them immediately Tuban vermoesten, but Sora and Ke’bo Anabrang allowed to advise it on the ground that the troops were too tired. The king vowed that if Lawe was not slain, himself a jungle of Majapahit would maken.Daarop he sent Kalangerak, Setan Kobar, Butangasag Juru_Ptakoca go  and the fleeing troops back to collect for the state to take in information and win for the enemy. With 800 men they went to Majapahit  road.Intusschen were provisions for a second campaign. With 10,000 men marched on the king himself. When they arrived on the plain Wirakrama waren.Their  reported that a large part of the Majapahit troops first expedition was still found across various villages, where they had fled, and the Tuba troops were ready to resume the struggle (XI 0.67 to 121)

The numerous duels, the text mentions in detail, we can skip. Lawe fighting rode his horse around on the battlefield Nilambara. When the king saw him, his wrath week and was depressed because he invented, which would suffer heavy losses Majapahit Lawe’s death, his dam would also no longer worth living hell. Nevertheless he gave Sora leave, at his request, to Lawe combat. Sora battle so organized, Kebo Anabrang in the East, Gagak Carkara Mayang each other in the West and in the North. The decisive battle was fought between Lawe and K_Anabrang. Long competed with each other. one moment it was as if K_Anabrang would lose, his horse was slain under him and he fell to the grond.Tevergeefs he tried Lawe Lawe’s horse daggers and benefit themselves not a good use, because a while back when they were separated. For the second time they met on the banks of the rivier.K_Anabrang stood in the water and refreshed after the heat of battle. Without thinking Lawe also jumped into the water as his opponent managed to bestrijden.Fisrt  Lawe K_Anabrang underwater to push, but it could finally come up again and killed Lawe’s paard.Lawe jumped on a rock and fluid in the water standing on . But in this water fight was the K-Anabrang more and after much effort he managed to Lawe dooden.Op that moment Sora kwan drove, and when he saw what had happened, he doodle K_Anabrang in turn, carried away by his anger (XI 0.170 to 234)

 

Versi Indonesia:

Daerah tropis komandan mereka disambut dengan gairah spiritual dan dengan berbagai ekspresi militansi. Lawe mengaturnya dalam pertempuran “dengan rahang buaya gapendem.” Pada saat keberangkatan datang salah satu bapak Lawe’s, kyayi Ge’ng ing Palandongan, gosok lain mencoba untuk memindahkan dia dari niatnya untuk meninggalkan, tetapi Lawe menempel keputusannya. Segera setelah meninggalkan mereka bertemu pasukan Majapahit, pertempuran pecah liar, yang banyak klimaks vielen.Het mati peperangan dia pertempuran antara Lawe, duduk di stridros nya Megha-Lamat, dan Nambi, Nambi yang menaklukkan dan dihukum penerbangan werd.Toen diburu Majapahittters dikalahkan dan mengejar kembali menyeberangi sungai, di mana banyak verdronken.Lawe dia akan pergi Tambak Be’ras-mengejar, tapi rekan-rekannya ontrieden dia karena dia akan berada di wilayah bermusuhan, dan terlebih lagi Tidak semua waren.Lawe pasukan Mjapahitsche menetas setuju. Ketika malam tiba dan memerangi moost dihentikan sementara (XI 0,1-67)

 Diceritakan kemudian bahwa pagi berikutnya di penonton Majapahit. Baru saja Sora melaporkan bahwa pasukan kemenangan harus Tambak-Osi (T. Wosi, T_beras), sungai telah pergi dan pada saat yang mungkin Tuban sudah mencapai miliki ketika Hangsa bin Terik sembilan dipakai dan keadaan yang tidak menguntungkan dari tidak dilaporkan . Raja marah dan ingin membesarkan mereka segera vermoesten Tuban, namun Sora dan Ke’bo Anabrang diizinkan untuk memberikan saran itu dengan alasan bahwa pasukan terlalu lelah. Raja Lawe bersumpah bahwa jika tidak dibunuh, dirinya sebagai hutan Majapahit akan maken.Daarop dia mengirim Kalangerak, Setan Kobar, Butangasag uiy Juru_Ptakoca dan pasukan melarikan diri kembali untuk mengumpulkan bagi negara untuk menerima informasi dan menang musuh. Dengan 800 laki-laki mereka pergi ke weg.Intusschen Majapahit adalah ketentuan untuk kampanye kedua. Dengan 10.000 orang berbaris pada raja sendiri. Ketika mereka tiba di dataran Wirakrama waren.Zij melaporkan bahwa sebagian besar pasukan Majapahit ekspedisi pertama masih ditemukan di berbagai desa, di mana mereka telah melarikan diri, dan pasukan Tuban siap untuk melanjutkan perjuangan (XI,67-121)
Teks secara detail menyebutkan bahwa kita akan melalui banyak duel.  Lawe mengendarai kudanya bertempur  di medan perang Nilambara. Ketika raja melihatnya, ia  murka dan merasa tertekan karena ia ikut menciptakan Majapahit , dan Majapahit yang akan menderita kerugian besar  atas kematian  Lawe, bendungan itu akan juga tidak lagi layak hidup dalam neraka . Namun demikian ia  atas permintaan  meninggalkan Sora, untuk Lawe bertempur.
Begitu Sora mengorganisir  pertempuran , Kebo Anabrang di Timur, Gagak Carkara Mayang sama lain di Barat dan di Utara. Pertempuran yang menentukan terjadi antara Lawe dan K_Anabrang. Mereka  bersaing satu sama lain. satu saat itu seolah-olah K_Anabrang akan kehilangan, kudanya terbunuh di bawah dan dia jatuh ketanah .Tevergeefs ia mencoba belati kuda Lawe Lawe dan keuntungan sendiri bukan menggunakan baik, karena beberapa waktu lalu ketika mereka dipisahkan. Untuk kedua kalinya mereka bertemu di tepi sungai .K_Anabrang berdiri dalam air dan segar setelah panas pertempuran. Tanpa berpikir Lawe juga melompat ke dalam air sebagai lawannya berhasil bestrijden.Eerst Lawe K_Anabrang bawah air untuk mendorong, tapi akhirnya bisa datang lagi dan membunuh paard.Lawe melonjak di atas batu dan cairan dalam air berdiri Tapi dalam perang air. adalah K-Anabrang lebih dan setelah banyak usaha ia berhasil Lawe dooden.Op saat kwan Sora mengemudi, dan ketika ia melihat apa yang terjadi, ia doodle K_Anabrang pada gilirannya, pergi jauh terbawa oleh amarahnya (XI,170-234)
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ZANG XII,ZANG XIII AND ZANG  XIV ONLY FOR PREMIUMEMBER , IF YOU NEED THE COMPLETE INFORMATION PLEASE SUBSCRIBE TO BE PRMIUM MEMBER VIA COMMENT(Dr IWAN )
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BUTAK INSCRIPTION


•Mpu Prapanca have writiing in Negarakertagama book in1365 bahwa Majapahit about Majapahit from Butak Inscriptions 1294.

This inscription contains the history of how the collapse of empire and how Wijaya forming Singasari Majapahit kingdom was written in the emakai chronicle prassati 1294. This paper trays dinamakn Mount Butak charter, because it was found that name dicelah mountain, located south west of the town of Mojokerto or poor. So when the charter was written in the memories of all who suffered in the years 1292-1293 are still diinagt by sipendengar.Sebagian of the text has been copied by Dr. Brandes kedealam belands language, such as being read in the book Pararaton pages 94-100. The translation is as follows:

A. AD Year: 1294

Selamatlah! at saka tahubn 1216, in Badrapada, on five months of being down, on the day Harjang, Umanis, sjanesjcara (according to days and weeks five, six and seven) at the time Madankungan, when the stars still shining moon disebellah southeast diperumahan Rohini with the Hiang Prajapati as eplindungnya and entered the circle mandala Mahendra, when Joga Siddhi and at Weraja, protected as a protective perbulanan Jama, on the day because the named Tetila and starred in when the virgin constellations.

B. Edict PRABU

then in command of the Series went down that day the king, that is the only king who can be praised highly bersifatnkepahlawanan, king of a very noble and brave, which destroy the enemy-mus bertentara great kings, who snagat diberkatai and have the disposition, energy, kindness, smartness and a sense of responsibility, the ruler of the region Jawadiwipa, protector of all rights of good people, a derivative family which stores Sari Narasimha rights obligations of countries, son of Narasimha sebading derivatives; happy married daughter in-law because Labour and the title as king Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya Rakrian it is accepted by all three ministers of the three Katrini mahamenteri, Ino, pestle and Sirikan. Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang” ae=”meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and emnetri zSirikan> Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously in the middle of  war-center jobs meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and menteri Sirikan Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously ditenagh war-center jobs , rakrian menterui mus in the region of desolation and the bersemanagt nusnatara hard, named Aria Adikara. rakrian ministers preceded by the supreme head of all the heroes who gain the trust of friends, and have compassion for all people, named Aria Wiraraja, which presumably can dianamkan Baginda Seri Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya

ISIH Edict

The command of His Majesty Maharaja is derived for the benefit of the hovel bernua Kudadu as darma area named Kle’me, a decision which stamped king Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu and in copper, that are stored by the village head Kudadu, which will define freedom Swatantra hovel continent Kudadu , therefore has dijadsikan check by Series king, together with the fields above and dibaruh, mountains and valleys, and shall cease to be part Le’me darma area, for designation Kudadu village chief, to be held down temruun until extended to the cucnya, either now or ternus again incessantly.

CAUSE ANUGRAH

As for the cause it is the behavior Kudau village headman who once gave a place to hide carefully to the Majesty the King, when he became king and still have not named Naraja sanggrawijaya, on when he was in trouble heading Kudadu. hunted by the enemy by being chased in a state like berfikut: Seri Baginda Kertanegara former Maharaja became King and meninggakan the mortal world and entered the world an immortal in sjiwabudalaya when he was attacked by a series Jayakatong king of the rings with an enemy force as a shameful thing to do and treason to friends and violate perseujuan, because the king wished XSeri undermine the bersemayan Kertanegara Tumapel.Setelah known in the state of an army bahea Series Jayakatong king had to de Jasun Wungkal, then send Sei Kertanegara Majesty Majesty (The King now) and Ardaraja against Sri Sire Jayakatong. The Ardaraja and series Majesty King-in-law both adalh Series Kertnegara king, but as became known Ardaraja is also the son of the king Jayakatong Series.

After Sri king Prabu and Ardaraja leave Tumapel and until Kedung Hug, then Sei Bagindalah the very first meeting with musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda fighting, and msusuhpun defeated and fled, with a big defeat.

After that then the army moved into the valley Seri Baginda, but there has not encountered the enemy. After that keep moving towards the West, from the valley to the bars, and the front of the king Sei meet again with some of the enemy, who withdrew without fighting back. After meliwati Trunk, lalyu Majesty came to Pulungan, the king’s army to fight anymore Series Kapulungan west and defeat the enemy, and running in a really difficult situation with the suffering losses. large. Demikinalah circumstances, when the army Seri Baginda forward again and get to Rabut nozzle, while not how long the enemy came from the west, then Sei King fought with all the power and tenataranya, the enemy fled after receiving heavy losses, and it seems as if running for ever . But in such circumstances, the state of the east Hanyiru stump melambailambaikan enemy flag, red and white flag, and when I saw the stump was then Ardaraja then holstered his gun, apply a very embarrassing and ran towards Kapulungan with malicious intent. Therefore the army musnahlah Sei king, but tetapetia Majesty the king Kertanegara series, which is why the series King lived in Rabut Carat, and after that the next go-apajeg Pamwatan northward toward the north side of Sungei.

Sei Banginda the part at that time there were about six hundred oramng. (Soul). The next day after sunrise, the enemy came following a series baginda.tentara Seri Baginda backwards to meet them and he broke away, but even so the army has been greatly reduced Seri Baginda, kiarena already there who ran to hide himself and left him, sehimngga anxiety arises without a weapon nothing. Afterwards Majesty negotiate with those who are in Him. According pedapatnya Eggplant he should go to in order to negotiate with it there akuwu., Rakrian Wuru Agraja name who was appointed by King Kertanegara Kuwu, so he was willing to assist Series Banginda gather all the people on the Northeast Terung.Semuanya agree with it, and after day night, then Sei Majesty through KUlawan anxious lest the enemy followed very much.

In KUlawan meet again with the enemy, he was chased by them, but to escape by going towards the north, so if possible will run to the Flower essence, there tetapijuga meet again with the enemy is chasing him and when it alrilah he shared with them all the existing , seceapt besarf as possible across the river moving towards north. When it multiply that sank and others were hunted by the enemy and killed with spears, and who can be helped run divorced kegelaa temapt apart. Seri Baginda who lived only a dozen people.

Seri Baginda accident is very great indeed, but when he reached the village Kududu village, the headman was received with earnest heart and feel sorry for Beals, such as providing food and beverages as well as rice, and the Seri Baginda provided a hiding place and tried to correct for king ZSeri goal is reached, so belaiau orang.apabila do not find the enemy looking for him. After that he was shown the way and diiringkan until kedaerah Apex, in order to rid themselves Sei king to the island of Madura as he wanted.

So the first time the Series was brought to the king-Kudadu in difficult circumstances, and village heads were really true force and received the king with pity Beals, and the circumstances that cause liver gratitude aksih in his soul.

Seri Baginda (now) become king, so  earth’s guardian who descended from Heaven, so therefore fitting yourmajesty  repay good and made happy the people who have done good to him.

And so on (keswatentaraan, Money Indigenous, Perwatasan Kudadu, Prohibition, Crime, Money Offering, Strengthening Keeaktian, I swear, Lost.)

 
 

 Prasasti Gunung Butak

 Prasasti gunung butak tahun 1294. Prasasti itu menuliskan pemberontakan Kediri melawan SingasariSaat itu Kediri mengibarkan bendera merah putih.


•Mpu Prapanca mencatat dalam kitab Negarakertagama pada tahun 1365 bahwa Majapahit adalah keraton merah putih.

prasasti ini berisi riwayat bagaimana runtuhnya kerajaan Singasari dan bagaimana Wijaya membentuk kerajaan Majapahit merupakan tulisan dalam prassati yang emakai tarikh 1294. Tulisan loyang ini dinamakn piagam Gunung Butak,karena ditemukan dicelah gunung yang bernama demikian,terletak disebelah selatan Mojokerto atau sebelah barat kota malang. Jadi piagam itu ditulis pada ketika kenang-kenangan terhadap segala yang dialami dalam tahun 1292-1293 masih diinagt oleh sipendengar.Sebagian dari tulisan itu telah disalin oleh DR Brandes kedealam bahasa belands, seperti yang dibaca dalam kitab Pararaton halaman 94-100. Terjemahannya adalah sebagai berikut:

A. Tahun Masehi : 1294

Selamatlah! pada tahubn saka 1216 ,pada bulan Badrapada ,pada tanggal lima bulan sedang turun,pada hari Harjang,Umanis,sjanesjcara(menurut pekan berhari lima,enam dan tujuh) pada waktu Madankungan,ketika bintang tetap bersinar disebellah tenggara diperumahan rembulan Rohini dengan sang Hiang Prajapati sebagai eplindungnya dan masuk lingkaran mandala Mahendra ,ketika Joga Siddhi dan pukul Weraja ,dilindungi Jama sebagi pelindung perbulanan ,pada hari karena bernama Tetila dan pada ketika rasi bertanda bintang perawan.

B.TITAH RPABU

maka pada hari itu turunlah titah Seri baginda,yaitu satu-satunya raja yang dapat dipujikan sangat bersifatnkepahlawanan ,raja yang sangat mulia dan berani, yang memusnahkan musuh-mush raja-raja bertentara besar,yang snagat diberkatai dan mempunyai tabiat ,tenaga,budi,kebagusan dan rasa tangung jawab,penguasa seluruh daerah Jawadiwipa,pelindung segala hak orang-orang baik,turunan keluarga narasinga yang menyimpan Sari hak-hak kewajiban negara,putera turunan yang sebading narasinga; menantu karena berbahagia beristeri puteri Kartanegara dan yang sebagai raja bergelar Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya itu diterima oleh Rakrian menteri yang bertiga yaitu mahamenteri bertiga Katrini, Ino ,alu dan Sirikan . meteri Ino,diah Pamasi, menteri zlu Diah Sinlar dan emnetri zSirikan >Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang,rakrian menterui yang membinasakan mush di daerah nusnatara dan yang bersemanagt keras,bernama Aria Adikara. didahului oleh rakrian menteri kepala tertinggi pada segala pahlawan yang mendapatkan kepercayaan berbagai teman,serta mempunyai belas kasihan kepada segala orang,bernama Aria Wiraraja,yang kiranya dapat dianamkan Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya

ISIH TITAH

Adapun titah seri baginda Maharaja diturunkan untuk kepentingan teratak bernua Kudadu yang menjadi sebagai daerah darma bernama Kle’me,berupa keputusan raja yang dibubuhi cap Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu dan di tembaga, supaya disimpan oleh kepala desa Kudadu,yang akan menetapkan kebebasan Swatantra teratak benua Kudadu, oleh karena telah dijadsikan periksa oleh Seri baginda,bersama-sama dengan ladang diatas  dan dibaruh,gunung dan lembah, dan harus berhenti menjadi bagian daerah  darma Le’me, bagi peruntukan kepala desa Kudadu, yang akan dimiliki turun temruun sampai keanak-cucnya,baik kini ataupun ternus menerus tak putus-putusnya.

SEBAB ANUGRAH

Adapun yang menyebabkan itu ialah tingkah laku lurah desa Kudau yang dahulu memberi tempat bersembunyi dengan hati-hati kepada Seri Baginda Sang Prabu,ketika beliau belum menjadi raja dan masih bernama Naraja sanggrawijaya,pada ketika beliau dalam kesusahan menuju  Kudadu. diburu oleh musuh dengan dikejar-kejar dalam keadaan seperti berfikut : Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara yang dahulu menjadi Prabu dan meninggakan dunia yang fana dan memasuki dunia yang baka di sjiwabudalaya ketika diserang oleh Seri baginda Jayakatong dari gelang-gelang dengan berlaku sebagai musuh mengerjakan benda yang memalukan serta berkhianat kepada teman dan melanggar perseujuan ,karena berkeinginan meruntuhkan XSeri baginda Kertanegara yang bersemayan didalam negara Tumapel.Setelah diketahui bahea sepasukan tentara Seri baginda Jayakatong sudah sampai de Jasun Wungkal, lalu Seri Baginda Kertanegara mengirimkan Sei Baginda(Sang Prabu sekarang) dan Ardaraja melawan Sri Baginda Jayakatong. Adapun Ardaraja dan seri Baginda Sang Prabu keduanya adalh mantu Seri baginda Kertnegara,tetapi seperti diketahui orang Ardaraja adalah pula putera Seri baginda Jayakatong.

Setelah Sri baginda Prabu dan Ardaraja meninggalkan Tumapel dan sampai Kedung Peluk, maka Sei Bagindalah yang mula-mula sekali bertemu dengan musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda berkelahi,dan msusuhpun kalah dan melarikan diri , dengan menderita kekalahan besar.

Sesudah itu lalu tentara Seri Baginda bergerak ke lembah, tetapi disana tidak ditemui musuh. Setelah itu terus bergerak kearah Barat ,dari lembah menuju Batang, dan bagian depan Sei baginda bertemu lagi dengan beberapa musuh, yang menarik diri mundur tanpa berkelahi. Setelah meliwati Batang,lalyu Seri Baginda sampailah ke Pulungan, maka tentara Seri baginda bertempur lagi disebelah barat Kapulungan dan musuh menderita kekalahan , dan berlari-lari dalam keadaan susah benar dengan menderita kerugian. besar. Demikinalah keadaannya, ketika tentara Seri Baginda maju lagi dan sampai ke Rabut Curat, sedangkan tak berapa lamanya datanglah musuh dari arah barat, maka Sei Baginda berperang dengan segala tenaga dan tenataranya, musuh lari setelah mendapat kerugian besar, dan rupanya seolah-olah lari untuk selamanya.Tetapi dalam keadaan demikian,keadaan sebelah timur Hanyiru tunggul bendera musuh melambailambaikan , merah dan putih benderanya, dan ketika melihat tunggul itu maka Ardaraja lalu menyarungkan senjatanya,berlaku yang sangat memalukan dan lari kearah Kapulungan dengan maksud jahat. Oleh sebab itu maka musnahlah tentara Sei baginda, tetapi Seri Baginda tetapetia kepada seri baginda Kertanegara, itulah sebabnya maka seri Baginda tinggal di Rabut Carat , dan setelah itu selanjutnya pergi keutara menuju Pamwatan-apajeg disebelah utara diseberang sungei.

Dipihak Sei Banginda pada waktu itu masih ada kira-kira enam ratus oramng.(jiwa). Keesokan harinya setelah matahari terbit, maka musuh datang menyusul seri baginda.tentara Seri Baginda menyongsong mereka dan beliau mundur memisahkan diri,tetapi walaupun begitu tentara Seri Baginda sudah sangat berkurang, kiarena sudah ada yang lari menyembunyikan diri dan meninggalkan beliau, sehimngga timbullah kecemasan tanpa senjata apa-apa. Setelah itu Seri Baginda berunding dengan mereka yang ada pada Beliau. Menurut pedapatnya beliau harus  pergi ke Terung supaya berunding dengan Akuwu disana itu.,rakrian Wuru Agraja namanya yang diangkat menjadi Kuwu oleh Prabu Kertanegara, supaya ia bersedia membantu Seri Banginda mengumpulkan segala orang-orang disebelah Timur laut Terung.Semuanya menyetujui pendapat itu,dan setelah hari malam, maka Sei Baginda melalui KUlawan cemas kalau-kalau diikuti musuh yang sangat banyak.

Di KUlawan bertemu lagi dengan musuh, beliau dikejar oleh mereka, tetapi dapat melepaskan diri dengan pergi kearah utara,supaya apabila mungkin akan lari ke Kembang sari, tetapijuga disana bertemu lagi dengan musuh yang mengejar beliau dan ketika itu alrilah beliau bersama mereka sekalian yang ada dengannya, seceapt-cepatnya menyeberang sungai besarf menuju kearah utara. Ketika itu banyaklah yang tenggelam  dan yang lainnya diburu oleh  musuh dan dibunuh dengan tombak, dan yang dapat tertolong lari bercerai-berai kegelaa temapt. Yang tinggal hanya Seri Baginda  dengan belasan orang saja.

Kecelakaan yang menimpa Seri Baginda sungguhlah sangat hebat, tetapi ketika beliau sampai ke Kelurahan desa Kududu, maka lurah itu menerima dengan sungguh-sungguh hati dan berasa beals kasihan seperti menyediakan makanan dan minuman serta nasi, dan  kepada Seri Baginda diberikan tempat bersembunyi dan berusaha benar agar tujuan ZSeri baginda tercapai ,supaya belaiau jangan ditemukan orang.apabila musuh mencarinya. Setelah itu beliau ditunjukkan arah jalan dan diiringkan sampai kedaerah Rembang, agar Sei baginda dapat menyingkirkan diri ke pulau Madura seperti yang diinginkannya.

Demikianlah waktu dahulu Seri baginda dibawa ke-Kudadu dalam keadaan yang sukar,dan kepala desa itu berlaku sungguh-sungguh benar dan menerima raja dengan beals kasihan,dan keadaan itu menimbulkan rasa terima aksih dalam hati sanubarinya.

Sei baginda(kini) menjadi raja,jadi pelidung bumi yang turun dari Kayangan,sehingga oleh sebab itu patutlah belaiu membalas budi baik dan menyenangkan (mengirangkan) orang yang telah berbuat baik kepada beliau.

DAN SETERUSNYA (keswatentaraan,Uang Adat,Perwatasan Kudadu,Larangan,Kejahatan,Uang Persembahan,Penguatan Keeaktian,Sumpah,Hilang. )

1296.

Inscription Kertarajasa OR PENANGUNANGAN’s CHARTER 1296

FOUND THIS inscriptions DICELAH DILERENG STONE MOUNTAIN PEAK BETWEEN PENANGUNANGAN Northside GAJAGMUNGKAR WITH BE’KE’L, south MOJOKERTO, BENYAKNYA 11 pieces.

This 1296 inscription besama together with the inscription Kertarajasa 1924.1305 and others with information about the Majapahit, which among other things sebbagai follows

PRASASTI KERTARAJASA ATAU PIAGAM PENANGUNANGAN 1296

PRASATI INI DITEMUKAN DICELAH BATU DILERENG GUNUNG PENANGUNANGAN SEBELAH UTARA ANTARA PUNCAK GAJAGMUNGKAR DENGAN BE’KE’L, DISEBELAH SELATAN MOJOKERTO , BENYAKNYA 11 KEPING .

Prasasti 1296 ini besama-sama dengan prasasti Kertarajasa 1924,1305 dan lain-lainnya berisi informasi tentang Majapahit, isinya antara lain sebbagai berikut:

1.Year 1296 AD

Blessed! At saka year 1218, the month Kartika (October-November), on the day kedu moonlight, Tungle, Kaliwon, Saturday, the town brass, fixed stars are on the south, home-bulanya aArdra, divine partner, mandala, Baruna, Atiganda, Wairaja a master at buhur astrology, Kubera, because, lucky sign, the scorpion

Tahun Masehi 1296

Berbahagialah ! Pada tahun saka 1218,pada bulan Kartika (oktober-Nopember) ,pada hari kedu ketika bulan terang ,Tungle,Kaliwon,Sabtu, pekan kuningan,bintang tetap sedang disebelah selatan, rumah-bulanya aArdra,dewata mitra ,mandala,Baruna,Atiganda,pukul Wairaja yang menguasai buhur perbintangan,Kubera,karana,tanda rasi,kalajengking.

2.Lowering the Edict which Jayawardana Kertarajasa

At that time His Majesty Maharaja series decree ordering the globe reduce the power of Java correspond with the melodious name, which is the desire trees (fruiting), courage and power that no blemish fennel, which dianatara kesatriannya families and nations can be compared with the full moon surrounded by stars-the stars are not cloudy. Who became a hero in the midst of struggle, with courage to overcome the other heroes, who destroy all enemy kings of the world, such as poison sjiwa Mahadeva, which split the head of prominent people who ignored orders.

THAT CAUSE ANY ENEMY BE ENTIRELY WAN and perish, DEVELOPING HEART THAT ANY GOOD PEOPLE-GOOD, LIKE THE SUN. Which became an umbrella for the poor-poor and wise and who love the land of Java, which became rakrian minister named Abiseka Sanggrana Wijaya with the Kingdom of Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardana

Yang Menurunkan Titah Kertarajasa Jayawardana

Pada waktu itulah seri Baginda Maharaja menurunkan titah yang memerintahkan buana Jawa yang kekuasaannya berpadanan dengan namanya yang merdu, yang menjadi pohon keinginan (berbuah) , keberanian dan kekuasaan yang tidak adas cacatnya, yang dianatara keluarga dan bangsa  kesatriannya dapat dibandingkan dengan bulan purnama dikelilingi bintang-bintang dilangit yang  tidak berawan. Yang menjadi pahlawan ditengah-tengah perjuangan, dengan mengatasi keberanian pahlawan-pahlawan lainnya, yang memusnakan segala raja-raja musuh dunia, seperti racun mahadewa sjiwa , yang mengeping kepala orang-orang trekemuka yang tidak mengacuhkan perintahnya.

YANG MENYEBABKAN SEGALA MUSUH MENJADI PUCAT DAN HILANG LENYAP SELURUHNYA, YANG MENGEMBANGKAN JANTUNG SEGALA ORANG BAIK-BAIK,SEPERTI SANG MATAHARI. Yang menjadi payung bagi orang papa-miskin dan bijaksana serta yang mencintai tanah Jawa, yang menjadi rakrian menteri Sanggrana Wijaya dengan bernama Abiseka Kerajaan Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardana

3.Four Queens

He has four brothers in Queens. in decreasing order permassiusrinya he is assisted by four brothers. Altogether the princess Kertanegara, all the daughters of Sri him Kertanegara planted in Sjiwa-Huda. They are: Sri Parama Isjwari, Diah Teribuawana-Isjwari, Sri Mahadewi, Diah Dahita Nara Indera, Sri Jaya Indera goddess, Diah Prajayaparamida, King Indera Dewi Sri, Gayatri Diah.

new iformation from Prof. Dr Arlo Griffith,Ecole de Francaice D’Extreme Orient Jakarta (2011) :Malay princess Submission associated with shipping arca Amongphasa to be placed in the kingdom Singosari Dhamasraya under King Kertanegara. Later, Darah Petak  married to Raden Wiajaya plot which gave birth to the king of Majapahit Jayanegara as a substitute Raden wiajaya

Empat Permaisuri

Beliau mempunyai empat bersaudara  sebagai  Permaisuri. dalam menurunkan perintah beliau dibantu oleh permassiusrinya empat bersaudara. Seluruhnya para puteri Kertanegara, yang semuanya para puteri Sri baginda Kertanegara yang ditanam ditempat Sjiwa-Huda. Mereka itu ialah : Sri Parama Isjwari, Diah Teribuawana-Isjwari, Sri Mahadewi,Diah Nara Indera Dahita, Sri Jaya Indera dewi , Diah Prajayaparamida, Sri Raja Indera Dewi, Diah Gayatri.

4.CROWN SON(PRINCE) Jayanegara

Malay princess Submission associated with shipping arca Amongphasa to be placed in the kingdom Singosari Dhamasraya under King Kertanegara. Later, Darah Petak  married to Raden Wiajaya plot which gave birth to the king of Majapahit Jayanegara as a substitute Raden wiajaya (Kompas, 1 June 2011, testimony of Prof. Dr. Arlo Griffiths from Ecole D’Extreme-Orient Franaise representative Jakarta)please compare the different with the Penangungan with inscription below:

He was followed by her Son of the empress, the king of Sri Parama Isjwari( this qoeen may be same with Dara Petak princess from Dhamasraya-Dr Iwan ) young cadet to have signs of a good body, the young queen as king Kertanegara Sri grandchildren, great-grandson both young queen-derived Jaya Sri Wisnuwardana which has brought strength since birth and that does not exist disability, and can be compared with a thousand rays of light the new rising sun, which has boosted the queen by the name Abiseka Daha land as Queen of the Kingdom of the Young by the name of His Majesty Jayanegara.

PUTERA MAHKOTA JAYANEGARA

Penyerahan putri Melayu terkait dengan pengiriman arca Amongphasa untuk ditempatkan di Dhamasraya dari kerajaan singosari dibawah Raja Kertanegara. Kelak , dara petak menikah dengan Raden Wiajaya yang kemudian melahirkan Jayanegara sebagai raja Majapahit penganti Raden wiajaya(Kompas,1 juni 2011,keterangan Prof Dr Arlo Griffiths dari Ecole Franaise D’extre Orien perwakilan Jakarta)

Beliau diikuti oleh Puteranya dari permaisuri Sri Parama Isjwari (sesuai penemuan Prof.Dr Arlo, 2011, permaisuri ini sma dengan Dara Petak,putri dari Damasraya)yaitu raja muda teruna dengan memiliki tanda-tanda badan yang baik,ratu muda sebagai cucu Sri baginda Kertanegara, ratu muda cicit baik turunan Jaya-Sri Wisnuwardana yang memiliki kekuatan yang dibawanya sejak lahir dan yang tidak ada cacatnya, dan dapat dibandingkan dengan seribu sinar cahaya Matahari yang baru terbit, yang telah dikuatkan menjadi ratu tanah Daha dengan nama Abiseka Kerajaan sebagai Ratu Muda dengan nama Sri Baginda Jayanegara.

5.Kertarajasa

Maharajapun King, a knight this part to Dewaan down from heaven in the form of the king’s son with signs of a good torso. Convincing proof that it is, that he has the nature of courage, the creator of truth, gentle, good tempered, sharp-witted, friend of man, gallant officer in perjuanagn, he has thousands of followers dang good soldier, he has the wealth, particularly gold, all of it is nature which states that he is the god of Human Regulated.

and then he experienced as a protection of life, kindness of the late Sri maharajah Kertanegara, namely that her name Sanggerama wijaya insightful as Diamond manikam.

The events that he destroy the enemy in the fight is because it is caused by the late Sri Kertanegara, because he was not such a boon, a King of the Almighty and Supreme Isjwara of all other kings, not just the only controlled the island of Java, but also throughout the archipelago will not give effect anything. The reason is that he is the Queen (King) of the Kings in Java and later also King of the archipelago.

At one time Sri Kertarajasa go kedaerah wicked lie criminals who defected to the late Sri Kertanegara and Panji PatiPati inevitably miss too, after Sri Kertarajasa get there, then the evident force of nature deity Sri Baginda, mkaa msusuhpun dead scared and shocked and helpless again. Sehelia menjatukhan meraka no hair on the side of Sri Kertarajasa, musuhpun been destroyed, the soldiers were killed, captured his queen, pulled his wife and children deprived of their possessions.

The enemy was wiped out, until no trace again, destroyed to ashes, there was no difference sunguhlah his actions with deeds young Krishna who killed the King Kangsa.

Similarly, the young cadet the king’s son was picking winning preformance struggle, when he reached the point, he is crowned king, wearing royal ornaments, and sitting upon the throne of gold and jewel encrusted throne. It was then that he began to become King (king), he was assisted by his own power. All the people say, that he made himself King (king).

As he was human egala Bagis grieve by wicked wicked adalag as if the water-life, obtained because the ocean is stirred by the mountain Mandara, therefore it so happens, then people feel really glad to be his people, with joy and open the  proud heart king Maharaja sri, Shebaniah is because once covered entirely by his wicked wicked. Therefore His Majesty Maharaja remain that way, then he is like  new sun rising and develop all the flowers, which dampened by the dew of Kembang island, filled with puspa (flower) various kinds. this is how he opened the hearts of the people and it is fun of all the situation  to the  people for being of his men.

KERTARAJASA

Sri Baginda Maharajapun , seorang satria bagaian ke Dewaan turun dari surga berbentuk putra raja dengan tanda-tanda batang tubuh yang baik. Tanda bukti yang meyakinkan hal itu ialah, bahwa beliau mempunyai sifat keteguhan hati, pencipta kebenaran, lemah lembut, berwatak baik, berotak tajam, teman manusia, gagah perwira dalam perjuangan, beliau mempunyai beribu-ribu prajurit dang pengikut yang baik, beliau mempunyai kekayaan, terutama sekali emas, semuanya itu ialah sifat yang menyatakan beliau itu adalah Dewa Berbadan Manusia.

dan selanjutnya beliau mengalami  sebagai perlidungan kehidupan ,kebaikan hati almarhum Sri maharaja Kertanegara, yaitu namanya Sanggerama wijaya yang baginya dipandang berarti sebagai Intan manikam.

Peristiwa bahwa ia memusnahkan musuh dalam perjuangan adalah karena disebabkan oleh almarhum Sri kertanegara, karena bukanlah anugerah seorang seperti beliau , seorang Prabu yang Mahakuasa dan Maha Isjwara dari segala raja-raja lain, tidaklah saja yang hanya menguasai pulau Jawa, melainkan juga seluruh Nusantara tidak akan memberi akibat apa-apa. Sebabnya ialah bahwa beliau adalah Ratu(raja) dari segala Raja di pulau Jawa dan selanjutnya juga Raja Nusantara.

Pada suatu kali Sri Kertarajasa pergi kedaerah orang penjahat dusta durjana yang berkhianat kepada almarhum Sri Kertanegara dan Panji Patipati tak urung ketinggalan pula, setelah Sri Kertarajasa sampai kesana, maka terbuktilah berlakunya sifat-sifat kedewaan Sri Baginda, maka musuhpun mati ketakutan dan terkejut serta tak berdaya lagi. Meraka tak menjatuhkan sehelia rambutpun pada pihak Sri kertarajasa, musuhpun habis dimusnahkan, para prajurit tewas, ratunya ditawan,anak-isterinya ditarik dan harta bendanya dirampas.

Musuh disapu bersih, sampai tak bersisa lagi, hancur lebur menjadi abu, sunguhlah tak ada beda perbuatannya dengan perbuatan pemuda Krisna yang membunuh sang Prabu Kangsa.

Demikian pula putera raja yang muda teruna itu memetik kemenangan dalm perjuangan, Ketika ia mencapai maksudnya, maka ia dinobatkan  menjadi raja,memakai hiasan kerajaan,serta duduk diatas tahta singasana bertatahkan emas dan permata. Pada waktu itulah ia mulai menjadi Prabu(raja) ,ia dibantu oleh tenaga sendiri. Seluruh rakyat mengatakan, bahwa ia mengangkat dirinya menjadi Prabu(raja).

Adapun ia itu bagis egala manusia yang bersedih hati oleh orang jahat durjana adalag seolah-olah sang air-hidup ,didapat karena lautan diaduk dengan gunung Mandara, Oleh karena hal itu sedemikian jadinya,maka rakyat berasa bersenang hati benar menjadi anak buahnya, dengan gembira dan bangga terbulah hati sri baginda Maharaja, sebanya ialah karena dahulu hatinya tertutup seluruhnya oleh orang jahat durjana. Oleh karena itu Sri Baginda Maharaja  tetap demikian itu,maka ia adalhs eperti matahari yang baru terbit dan mengembangkan segala bunga, yang dibasahi oleh embun pemberian dipulau  Kembang, penuh dengan puspa (bunga) berbagai ragam. demikianlah caranya ia membuka hati sanubari selruh rakyat dan kleadaan itu menyenangkan(mengirangkan) rakyat karena menjadi anak buahnya.

1309

1.Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.

Wijaya  Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.

Please read the next chapter :” The Glory Of Majapahit Kingdom” as the second part of The Majapahit Kingdom during War and Peace.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Indonesia Forgotten Kingdom ” The Bulungan Sultanate” at East Kalimantan

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Indonesia Historic  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Forgotten Kingdom:”The Sultanate of Bulungan” at Kalimantan( Bulungan Sultanate of Natural Datu Muhammad Adil).
 

(Sultan Kaharuddin II, ruled from 1875 until 1889)
In a state of mourning, the Sultanate Council finally lifted grandson of Sultan Muhammad Adil Khalifatul Alam, son of the Maharaja Lela named Ali Sultan Kahar, who holds Kaharuddin II (1875-1889) with hopes of continuing the policy of his grandfather, but the political pressures that lead to unstable government in the early days of Sultan Kaharuddin II finally made the Sultan with a heavy heart, finally signed an agreement (Konteverklaring de tweede II) on the principal Juni1878 perjanjianya namely: the Netherlands to determine the policy of the sultan Bulungan including tax affairs and Sultan Kaharuddin their safety. The Dutch government records, on February 2, 1877 Ordinance issued in the form of Statute (Decree) No. 31 on the power set who oversees the royal Bulungan Tidung Land, the island of Tarakan, Nunukan, Sebatik Island, and some small islands in the vicinity. In fact, the Decree in confirm again on 15 March 1884 by the Secretary of the Dutch empire in Bogor.

The cooperation could be the trigger of a series of policies that harm the Sultanate Bulungan Netherlands, because on March 1, 1897 published the Government Gazette number 83, signed the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies A. D. H. Heringa. It contained several royal regulate the transfer of land in Kalimantan to the Dutch. These conditions make the political bargaining Sultanate Bulungan be very difficult, so the Sultan’s certainly not easy to take a stance to reject Konteverklaring de tweede II as has been done by his grandfather, Sultan Muhammad Adil Khalifatul Nature, because the situation is erratic and not berimbangnya Bulungan military force against Dutch influence has begun to stick in Bulungan, especially since the increased strength of weapon fire and the use of steam ships used by the Dutch. This is supported also weakened the power of the fleet Bulungan after a sea war between the Empire and the Mountain Tabur Bulungan in 1862, because it clearly Sultan Kaharuddin II do not want a lot of civilian casualties are even greater when dealing directly with the Dutch military. The availability of British naval fleet based in Labuan, which at times can move close enough on the boundary in the north of the Sultanate Bulungan also seems also to be another determinant of why these difficult choices ultimately taken by the Sultan Kaharuddin II.

Sultanate Bulungan when it’s really wedged between two giants who were fighting for colonial supremacy and control over the island of Borneo, in northern England and the Netherlands from South Bulungan. That’s why this decision is like fruit simalakama for Sultan Kaharuddin II because he had menangung dipundaknya historical burden. Sultan Kaharuddin II ruled about 14 years, he finally died in 1889 AD / 1307 H and was buried in the imperial tomb complex in the mountain Seriang Bulungan, archaeologists call a complex tomb with the name of the tomb complex of Mount Seriang II.

(J. Jongejans, Controleur Van Boeloengan).

Dutch influence on the greater Bulungan, policies implemented after the death of Sultan Muhammad Adil Datu Nature is trying to further interfere in the governance structure of the Sultanate of Bulungan. In conducting its Dutch colonial government administration to supervise the Sultanate Bulungan, they established their known Controleur. Controleur is an active current position since 1827, they were in before Controleur similar position called Opziener. In accordance with their function in charge of collecting taxes in territory residency of the working areas. This officer later became Directie voor de Cultures. Controleur career path is divided into three levels that can be promoted to the position in the government service is the Resident Assistant or Resident. That is why although the Sultanate Bulungan Zelfbestuurende shaped Landschapen or special rule, but in essence the empire Bulungan actually under the supervision of Assistant Resident Controleur henchmen called it.

Environmental improvements in local governance by the Government of the Netherlands carried out in stages. Controleur which originally served as a tax officer, in accordance with the Statute. 1872 225 numbers definitively merged with the Department pangreh Praja (in Kalimantan this position called Kyai) that in fact this has happened half a century earlier. To the Assistant Resident Controleur conjunct two or three, as assistant resident assistant who does not have its own power. They are responsible for monitoring whether the command head (Assistant Resident) worked, studied about anything related to the welfare and development of people. As officials at lower levels, Controleur know about the customs of society, health, agriculture, animal husbandry, and others in areas such Afdeeling. Controleur also required to help Bumi Putera pangreh Township in performing their duties, warned if there is a shortage, and so forth. To the Assistant Resident and Resident, Controleur provide all necessary information such as if there are officials who Bumi Putera to be critical and reactive to the Colonial authorities if necessary, be accompanied by the proposal because he is the eye-ear Resident and Resident Assistant.

For the Sultanate of Bulungan Controleur in place in Cape Selor with concurrent Tarakan island and in Malinau, other than that as explained earlier the Dutch also placed an Controleur in Muara Tawao until the area was taken by the British. In 1922 dipedalaman Bulungan, a Controleur placed in Malinau and a year later, in 1923 an Assistant Resident to the area en Berao Boelongan stationed in the Tanjung Selor. Then in 1938 the new position of Assistant Resident Boelongan en Berao moved to the town of Tarakan until delivery time of independence in RI. So big influence Controleur authority over its territory, to appoint an official at the district level or district Onder just have to get prior approval from Controleur.
Unfortunately so far, only three Controleur van Bulungan which can be traced by the author of Controleur named Mayers (1921-1922), J. Jongejans in charge of the days of Sultan Kasimuddin and a final Controleur who had attended the handover of sovereignty in the Bulungan who joined the Republic of Indonesia in 1949 is Controleur JHD Linhoud.

In 1901 began the income tax imposed on the people, then in that year was appointed 3 people Districthoofd (a kind of chief district) and village heads, Hulu Sungai Kayan region (inland) by the Dutch East Indies government was appointed Posthouder-Posthouder (head of post) . The Dutch seem to use the argument of the cooperation agreement (Konteverklaring de tweede II) in June 1878, signed by Sultan Kaharuddin, one of the most important staple perjanjianya is: Netherlands to determine the sultan Bulungan policy including tax affairs.

The amount of the tax value assigned by the Dutch government through an agency called Commisie Aanslag, and tax collection system known as Collectellon. In Bulungan, the amount of taxes imposed on each person is USD 15 to USD. 25, plus 0.75 kemit (picis) for each village chief.
Position-position is as beriku Districthoofd tersebuat: (1). Districthoofd Tanjung Datu Haji Palas dingkatlah Crown. (2). Districthoofd Sesayap is Datuk Bestari. And, (3). Districthoofd Sembakung in shake by Andin Kamsah. All are appointed by decree of Sultan Srie Bulungan and power Districthoofd Tanjung Palas only covers an area of ​​Tanjung Palas only, to Cape Selor and lands belonging to four square (Virtekand Vaal) and its population is under the authority Gouvernemen Dutch East Indies.

Governor-General of the Netherlands and then to form the administrative area known as Afdeling Oost Borneo, since the year 1910 to 1930 Dutch Colonial has developed a power-sharing structure dikalimantan east, the empire was recorded in Onder Afdeling Bulungan IV who supervises two Districk, the first is composed of Districk Bulungan Districk Onder (1). Pangean Estuary, (2). Tarakan and (3). Long Nawang (Apo Kayan). The second district is composed of the District Sesayap Districk Onder (1). Sembakung, (2). Mentarang, and (3). Krayan.

Furthermore, the 1930-1942 year, there were more changes in the administrative area, in accordance with Besluit Governor General (Staatsblad 1938 number 264) as from July 1, 1938 held another three-province or Eilandgewest, namely Sumatra, Borneo (Kalimantan) and the Big East (Groote Oost) with consecutive capital Medan, Banjarmasin and Makassar.

In 1938 it also came out Besluit Governor General (Staatsblad 1938 number 352) which regulates more about the three Provinces. About Gewest Borneo Banjarmasin is determined that its capital, and divided into two parts, namely Residentie Zuider en Oosterafdeling van Borneo, located in Banjarmasin and Residentie Westerafdeling van Borneo located in Pontianak. Bulungan imperial territory into the Zuider en Oosterafdeling Afdeling van Borneo (Afdeling South and East Borneo) with unoccupied status.

Unoccupied Bulungan (Onderafdeling Bulungan) is divided into four Onder Districk namely:
A. Districk Bulungan Onder Districk oversees one of Tanjung Palas.
B. Land Districk Tidung (Tidungsche Landen) oversees four Onder Districk namely 1) Malinau, 2). Sembakung, 3). Mentarang, 4). Krayan.
C. Tarakan District Onder Districk remain based in Tarakan.
D. Apo Kayan Districk remain domiciled in the Apo Kayan (Long Nawang).

Back kesejarah Bulungan, after Sultan Kaharuddin II died, he replaced
by-law named Si Gaeng who bear the title of Sultan Azimuddin, married to Princess Sibut, fourth son of Sultan Kaharuddin II. The Gaeng itself has a direct lineage with the previous Bulungan Sultan, Sultan Kaharuddin I. Procession of Sultan Azimuddin appointment approved by the Dutch Governor at Batavia in its decision letter dated December 4, 1889.

(Abode Dutch Assistant Resident in Samarinda).

Approval of the Governor-General of the Netherlands, did not make the Sultan Azimuddin die step in the political running kemasyarakatannya. In fact, he tried to find opportunities among the Dutch pressure after konteverklaring de tweede II with a social mission for the benefit of its people. Sultan Azimuddin in his reign also recorded several notable events including curb unrest in the countryside in a peaceful manner and business talks on the border with the British.
After ruling for 10 years, finally the Sultan to-7 in the history of this Sultanate Bulungan, died in 1899. Furthermore, the reins of government was on hold by his wife Princess Sibut (Pengian kusuma) accompanied by a Datu mansyur until 1901. Princess Sibut was the only woman leader in the history of the Sultanate of Bulungan, he temporarily replaced her husband, because his oldest son Datu Belembung not old enough to be Sultan. from the marriage with the Sultan Azimuddin, he has three children namely: Datu Belembung, Tiras and Datu Datu Muhammad who then provide an important color in the course of the history of the Sultanate of Bulungan.

Source:

Copy typed manuscript Datuk Prime, “Proceedings of the Sultanate History Bulungan th or th M 1503 919 H”, t.th.

Dali, H. Joseph. 1995. “Enchantment And Challenges Bulungan”. London: Between LKBN.

H. Said. Ali Amin Bilfaqih, “Brief History of the Sultanate of Bulungan from Period to Period.”

Archaeology Research Reports, Research Architecture Tomb of the Kings in the Region of East Kalimantan, Berau and Bulungan II. Dated 02 to 15 August 2000.

Arianto, Sugeng. August 2003. “Kingdom of Bulungan 1555-1959.” Malang: Thesis Bachelor of Education History Faculty of UGM.

Regional Level II Bulungan monograph published by the Project Directorate for Culture Media Development, Culture Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Jakarta, 1976.

Wadjidi, 2007. “Nationalism Indonesia in South Kalimantan, 1901-1942.” First Matter. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Continent.

Adrian B. Lapian, The Sea, Pirate, King of the Sea History of the Celebes Sea Region XIX Century, Jakarta, Bamboo Community, .

 
 

Kesultanan Bulungan Pasca Datu Alam Muhammad Adil.

 

(Sultan Kaharuddin II, berkuasa antara 1875 hingga 1889)
 


(J. Jongejans, Controleur Van Boeloengan).

, setelah Sultan Kaharuddin II mangkat, beliau digantikan
oleh menantunya yang bernama Si Gaeng yang bergelar Sultan Azimuddin, beristrikan Putri Sibut, anak keempat dari Sultan Kaharuddin II. Si Gaeng sendiri memiliki garis keturunan langsung dengan Sultan Bulungan terdahulu, Sultan Kaharuddin I. Prosesi pengangkatan Sultan Azimuddin mendapat pengesahan Gubernur Belanda di Batavia melalui surat keputusan tertanggal 4 Desember 1889.


(Kediaman Asisten Resident Belanda di Samarinda).

Restu dari Gubernur Jenderal Belanda, tidak membuat Sultan Azimuddin mati langkah dalam menjalankan politik kemasyarakatannya. Bahkan, ia mencoba mencari peluang diantara tekanan Belanda pasca konteverklaring de tweede II dengan menjalankan misi sosial bagi kepentingan rakyatnya. Sultan Azimuddin dalam masa pemerintahannya tercatat pula beberapa peristiwa penting diantaranya meredam pergolakan di pedalaman dengan cara damai dan usaha pembicaraan mengenai perbatasan dengan pihak Inggris.
Setelah berkuasa selama 10 tahun, akhirnya Sultan ke-7 dalam sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan ini, wafat pada tahun 1899. Selanjutnya tampuk pemerintahan pun di pegang oleh istrinya Putri Sibut (Pengian kusuma) didampingi oleh Datu mansyur hingga tahun 1901. Putri Sibut merupakan satu-satunya pemimpin wanita dalam sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan, ia menggantikan posisi sementara suaminya, karena putra tertuanya Datu Belembung belum cukup umur menjadi Sultan. dari hasil perkawinannya dengan Sultan Azimuddin, ia dikaruniai tiga orang anak yaitu: Datu Belembung, Datu Tiras dan Datu Muhammad yang kemudian memberikan warna penting dalam perjalanan sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan.

Sumber:

Copy naskah ketikan Datuk Perdana, “Risalah Riwayat Kesultanan Bulungan th 1503 M atau th 919 H”, t.th.

Dali, H Yusuf. 1995. “Pesona Dan Tantangan Bulungan”. Jakarta : LKBN Antara.

H. Said. Ali Amin Bilfaqih, “Sekilas Sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan dari Masa ke Masa”.

Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi, Penelitian Arsitektur Makam Raja-Raja Di Wilayah Kalimantan Timur II Kabupaten Berau dan Bulungan. Tanggal 02 s/d 15 Agustus 2000.

Arianto, Sugeng. Agustus 2003. “Kerajaan Bulungan 1555-1959”. Malang : Skripsi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Fakultas Sastra UGM.

Monografi Daerah Tingkat II Bulungan diterbitkan oleh Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan DITJEN, Kebudayaan Departemen Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan R.I., Jakarta, 1976.

Wadjidi, 2007.”Nasionalisme Indonesia Di Kalimantan Selatan 1901-1942”. Cetakan Pertama. Banjarmasin : Pustaka Benua.

Adrian B. Lapian, Orang Laut, Bajak Laut, Raja Laut Sejarah Kawasan Laut Sulawesi Abad XIX, Jakarta, Komunitas Bambu, Agustus 2009.

 
 the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011 

The OSAMA bin LADEN Secret Informations(Apakah anda sudah pernah melihat foto Pribadi dan Keluarga Osama bin Laden)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

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     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

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(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIC SHOWROOM

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Showcase:

The Osama bin Laden’s  Secret Informations

 

Secret military operation that led to U.S. soldiers in the death of Osama bin Laden was allegedly not free from interference by WikiLeaks. Whistle-blower site was touted to be the reason the U.S. is moving faster to ‘paralyze‘ the world’s number one terrorist leader.

One of the leaked information to the WikiLeaks wire indicates that the U.S. actually get a clue if it had been Osama hiding in the area of Abbottabad, Pakistan.

A document from 2008 which was released Wikileaks there is a record of the interrogation process a citizen of Libya, Abu al-Libi, who was once associated with bin Laden in Afghanistan.

When he was asked to become one of Osama’s introduction in 2003, Libi was living in Peshawar, Pakistan. Osama asked Libi act as introductory messages between him and other colleagues in the territory of Pakistan.

In mid-2003, bin Laden moved his family to Abbottabad to later work in the area and Peshawar.

Libi was captured in Pakistan in 2005 and eventually transferred to Guantanamo. U.S. intelligence organizations the CIA claims to have watched the movements of bin Laden by investigating a network of couriers.

If Osama saw the report that was leaked on WikiLeaks, leader of Al Qaeda that would have immediately realized that the CIA nearly found a place of residence. Therefore, U.S. military secret operation was allegedly speeding before Osama realize their plans.

 

osama wife

 

 

osama wife

osama bin laden son wife. osama bin laden wife photo.

 The Book about Secret life of  Osama  :”Growing up Bin Laden”

 A true story that few ever believed would come to light, Growing Up bin Laden uncovers startling revelations and hidden secrets carefully guarded by the most wanted man in our lifetime, Osama bin Laden.  These secrets are revealed by the only people who could know such private details, his wife and son. 

Najwa bin Laden, who married her cousin Osama bin Laden at the age of 15, is his first wife and the mother to eleven children, seven of Osama’s sons and four of his daughters.  Omar bin Laden is the fourth son of Osama bin Laden.  Together, they narrate spine-tingling details about the drama, tensions, and everyday activities of the man they knew as a husband and father. No writer or journalist, even the most respected, has ever gained access to close members of Osama bin Laden’s family, until now.  But after Omar and his mother approached bestselling author Jean Sasson, a trusted collaboration slowly formed. 

This uniquely human document is the result.

Growing Up bin Laden tells the story of a young girl who married her gentle and kindly first-cousin, enjoying a happy early marriage with the groom of her choice.  But world events thrust her husband into a frenzy of militant activities, altering his once pleasing behavior in the process.  Thus Najwa’s life, and the lives of her innocent children, became a maze of escaping from one country to another.  Osama’s fourth-born son, Omar, describes his early years, the son who wanted nothing but his father’s love, but Omar’s quest for his father’s attention won him nothing but his father’s cruelties. 

Together, their powerful story as mother and son give us an extraordinary view of a man hated by so many, yet both loved and feared by his family, including:

• Osama’s disapproval of modern conveniences, including electricity and medicine
• His plan to toughen up his sons by taking them into the desert without food or water
• Transporting his wives and children to the rough terrain of Sudan, where he claimed to be preparing them for attacks from western powers, commanding them to dig holes, and to sleep in those holes, allowing nothing more than sand and twigs for cover
• Omar’s horror at the rape and murder of a boy his own age, by members of a jihadist group living among them in the Sudan.
• What happened in the bin Laden home in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on the morning of September 11, 2001, and Omar’s surprise phone call with his mother, who escaped from Afghanistan only two days before the shattering events that killed so many innocent people

Through their frank accounts, Omar and Najwa dispel the many myths about Osama bin Laden that are currently circulating, including:

Myth:  Osama ordered Najwa to be sent to him in Saudi Arabia, to make her his bride against her objections.
Fact:  Osama and Najwa knew each other from Najwa’s birth.  Their relationship was one of family friendship that developed into love.  In fact, Najwa married Osama over her mother’s protests.
Myth:  Neither Osama nor Najwa has ever traveled to the United States.
Fact:    Osama traveled with Najwa and their two oldest sons to Indiana in 1979. Osama left Najwa in Indiana while he traveled to LA to meet with jihadist Abdullah Azzam. 
Myth:  Osama bin Laden has been seriously ill with kidney disease for many years, creating a need to transport a dialysis machine with him wherever he goes.
Fact:  Osama bin Laden’s health was good, suffering only from kidney stones and recurrences of malaria he contracted when fighting in Afghanistan against the Soviets.
Myth:  Mullah Mohammed Omar, the head of the Taliban, welcomed Osama to Afghanistan in 1996, after Sudanese officials expelled him.
Fact:  Mullah Omar did not invite Osama.  In fact, Osama was wary of the actions Mullah Omar might take once he discovered Osama was operating on Afghan territory.  The two men did not even meet for several years after Osama arrived, and their relationship was never easy.  Mullah Omar actually insulted Osama, and wanted him to leave Afghanistan after the 1998 al-Qaeda bombings of the American African Embassies.

 

Since September 11, 2001, journalists have struggled to uncover carefully guarded information about Osama’s private life, and his wives and children.  All have failed.  But Growing Up bin Laden reveals the names and background of all Osama’s wives, and the names and ages of his children.

With unprecedented access and insight, Jean Sasson, author of the bestselling Princess:  A True Story Behind the Veil in Saudi Arabia, takes us inside the secret world of Osama bin Laden. 

A Bin Laden Family Album:
Photos from the book Growing Up Bin Laden, authored by Osama’s wife Najwa, his son Omar and Jean Sasson
https://i0.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_01.jpg
Mohammed bin Laden
The grand patriarch of the bin Laden family, a billionaire industrialist and father of Osama, appears in a 1964 painting.
https://i1.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_02.jpg
Osama bin Laden
The future wanted man posed for this portrait in 1973 at age 16, a year before he married his cousin Najwa.
https://i0.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_03.jpg
Omar bin Laden
The author appears at age 6, the year the family moved to Medina and Omar started school. Omar is the son most opposed to his father’s violence. He has married a British woman and wants to begin a peace movement.
https://i1.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_04.jpg
Omar in 1994
Omar performs for the camera during the time his family lived in Khartoum, Sudan.
https://i1.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_05.jpg
Bin Laden in Afghanistan, 1984
When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to prop up its Marxist government, Osama bin Laden joined the Islamist resistance movement.
https://i1.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_06.jpg
Abdullah bin Laden
As the eldest son of Osama bin Laden and his first wife Najwa, Abdullah holds the most honored position of all his siblings. He is seen here working on his father’s backhoe in Sudan in 1993. He runs a small business and shuns publicity.
https://i1.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_07.jpg
Sa’ad, Osman and Mohammed bin Laden
The third child of Osama and Najwa, Sa’ad was rumored to be jailed in Iran, although no one, including his mother, knows his whereabouts. Osman married the daughter of a high-ranking member of al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, a terrorist group dedicated to the overthrow of the Egyptian state. Mohammed is said to have the necessary traits — and parental approval — to be Osama’s successor.
https://i0.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_08.jpg
Fatima, Sa’ad, Omar, Mohammed, Osman and Abdul Rahman
Osama arranged for his first daughter, Fatima, to be married to a Saudi fighter at age 12. Her husband died in the American attacks on Afghanistan two years later. Abdul Rahman found it difficult to regain Saudi nationality after it was revoked and now lives quietly in Syria.
https://i2.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_09.jpg
Omar in 2007
Omar appears with his beloved horse in Saudi Arabia.
https://i2.wp.com/img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2009/bin_laden_family/bin_laden_family_10.jpg
The Next Generation
Omar holds his son Ahmed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2005.
“Believe in your dreams and they may come true; believe in yourself and they will come true.”

Osama Family Informations

Wafah Dufour (corbis.com)

Nephew Osama Posing Almost Naked
Osama did not stop calling for jihad against Western countries. Not all the children agree.
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VIVAnews – Who does not know Osama Bin Laden – terrorist fugitives most wanted and most hated. He became the mastermind of terror attacks 11 September 2001 that killed thousands of people.

Before he died at the hands of the elite U.S. Navy SEAL Sunday, May 1, 2011, Osama did not stop calling for jihad against Western countries. However, not all family members follow the advice fugitive whose head valued U.S. $ 50 million dollars this. Some members of the Bin Laden clan actually embrace the western way of life.

Look at one of 23 sons of Osama bin Laden, Omar Osama bin Laden (29). Rather than follow in the footsteps of his father, he actually claimed to be ‘ambassador of peace’ between the Islamic world and the West. He even married a British woman who was nearly twice that of age.

“I try and and said to my father, looking for other ways to reach your goal. Bomb, a weapon, its impact is not good for anyone.”

According to some information on Omar Bin Laden at the camp of Jihad in Sudan and Afghanistan, along with the fighters who had tested chemical weapons on a number of puppies.

In an interview with Rolling Stone magazine in 2010, Omar claimed to want to work at the United Nations, met President Barack Obama, and Clinton, Hillary Clinton. In the interview, he even compared himself to Hollywood actor, Mel Gibson.

Not only that nyeleneh Omar, Osama’s nephew, Wafah Dufour went even further. Graduated from Columbia University School of Law is determined to pose nearly naked on the cover of GQ men’s magazine in 2005. Her body was covered only by camel fur.

Like Omar, he dreamed of a Hollywood star, singer or movie star. “Although relatives, I had nothing to do with him (Osama). But, because he, the Western world hates me, on the contrary, because I chose to apply Western values, the people of Saudi Arabia hates me,” said Wafah Dufour.

 Even Osama’s mother had refused his son’s way of thinking. “I have no ties with Al Qaeda organization,” he told the Saudi Newspaper. “I’m just worried about my child and preaching about it.”

Meanwhile, the Telegraph had reported, as a mother, like any Osama, still he loves. “I prayed, God showed the right path, away from the wrong thoughts. My mother who suffer most.”

Meanwhile, children Osama others, following his father’s steps. Osama third child, Saad, reportedly active in Al Qaeda, although not a key figure. July 2009, Saad reportedly killed in U.S. attack in Pakistan.

Meanwhile, Osama’s youngest son, Hamza Bin Laden was reported a number of media in Pakistan as the leader of a team sent to kill Benazir Bhutto who was killed December 2007.

Hamza A poem written in 2008 to commemorate the July 7, 2005 bombings in London that killed 52 people.

In the poem he calls himself the nickname of ‘Crown Prince of Terror’, called for the destruction of the United States, Britain, France and Denmark – who became the target of terror because of caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad.

  Omar bin Laden (THE BIN LADEN FAMILY /
OSAMA BIN LADEN)

Omar bin Laden claims to be one of the sons of Osama bin Laden.

Omar has written a memoir, with the help of an American called Jean Sasson.

The memoir has the appearance of CIA propaganda.

John R. MacArthur, the publisher of Harper’s magazine, has called Jean Sasson “a propagandist for hire.” (Bin Laden Figure is not Osama bin Laden)

According to Prof David Ray Griffin, Jean Sasson’s 1991 book, The Rape of Kuwait, helped create American support for the US invasion of Iraq. (Bin Laden Figure is not Osama bin Laden)

Osama bin Laden, at Oxford, far right. (THE BIN LADEN FAMILY
/ OSAMA BIN LADEN)

Reportedly, from 1991 to 1996, Omar was with Osama in Sudan, and then in 1996 Omar traveled with Osama to Afghanistan.

Reportedly, Omar left Osama and his group in 2000.

Omar now lives in Qatar.

Omar married Zaina, a British grandmother nearly twice his age.

In July 2010, it was reported that Omar had mental problems.

Zaina split with Omar and Omar entered a mental hospital.

Osama bin Laden’s neice. (THE BIN LADEN FAMILY
/ OSAMA BIN LADEN)

On 20 January 2010, at Rolling Stone,9Guy Lawson wrote about Osama’s Prodigal Son

In Syria, Lawson and Omar visit a nightclub called Les Caves de Boys where Moslems drink whiskey and watch Russian strippers.

According to Lawson, Omar, as a child in Afghanistan, befriended the teenage sons of men who plotted bombings.

According to Omar’s memoir, one of Omar’s closest friends was raped by a group of men.

“The rapists added insult to the attack and injury by snapping photographs of the young man during and after the rape,” Omar writes in his memoir.
According to the memoir, Ayman al-Zawahri, Osama’s top deputy, got hold of the photos and concluded that Omar’s young friend was gay.

According to the memoir, Omar’s young friend was dragged into a room with Zawahri, who shot him in the head.

Omar tells Rolling Stone: “No one could control me. That is why my father was always taking me with him. I was his chosen son. I was my father’s favorite.”

Omar bin Laden and wife (THE BIN LADEN FAMILY
OSAMA BIN LADEN)

In 1996, aged 15, Omar was reportedly still in Afghanistan.

Meanwhile, according to Rolling Stone, “his cousins in Jeddah had Jet Skis and weekend trips to London and Beirut; they had whiskey, women, freedom.”

After the US invasion of Afghanistan, videotapes were allegedly found in Osama’s base.

Allegedly, the videos showed puppies being painfully killed to test chemical weapons.

According to Omar’s memoir, the puppies had been born to Omar’s favorite dog.

In his memoir, Omar says he wept when he learned that his puppies had been killed.

This smells like CIA propaganda bullshit.

THE BIN LADEN FAMILY / OSAMA BIN LADEN

Omar makes it clear that not everything in his memoir is accurate!

According to the memoir, Omar confronts Osama about suicide bombers.

According to Rolling Stone: “Omar appears confused. ‘It says that in the book?… It was not like that,” he insists… In Omar’s world, it appears, it is possible to be misquoted in your own autobiography.”

Rolling Stone and Omar travel to Beirut

Omar’s uncle owns the Hard Rock Cafe on the Corniche.

Salem bin Laden (The bin Laden Family).

Quoting a French intelligence report posted by PBS Frontline, The New Yorker reports, “During the nineteen-eighties, when the Reagan administration secretly arranged for an estimated $34 million to be funneled through Saudi Arabia to the Contras in Nicaragua, [Osama’s eldest brother] Salem bin Laden aided in this cause.” [PBS Frontline, 2001; New Yorker, 11/5/2001]

~~


Did the Pakistan military get too close to a CIA safe house?

Did the Pakistan security services get involved in a fight at the CIA safe house and then discover members of bin Laden’s family being housed there?

Did the US military then arrive on the scene to remove the evidence and concoct a story to cover its involvement with al Qaeda?

Former Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf’s 2004 autobiography talks about an Al Qaeda (CIA) safe house in Abbottabad. (Musharraf knew of Abbottabad safe house?)

An ISI official told the BBC the compound in Abbottabad where Bin Laden was allegedly killed had been raided in 2003. (Bunny Laden.)

Pakistan’s spy service (ISI) had been sharing information about the Abbottabad compound with the CIA since 2009 and had continued to do so until mid-April. ( Pakistan ‘shared information about compound …‎)

A Cobra helicopter belonging to the pakistan military

According to Pakistani Urdu TV channel Geo News (killed in Abbotabad near Islamabad of Pakistan):

Pakistani intelligence officials said that a Pakistani army helicopter was shot down in Abbottabad and then a search operation was launched by Pakistani forces.

At about 1:20 a.m. local time a Pakistani helicopter was shot down by unknown people in the Sikandarabad area of Abbottabad.

The Pakistani forces launched a search operation in the nearby area and encountered a group of unknown armed people.

An exchange of fire followed between the two sides.

When the exchange of fire ended, the Pakistani forces arrested some Arab women and children as well some other armed people.

Two U.S. helicopters flew to the site and carried away a dead body

Initial reports said that at least one was killed and two others were injured in the crash.

At least two houses were engulfed by the huge fire caused by the crashed chop

“The CIA’s Larry Mitchell met Osama in an American hospital in 2001”

~~

“U.S. officials have said that Pakistani officials were not told about the early morning helicopter raid until the strike team had killed Bin Laden and had returned to Afghanistan from where they took off, citing security reasons.

“Many Pakistanis were surprised at how this was possible, especially when initial reports stated that the choppers took off from a Pakistani air base.” (Bunny Laden.)

~~

“I used to go to their house. He had two wives, one spoke Arabic, and the other one spoke Urdu. They had three children, a girl and two boys. They gave me two rabbits.”

Bunny Laden.

~~

U.S. officials have listed a number of points that they claim prove the dead man is Osama bin Laden:

DNA taken from ‘the brain of Osama bin Laden’s sister following her death from brain cancer’ was a 99.9 per cent match to that of Osama.

A woman, ‘believed to be one of bin Laden’s wives’, confirmed bin Laden was the dead man.

The CIA said they compared photos of bin Laden’s body with known photos of him and were 95 per cent sure that they showed the same man.

The burial from an aircraft carrier in the North Arabian Sea was videotaped aboard the ship, according to a senior defence official.

All sounds like a lot of CIA lies?

aangirfan: MISSING: KIN OF MEN KILLED BY CIA’S DAVIS

~~

A Pakistani police officer says the mansion was owned by an Afghan national called Arshad Khan.

He added: “There were several members of the bin Laden family inside the compound who have been taken into custody.

“One of them was his daughter Safia.” (Osama bin Laden: Neighbours shocked to be living next to world’s …)

“Unidentified males who survived were flown from the scene, while four children and two women, including Bin Laden’s daughter Safia, were taken away in an ambulance.

“It is believed his youngest wife Amal al-Sadah was also taken into custody.”

~~~

According to Hamid Mir, 3 May 2011 (The Osama bin Laden I knew):

Osama “was hiding in Abbottabad with one of his wives, a son and a daughter…

“His 10-year-old daughter Safia watched American commandos entering the house, who took away the dead body of her father.

“She confirmed later: ‘The Americans dragged the dead body of my father through the stairs’.”

Hamid Mir is spouting CIA propaganda?

A scene from the film Blackhawkdown

~~

“His youngest wife, Amal al-Sadeh, 27, with whom he reportedly had a number of children, was shot in the leg during yesterday’s attack.

“The al Qaeda chief’s beloved youngest son, Hamza, 18, and another son, 22-year-old Khalid, were also said to have been killed.” (The loyal sons of Osama Bin Laden – and the many relatives who …)

~~

“White House counterterrorism adviser John Brennan told reporters Monday that bin Laden’s son Khalid was killed in the raid.

“When the White House released a transcript of Brennan’s briefing, it substituted the name of a different son, Hamza…

“Brennan said bin Laden’s wife died while shielding the terrorist leader from U.S. gunfire.

“Carney said Tuesday that the wife hadn’t died and was merely shot in the leg, although another woman did die. But it wasn’t clear that either of them was trying to shield bin Laden.

“Brennan and other officials suggested that bin Laden was holding a gun and even firing at U.S. forces. Carney said Tuesday that bin Laden was unarmed.” (White House Struggles to Get Story Right )

 

 

Bin Laden Family was a participant or observer in the following events:

 

Sheikh Ahmed Yassin forms Hamas as the military arm of his Islamic Association, which had been licensed by Israel ten years earlier (see 1973-1978). According to Charles Freeman, a former US ambassador to Saudi Arabia, “Israel started Hamas. It was a project of Shin Bet, which had a feeling that they could use it to hem in the PLO.” [CounterPunch, 1/18/2003; Dreyfuss, 2005, pp. 191, 208] Anthony Cordesman, a Middle East analyst for the Center for Strategic Studies, states that Israel “aided Hamas directly—the Israelis wanted to use it as a counterbalance to the PLO.” A former senior CIA official speaking to UPI describes Israel’s support for Hamas as “a direct attempt to divide and dilute support for a strong, secular PLO by using a competing religious alternative.” Further, according to an unnamed US government official, “the thinking on the part of some of the right-wing Israeli establishment was that Hamas and the other groups, if they gained control, would refuse to have anything to do with the peace process and would torpedo any agreements put in place.” Larry Johnson, a counterterrorism official at the State Department, states: “The Israelis are their own worst enemies when it comes to fighting terrorism. They are like a guy who sets fire to his hair and then tries to put it out by hitting it with a hammer. They do more to incite and sustain terrorism than curb it.” [United Press International, 2/24/2001 Sources: Larry C. Johnson, Unnamed former CIA official]

 

King Fahd (left) with Bakh bin Laden (right), a brother of Osama bin Laden, in the mid-1990s.King Fahd (left) with Bakh bin Laden (right), a brother of Osama bin Laden, in the mid-1990s. [Source: Agence France-Presse] (click image to enlarge)Beginning in the 1920s, Mohammed Awad bin Laden rose from relative obscurity by creating a construction company favored by the Saudi royal family. He had 54 children before he was killed in a plane crash in 1968. His son Osama bin Laden was born in 1957. The bin Laden family’s companies continued to grow until they became the second wealthiest family in Saudi Arabia, behind only the Saudi royal family. In May 1990, the bin Laden family registers a new parent company for its business activities called the Saudi Binladin Group. Bakr bin Laden, one of Mohammed’s sons, is running the company by this time. By 9/11, the company will employ 36,000 people in 30 countries. The company has been branching out from construction to many other endeavors. However, it will keep a low profile internationally, as most of its business is still in Saudi Arabia. It has business ties with major international corporations such as General Electric, Unilever, Motorola, Schweppes, Citigroup, and HSBC Bank. [Ha’aretz, 12/18/2002]

 
 

Salem bin Laden, left, and Bakr bin Laden, right. Salem is killed in a plane crash in 1988.Salem bin Laden, left, and Bakr bin Laden, right. Salem is killed in a plane crash in 1988. [Source: Public domain via Steve Coll]Shortly after the Saudi government publicly disowns bin Laden (while privately continuing to support him) (see April 9, 1994), the bin Laden family follows suits and publicly disowns him as well. Bakr bin Laden, the chairman of the Saudi Binladin Group, the main bin Laden family company, signs a two-sentence statement. Osama bin Laden has 25 brothers, 29 sisters, and more in-laws, aunts, uncles, and so forth. Der Spiegel will later report that in the years bin Laden lives in Sudan, Saudi intelligence minister “Prince Turki sent Osama’s mother, Hamida, and his brother Bakr to the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, several times to convince Osama to abandon his terrorist activities. The visits were so frequent that Israel’s intelligence agency, the Mossad, believed at the time that Osama was a Saudi spy.” Vincent Cannistraro, former head of the CIA’s Counter Terrorism Center, will say, “I tracked the bin Ladens for years. Many family members claimed that Osama was no longer one of them. It’s an easy thing to say, but blood is usually thicker than water.” Michael Scheuer, former head of the CIA unit specializing in hunting bin Laden, doubts that the entire bin Laden family has severed ties with Osama. In a 2005 interview he will say, “I haven’t seen anything in the last 10 years that’s convinced me that would be the case.” [Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 6/6/2005; Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 6/6/2005]

 

 


Yeslam bin Laden, Osama’s half brother, and a Westernized leader of the Binladin Group.
Yeslam bin Laden, Osama’s half brother, and a Westernized leader of the Binladin Group. [Source: Publicity photo]In 2004, Osama bin Laden’s half brother Yeslam Binladin admits that he and other bin Laden family members share a Swiss bank account with Osama bin Laden from 1990 until 1997. The account was opened by brothers Omar and Heidar bin Laden in 1990 with an initial deposit of $450,000. By 1997, only two people are authorized to conduct transactions on the account: brothers Osama and Yeslam bin Laden. The bin Laden family claims to have disowned Osama bin Laden in 1994 (see Shortly After April 9, 1994), and the US government officially designated him as a financier of terrorism in 1996. Yeslam had previously denied any financial dealings with Osama at this late date until evidence of this bank account was uncovered by French private investigator Jean-Charles Brisard. In December 2001, French authorities will open an investigation into the financial dealings of the Saudi Investment Company (SICO) run by Yeslam Binladin. [Agence France-Presse, 7/26/2004; Scotsman, 9/28/2004; Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 6/6/2005] In 2002, his house will be raided by French police. [Associated Press, 3/20/2002] No charges have been made as of yet, but the investigation will continue and in fact widen its scope in late 2004. A French magistrate will claim he is looking into “other instances of money laundering” apparently involving financial entities connected to Yeslam and other bin Laden family members. [Reuters, 12/26/2004] Yeslam claims he’s had no contact with Osama in 20 years. Yet, in 2004, when asked if he would turn in Osama if given the chance, he replies, “What do you think? Would you turn in your brother?” [MSNBC, 7/10/2004] His ex-wife Carmen Binladin will also comment around the same time, “From what I have seen and what I have read, I cannot believe that [the rest of the bin Laden family] have cut off Osama completely.… And I cannot believe that some of the sisters [don’t support him.] They are very close to Osama.” [Salon, 7/10/2004]

 

 

Michael Scheuer, the head of the CIA Counter Terrorism Center’s special unit focusing on bin Laden from 1996 to 1999 (see February 1996), later will claim that before 9/11 members of the bin Laden family in the US are nearly completely off limits to US law enforcement. Author Douglas Farah, a former longtime Washington Post reporter, later will write that “All the bin Ladens living in the United States were granted Saudi diplomatic passports in 1996.… In 1998, when the FBI’s New York office actually sought to investigate some of the bin Laden family’s activities in this country because of suspicions of ties to terrorism, the State Department forced them to shut down the entire operation. Because the bin Laden’s were ‘diplomats’ and as such enjoyed diplomatic immunity, making such investigations illegal.” Scheuer will comment about the 1998 investigation, “My counterparts at the FBI questioned one of the bin Ladens. But then the State Department received a complaint from a law firm, and there was a huge uproar. We were shocked to find out that the bin Ladens in the United States had diplomatic passports, and that we weren’t allowed to talk to them.” Scheuer believes that these unusual diplomatic privileges may help explain how the bin Ladens will be able to depart so quickly just after 9/11 (see September 13, 2001; September 14-19, 2001). Farah later says he interviewed Scheuer about this and claims to have found a second source to verify the information. [Farah, 12/5/2004; Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 6/6/2005] The issue of diplomatic passports for the bin Laden family has generally not been reported in the US media, although a 2005 New Yorker article will mention in passing that in 1996, “the State Department stymied a joint effort by the CIA and the FBI to question one of bin Laden’s cousins in America, because he had a diplomatic passport, which protects the holder from US law enforcement.” [New Yorker, 2/8/2005] This is a probable reference to the 1996 investigation of Abdullah Awad bin Laden (although he is bin Laden’s nephew, not cousin (see February-September 11, 1996)). It is unclear what connection there may be, if any, between that investigation and this 1998 investigation.

 

Former President George H. W. Bush meets with the bin Laden family on behalf of the Carlyle Group. The meeting takes place in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. [Sunday Herald (Glasgow), 10/7/2001]

 

Bin Laden says in an interview, “I thank God that he has allowed my family to understand my path. They are praying for me.” [Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 6/6/2005] The Bin Laden family formally disowned Osama in 1994 (see Shortly After April 9, 1994), but some suggest that some of his relatives continue to support him.

 

A transfer of 241 million euros (over $250 million) is made to Pakistan in this year from a Swiss bank account belonging jointly to Osama bin Laden and a Pakistani. The Pakistani is Akberali Moawalla, a former business partner and an acquaintance of Osama’s brother Yeslam bin Laden. This Deutsche Bank joint account belongs to a company called Cambridge, which is a subsidiary of the Saudi Binladin Group, the bin Laden family company. After French investigators will discover records of this money transfer in late 2004, a French judge will authorize widening a probe into the financial network surrounding the bin Laden family. [Reuters, 12/26/2004; Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 6/6/2005] The discovery of this sizable joint bank account will contradict the conclusions of the 9/11 Commission, which will claim that bin Laden inherited far less than is commonly reported and never had a fortune in the hundreds of millions of dollars (see August 21, 2004). [Agence France-Presse, 7/26/2004]

 


Ex-President Bush Sr. meeting with Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd on behalf of the Carlyle Group in 2000.
Ex-President Bush Sr. meeting with Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd on behalf of the Carlyle Group in 2000. [Source: Saudi Embassy]Former President George H. W. Bush meets with the bin Laden family on behalf of the Carlyle Group. He had also met with them in November 1998 (see November 1998), but it is not known if he meets with them again after this. Bush denies this meeting took place until a thank you note is found confirming that it took place. [Wall Street Journal, 9/27/2001; Guardian, 10/31/2001]

 
 

A. Q. Khan receiving a medal.A. Q. Khan receiving a medal. [Source: Associated Press]The BBC later reports, “After the elections, [US intelligence] agencies [are] told to ‘back off’ investigating the bin Ladens and Saudi royals, and that anger[s] agents.” This follows previous orders to abandon an investigation of bin Laden relatives in 1996 (see February-September 11, 1996), and difficulties in investigating Saudi royalty. [BBC, 11/6/2001] An unnamed “top-level CIA operative” says there is a “major policy shift” at the National Security Agency at this time. Bin Laden could still be investigated, but agents could not look too closely at how he got his money. One specific CIA investigation hampered by this new policy is an investigation in Pakistani nuclear scientist A. Q. Khan and his Khan Laboratories. Khan is considered the “father” of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons capability. But since the funding for this nuclear program gets traced back to Saudi Arabia, restrictions are placed on the inquiry. [Palast, 2002, pp. 99-100] Also in early 2001, FBI agent Robert Wright, attempting to pursue an investigation into Saudi multimillionaire Yassin al-Qadi, is told by FBI superiors, “it’s just better to let sleeping dogs lie”(see January-March 2001). Reporter Greg Palast notes that President Clinton was already hindering investigations by protecting Saudi interests. However, as he puts it, “Where Clinton said, ‘Go slow,’ Bush policymakers said, ‘No go.’ The difference is between closing one eye and closing them both.” [Palast, 2002, pp. 102]

  
 

A former CIA counterterrorism expert later claims that an allied intelligence agency sees “two of Osama’s sisters apparently taking cash to an airport in Abu Dhabi [United Arab Emirates], where they are suspected of handing it to a member of bin Laden’s al-Qaeda organization.” This is cited as one of many incidents showing an “interconnectedness” between bin Laden and the rest of his family. [New Yorker, 11/5/2001]

 

The Carlyle Group is a large private-equity investment firm, closely associated with officials of the Bush and Reagan administrations, and has considerable ties to Saudi oil money, including ties to the bin Laden family. This morning it is holding its annual investor conference at the Ritz Carlton hotel in Washington, DC. Among the guests of honor is investor Shafig bin Laden, brother of Osama bin Laden. [Observer, 6/16/2002; London Times, 5/8/2003] Former President George H. W. Bush, who makes speeches on behalf of the Carlyle Group and is also senior adviser to its Asian Partners fund [Wall Street Journal, 9/27/2001] , attended the conference the previous day, but is not there today (see (8:00 a.m.) September 11, 2001). [Washington Post, 3/16/2003]

  

After a complete air flight ban in the US began during the 9/11 attacks, some commercial flights begin resuming this day. However, all private flights are still banned from flying. Nonetheless, at least one private flight carrying Saudi royalty takes place on this day. And in subsequent days, other flights carry royalty and bin Laden family members. These flights take place even as fighters escort down three other private planes attempting to fly. Most of the Saudi royals and bin Ladens in the US at the time are high school or college students and young professionals. [New York Times, 9/30/2001; Vanity Fair, 10/2003] The first flight is a Lear Jet that leaves from a private Raytheon hangar in Tampa, Florida, and takes three Saudis to Lexington, Kentucky. [Tampa Tribune, 10/5/2001] This flight apparently takes place several hours after a private meeting between President Bush and Prince Bandar, the Saudi ambassador to the US. Some think the idea of the flights were approved at that meeting (see September 13, 2001). For two years, this violation of the air ban is denied by the FAA, FBI, and White House, and decried as an urban legend except for one article detailing them in a Tampa newspaper. [Tampa Tribune, 10/5/2001] Finally, in 2003, counterterrorism “tsar” Richard Clarke confirms the existence of these flights, and Secretary of State Powell confirms them as well. [MSNBC, 9/7/2003; Vanity Fair, 10/2003] However, the White House remains silent on the matter. [New York Times, 9/4/2003] Officials at the Tampa International Airport finally confirm this first flight in 2004. But whether the flight violated the air ban or not rests on some technicalities that remain unresolved. [Lexington Herald-Leader, 6/10/2004] The Saudis are evacuated to Saudi Arabia over the next several days (see September 14-19, 2001).

 

From left to right: Dick Cheney, Prince Bandar, Condoleezza Rice, and George W. Bush, on the Truman Balcony of the White House on September 13, 2001.From left to right: Dick Cheney, Prince Bandar, Condoleezza Rice, and George W. Bush, on the Truman Balcony of the White House on September 13, 2001. [Source: White House]President Bush and Prince Bandar, the Saudi ambassador to the US, hold a private meeting at the White House. Vice President Cheney, National Security Adviser Rice, and Bandar’s aide Rihab Massoud also attend. [Woodward, 2006, pp. 80] Bandar is so close to the Bush family that he is nicknamed “Bandar Bush.” Sen. Bob Graham (D) later will note that while little is known about what is discussed in the meeting, mere hours later, the first flights transporting Saudi royals and members of the bin Laden family are in the air (see September 13, 2001). Over the next week, they will be taken to several gathering points, and then flown back to Saudi Arabia, apparently without first being properly interviewed by the FBI (see September 14-19, 2001). Graham will say, “Richard Clarke, then the White House’s counterterrorism tsar, told me that he was approached by someone in the White House seeking approval for the departures. He did not remember who made the request… The remaining question is where in the White House the request originated, and how.” Graham will imply that, ultimately, the request originated from this meeting between Bush and Bandar. [Graham and Nussbaum, 2004, pp. 105-107] Others also will later suggest that it was Bandar who pushed for and helped arrange the flights. [Vanity Fair, 10/2003; Fifth Estate, 10/29/2003 pdf file] Bob Woodward will mention in a 2006 book that during the meeting, Bush tells Bandar, “If we [capture] somebody and we can’t get them to cooperate, we’ll hand them over to you.” Woodward will later comment, “With these words, the president casually expressed what became the US government’s rendition policy-the shifting of terrorist suspects from country to country for interrogation.… Though the Saudis denied it, the CIA believe the Saudis tortured terrorist suspects to make them talk.” [Woodward, 2006, pp. 80]

  
 

Khalil bin Laden at the Orlando, Florida, airport, about to be flown out of the country in the days after 9/11.Khalil bin Laden at the Orlando, Florida, airport, about to be flown out of the country in the days after 9/11. [Source: Lions Gate Films]Following a secret flight inside the US that is in violation of a national private airplane flight ban, members of the bin Laden family and Saudi royalty quietly depart the US. The flights are only publicly acknowledged after all the Saudis have left. [Boston Globe, 9/21/2001; New York Times, 9/30/2001] About 140 Saudis, including around 24 members of the bin Laden family, are passengers in these flights. The identities of most of these passengers are not known. However, some of the passengers include:
bullet The son of the Saudi Defense Minister Prince Sultan. Sultan is sued in August 2002 for alleged complicity in the 9/11 plot. [Tampa Tribune, 10/5/2001] He is alleged to have contributed at least $6 million since 1994 to four charities that finance al-Qaeda. [Vanity Fair, 10/2003]
bullet Khalil bin Laden. He has been investigated by the Brazilian government for possible terrorist connections. [Vanity Fair, 10/2003]
bullet Abdullah bin Laden and Omar bin Laden, cousins of bin Laden. Abdullah was the US director of the Muslim charity World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY). The governments of India, Pakistan, Philippines, and Bosnia have all accused WAMY of funding terrorism. These two relatives were investigated by the FBI in 1996 (see February-September 11, 1996) in a case involving espionage, murder, and national security. Their case is reopened on September 19, right after they leave the country. [Vanity Fair, 10/2003] Remarkably, four of the 9/11 hijackers briefly lived in the town of Falls Church, Virginia, three blocks from the WAMY office headed by Abdullah bin Laden. [BBC, 11/6/2001]
bullet Saleh Ibn Abdul Rahman Hussayen. He is a prominent Saudi official who was in the same hotel as three of the hijackers the night before 9/11. He leaves on one of the first flights to Saudi Arabia before the FBI can properly interview him about this. [Washington Post, 10/2/2003]
bullet Akberali Moawalla. A Pakistani and business partner of Osama’s brother Yeslam bin Laden. In 2000, a transfer of over $250 million was made from a bank account belonging jointly to Moawalla and Osama bin Laden (see 2000). [Washington Post, 7/22/2004]
There is a later dispute regarding how thoroughly the Saudis are interviewed before they leave and who approves the flights. Counterterrorism “tsar” Richard Clarke says he agrees to the flights after the FBI assures him none of those on board has connections to terrorism and that it is “a conscious decision with complete review at the highest levels of the State Department and the FBI and the White House.” [US Congress, 9/3/2003] Clarke says the decision to approve the flights “didn’t get any higher than me.” [Hill, 5/18/2004] According to Vanity Fair, both the FBI and the State Department “deny playing any role whatsoever in the episode.” However, Dale Watson, the head of the FBI’s Counterterrorism Division, says the Saudis on the planes “[are] identified, but they [are] not subject to serious interviews or interrogations” before they leave. [Vanity Fair, 10/2003] An FBI spokesperson says the bin Laden relatives are only interviewed by the FBI “at the airport, as they [are] about to leave.” [National Review, 9/11/2002] There are claims that some passengers are not interviewed by the FBI at all. [Vanity Fair, 10/2003] Abdullah bin Laden, who stays in the US, says that even a month after 9/11, his only contact with the FBI is a brief phone call. [Boston Globe, 9/21/2001; New Yorker, 11/5/2001] The FBI official responsible for coordinating with Clarke is Assistant Director Michael Rolince, who is in charge of the Bureau’s International Terrorism Operations Section and assumes responsibility for the Saudi flights. Rolince decides that the Saudis can leave after their faces are matched to their passport photos and their names are run through various databases, including some watch lists, to check the FBI has no derogatory information about them.” [9/11 Commission, 8/21/2004, pp. 196-197, 209 pdf file] Numerous experts are surprised that the bin Ladens are not interviewed more extensively before leaving, pointing out that interviewing the relatives of suspects is standard investigative procedure. [National Review, 9/11/2002; Vanity Fair, 10/2003] MSNBC claims that “members of the Saudi royal family met frequently with bin Laden—both before and after 9/11” [MSNBC, 9/5/2003] , and many Saudi royals and bin Laden relatives are being sued for their alleged role in 9/11. The Boston Globe opines that the flights occur “too soon after 9/11 for the FBI even to know what questions to ask, much less to decide conclusively that each Saudi [royal] and bin Laden relative [deserve] an ‘all clear,’ never to be available for questions again.” [Boston Globe, 9/30/2003] Senator Charles Schumer (D) says of the secret flights: “This is just another example of our country coddling the Saudis and giving them special privileges that others would never get. It’s almost as if we didn’t want to find out what links existed.” [New York Times, 9/4/2003] Judicial Watch will disclose FBI documents that say, “Osama bin Laden may have chartered one of the Saudi flights.” [Judicial Watch, 6/20/2007]

  
 

A private plane picks up Saudis who have gathered in Boston and flies them to Paris, then ultimately to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Because most of the passengers on board are relatives of Osama bin Laden, the 9/11 Commission calls this the “so-called bin Laden flight.” The commission claims there are 26 passengers on board, three of them security personnel. They further report that “22 of the 26… were interviewed by the FBI. Many were asked detailed questions.” However, the commission does not answer how many were not asked detailed questions, or were not questioned at all. [9/11 Commission, 7/24/2004, pp. 557] However, Craig Unger, author of the book House of Bush, House of Saud, publishes the flight manifest during the same week as the 9/11 Commission’s final report is released, and this list contains 29 names (including the three security personnel), not 26. [Craig Unger website, 7/22/2004] The 2005 book Al-Qaeda Will Conquer by Guillaume Dasquié also makes note of this three-person discrepancy. [Financial Times, 4/27/2005]

  

Carlyle Group logo.
Carlyle Group logo. [Source: Carlyle Group]The Carlyle Group, based in Washington, DC, is one of the world’s largest private-equity investment firms. One of its brochures described it as investing “in niche opportunities created in industries heavily affected by changes in governmental policies.” [Fortune, 3/18/2002] It is also the 11th-largest defense contractor in the US. [Red Herring, 12/11/2001] Since being established in 1987, it has signed up many former politicians and used their contacts and influence to promote itself. [Guardian, 10/31/2001] Those on its payroll include former Secretary of State James Baker, former White House budget director Dick Darman, former British Prime Minister John Major, and former US President George H. W. Bush. Its chairman is former CIA Director Frank Carlucci. [Fortune, 3/18/2002] Following 9/11, news reports revealed that Carlyle had a business relationship with Osama bin Laden’s family. According to a Carlyle executive, in 1995 the bin Ladens invested $2 million in the Carlyle Partners II fund, which includes various defense holdings. This was a fairly small amount considering the entire fund is worth $1.3 billion. However, a foreign financier with ties to the bin Ladens claimed their overall investment with Carlyle was much larger. [Wall Street Journal, 9/27/2001; London Times, 5/8/2003] Shafig bin Laden, one of Osama’s brothers, had actually been in Washington, DC, on the morning of 9/11, attending the Carlyle Group’s annual investor conference there (see (9:00 a.m.) September 11, 2001). Former President George H. W. Bush, who is senior adviser to Carlyle Group’s Asian Partners fund, has twice met with the bin Laden family on behalf of the company (see November 1998; January 2000). On this day though, the Carlyle Group ends its relationship with the bin Ladens, and gives them back their investment. [Red Herring, 12/11/2001; Fortune, 3/18/2002] But the family is very well-connected, and their investment in Carlyle is hardly unusual for them. The New Yorker will note, “Much of the family’s private banking is handled by Citigroup, which is chaired by former Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin. The family has equity investments with Merrill Lynch and Goldman, Sachs. Among the family’s business partners is General Electric. A spokesman for Jack Welch, the chairman of G.E., says that the family threw a party for him in the nineteen-nineties in Saudi Arabia, and that Welch ‘considers them good business partners.’ One American diplomat says, ‘You talk about your global investors, it’s them. They own part of Microsoft, Boeing, and who knows what else.’” [New Yorker, 11/5/2001]

  
 

The Binladin Group logo.The Binladin Group logo. [Source: Bin Ladin Group]The New Yorker points to evidence that the bin Laden family has generally not ostracized itself from bin Laden as is popularly believed, but retains close ties in some cases. The large bin Laden family owns and runs a $5 billion a year global corporation that includes the largest construction firm in the Islamic world. One counterterrorism expert says, “There’s obviously a lot of spin by the Saudi Binladin Group [the family corporation] to distinguish itself from Osama. I’ve been following the bin Ladens for years, and it’s easy to say, ‘We disown him.’ Many in the family have. But blood is usually thicker than water.” The article notes that neither the bin Laden family nor the Saudi royal family have publicly denounced bin Laden since 9/11. [New Yorker, 11/5/2001]

  
 

Osama bin Laden’s father, Mohammed bin Laden, with Faisal al-Saud, the Saudi king in the middle of the 20th century.Osama bin Laden’s father, Mohammed bin Laden, with Faisal al-Saud, the Saudi king in the middle of the 20th century. [Source: CNN]The Financial Times estimates that the bin Laden family’s business, the Saudi Binladin Group, is worth about $36 billion. Osama bin Laden inherited about $300 million at the age of ten on the death of his father, but he may be worth much more today. While he spends large amounts each month supporting terror, he reportedly gets large amounts from rich Saudis every month to make up for the losses. [Financial Times, 11/28/2001] The 9/11 Commission later disputes these figures and claims that bin Laden only gets about $1 million a year for about two decades until around 1994 (see August 21, 2004). [9/11 Commission, 6/16/2004]

  
 

Abdullah bin Laden, bin Laden family spokesman (not the Abdullah connected to WAMY).Abdullah bin Laden, bin Laden family spokesman (not the Abdullah connected to WAMY). [Source: Agence France-Presse.]Abdullah bin Laden, spokesman for the bin Laden family and one of Osama’s many brothers, speaks directly to the press for the first time since 9/11. He says that the family cut all personal and financial ties to Osama in 1993 and that no family member has contact with him or provides any kind of support for him. “We went through a tough time. It was difficult. We felt we are a victim as well.” [ABC News, 3/29/2002]

  
 

CBS reports that in the days after the arrest of Ramzi bin al-Shibh (see September 11, 2002) and four other al-Qaeda operatives in Pakistan on September 11, 2002, “a search of the home of the five al-Qaeda suspects turned up passports belonging to members of the family of Osama bin Laden.” No more details, such as which family members, or why bin al-Shibh’s group had these passports, is given. [CBS News, 9/17/2002]

 

Fahrenheit 9/11 movie poster.
Fahrenheit 9/11 movie poster. [Source: Lions Gate Films]Fahrenheit 9/11, a film by well-known filmmaker and author Michael Moore, is released in the US. Amongst other things, this film reveals connections between the Bush family and prominent Saudis including the bin Laden family. [New York Times, 5/6/2004; New York Times, 5/17/2004; Toronto Star, 6/13/2004] It reviews evidence the White House helped members of Osama bin Laden’s family and other Saudis fly out of the US in the days soon after 9/11. [New York Times, 5/17/2004; Toronto Star, 6/13/2004; New York Times, 6/18/2004; Los Angeles Times, 6/23/2004; Newsweek, 6/30/2004] It introduces to the mainstream damning footage of President Bush continuing with a photo-op for seven minutes (see (9:06 a.m.) September 11, 2001) after being told of the second plane hitting the WTC on 9/11. [New York Times, 6/18/2004; Washington Post, 6/19/2004; Newsweek, 6/20/2004; Los Angeles Times, 6/23/2004] Disney refused to let its Miramax division distribute the movie in the United States, supposedly because the film was thought too partisan. [New York Times, 5/6/2004; Guardian, 6/2/2004; Los Angeles Times, 6/11/2004; Agence France-Presse, 6/23/2004] The film won the top award at the prestigious Cannes film festival—the first documentary to do so in nearly 50 years. [BBC, 5/24/2004; Guardian, 5/24/2004; Agence France-Presse, 6/23/2004] It is generally very well received, with most US newspapers rating it favorably. [Agence France-Presse, 6/23/2004; Editor & Publisher, 6/27/2004] The film is an instant hit and is seen by tens of millions. [Associated Press, 6/27/2004; BBC, 6/28/2004; Associated Press, 6/28/2004; CBS News, 6/28/2004] There are some criticisms that it distorts certain facts, such as exaggerating the possible significance of Bush and bin Laden family connections, and gripes about a $1.4 billion number representing the money flowing from Saudi companies to the Bush family. However, the New York Times claims that the public record corroborates the film’s main assertions.

Growing Up Bin Laden: Osama’s Wife and Son Take Us Inside Their Secret World: “I was not always the wife of Osama bin Laden. Once I was an innocent child dreaming little girl dreams.” Thus begins this powerful story by Najwa bin Laden, who married her cousin Osama bin Laden at the age of 15 to become his first wife and the mother to 11 of his children, and her son, Omar bin Laden, the fourth-born son of Osama bin Laden. Together, mother and son tell an extraordinarily powerful story of a man hated by so many yet both loved and feared by his family, with spine-tingling details about the life and times of the man they knew as a husband and father, including: Osama’s disapproval of modern conveniences, including electricity and medicine His plan to toughen up his sons by taking them into the desert without food or water Transporting his wives… and children to the rough terrain of Sudan, where he claimed to be preparing them for attacks from Western powers, commanding them to dig holes and to sleep in those holes, allowing nothing more than sand and twigs for cover Omar’s horror at the rape and murder of a boy his own age by members of a jihadist group living among them in the Sudan What happened in the bin Laden home in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on the morning of September 11, 2001, and Omar’s surprise phone call with his mother, who escaped from Afghanistan only two days before the shattering events that killed so many innocent people Since September 11, 2001, journalists have struggled to uncover carefully guarded information about Osama’s private life. Until now, Osama bin Laden’s family members have not cooperated with any writers or journalists. Now, with unprecedented access and insight, Jean Sasson, author of the best-selling Princess: A True Story Behind the Veil in Saudi Arabia, takes us inside the secret world of Osama bin Laden.


 
 Osama’s Wife and Son Take Us Inside Their Secret World” (Author: Jean Sasson, Najwa bin Laden, Omar bin Laden)
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the end @ copyright Dr iwan Suwandy 2011