Women in power 1450-1500

Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

1450-51 Regent Duchess Catharina van Kleef of Geldre and Zutphen (The Netherlands)

During the pilgrimmage of her husband, Duke Arnold van Egmond (1410-1473), Duke of Gelre and Count of Zutphen she regiend together with a council consisting of members of the States. She was politically influential and during the powerstruggle between har husband and her son, Adolf van Egmont, she sided with her son. A daughter, Mary was Queen of Scotland and another, Catharina, regent of Guelders 1477-82. Catherine of Cleves lived (1417-1476)

Unnamed Arab Lady

Around 1450 Chieftainess Sharifa Fatima of the Zaydi (Yemen)

Daughter of the religious leader, Imam al-Zayel al-Nasir Li Din Allah, she and her tribe took San'a by force of arms in the mid 15th century.


Circa 1450 and 1484-...  Regent Dowager Queen Nang Han Lung of Möng Mint (Myanmar-Burma)

Ruled in the name of her son, Si Wai Fae, and acted as head of one of the Shan - ethnic Thai - states in Burma. The state is also known as Momeik and had the ritual name Gandalarattha.

Dowager Countess Mechtild von Württemberg, Pfalzgräfin von der Pfalz

1450-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Countess Mechthild von der Pfalz of Böblingen, Sindelfingen, Aidlingen, Dagersheim, Darmsheim, Dettenhausen, Döffingen, Holzgerlingen, Magstadt, Maichingen, Ostelsheim, Schönaich and Steinenbronn in Württemberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband Ludwig von Württemberg she was in a yearlong dispute with her brother-in-law Ulrich and her brother Pfalzgraf Friedrich over the guardianship of her two sons. In the end she retired to her dowry, before she married Archduke Albrecht VI, the younger brother of Emperor Friedrich III, though they mainly lived apart, from 1456 mainly lived in Rottenburg, but she remained in the possession of her main dowry Böblingen. Her court was an intellectual and cultural centre and she promoted convents, churches and the University of Tübingen. She lived  (1419-82).


1450-54 Princess-Abbess Agatha von Stadion of Heggbach (Germany)

Member of the noble family von Stadion zu Börningheim that supplied the church with many bishops, imperial abbots and Princess-Abbesses throughout the centuries. She resigned and (d. 1480).


Around 1450 Princess-Abbess Johanka z Risenberka of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prague (The Czech Republic)

The St. Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag, Sankt-Georg Kloster or Sv. Jiri was the oldest convent in the Bohemian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada. The Abbess of was named Princess-Abbess in 1348 with the right to crown the Queens of Bohemia. During the reign of Josef II the Chapter was abolished in 1782.Johanka was daughter of Děpolt z Risenberka (d. 1474) and Kateřina Sokolová z Lemberka (d. 1470).


Around 1450 Reigning Abbess Germaine de Chambray of Montvilliers (France)

Daughter of Jean III de Chambray, seigneur de Chambray and Gilette Cholet


Around 1450 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Chambray of Montvilliers (France)

Succeeded her relative Germaine de Chambray at a not known time.


1451-53/54 Regent Dowager Duchess Chiara Giorgio of Athenai (Greece)

Also known as Chiara Zorzi, Clara or Claire, she was charge of the government after the death of her husband, Raineri II Acciajulo, who was duke of Athens 1435-39 and again from 1441 until his death 10 years later. He was involved in the fights against the Ottomans, who conquered Constantinople a few years later. She was regent for her son Francesco I. She fell in love with the Venetian Bartolomeo Contarini, who murdered his wife in order to stay with her and marry her in Athens in 1453. However, Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire intervened at the insistence of the people on the behalf of her son and summoned her and her lover to his court at Adrianople. Another member of the Acciajuoli family, Francesco II, was sent to Athens as a Turkish client duke and she was thus deprived of her power in the city. Evidently, the citizenry had mistrusted the two lovers influence over the young duke, for whose safey they may have feared. The new duke had her murdered and Bartolommeo appealed to the sultan for justice. Athens was taken into Turkish hands and the new Duke deposed. She was the daughter of Nicholas III Zorzi, the titular margrave of Bodonitsa, and renowned for her beauty. (d. 1454).


1451-64 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Pommern-Stettin (Poland)

After both her husband, Joachim and his cousin Barnim VIII. von Pommern-Barth, had died of the plague, she took over the regency for her son, Otto III (1444-64) together with her brother, Elector Friedrich II. von Brandenburg, who was the co-guardian. In 1454, she married Duke Wartislaw X von Pommern-Rügen und Barth (1435-78) and became mother of two more sons, who died of plague like their older brother in 1564. She lived (1425-65). 

1451-61 Governor Queen Juana Enriquez de Mendoza y Fernández de Cordoba of Navarra 
1461-62 Governor of Cataluña
1466-68 Presiding over the Cortes of Aragón (Spain)

Also the 5th Lady of Casarrubios del Monte, she was very influential during the reign of her husband, Juan II of Aragón, who took over the crown of Navarra after the death of his first wife Queen Blanca I (1391-41). After he tortured Don Carlos, his son by Blanca to death in 1461 the nobles of Catalonia offered the crown to various neighbouring kings and princes who held to e principality for brief periods until 1479 when Juan won the battle. She was daughter of Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza and Marina de Ayala, mother of one son and three daughters, and lived (1425-68).


1451-78 Princess-Abbess Adelheid V Trüllerey genannt von Trostberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

Even though the chapter had become part of the Swiss Confederation in 1438, the Abbess still used the title of a Princess of the Holy Roman Realm (Fürstin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches). Her sister, Adnes, was Meisterein (Mistres) in Hermetschwil. They were daughters of Rüdiger von Trullerey, of a noble family from Aargau and Schaffenhausen in Switzerland, which also had possessions in Germany, and Anes from Trostberg.

1451-87 Politically Influential Sultanina Mara Branković of the Ottoman Empire (Covering The Balkans, what is now Greece, Turkey, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Also known as Sultana Marija, Mara Hatun, Maryam Khanum, Despina Hatun or Amerissa, she was daughter of Durad, Despot of Serbia, and when she was married to the Ottoman sultan Murad II in 1433 her dowry was the larger part of Serbia. She had no children of her own but was close to her husband's son, Mehmed II the Conqueror (1430-51-81), and she was very influential during his reign from 1451, and he often called upon her for advice. She later held court at Ježero in Macedonia surrounded by exiled Serbian nobles, 1461 she was joined by her sister, Catherine, widow of Ulrich II Cantacuzene of Cilly, and they lead an unofficial "foreign office" from Macedonia. In the war between Turkey and Venetia (1463-79) they played an important role as intermediaries and were employed by both sides as diplomatic agents. In 1471 Mara personally accompanied a Venetian ambassador to the Porte for negotiations with the Sultan. She retained her influence of the appointment of leaders of the Orthodox Church, and remained influential during Mehmed's successor, Bayezid II. She lived (circa 1412-87).


1451-57 Reigning Abbess Marie III de Montmorency of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Daughter of Jean II de Montmorency, Seigneur de Beaussault and Isabelle de Nestlé, Dame du Plessis-Cacheleu. Her older sister, Catherine inherited the titles of dame de Beaussault et de Breteuil after the death of two of their brothers. Marie (d. 1461).


1452-60 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna of Teschen-Freistadt (Cieszyn) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Bolesław II of Cieszyn, she ruled the Slesian Duchy for her son Kazimierz II. She was daughter of Duke Ivan Vladimirovich, Prince of Bielsk. (d. after 1490)


1452-58 Joint Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein of Hanau (Germany)

When her son, Reinhard III von Hanau (1412-52) died one year after his father, Reinhard II, she became part of the regency for his son, Philipp I the Younger, together with his maternal grandfather,  Pfalzgraf Otto I. von Pfalz-Mosbach and her youngest son, Philipp I the Older, until the country was devided in 1458, when the latter became sole regent. Mother of 6 children, and (d. 1459).

1452-57 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Margareta von Pfalz-Mosbach of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)

When her husband, Reinhard III, died after only one year reign, she fought to secure the whole County for her oldest son, the 3 year old Philipp I the Younger (1449-1500), according to principle of primogeniture which had been followed since 1475, but other members of the family wanted to divide the inheritance. Her mother-in-law, Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, was able to secure the support of many of the relatives, the most important co-operations of the inhabitants of the County, most importantly the citizen of the the 4 cities; Hanau, Windecken, Babenhausen and Steinau, a number of associations and the vassals of the County. But Margareta and her father managed to keep the County undivided until her death. Born as Pfalzgräfin von Mosbach, and lived (1432-57).

1452-76 Sovereign Countess Marie d'Harcourt of Aumale (France)
1456-76 Sovereign Countess of Harcourt 

Inherited the counties from her father Jean VII d'Harcourt, Count of Tancarville, and married to Antoine de Lorraine, Duke de Vaudémont in 1440 whose descendants inherited the duchy of Lorraine Lillebonne, Elbeuf, Aumale. She was succeeded her sister, Jeanne in Harcourt, and lived (1398-1476).


1452-56 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d'Harcourt of Harcourt (France)

Second daughter of Jean d'Harcourt, she was first married to Jean de Rieux Baron d'Ancenis (d 1431) and secondly to Bertrand de Dinan, Baron de Châteaubriant, Marshal of Bretagne. Succeeded by sister, Marie, who had been Countess of Harcourt since 1452. She lived (1399-1456).


1452-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara Rochemberg of Karniów-Rybnik and Pszczyna (Poland)

Widow of the Slesian Duke Mikołaj III.


1452-1485 Acting Governor Inés de Peraza de las Casas of The Canary Islands (Spain)
1452-1503 Reigning Lady of Lanzarote

Inherited the governorship from her father, Ferdinand de Peraza, together with her husband, Diego García de Herrera y Ayala, who was Governor by the rights of his wife (jure uxoris) but ruled the his absence and defend the islands. In 1576 there was a revolt against their rule because of their continued reclutings of islanders to fight against the „unfaithful islands", but they won the battle, but Queen Isabel I took over the protection of Lanzarote and send a commission leaded by Estevan Perez de Cabitos to examine their rights over the Canary Islands and the following year they were given a large sum of money and the title of Countess and Count but was deprived of Tenerife, Canaria and La Palma. After her husband's death in 1485 at the age of 60, the islands were divided among 2 of their 3 sons and 2 daughters. The daughters Maria de Ayala and Constanza de Sarmiento, split Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste among them. She was daughter of Inés de Las Casas, and lived (circa 1425-1503).


1452-67 Princess-Abbess Walburg zu Spiegelberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Thrown out of the chapter by troops from Braunschweig in 1453. Her election was confirmed by the Pope in 1453, 1456, 1458 and 1465, but she was not able to claim her rights, and in 1467 she resigned


1452-53 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne III de Chauvirey of Remiremont (France)

As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor's deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the bourgeois of the city with her advice. Her family originated from Haute Saône south of Paris.


1453-67 De Facto Ruler Sophia IV zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
1467-85 Princess-Abbess

The troops of her brother, Duke Heinrich III from Braunschweig pawed her way to the office by exiling Princess-Abbess Waldburg, and after Waldburg's abdication in 1467 she was confirmed in the office. Sophia's sister, Agnes II, reigned 1412-39. She lived (circa 1407-85).


1453 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth Selnhofer of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The sources show how her family paid 63 pound for her support when she entered the chapter.


1453-71 Queen Shin Saw Pu of Mons (Bartaban) (Myanmar-Burma)

Also known as Byih-nya Daw, Shinsawbu or Shengtsambu, she was daughter of Razadarit, king of the Mons in Hanthawaddy (Bago) in Lower Myanmar, who was succeeded by her brother. She married Sinphushin Thihathu of Bamarl. After his death three years later, she married his successor Minhla Nge, who died after three months, and his successor Kalay Taung Nyo died after seven months. She then moved back to Hanthawaddy, which was then ruled by her brother King Byinnya Yan. Within a year he was succeeded by Byinnya Baru and Byinnya Gyan, before she finally became Queen of the Mons Kingdom. Her reign was peaceful, quiet and prosperous. She abdicated and retired to the Shwedagon Pagoda, built new pagodas and monasteries and devoted to rest of her life to religious activities. She died at the age of 79.She is still revered today for giving the pagoda its present shape and form. She gave her weight in gold (40 kg) to be beaten into gold leaf and used to plate the stupa. 


1453-66 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Liegnitz of Hainau-Lüben (Chojnów-Lubin) (Poland) 

Also known as Jadwiga Legnicka, she was the youngest daughter of Duke Ludwik II of Legnica-Brzeg and Elżbieta von Brandenburg (ruler of Legnica-Brzeg in 1436-38). In 1445 she married Duke Jan of Chojnów-Lubin. In 1446 she gave birth her only son, Duke Friederich (Fryderyk). Her husband died in 1453 and she became regent of the Slesian Duchy. She lived (circa 1430-1471).


1453-? Political Advisor and Head of Diplomatic Missions Sara Khatun of the Ak Kooyunlu (Azerbaian, Armenia, Western Iran, Iraq and Turkey)

After the death of Turali bek Akkoyunlu, she was able to stop the struggle for power among his  sons and had her son, Uzun Hasan (1453-78) placed on the throne. He transformed the Akkoyunlu state into a powerful feudal empire. Apart from supporting him in his actions, she was in charge of diplomatic negotiations with foreign diplomats from  Europe and the East. 1461 she was also send to negotiate with Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire who was about to conquer the neighbouring Empire of Trapezund, and was received by Mekhmed with great respect and honor. In the course of the talks, it was decided that the state of Akkoyunlu would remain neutral during Mekhmed IIs campaign against Trapezund, and Turkey would not go to war with Akkoyunlu. That accord had enormous importance for Akkoyunlu. Indeed, it was thanks to this agreement that the state of Akkoyunlu preserved its independence.


1453-1507 Leader and Spokesperson of the Byzantine Diaspora Anna Notaras Palaiologina in Venetia (Italy)

Together with two of her sisters, she had already been send to Italy when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1454. Her father, Byzantine Grand Duke and Prime Minister, Loukas Notaras, and the rest of the family were killed. She became a leading member of the Byzantine Diaspora and 1471 she obtained the permission of the city authorities to establish a Greek colony in the Commune of Siena, but for an unknown reason it never materialized. Later moved to Venice where she worked for the right to establish an Orthodox Church against the wishes of the Catholic hierarchy. She used her mother's surname Palaiologina and (d. 1507).


1454-94 Sovereign Lady Johanna van der Aa de Randeraedt of Veulen (Belgium)

Her husband, Willem de Mérode was co-lord until 1483. Succeeded by Willem de Mérode, who was probably her son.

Elzbieta  Rakuszanka

1454-1501 Politically Influential Queen and Grand Duchess Elisabeth von Habsburg of Poland and Lithuania

Also known as Elzbieta Rakuszanka (of Austria), she was very influential during the reign of her husband, polish king and great duke of Lithuania, Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk and their son, Jan I (1492-1501). She was a daughter of Emperor Albrecht II von Habsburg, king of Bohemia and Hungary and Elisabeth of Bohemia-Hungaria (1437-48), and lived (1436–1505).


1454-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara of Mazowsze (Poland)

Following the death of her husband Duke Bolesław IV, she ran the government in the name of her sons.


1454-80 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II Kröhl of Heggbach (Germany)

In 1467 she introduced a more sombre version of the convent life of the Cistercian order. Anna Gräter was "Anti-Abbess" in 1439, but apparently died after a few months in office. She was probably daughter of a citizen of Lindau.


1454-73 Princess-Abbess Elsa van Buren of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Became acting Vorstin-Abdis of the Ecclesiastical Territory, after Jacobäa van Heinsberg vacated the post, the former Abbess Mechtildis van Heine, did not die until 1459. Elsa was excommunicated because of her refusal to follow certain Papal decisions. 


1454-64 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth Rentz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of a seigneurial family.

Leonor of Navarra

1455-79 Lieutenant General Infanta Leonor Trastmara de Aragón y Navarra of Navarra (Spain)
1479 Queen Regnant (Leonor I)

Daughter of Blanca I of Navarra and King Juan II de Aragón, and at the age of 2 she was acclaimed by the Cortes in Pamplona as the legitimate heir of her brother and sister; Carlos, Prince of Viana, and Blanca of Navarra, but when their mother died in 1441, their father ursurped the throne. She was appointed Governor General of the Kingdom in 1455 civil war broke out between her father and brother until the latter's death in 1461. Her father made a treaty making her his heir, excluding her older sister, Blanca II, who was left with Foix and Moncada, but died in 1464. The following year she signed a treaty with the Beamontese using the title of "Primogenic Princess, Heiress of Navarra, Infanta of Aragón and Sicilia, Countess of Foix and Bigorra, Lady Béarn, Acting General for the Serene King, my wery reduptable lord and father in this his Kingdom of Navarra". And when her father died, she succeeded him as monarch of Navarra, but died soon after. She was married to Gaston IV, count of Foix, and had 11 children with him. The oldest, Gaston died in 1470 and her daughter-in-law, Madelaine de Valois was regent for her two children, Francisco and Catalina who succeeded their grandmother. She lived (1425-79).

1455-58 Regent Dowager Duchess Eleonora of Scotland of Austria-Tirol
1467 Regent of Vorlanden (Austria)

In charge of the government in the name of her husband, Sigismund von Habsburg, who was abroad. They had no children, and she lived (1433-80). 


1455-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Oleśnicka of Mazowsze-Bełz (Poland)
1455-1476 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Sochaczew
1455-81 Reigning Dowager Duchess of
1476-before 1491 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Koło, Brdów, Bolimów, Mszczonów and Stare Wikitki

After the death of her husband, Władysław I of Masovia-Plock she reigned in the name of her sons Siemowit VI and Władysław II. Both sons died in 1462. She was daughter of Duke Konrad V Kantner of Oleśnica and Małgorzata and lived (1420/30-before 1491).


1455-73 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Paroye of Remiremont  (France)

Held the office of Dame Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1452-55. In 1468 the territory was hit by plague.


1455-81 Sovereign Countess Françoise de Châtillon of Périgod, Vicomtesse de Limoges and Dame d’Avesnes (France)

Daughter of Isabelle, who reigned 1317-28 and succeeded father, Guillaume de Châtillon-Blois, dit de Bretagne, vicomte de Limoges, Seigneur d’Avesnes. Married to Alain d'Albret Le Grand, Seigneur d'Albert, Comte de Graves, Vicomte de Tartas (1440-1522), who was joint ruler 1470-1522. She (d. 1481).

1455-58 and 1467 Regent Duchess Eleanor of Scotland of Tirol (Austria)

She was in charge of the government during the absence of her husband, Archduke Sigismund von Habsburg of Autria and Tirol and became involved in his disputes with Nicholas of Cusa, bishop of Brixen, for the control of the Eisack, Puster and Inn valleys. She translated The History of the King's Son of Galicia, named Pontus, and the beautiful Sydonia from French to German. She was daughter of James I, King of Scots and Joan Beaufort, who was regent of Scotland 1437-45. Eleanor had no children and lived (1433-1480).


1455-73 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Paroye of Remiremont  (France)

Held the office of Dame Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1452-55. In 1468 the territory was hit by plague.


1456-79 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde von Egloffstein of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Swiss noble family, originating in Burg Egloffstein now in Bavaria, and divided into various sidelines.


Around 1456 Reigning Abbess Ursula von Mirlingen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Also sovereign over a number of possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.


1456-80 Hereditary Countess Margaret of Celje (Slovenia)

Daughter of Ulrich III of Cilli (1406-1456), who was supporter of Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia and her son, Ladislaus V Posthumous, and virtually regent of the kingdom. Margaret married Count Herman of Montfort and Duke Vladislav of Teschen (d. 1456).

Elisabeth von Sirck, Gräfin zu Sayn

1456-89 Hereditary Lady Elisabeth von Sirck of Furbach, Monklar and Meinzberg, The Fief of  Lützelburg and other Lordships (Germany)

Inherited the Lordships from her uncle, Jacob von Sirck, Kurfürst von Trier and her father and her possessions were incorporated into the County of Sayn. Her husband, Gerhard II, Count of Sayn, Lord of Homburg, (1452-1493), was an influential statesman in the German Empire and was named Stadtholder of the Westphalian Courts. She was mother of 9 sons and 7 daughters, though most of them died as infants. She was first married to a Count of Zweibrücken, and lived (1435-89).

1457-1515 Sovereign Dame Claudine Grimaldi of Monaco, Sovereign Dame of Mentone and Roccabruna, Baroness di San Demetrio

Daughter of Seigneur Catalan Grimaldi and reigned jointly with her husband and relative Lamberto Grimaldi d'Antibes during their marriage 1458-94 and with sons Jean II 1494-1505 and Lucien 1505-23. She lived (1451-1515).


1457-58 Regent Dowager Dame Pomellina Fregoso of Monaco

Took over the regency for her granddaughter, Claudine, after the death of her son Catalan Grimaldi di Monaco, Signore de Monaco et Menton (1454-57). Her husband, Jean I, who had initially ruled with his two brothers, were taken prisoner of the Duke of Milano who threatened to kill him if Monaco was not released to his power, but her tough and courageous attitude was catalyst to his release. Her daughter-in-law, Blance del Caretto, died in 1458. Born as Pomellina Campo Fregoso to a noble Genoese family, she lived (1387/88-1468).


1457-58 Captain-Donatary Isabel Moniz of Porto Santo in Madeira (Portugal)

Succeeded her husband, Bartolomeu I Perestrelo (1425-57), to the office of capitano donataria, which meant that she was governor of the Island and had full control over the domain. She held the office of judge, could make land grants. er daughter, Felipa Moniz e Perestrello, was married to Christopher Columbus in Lisabon, where the family had moved. But later they moved back to Porto Santo in the Madeira islands, to live with her son, who had been handed over his Hereditary Captainship (Capitão Donatário do Porto Santo) about 1476. She was daughter of Vasco Martins Moniz and Brites Pereira, and lived (circa 1430-after 1480).


1457-62 Princess-Abbess Walpurgis Aigler of Baindt (Germany)

As Fürstäbtissin had the right to be represented on the on the College of Prelates of Swabia which had one joint vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1457-75 Reigning Abbess Marie IV de Bretagne of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor Berenger of Provence. The order had suffered severely from the decay of religion, which was general about this time, as well as from the Hundred Years War. In the three priories of St-Aignan, Breuil, and Ste-Croix there were in all but five nuns and one monk, where there had been 187 nuns and 17 monks at the beginning of the thirteenth century, and other houses were no better off. In 1459, a papal commission decided upon a mitigation of rules that could no longer be enforced, and nuns were even allowed to leave the order on the simple permission of their priories. Dissatisfied with the mitigated life of Fontevrault, she moved to the priory of La Madeleine-les-Orléans in 1471. Here she deputed a commission consisting of religious of various orders to draw up a definite Rule based on the Rules of Blessed Robert, St. Benedict, and St. Augustine, together with the Acts of Visitations. Sixtus IV finally approved the resulting code in 1475, and four years later it was made obligatory upon the whole order. She lived (1442-77).


1457-59 Reigning Abbess-General Maria de Almenárez of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Like Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.

1457 Rebellion Leader Elizabeth Szilágyi in Hungary

Szilágyi Erszébet was widow of Hunyadi János (John Corvinius) (circa 1387-1456), Baron of Szolnok and Count of Temesvár, Regent of Hungary 1446-53 during the minority of Lazslo V Postumus. Together with her brother, Michael, she led an open revolt against the king who held her son, Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás Hunyadi), as prisoner. Fierce but indecisive fighting continued for months and was ended only by the news of Ladislaus V's premature death in Prague in November 1457 without an heir. Her son was elected king by the Diet and crowned the following year.

Charlotte of Cyprus

1458-64 Queen Regnant Charlotte of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia

As she succeeded her father, Jean II, the Grand Caraman, the Turkish ruler of Caramania, seized the opportunity afforded by a weak government in Cyprus to capture Courico, the last Latin outpost in Armenia, which had been in the possession of the Lusignans since the reign of Pierre I. In 1453 the Ottoman Turks had expanded to the shores of the Bosporus and invested Constantinople by sea and land. While she had the support of the nobility, her half-brother Jacques the Bastard, had the sympathy of the Cypriot population, and had been led to believe that his father wished him to succeed to the throne. But the barons were too strong for him, and Jacques, although archbishop, was not allowed to take part in the coronation. In 1459 she married her cousin, count Louis of Savoy, and Jacques broke into open rebellion and took refuge in Cairo. Presenting himself to the sultan, who was suzerain of Cyprus, Jacques complained that, though next male heir to the throne, and he had been driven from the island, and appealed successfully for help to recover his inheritance.
In 1460, with a fleet of eighty Egyptian galleys, Jacques landed at Larnaca. The Cypriots, hating the Savoyards whom her husband had brought to the island, received him gladly, and he was soon master of the island. Charlotte and her husband took refuge in the castle of Kyrenia, where they were blockaded for three years. The castle, which was not actively attacked, was finally surrendered by the treachery of its commandant. They fled to Rome, where she died in 1487 after bequeathing her sovereignty to the house of Savoy. Her half-brother was renowned for his political amorality.
She lived (1436-87).

Queen Jelena of Serbia

1458-59 Regent Dowager Despotess Jelena Palaiologina of Serbia

Widow of Lazar II Brankovic (1456-58) and regent for son Stefan Brankovic. In 1459 Stefan Tomasevic was despot, but the same year the Ottoman Turks finally conquered Serbia. Died as nun in 1473.  

Anna von Sachsen

1458-86 Temporary Regent Margravine and Electress Anna von Sachsen of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Brandenburg-Kumblach and Brandenburg (Germany) 1486-1512 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Neustadt an der Aisch

After their marriage in 1458, she was in charge of the government during many absences from the state of her husband, Margrave and Elector Albrecht Achilles (1414-86), Margrave of Ansbach after the death of his father in 1440, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach after the death of his brother in 1464 and Elector of Brandenburg in 1470 after the abdication of his oldest brother and at the same time he inherited all the possessions of the House of Hohenzollern. After his death she resided at her dowry. She was mother of 13 children, and lived (1437-1512).


1458-79 Sovereign Countess Margaretha von Limburg and Broich (Germany)

Succeeded her father, Wilhelm and was married to Wilhelm von Buren and Gumprecht II von Neuenhar, and lived (1406-79).


1458-1511 Princess-Abbess Hedwig von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)

1465 Emperor Friedrich III confirmed her secular rights as Princess of the Realm (Reichsfürstin). 1477 the citizens of Quedlinburg raised arms to remove her, but she was supported by the Dukes Ernst und Albrecht with 400 mounted and 200 foot soldiers, who occupied the castle after a short fight and a little later the city capitulates. Hedwigs terms were written down in a treaty - among others she forced the Council of the City to leave the Hanse - the Northern German Trade Association. When the administration of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles, Reichskreisen, in 1495, she became member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly. She was daughter of Kurfürst Friedrich II and Archduchess Margarete von Habsburg of Austria, and lived (1504-74).

1458-59 Politically Influential Dowager Despotess Helena Palaiologina of Serbia

Attemted to assume power together with her brother-in-law Stefan III Brankovic after the death of her husband Prince Lazar II Branković, as local Serbs rebelled after Ottomans seized Smederevo in March 1458, taking Michael Andjelović prisoner. She arranged the marriage of her daughter to the King of Bosnia in an attempt to gather support for her position, but the Ottomans captured Smederevo during a major assault 20 June 1459 which marked the final end of the Serbian state. She fled with her two younger daughters to the island of Leukas, where she converted to Catholicism and became a nun as Hypomone. The daughter of Thomas Palaiologos, Ruler of Morea, and Catherine Zaccaria of the Principality of Achaea, she lived (1431-73).


1459-74 Hereditary Duchess Zofia of Pommern-Stolp (Pomerze-Słupsk) (At the time Germany, now Poland)
1474-83 Lady of Darłowo

She left her husband, Erich II of Pommern-Wolgast, Hinterpommern and Stettin (1425-74) and moved with her children to the Duchy of Rügenwalde alone only with the aid of her Lord-Chancellor Lord Ritter Johann von Massow. In 1459 Erich I (ex-king of Denmark) had died and left the Duchy of Hinterpommern without heirs. Sophia and Erik II hurried there because she saw herself as the sole heir, but the following year a war of succession broke out with various other pretenders. But she remained in her territories until her death. She was daughter of Bogusław IX and Maria, who had been regent for Erik I of Pommerania (ex-king Erik VII of Denmark). She lived (1435-97).


1459-89 Princess-Abbess Sophia III von Gleichen of Essen (Germany)

Member of a family of Counts of Gleichen in Thüringen.


Around 1459 Reigning Abbess Eva von Erpach of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Her family was Free Lords and Lords zu Erpach und Bickenbach in Odenwald and the city of Michelstadt.


1459-73 Reigning Abbess Ottilia Durchlacher of Gutenzell (Germany)

Emperor Sigismund confirmed the privileges of the Chapter in 1437, and they formed the legal foundation of the territory's position as an independent state.


1459-77 Reigning  Abbess-General Juana de Guzmán I of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas she possessed the privilege also to confirm Abbesses of subsidiary convents, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


1459-79 Hereditary Lady Margarethe von Limburg of Bedbur and Hakenbroich (Germany)

Daughter of Wilhelm I, Count von Limburg (d. 1459) and Metza von Reifferscheid (d. 1437), and married to Gumprecht II von Neuenahr (d. 1484).

Mary van Geldre of Scotland

1460-63 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Mary of Guelders of Scotland (United Kingdom)

After the death of her husband, of James II, she was regent for her son, James III, and her adviser, James Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews. After their deaths, James was seized (1466) by the Boyd family, who ruled Scotland until 1469. In that year James married Margaret, daughter of the Danish king, and began to rule personally. Maria de Gelders was daughter of Duke Arnold Gelders and Catherine of Cleves and lived (1432-63).


1460/65-74 Regent Dowager Countess Maddalena di Carreto of Gaustalla (Italy)

Widow of Pietro Guido I and regent for son Guido Galeotto.

Battista Sforza of Urbino

1460-72 Regent Duchess Battista Sforza of Urbino (Italy)

 In charge of the government during the absence of her husband, Duke Federico from the state. She was the daughter of Alessandro Sforza and Constanza da Varano. She lived (1446-72).


1461-64 Titular Queen Blanca II of Navarra (Spain)

Proclaimed Queen on the death of her brother, Carlo, but was imprisoned by her father Juan II, King of Aragon since 1458, who then became King of Navarra, and was succeeded by her younger sister, Leonor in 1479. Blanca II was married to Enrico IV of Castilla and Léon, until their marriage was annulled in 1454 because she had chosen to remain a virgin. She lived (1420-64).


1461-70 Regent Dowager Sultana Mhduma Gahan of Bahmani Sahi (India)

Ruled on behalf of her sons, Nizanu Shah (d. 1463) and Sams ad-Din Muhamed Shah II (1463-82).


1461-65 Member of the Regency Council The Dowager Queen, Makhduma-e-Jahan Nargis Begum of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)

The widow of Humayun she was the mastermind of the Regency Council, which reigned for her son, Nizam-ud-din Ahmad III, who succeeded to the throne at the age of 8. He died on the night of his marriage, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah III, who was between 9 and 10 years. When he got married at the age of 14, she retired from active role. 


1461-72 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Anastasya Aleksandrovna of Suzdal of Tver (Russia)

After the death of her husband, Boris (1399-1425-61) she was regent for Mikhail III (1453-61-85-1505), the last Grand Prince of Tver. (d. 1483).


1461-80 County Sheriff Hebele Lydikesdatter of the County of Nygård, Denmark

Heble Kande or Kane was widow of Peder Eriksen Gyldenstierne and took over the function as County Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Tenantcy of the Bishop of Roskilde (Bispelensmand). She Chief of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Dorothea and allowed to enjoy the income of the City Tax of Odense. The daughter of Lydike Kane or Kande and Elsebe Daa, she lived (circa 1420-80).


1462 Politically Active Princess Katherine of Płock, Rawsk and Zawkrzew (Poland)

Engaged in politics since the death of her nephew, Prince Władysław II of Wisk, Płock, Płońsk, Rawsk, Sochaczew, Zawkrze and Bełz) in 1462, but she was deposed. Also an army leader. She had married the Lithuanian prince Michał 1440/45. She was daughter of prince of Mazowsze Siemowit IV and Aleksandra, a sister of king Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland, and lived (1409/20-after 1468). 


Around 1462 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara Ruska of Mazowsze-Warszawa (Poland)

The widow of Bolesław IV, she reigned jointly with the bishop of Płokck.


1462-74 Princess-Abbess Agnes II de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of the family of Mérode-Frankenberg, who were Guardians or Stewards if the Imperial Ecclesiastical Territory of Burtscheid. Its members were sometimes known as Merode sometimes as Franckenberg, but most Princess-Abbesses of Nivelle and of Burtscheid used the name of Franckenberg.


1462-71 Princess-Abbess Anna VI von Räns of Baindt (Germany)

The chapter was founded 1227 it's Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373 with the rank of a Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin).

Abbesse Jeanne IV of Jouarre

1462-91 Reigning Abbess Jeanne IV d'Ailly of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

The lands that was abandoned as a result of the war, weighed heavily on her and she constantly leased them out to the very poor. This was the origin of the association known as the "Usages" which still exists today.


Until 1462 Hereditary Countess Anastasia von Isenburg-Wied of Isenburg and Wied (Germany)

She was the last of her line and married Dietrich IV von Runkel. Their son, Friedrich IV, was created Count zu Wied in 1454.


1463 Regent Dowager Duchess Petronella Bembo of Naxos et de L'Archipel (Greece Island-State)

Second wife of Francesco II, 16th Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, Lord of Syros, and regent for son Giacopo III (1446-63-80), whose daughter Fiorenza was Lady of Santhorini (1479-80), Namphios 1463, and Paros in 1520. The Turks attacked Andros in 1468 and 1470, and Naxos in 1477. His unnamed daughter held the island of Santorini as her dowry.


1463-1528 Sovereign Dame Fiorenza Crispo of Namfios (Greek Mainland)
1479-80 Sovereign Princess of Santhorini, Thera and Therasia (Greek Island-State)
1520-28 Sovereign Dame of Paros

Inherited the lordship from her father, Guglielmo II, Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, Baron of Artrogidis, Lord of Milos, Santhorini, Andros, Delos, Ios, Paros and Co-Lord of Amorgos, who had succeeded his great nephew in 1453 as Duke of Naxos with the agreement of his nephew and co-regent Francesco, depriving his niece Adriana of her rightful inheritance as well as her right of inheritance, as it was also agreed that Francesco would succeed Duke Guglielmo. She was married to Luigi Barbaro (d. 1485). Domenico I Pisani, Lord of Antiparos, and lived (1463-1528).

Serbian Queen

1463-78 Dowager Queen Katarina Vukic Kosaca of Bosnia-Serbia

When the kingdom was occupied by the Ottomans in 1461, her husband Stjepan Tomasevic (1461-63) was killed and her son and daughter brought up in the Islamic faith. She escaped and lived in exile in Rome where she died. As the legal representative of the Bosnian Kingdom, she left it to the Holy See. She lived (1424-78). 

1463-65 Reigning Princess Isabelle de Clermont of Taranto, Titular Queen of Jerusalem (Italy)

Isabella di Chiaromonte succeeded her uncle, Giovanni Antonio Orsini Del Balzo and had been married to Ferrante di Aragona since 1444/45, the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon who had conquered the Napolitan kingdom from French Angevins. Her husband became King of Napoli in 1458 and through her claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The elder daughter of Tristan di Chiaramonte (Tristan de Clermont-Lodeve), Count of Cupertino, and Catherine Orsini Del Balzo di Taranto, daughter of Maria d'Enghien, she was mother of 6 children, and lived (circa 1424-65).


1463-74 Princess-Abbess Begina Grassler of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Abbess had been a Prelate of the Realm in 1242 and member of the bank of the Swabian Prelates of the Realm in the Imperial Diet - Schwäbisches Reichsprälatenkollegium.


1463-69 Princess-Abbess Margaretha von Merwitz of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Elected Pröbstin of Frose in 1425, which meant that she was the head of that dependent chapter. She gave the tenantcies of "the Castle of Plötzkau with dependencies, the Stewardship of Gernrode and Badeborn, the Lord-service (herrendienst) and half of the excise of Gernrode, estates in Asmersleben, the income from Frose and a "free farm", and some rights in Juezer, Balberge, Pösigkau und Möllendorf and the Sewardship of Walda" jointly to the to Sovereign Princes Georg I. von Anhalt-Zerbs, Adol and Albrecht in 1468.


Around 1463 Princess-Abbess Suzanne d'Eptingen of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)

Confirmed the fief, castle and village of Wangenbourg at Georges de Wangen and his brothers.


1464-1505 Sovereign Princess Marietta Da Korogna of Sifanto 
1464-76 Sovereign Princess of Zia (Greek Island States)

Married to Nicolo Gozzadini II (Nikolaos B' Goranidis or Gozadini). They reigned during very difficult times for the island, which was under attack from the Turks and experienced as serious reduction of the population.


1464-79 Baroness Regnant Catherine de Coarraze of Coarraze and Aspet (France)

When she succeeded her father, her husband, Count Mathieu de Foix had been dead for 11 years, and her reign was troubled by family feuds, and in 1479 she lost the Castle and Barony of Coarraze and withdrew to Aspet. Ruined by the feuds, she sold the barony to Jean de Foix, Vicomte de Narbonne in 1483, and sought refuge at he Castle of Durfort in the village of Galey in Couserans. The mother of two daughters, she lived (1431-92).

Ginevra Sforza in Bologna

1464-1506 De-facto Ruler Ginevra Sforza of Bologna (Italy)

Totally dominated her second husband, Giovanni II Bentivoglio. Also her first husband, Sante Bentivoglio, ruled the state 1454 until his death in 1462. She was illegitimate daughter of Alessandro Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, and she lived (1440-1507).

Elizabeth Woodville

1464-83 Politically Influential Queen Elizabeth Woodville of England (United Kingdom)
1475 "Guardian of the Keeper of the Realm"

In 1464 she was married privately to King Edward IV, who reigned (1461-70 and 1471-83). Apparently she was a greedy, unscrupulous woman who insisted on the King showering lands and wealth on all her relations. In 1470 her husband was in exile and she had to take sanctuary at Westminster. In 1475 her infant old son, the later Edward V, was appointed "Keeper of the Realm" and she was named his guardian during her husband's absence from the country. When her husband died she attempted to play a part in the regency but instead her marriage was declared invalid and she took sanctuary again. The most extraordinary point in her career was reached when the wily Richard III tempted her to come to his Court again and she went through some sort of reconciliation with him. Henry VII never trusted her and, in 1487, she went to reside in the nunnery at Bermondsey on a pension. She was daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, and Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford, of the house of Luxemburg, and had first been married Sir John Grey of Groby, a Lancastrian, who fell at St. Albans in 1461. By him she had two sons. With Edward she had 10 children, among whom was Elizabeth of York, who married Henry VII and the "Princes in the Tower", Edward V and his brother, Richard, Duke of York, who were murdered, apparently, by their uncle, Richard III. She lived (1437-65).


1464-96 Reigning Abbess Anna von Reischach von Reichenstein-Linz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Resigned (d. 1499).


1464 Acting Lady Anne Jensdatter Present of Gotland (Sweden)

Acting Lensherre - representative of the king - jointly with brother-in-law Filip Axelsen Thott after the death of her husband, Oluf Axelsen Thott, whose third wife she was. She (d. 1485/87)

1465-97 De-Facto Reigning Duchess Sophia von Hinterpommern of Rügenwalde in Pommern (Poland)

Left her husband, Erich II of Pommern-Wolgast, Hinterpommern and Stettin (1425-74) and moved with her children to the Duchy of Rügenwalde alone only with the aid of her Lord-Chancellor Lord Ritter Johann von Massow. In 1459 Erich I had died and left the Duchy of Hinterpommern without heirs. Sophia and Erich II hurried there because she saw herself as the sole heir, but the following year a war of succession broke out with various other pretenders. She remained in her lands until her death. She was daughter of Bogislaw IX von Hinterpommern and Sophie von Schleswig-Holstein. She lived (1435-97).


1465-75 Reigning Abbess Ursule de la Viefville of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Sister of Bonne, who reigned 1438-65.

Atotoztli of Tenochtitlán

1466-72 Female King Atotoztli of Tenochtitlán (Mexico)

Also known as Huitzilxochtzin. Sources indicate that she might have acted as tlatoani (King) of the kingdom during a six-year gap between the reigns of Motecuhzoma I and Axayacatl. This possibility is raised by the document 'Los Anales de Tula'. Another document, the 'Relación de la genealogía'  goes even further, claiming that this Atotoztli actually ruled for more than thirty years. The reason so little is known about her reign because the official Aztec scribes—almost all of whom were men—neglected to mention the female tlatoani since female rulers were so uncommon. Thus, rather than mentioning her, most scribes filled this gap between male kings either by extending the reign of Motecuhzoma I beyond his death, or by pushing back the beginning of Axayacatl’s reign to a date before his actual inauguration. Shewas daughter of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma I and Chichimecacihuatzin, the daughter of Cuauhtototzin, the ruler of Cuauhnahuac, and married Tezozomoc, son of the previous emperor Itzcoatl, and gave birth to three sons who would later become emperors themselves: Axayacatl, Tizoc, and Ahuitzotl.

Yolande de Valois

1466-69 Regent Duchess Yolande de Valois of Savoia, the Counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte
1471-1472-78 Regent Dowager Duchess of Savoy (Italy)

Jolanda di Valois was in charge of the government during the illness of husband, Amedeo IX. With the help of her brother, King Louis XI of France, she managed to fight of the armed resistance of her three sons. After Amadeo's death she became regent for her son, Duke Philiberto I of Savoy and Titular-king of Armenia, Cyprus and Jerusalem, who died 18 years old in 1482. She managed to manoeuvre between the interests of her brother and Charles, Duke of Burgundy. She was daughter of King Charles VII of France and Maria di Napoli, and lived (1434-78).

Theda Ukena

1466-94 Regent Dowager Countess Theda Ukena of Ostfriesland (Germany)

Grand-daughter of the Friesian chief Fokko Ukena and married Ulrich Cirksena who was created count of Ostfriesland in 1454 one year after their marriage. After his death she was first regent for son Enno I, who drowned in 1491 and then for Edzard I. She successfully led her troops in warfare against other major chiefs and counts in the Friesland area.


1466-80 Dowager Reigning Lady Dowager Countess Katharina von Gemen of the Office and Castle of Gronau in Bentheim-Steinfurt (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Arnold I von Bentheim-Steinfurt, she reigned her dowry, until she resigned in 1480. She lived (after 1439-1502).


Until 1466 Sovereign Countess Marguerite d'Orléans of Vertus-en-Champagne (France)

Daughter of Louis de France, Duc de Touraine, d'Orléans etc., and married Richard de Bretagne, comte d'Étampes. She lived (1406-66).

Unnamed Muslim Lady

1467 Princess Regnant Bigum Hatun of Qara Quyünlü (Black Sheep Turks in Iran/Iraq)

After the death of Jahanshah (1435-67) she held power before the Hassan Ali came on the throne of the Emirate of Qara Qoyunu, Turkmen vassals of the Jalayirids in Eastern Anatolia. They became independent in 1389, after the Jalayirids had been overrun by Tamerlane's Timurids.


From 1467 Sovereign Countess Margarete of Leiningen-Westerburg (Germany)

Following the death of her brother Hesso, the last male of the family, she took possession of the lands. She was the widow of Richard zu Westerburg and became the founder of the lines of Alt-Leiningen-Westerburg and Neu-Leiningen-Westerburg. 

Korean Queen

1468-77 Regent Great Dowager Queen Yun Jong-hi of Korea

Also known as Jong-hi Wang-hu, she ruled in the name of her son Ye-jong II after the death of her husband, Great King Se-jo. In 1469 her son died and was succeeded by a nephew, her grandson Song-jong (1457-69-95). She was daughter of the Prime Minister, and lived (1418-83).


1468-69 De Facto Reigning Dowager Countess Marie von Croÿ of Blankenheim (Germany)

She managed to keep control of the territory for a period after her husband, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, but in the end had to give in to her in-laws. At first she pretended to be pregnant, and then petitioned Duke Charles von Burgund for aid and assistance. In 1471 her marriage to Wilhelm von Vierneburg ended the feud.


1468-70 Claimant Elisabeth von Schleiden of the County of Blankenheim (Germany)

Daughter of Johanna von Blankenheim and Johann von Scheiden, she claimed the County after her cousin, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, without leaving any heirs. Elisabeth's son Dietrich von Manderscheid came in possession of the territories Blankenheim and Gerolstein in 1470, but the disagreements with other branches of the family continued for many years. 

Lu rezia Tornabouoni

1469-82 Politically Influential Lucrezia Tornabuoni of Firenze (Italy)

During the reign of her son, Lorenzo de' Medici, she was very involved in the political life of the Republic and exercised considerable influence. She also also wrote sonnets, She was a daughter of Francesco Tornabuoni and Selvaggia Alessandrini. and was married to Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, son of Cosimo de' Medici, a wealthy banker from Florence, who helped the family return from their exile from the City State. She lived (1425-82)

Clarice Orsini

1469-87 Politically Influential Clarice Orsini of Firenze (Italy)

Functioned as representative - as a quasi-diplomat - of her husband, Lorenzo de' Medici, during his tenure as de-facto ruler of the Florentine Republic.  She was mother of Pope Leo X and daughter of Giacomo Orsini, Lord of Monterotondo and Bracciano, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. She lived (circa 1453-87).

Scholastica von Gernrode 

1469-1504 Princess-Abbess Scholastika von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The Princess grew up in the Convent of Helfta and became a canoniss in Quedlinburg before she was elected Fürstäbtissin at the age of 18, but was not confirmed in office by Emperor Friederich III until 1488. She stabilized the internal affairs of the chapter, but the finances was put under heavy strain by a process against the Bishop of Halberstadt, who had made a dam which flodded parts of the lands of the territory. After 24 years it ended with a settlement. She was daughter of Georg I von Anhalt-Zerbst and Sophie von Honstein (d. 1451). Her aunt, Mechtildis, had been sovereign of the territory 1451-63, and her sister, Agnes was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1485. Scholastika lived (1451-1504).


1469-75 Acting Reigning Abbess Margaretha III von Paulstorff of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

As Coadjurix she was Acting Chief of the chapter and territory.


1469-1490/1492 Politically Influential Catherine Cantacuzina Branković in the Ottoman Empire (Covering The Balkans, what is now Greece, Turkey, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

When her husband, Count Ulrich II of Celli (1406-56), died she inherited his properties, but was obliged to conclude a treaty one year later with Friedrich III Duke of Austria under which she handed over all the Cilli castles in Carinthia, Styria and Carniola while she retained the family castles in Hungary and Croatia. However, in 1460 she was had to sell her remaining properties to Vitovec,  Ban of Slavonia, and retired to Dubrovnik. 9 years later she joined her younger sister, Mara Branković, widow of Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire, at her residence in Ježevo (probably identical to the modern settlement of Dafni in Mount Athos), who was and advisor of her step-son Mehmed from 1451. Together with her sister, she acted as intermediary during the Turkish/Venetian war which lasted until 1479. The daughter of Despot Đurađ Branković of Serbia and Eirene Kantakouzene, she lived (circa 1418-1490/1492).

Madeleine de France

1470-82 Regent Princess Madeleine de France of Andorra and Foix-Béarn (France)
1479-83 and 1483-84 Regent of Navarra (Spain)

Also known as Madalena de Valois, she was in charge of the government in the name of Francesco in Foix-Béarn and Andorra 1470-83 after her husband, Count Gaston V's death. In 1479 her son succeeded his paternal grandmother, Queen Leonor, who only reigned a few months, in Navarra, After Francesco's premature death, she became regent for daughter, Catalina, but her brother-in-law, Jean de Foix, claimed the throne on the basis of salic law, which had never been used in Navarra. This led to civil war, and she was taken hostage by Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1494, and died the following year. Her death provoked fresh conflict. She was daughter of Charles VII of France and Isabeau of Bavaria and lived (1443-95).


1470-circa 92 Regent Khatun Mandughai of Mongolia

Also known as Mandugaya Setsen Khatun, she was widow of Grand Khan Mandaghol, the 27th successor of Jengis Khan, who was succeeded by his nephew, Bolkho, in 1467. When he was assassinated three years later, the mother of his five-year-old son, Dayan Qagani, had deserted the child, and Mandughai took him under her protection, proclaimed him khan, and became his regent. She assumed command of the Mongol troops and defeated their enemy, the Oirat. In 1481 she married Dayan, and 1491-92 she again lead the army to fend off the Orat. She lived (circa 1448-circa 1492).


1470-90 We Ban-ri Gau Daeng Marawa Makalappi Bisu-ri La Langpili Patta-ri La We Larang, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Majang before her accession on the death of her father. Her ceremonial name was Malajangi-ri China, and she was mother of two sons.


1470-... Sultana Narisa Malik uz-Zahir of Samudra Pasai Kesepulih (Indonesia)

Daughter of Sultan Kadir al Malik uz-Zahir ibnu al-Marhum of Pasai and married to Sultan Muhammad of Aceh, who reigned (1465-77).

Ingeborg Åkesdotter Tott

1470-97 Temporary Regent Ingeborg Åkesdotter Tott the County of Gripsholm with the Shires of Selebo, Åkers, Österrekarnas and Villåttinge and the Estate of Strömsrum (Sweden) 1504-07 Reigning Dowager Lady of the fief of Häme Castle (Finland)

Often in charge of Gripsholms Län after her second husband, Sten Gustafsson Sture, became regent of Sweden. She was highly interested in science, theology and education and known as the patron of such things. She encouraged the foundation of the first secular university in Sweden, the Uppsala Academy and the Uppsala University in 1477, and gave large and independent donations from her own money to print books and finance libraries. When union with Denmark was re-established, and the Danish king made regent of Sweden in 1497, she and her husband left for Finland, where they held a grand court at Tavastehus Castle. In 1501, a rebellion broke out and her husband again retook his position. After his death in 1503, she withdraw to her estates. In 1505, the castellan Folke Gregerinpolka tired to take the castle by force with the support of the council, but she was supported by the people and by some of the nobility and his troops had to retreat. She lived (1440s-1507).

Marfa Boretskaya

1470s Legendary Resistance Leader Marfa Boretskaya of Novgorod (Russia)

Also known as Marfa-posadnitsa - or Martha the Mayoress - and according to legend she led the Novgorodian opposition to Grand Prince Ivan III of Muscovy. Her reputation derives from the "Slovesa izbranna," a unique medieval account of events culminating in the Battle of Shelon' in 1471. Its anonymous author vilifies Marfa for conspiring to align Novgorod politically and ecclesiastically with Lithuania and alleges that her treasonous, heretical acts prompted Ivan III's retribution against Novgorod. This article correlates the literary portrait with other documentation, including charters, land cadastres, and chronicles. These sources confirm that Marfa Boretskaia was a wealthy widow, connected through kinship ties to a number of influential Novgorodian families, but not that she organized anti-Muscovite activities. Literary analysis identifies the "Slovesa izbranna" as a work of homiletic rhetoric. By exploiting misogynistic biases to demonize Marfa, the writer hoped to divert the blame for Novgorod's transgressions away from his clients, Archbishop Feofil and the ecclesiastical administration at the Cathedral of St. Sophia, and thus to forestall anticipated reprisals by Moscow against the Novgorodian church. Novgorod was finally conquered in 1478.

1471-75 Regent Infanta Joana of Portugal

In charge of the government during a military campaign of her father, king Afonso V (1438-81). At birth, she was declared Crown Princess after the death of her older brother João who died as an infant the year before, and she was given the title of Princess - a title reserved to the heir apparent. When brother, Joao was born in 1555 she became second-in-line to the throne. After vehemently refusing several proposals of marriage, she was allowed to join the Dominican Convent of Jesus in Aveiro in 1475 after her brother, had his first child. Still, she was compelled several times to leave the convent and return to the court, before she was finally professed as a nun. She continued to be a great supporter of her brother, the later king João II of Portugal, throughout his reign and her life. She was beatified in 1693 by Pope Innocent XII, and even though she has not been canonized, she is known as Santa Joana Princesa, and lived (1452-90).

1471-72 and 1477-81 Regent Princess Catarina van Egmond-Gelders of Gelders and Zypten (The Netherlands)

First reigned on behalf of her brother, Adolf II, who was held prisoner and later for son, Karel van Egmond (1492-1538). In 1479 her claims was recognized by France who supported her against Emperor Maximilian I von Habsburg, who in the end drew her away. She was daughter of Duke Arnold van Egmond-Gelders and Katharina von Kleve, and lived (1439-96).

Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg, Herzogin von Braunschweig, Gräfin von Katzenelnbogen

1471-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Lüchow in Braunschweig (Germany)
1479-86 Member of the Council of Regency of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1479-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady of Ziegenhain and Nidda in Katzenelnbogen

After the death of her husband Duke Otto (1438-64-71), she withdrew to her dowry in Lüchow. In 1474 she married Count Philipp von Katzenelnbogen and leased her dowry out, and left her children behind in Celle as costmary for princely widows at the time. After Philipp's death in 1479, she returned to Braunschweig, where her son Heinrich had succeeded his grandfather Friederich II (reigned 1451-57, d. 1578) as Duke a few months before. She was given a large sum to give up claims to the County of Katzenelnbogen (her step-daughter Anna (1443-94) was among the claimants of the county). In 1481 she is mentioned in the sources as her as part of the regency council, even though no official sources of her installation as regent has survived. She reformed the economy of the country; spend money on religious institutions and charity. Her son proved to be a totally irresponsible ruler, and with the help of the Estates, became head of a council that virtually empowered him. She put much energy in reforming the economy but many depths remained when she again withdrew to her dowry. 1495 was also the year that Celle was hit by the plague and she therefore reformed the hospitals. During her last years she travelled a lot visiting family, and lived (1440-1515).


1471-94 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Mechthild von Württemberg of the City and Office of Rotenburg an der Fulda and the Castle and Office of Gudensberg in Hessen  (Niederhessen) (Germany)

Even though she had been asked to take the regency, she transferred the guardianship for her two sons Wilhelm the Older and Wilhelm the Middle in Niederhessen, to her brother-in-law Heinrich III in Oberhessen. three days after the death of her husband, Ludwig II. Instead she was given a rich dowry and she was possibly in charge of the upbringing of her sons, and she remained influential in the government of the county. She lived (circa 1444-94).


1471-75 Reigning Dowager Duchess Margareta of Masowia of Bernstadt and Oels (Bierutów and Oleśnica) (Then Germany, now Poland)

Also known as Małgorzata, she had been politically active since her marriage to the Slesian Prince of Oleśnica, Konrad IX, in 1447/53 and after his death she held the duchy as her dowry, and 1575 her daughter, Barbara took over as Duchess of Oels. Daughter of prince of Małopolska Siemowit V (Ziemovit von Masowien) and Małgorzata, she lived 1436/41- after 1483).


1471-1504 Princess-Abbess Margarethe III vom Feld of Baindt (Germany)

In 1478, by a visitation of the bishop of Trient, the Chapter was "Hortus Floridus" - describer of flowers - for the first time.


Around 1471 Reigning Abbess Osanna Jäger of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The Chapter acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace, but the abbess did apparently not have the dignity of Princess of the Empire.


Until 1472 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Guise (France)

Married Charles d'Anjou, Duc de Maine, whose first wife was Corbella Ruffo, Contessa di Montalto e di Corigliano (d. 1442). She was mother of one daughter, Louise (1445-77), who was married to Jacques, Comte d’Armagnac and Duc de Nemours. 


1472-92 Reigning Abbess Apollonia von Hohenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Daughter of Sigmund von Hohenberg, of the House of Hohenzollern, and Ursula von Räzüns. 

After 1472-1503 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Sophia Palaiologina of Moscow and Russia

Over the years she started to wield great influence on her aged husband, Ival III, Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all the Russians (1440-1505). It is thought that she was the first to introduce the Kremlin to grand Byzantine ceremonies and meticulous etiquette. The idea of Moscow as the Third Rome evidently pleased her. Shortly before her death she persuaded her husband to pass the throne to her son Vasili, rather than to Ivan's grandson Dmitry, as had been planned earlier. Apart from Vasili III, only her fifth son, Andrey of Staritsa, left issue. She was daughter of Thomas Palaeologus, the Despot of Morea and was taken to Rome together with her brothers after conquest of Morea by Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1460. In Rome, her Greek name Zoe was changed to Sophia. She lived (circa 1455-1503).

Catherine of Cyprus

1473-74 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine Cornaro of Cyprus
1474-89 Queen Regnant of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia
1489-1510 Sovereign Countess of Alonso (Italy)

When her husband King Jacques II died, she was appointed Queen until the birth of an heir, with a council of regency among whom were her uncles, but her son King Jacques III only lived one year. The Venetians acquired increased importance, but their pretensions were resented by the Cypriot nobility, who designed to place on the throne Alfonso, a natural son of Ferdinand of Napoli. The Latin archbishop, Fabricius, who was the leader of Alfonso's party, arrived in Cyprus with two armed galleys and a letter from the Pope denouncing her uncles Andrea Cornaro and Marco Bembo as murderers of her husband, and they were killed. But the Cypriots did not support the conspiracy. On the arrival of a Venetian fleet at Famagusta to demand satisfaction for the murder of her uncles, the conspirators sought safety in flight. She was allowed to remain Queen of Cyprus, but had no real power, since all the principal offices of the kingdom were in the hands of the Venetians. After 15 years she was persuaded to leave Cyprus. To compensate her she was allowed to retain the title of Queen, with an ample allowance. In 1489 she embarked for Venice, and remained in exile at Alonso for the remainder of her life. She lived (1454-1510).

1473-83 Sovereign Duchess Yolande d'Anjou of Lorraine
1480-83 Duchess of Bar, Countess d'Alsace  (France) 
1480-83 Titular Queen of Sicily, Sardegna and Jerusalem 

Her brother, Jean II, succeeded their mother, Isabelle, who was Duchess 1431-53), and when he died, his son, Nicolas, inherited the title. She succeeded him, but transferred the Duchy to her son, Ferry II, and did the same when she inherited the Duchy of Bar from her father. From him, René I d'Anjou, Count of Guise, Provence and Forcalquier Duke d'Anjou, King of Napoli and Titular king of Sicily, Hungary, Jerusalem and Aragon (1409-80). From him she also inherited the claim to Jerusalem. She was married to Ferry II de Lorraine,  Count de Vaudémont and Lord de Joinville (circa 1428-70), son of Antoine de Lorraine and Marie, Comtesse d'Aumale et baronne d'Elbeuf. She lived (1428-83).

Mask of Queen Mother of Benin

1473 Edaiken Edeleyo of Benin (Nigeria)

King Ezoti was killed by an aggravated palace boy during his coronation. A relative, Owere, was elected king, but both he and his mother were assassinated on the way back by his uncle, Okpame - but news of Okpame's action leaked, and he was banished to Ora. Fear of Okpame made Owere's brother, Olua, refuse the throne and instead his older sister, Edeleyo was invited to become Oba. She was actually installed as Edaiken but fell ill to an unspecified incurable female complaint on her way to Uselu. Since her problem was incurable and of "a peculiarly female nature" it was enacted that no woman should be allowed to reign in the future. But Queen-Mothers continued to be important and still is.


1473-88 Reigning Abbess Ursula Egglofer of Gutenzell (Germany)

The Swabian Chapter was mainly for Swabian noble maidens.


1473-86 Princess-Abbess Gertrudis de Sombreffe of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Countess Eva van Isenburg, was elected as her successor in 1486, but another of the ladies of the chapter, Amalia van Rennenberg, claimed to be have more right to the position of  sovereign of the territory. Emperor Maximillian supported Eva, but Amalia and her brother Count Willem van Rennenberg attacked the Abbey, and the succession was not finally settled until 1502 with Eva as the winner.  


1473 Princess-Abbess Catherine III de Neufchatel of Remiremont  (France)

Her election was not confirmed. A sister, Agnes was a nun at Remiremont until her death in 1474 and another, Marguerite, was Abbess of Baume-les-Dame. They were children of Thibaud IX, Lord de Neufchatel, de Blamont, etc, Vicomte de Baume, Marshall and Captain-General of Burgundy and Bonne de Chateauvillain, Dame de Grancey. Catherine lived (1455-1501).


1473-1505 Princess-Abbess Jeanne III d'Anglure de Germainvilliers of Remiremont  (France)

Doyenne and Second in Command 1427-52, and probably held other offices until her election as sovereign of the statelet. In 1484 the troops of Maréchal de Bourgogne and the Lord de Joinville fought a battle on the walls of Remiremont and the lands of the abbey was ruined by the war. Also Dame de Germainvilliers, and lived (1474-1505).

Eleonora d'Aragona of Modena and Ferrara

1473-93 Politically Influential Duchess Eleonora de Aragon of Modena and Ferrara

Held firmly on to the reins of government during the absences of her husband Ercole I d'Este, showing herself to be decisive and authoritative, but also wise and level-headed. She had first been married to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Bari and was daughter of Ferdinando I of Napoli and Isabella of Tarento and lived (1450-93).

Isabel I

1474-1504 Queen Isabel I de Trastamara of Castilla and León (Spain)

The daughter of Juan II of Castile and León by his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. In 1469 she married Fernando de Aragón. She succeeded her brother Enrico IV, but Alfonso V of Portugal, who supported the claim of her brother's daughter, Juana la Beltraneja, attacked Castile and León but was defeated by the Castilian army in 1476. Three years later her husband became King Fernando V the Catholic of Aragón. This union of the two main Spanish kingdoms laid the foundation of Spain's future greatness. They had five children, including Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Juana the Mad. Isabella and her husband (known together as "the Catholic monarchs") are remembered for initiating the Inquisition in 1478, for completing the re-conquest of Spain from the Moors and for their ruthless expulsion of the Spanish Jews, both in 1492. That same year they sponsored Christopher Columbus's voyage, which led to the creation of the overseas Spanish colonial empire, bringing great wealth and power to Spain. She lived (1451-1504).

1474-76 Pretender Infanta Juana da Beltraneja of Castilla (Spain)

In 1454 her father, Enrico IV appointed her heiress to the throne (Princess of Asturias) after he had disinherited Isabel after her marriage to Ferdinand of Aragon. Rumours had it that she was the result of an affair between her mother, Juana of Portugal, and Beltrán de la Cueva, and therefore the paternity was disputed, and she was passed over in the succession in favour of her aunt, Queen Isabel I. She rebelled but in 1479 she signed off her rights to the throne and the following year she entered a Chapter in Portugal. Juana lived (1462-1530).


1474 Acting Captain-Donatary Antonia de Burges of the Island of Terceira in Azores (Portugal)

Reigned as governor of the king of Portugal in the absence of her father, Jacome de Burges, who had evidently disappeared during a sea voyage, and in spite of the fact that the captaincy was originally granted with a stipulation that if there were no male heir, she would inherit it, the King Afonso V, gave it in part to Joao Vaz Corte-Real.


Until 1474 Hereditary Marshall Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of the Archbishopric of Köln and Heiress of Alfter (Germany)

Married to Count Johann VI von Reifferscheid, Count zu Salm (d. 1475).


1474-97 Princess-Abbess Ursula von Silberberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.


Until 1474 Princess-Abbess Beatrix von Enzberg of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Resigned because of fights between different factions of the ladies of the chapter.


1474-90 Princess-Abbess Marguerite II van Hauchin of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Another member of the family, Joannes Hauchinus (Hauchin) (1527-89), was the second Archbishop of Mechelen.


1475-78 Sovereign Duchess Barbara von Ohlau of Oleśnica (Oels) (Then Germany, now Poland)

The Polish version of her name is Barbara Oleśnicka, she was daughter of Duke Konrad IX and Małgorzata, who reigned 1471-75.


1475-... Hereditary Castellana Ludovica Hofer of Duino in Trieste (Italy)

Her father, Matteo Hofer (or Hoffer) had been given the fief by Emperor Maximilian in 1473. Ludovica was married to Raimondo IV della Torre. In 1653 the fief reverted to the state, but the family continued to rule the area and it was handed down trough the female line to the families of Della Torre Valvassina, Hohenlohe, Thurn und Taxis and Torre e Tasso.

Fürstäbtissin Agnes von Notthafft

1475-1520 Princess-Abbess Agnes von Notthafft of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1494 she was appointed Princess of the Empire and was granted a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Holy Roman Diet (Reichstag), where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat). The Reichstag frequently met in Regensburg, and from 1500 she was member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle). She was daughter of Count Albrecht von Notthafft von Wernberg (1422-68), Her niece, Kunigunde, was Lady of the Chapter and was mentioned as the "Old Lady of the Chapter" in 1560, and lived (before 1440-1580).


1475-95 Reigning Abbess Barbe I d'Ollenhain d'Estaimbourg of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord of Estaimbourg.


1475-93 Reigning Dowager Lady Katharina von Österreich of the Administrative Office and Castle of Hohenbaden in Baden-Baden (Germany)

Widow of Margrave Karl I von Baden (1453-75), who was succeeded by their oldest son, Christoph I, who build the "New Castle" and left the old one for his mother as her residence and dowry. Among her other 5 children was Margareta, Abbess in Lichtenthal, who lived (1452-95). Katharina lived (1423-93).

Bona di Savoia of Milano

1476-81 Regent Dowager Duchess Bona di Savoia of Milano (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Galeazzo, she became took over the regency for their son, Gian Galazzo II (1476-94), until she was supplanted in her power by the boy's uncle, Lodovico the Moor in 1474. She was daughter of Duke Ludovico I of Savoy (1343-65) and Princess Anne de Lusignan Cyprus, mother of four children and lived (1449-1503).


1476 De-Facto Ruler Duchess Barbara von Brandenburg of Glogau and Krossen (Głogów-Krosno/Krosno Odrzańskie) (Poland/Germany)
1476-1510 Reigning Lady in Züllichau und Crossen

Her first husband, Heinrich XI of Glogau and Krossen (Głogów and Krosno) died in February and in August 1476, she married per procura Ladislaus II Jagiellon of Bohemia and Hungary, but they never met and as her husband wanted to marry the Anna von Habsburg of Bohemia and Hungary and in 1495 she asked the pope to annul her marriage and got engaged to Konrad von Heideck. As reaction her family imprisoned her in the Castle of Plassburg. Five years later the divorce was granted and nothing more is known of her, but she probably remained at Plassburg. She was daughter of margrave Albrecht Achilles Hohenzollern and his wife Anna, and lived (1464-1515).


1476-79 Contra-Abbess Jakobe von Neuenhar  of Herford (Germany)

In oppositon to Abbess Margarete von Gleichen (1442-84). Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen had been Contra-Abbess 1442-43.

1476-81 Territorial Countess Anne Mowbray of Norfolk (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

Norfolk was an autonomous fiefdom from the Norman conquest. She was the only child of John Mowbray, 4th. Duke of Norfolk. She was only three years of age when her father died, leaving her heiress to the vast Mowbray estates. At the age of three she was married to king Edward IVs younger son Prince Richard, Duke of York. (1473-83). She died of the plague and died in 19 November 1481 a month before her ninth birthday and two years before the disappearance of the Princes. She lived (circa 1472-81).

Marie of Burgundy

1477-82 Maria de Bourgogne, by the Grace of God, Duchess Burgundy, Lorraine, Geldre, Limburg, Jülich, Brabant, Quilon, Bar and Franche-Comté, Margravine of the Holy Roman Empire of Higher-Elsass, Breisgau, Lower-Elsass and Antwerpen, Countess of Flanders, Hainault, d'Artois, Boulogne, Namur, Ponthieu, Picardie, d'Eu, Vermandois, Charolais, Macon, Montbelliard, Zutphen, Nevers and Rethel and Baroness d'Ilês, Bar-sur-Seine, Lady of Friesland, Salins and of Mechelen etc (France and Belgium)

At her father’s death in January 1477, Louis XI of France seized Burgundy and Picardy and prepared to her entire inheritance. To gain the assistance of Flanders, Brabant, Hainault, and Holland, whose representatives met at Ghent in February 1477, she granted the Great Privilege, which restored the liberties of the provincial estates that her father and grandfather had abrogated. She then rejected Louis XI’s proposal that she marry the dauphin Charles, and in May she married Maximilian, who had hastened to her assistance with an army. However, the Low Countries remained in turmoil; despite his victory at Guinegate in 1479, and after Maria's death Maximilian was forced to agree to the Treaty of Arras, by which Franche-Comté and Artois passed to France. Mary’s premature death, caused by a fall from horseback, left her young son Philip (later Philip I of Castile) her heir, but only in 1493 was Maximilian able to regain control over the Low Countries, where Philip had been a virtual prisoner until 1485. The Treaty of Senlis in 1493 with France restored Artois and Franche-Comté to Philip, but Burgundy and Picardy remained French. Mary of Burgundy had several children, and lived (1457-82).


1477-82 Regent Princess Catharina van Gelre of Geldre (The Netherlands)

Also known as Catherine of Guelders or Catharina van Egmont. When Charles of Burgundy who had controlled the Duchy since the death of her father in 1473 died, the Duchy saw its chance to regain its independence. Her brother, Adolf, became Duke of Geldre but the new Duchess of Burgundy, Maria, appointed him her Captain-General in Flanders, and the States of Guelders convinced him to appoint her as regent, pending his return and she reluctantly agreed. But the regency lasted much longer than expected because Adolf was killed in battle. She became involved in the Guelderian War of Independence with Maximilian of Austria. In 1482, she was forced to conclude peace with Maximilian and to retire from politics. In 1492, she witnessed the regained independence of Guelders under her nephew Karl II van Gelders. She was unmarried and lived (circa 1440-1497).

Catherine Sforza

1477-1501 Sovereign Countess Caterina Sforza of Forli and Imola (Italy)

Daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza by Lucrezia Landiani, and was later legitimized. At the age 15 she gave birth to the first of 7 children in nine years. The Orsi family murdered her first husband, Girolamo Riaria, in 1488 and she was taken captive with the children - but escaped. She got help from Milano and Bologna. From here on, she became noted as a brutal tyrant, initially as regent for her son, Ottaviano. Married her second husband, Giacomo Peo, around 1490 and had a son with him, before he was murdered 1495. Her third husband was Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de Medici, who died of natural causes after one year of marriage. She continued to rule her small lands until they were attacked by Cesare Borgia in 1499. She was then imprisoned in Belvedere Palace at the Vatican for four months. After a failed escape attempt, she was imprisoned in Castel Sant' Angelo for one year. Released after having given up her lordship, and died eight years later in Firenze. She lived (1463-1509).


1477-1500 Acting Captain-Donatary Maria de Vilhena of Flores e Corvo in the Azores (Portugal)

Acted in the name of her oldest son, Capitão do donatário Rui Teles. In 1500 she sold the islands to João da Fonseca, de Évora.


1477-91 Reigning Abbess Anne d'Orléans of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Sister of Louis XII, she continued the reforms of the order initiated by Marie de Bretagne.


1477-86 Reigning Abbess-General María de Herrera of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Spiritual and secular ruler of more than 60 lordhips and villages in Castilla and Léon.

Barbara von Hohenzollern zu Brandenburg of Mantua

1478-before 1481 Regent Dowager Margravine Barbara von Hohenzollern of Mantua (Italy)

Participated in the management of government during the reign of her husband, Ludovico II Gonzaga 1444-78, and personally edited the education of children. After the death of her husband, she was regent for son, Federico (1441-84). She was the first daughter of Johan the Alchemist, Elector of Brandenburg and Barbara of Saxe-Wittenbere lived (1423-81).


1478-82 Princess-Abbess Dorothea von Jestetten of Schänis (Switzerland)

The chapter presented her to the Bishop of Chur for her inauguration after her election. 1479 se presented the priest Bartholome Zwingli to the church of Schänis, he was uncle of Ulrich Zwingli, the leader of the Swiss reformation. She was member of the line of "Civil Servant Nobility" (Ministerialen) von Tengen, who owned the Swiss lordship of Hedingen in the Canton of Schaffenhausen, and originated in the Baden-area on the boarder to Switzerland.


1478-1501 Politically Influential Queen Giovanna III de Aragona of Napoli (Italy)
1494-96 Lieutenant General of Napoli
1501 Regent of Aragon (Spain)
1505 Regent of Valencia (Spain)
1505-08 Regent of Napoli
Until 1517 Lady of the Fief of the Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)

Closest advisor of her husband, Ferrante I, who succeeded his father Alfonso I of Sicily in 1558. After his death in 1494, she encouraged her step-son King Alfonso II (1448-95) not to abdicate after the French attacked the kingdom, and when he left the country, he appointed her Lieutenant General. He was succeeded by his son, Ferrante II (1469-96), who married his aunt - her daughter, Giovanna IV (1478-1518) who was styled as joint monarch, whom she attempted to have placed on the throne in 1496. Instead her younger step-son Federico II came on the throne until he was deposed by King Louis XII of France in 1504. She went to Spain and was Regent in Aragon and Valencia until she returned when her brother, Ferdinand the Catholic of Aragon (married to Isabel I the Catholic of Catille) conquered Napoli, and she became regent until she was removed from office, and both she and her daughter, Giovanna IV, disappeared from public life. Born as Juana de Aragón she was daughter of King Juan II of Aragon, Navarra, Valencia, Cerdeña and Sicilia and his second wife doña Juana Enríquez Señora de Casarrubios del Monte y Arroyojolinos, and lived (1454-1517).

 Ippolita Maria Sforza of Bari

1479-84 Regent Ippolita Maria Sforza of Bari (Italy)

Ruled for her brother Ludovico il Moro (1452-1508). She was the daughter of Bianca Maria Visconti and the condottiero Francesco I Sforza. Ippolita was married to of King Afonso II d'Aragon of Napoli and she was mother of Isabella of Aragon, who later became Duchess of Bari and mother of Polish Queen Bona Sforza. She lived (1446-84).


1479-94 Hereditary Countess Anna of Katzenelnbogen-Dietz (Germany)
1483-94 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Lordship and Village of Biedenkopf,
City and Office of Grissen and the City of Grünberg in Hessen-Marburg

A few days after the death of her husband, Landgraf Heinrich III von Hessen-Margurg (Oberhessen) , she relinquished all claims of the regency for her son, probably because she was only 20 years old herself, and the age of majority was 25. A source shows how she and her Councillors mended various feuds between the Council and inhabitants of Grünberg. She was daughter and heir of Philipp I. (circa 1402-79), who was married to Anna von Württemberg, and Count of Katzenelnbogen and parts of the County of Diez, and after her death the County was in dispute between her two daughters and their heirs after the death of their brother, Wilhelm III in 1500; Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg (d. 1523), clamed one part in 1500, and Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505) another. A compromise was not reached until 1520. Anna lived (1443-94).


1479-86 Possible Member of the Regency Council Margarethe von Stargard of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Germany)

Known as Margarethe von Stargard, it appears that she sometimes stood in for her sister-in-law, Anna, when she was absent from Celle. She was the third wife of Heinrich von Mecklenburg-Stargard (1417-38-66), and mother of tow daughters Magdalene (1454-1532), who was married to Duke Wartislaw V of Pommerania (d. 1478) and Count Burkard von Barby-Mülingen (d. 1505) and Anna, who was a nun at Ribnitz (1465-98). After her husband's death she resided at her dowries at Plau, but she moved back to Braunschweig around 1473. The dispute over her dowries between the ducal houses of Mecklenburg and Lüneburg continued after the Stargard line dies out and was never settled. In 1498 she entered the Convent of Wienhausen and lived there for the rest of her life. She (d. 1512).


1479-1500 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Paulsdorff of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1484 the Abbey was turned into a Chapter for Noble Ladies with a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat) and the Princess-Abbess also sat in the Bavarian Landtag. She was succeeded by her relative Agnes II von Paulsdorff.


Circa 1480-ca.90 Paramount Chief Orompoto of Oyo (Nigeria)

Either the sister of Ofinran (1452-54) or his son, the sources are not clear about this!


1480-1509 Princess-Abbess Anna I Sauter of Heggbach (Germany)

1481 Emperor Friederich III confirmed the imperial protection of the Chapter. During her reign the Abbey-church received another altar around 1490, the chapel a side-chapel and the west wing an addition. She was born as daughter of a citizen of Pfullendorf


1480-1502 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Henriksdatter Friis of the Counties of Kirkendrup and Fremmeløv, Denmark

Margrethe Friis was appointed jointly with her husband, Morten Tinhuus Skinkel, for life. Her son Laurids Skinkel paid it off from her in 1502. She (d. circa 1511).

1481-1521 Royal County Sheriff Queen Christine von Sachsen of Denmark of the Counties Tranekær, Næsbyhoved, Koldinghus and Ribe (Denmark)
1500-02 In charge of the government in Sweden 

Given the fiefs for personal use when her husband, Hans, became King Denmark, Norway and Sweden. 1500-02 she was in charge of the government in Sweden during his engagement elsewhere. She was under siege from the Swedish nobility and kept in captivity 1502-03. After Hans' death in 1513 she withdrew to her fiefs, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She died (1521). 

1481-1501 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Sachsen von Bayern-Landshut of the Castle, City and Administrative Unit of Rochlitz in Sachen (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig she returned back to Saxony and exchanged her Bavarian dowries with Rochlitz, where she lived with a large court. The reason for the exchange seems that she wanted to be close to her mother, Margarethe von Österreich, who mainly lived at Altenburg and Colditz. Anna lived (1536-1501).

Valide Sultan in the 1400s

1481-86 Amina Gülbahar Khanum Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Gülbahar was the widow of Mehmet II the Conqueror and became Queen Mother of her son, Bayazit (1481-1512). The Valide Sultan was the mother of the sultan, and had an important place in the imperial family. In some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. An apocryphal story about her is that she was a daughter of the king of France and abducted by the Turks on her way to marry the Emperor Constantine XI Draganes of Byzanz, but she was probably originally Greek and lived (1434-86).  

Spanish Muslim lady 1482-92 Regent 'A'isha al-Hurra of Cordova (Spain)
Gained support from the nobles and military leaders to depose her husband, 'Ali abu al-Hasan (reigned 1461-82), who was being infatuated by his Christian concubine, Isabella, who had converted to Islam and taken the name of Soraya. Aisha's son, Muhammad Abu 'Abdallah was proclaimed as caliph, and she played a prominent role in the last years of the Muslim reign in the south of Spain, which was conquered by their Catholic majesties, Isabel I of Castilla and Fernando of Aragon.

1482-1503 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Margaret of York of Bourgogne (France)

Acted as de-facto joint regent with her son-in-law Maximillian von Habsburg, who was Holy Roman Emperor after the death of her stepdaughter, Duchess Maria. Margaret was the third wife and widow of Charles Le Hardi, who died 1477, and lived (1446-1503).

1482-1546 Sovereign Countess Marie I de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Saint Pôl, Ligny, de Marle, Soissons and Conversano, Sovereign Princess of Condé-en-Brie, Vicomtesse de Meaux, Dame de Condé, Oisy, Espernon, Luceu, Ham, Bohaing, Beaurevoir, Dunkerke, Bourgbourg, Gravelinghes, Tonnelieux, Bruges, Chastelaine of De l' Isle and Dame of the Castellany, Lands and Lordship of Saint Callais (France)
1495-1508 Regent Dowager Countess of Vendôme, Chartres and Mondoubleau

Daughter of Count Pierre II de Saint Pôl, Soissons, Brienne, Roussy and Marle and Margaritha of Savoia. First married to her uncle, Jacques de Savoie, Comte Romont and Baron de Vaud, and secondly to François de Bourbon, Count of Vendôme. After her husband's death, she was regent for her son, Charles, Duke of Vendôme, Count of Chartres and Soissons, Marle and La Fere and Lord of Mondoubleau, and the period of her regency was the most brilliant in the history of Vendôme. She enlarged the Collégiale Saint Georges, rebuilt the Church of Saint Martin. Her second son was François I de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl, Duke of Estouteville, Count of St.-Pôl. who died in 1545 and was succeeded by his son, François II, who died after one year and was succeeded by his sister Marie de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl. A daughter, Louise, was Abbess of Fontevrault. Her sister, Françoise was dame d'Enghien, and she lived (1472-1546).


1482-1530 President of the Regency Council The Makhduma-e-Jahan of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)

As Dowager Queen, she was regent for son Mahmud Shah Bahmani, who ascended the throne at the age of 12 years, when some usurpers had been overthrown.

Unnamed Spanish Queen

1483-1512 Queen Regnant Catalina de Grailly of Navarra, Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchesse de Gandía, Montblac,  Peñafiel, Countess de Foix, Bigorre, Ribagorza and Vicomtesse de Béarn (Spain)
1513-18 Queen of Baja Nawarra

Also known as Catharine de Foix-Grailly, she succeeded brother, King Francesco under the regency of her mother, Marguerite de Valois (regent for her brother from 1479), and until 1492 she fought over the throne with her uncle, Juan de Foix. 1484 she married Jean II d’Albert and ruled jointly with him. The death of her mother, Magdalena, 1504 as a hostage of Ferdinand the Catholic in Medina del Campo, provoked new wars between the Navarrese and the count of Lerín until 1508. In 1512 the Duke of Alba occupied Pamplona and the following year the Cortes of Navarra proclaimed Fernando the Catholic as king of Navarra, and since then, Alta Navarra has been an integral part of Spain. All subsequent attempts by her and her husband to reassemble their kingdom were futile, and she was queen in Lower Navarre, north of the Pyrenees, Succeeded by son, Enrique II and after his death by daughter Juana II d'Abret as titular Queen, and lived (1468/70-1517).

Anne de France

1483-90 Regent Princess Anne de Beaujeu of France
1503-circa 09 Regent of Bourbon etc. 

Created Viscountess of Thouars in 1468 in anticipation of her marriage to Nicholas, Duke of Lorraine, but when he broke the engagement and then died unexpectedly in 1473, her father, Louis XI took back the fief. That same year, Anne married Pierre II de Bourbon instead. After her father's death, she was regent during the minority of her brother, Charles VIII, and maintained the royal authority and the unity of the kingdom against the Orleans party. Her regency overcome many difficulties, including unrest amongst the magnates who had suffered under her father's oppressions. Concessions, many of which sacrificed Louis's favourites, were made, and land was restored to many of the hostile nobles, including the future Louis XII, then the Duke of Orleans. She made the final treaty ending the Hundred Years' War, the Treaty of Etaples and, in 1491 arranged the marriage of her brother to Duchess Anne de Bretagne, but when her brother came of age she and her husband fell victim to the wrath of the new queen, whose duchy's independence had been compromised. When her husband died in 1503, their daughter Suzanne, succeeded him as Duchess of Bourbon. Anne, however, had always been the more dominant member in her marriage and remained the administrator of the Bourbon lands after his death, protecting them from royal encroachment. Suzanne married another Bourbon prince, Charles of Montpensier, Constable of France, who later became Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. The couple, however, remained childless, and Suzanne predeceased her mother and for the rest of her life, she was engaged in disputes with Louise de Savoie over succession to the Bourbon lands. Anne lived (1456-1522).

Anna Vasilievna

1483-87 and 1500-01 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Anna Vasilievna of Ryazan (Russia)

Анна Васильевна became regent for her 16 year old son, Ivan, after the death of her husband, Vasily, who grew up in Moscow as Anna's father had been entrusted with the regency of Ryazan after the death Vasily's father, Ivan, in 1456. In her policy Anna tried to expand her domain, she visited often Moscow and due her diplomatic efforts the Pronsk principality was added to Ryazan. A major problem in Ryazan-Moscow relations was so-called Ryazan Ukraina, a huge steppe region in the basin of Don River. According to treaties, Ryazan was obliged not to settle in these lands, but many years Ryazan princes secretly colonized this area and during her regency this process become much more significant. When her son died, she became regent for her grandson, Ivan VI, until her own death. She was daughter of Grand Prince Vasily II of Moscow and Maria Yaroslavna of Borovsk, mother of 2 sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1451–1501).


1483-1507 Duchess Regnant Julianna Iwanówna of Mstsislaw (Belarus)

Daughter and heiress of Duke Iwan Jurjewicz (1456-83).


1483-89 Regent Dowager Lady Camilla Covele da Marzano of Pesaro and Gradara (Italy)

Ruled for Giovanni I of Pesaro, her husband Costanzo I’s illegitimate son with Fiora Boni. She (d. 1490).


1483-91 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Blarer von Wartensee of Schänis (Switzerland)

The chapter asked the Bishop of Chur to inagurate her after she had been elected in a unclear election (zweispältiger Wahl). Invested Johannes Meyer with the fief of the Meierhof Knohau ("verge estate") in 1483 and begun building a new church of the chapter in 1487. She bbelonged to one of the richest families in Switzerland, the Lords of Wartensee and had the Freedom of the Canton of Appenzell.


1484-88 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d'Harcourt of Tancarville, Vicomtesse de Melun (France)

Succeeded her brother, Guillaume who succeeded their mother, Marguerite de Melun, who was Countess de Tancarville (1415-48). Jeanne was married to Duke René II of Lorraine (1451-1508) and as she had no children, she bequeathed all her estates to François Count de Dunois et de Longueville (d. 1488).


1484-94 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Hunolstein of Herford (Germany)

Her family were Stewards of the Herford area.


1484-1508 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Falkenstein of Säckingen (Germany)

received letters of protection and privileges from Maximillian I in 1495 and a confirmation of her jurisdiction and right of asylum. During the Swabian war between Austria and Switzerland the City of Bad Säckingen suffered badly. After the Peace of Basel in 1499, Maximilian paid a visit to the town. She was engaged in long dispute with the canonesses and canons, who accused her of over-stepping her authority, taking important decision without consulting them. Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg tried to mediate and introduce new statutes. Also the king tried to persuade her to accept the Bishop's intervention but she refused and decided to resign instead, but remained in the chapter until her death, and was succeeded by her half-sister, Anna von Falkenstein. The daughter of Freiherr Thomas von Falkenberg and Ursula von Ramstein, she lived (before 1462-1520).

Seal of the Fürstäbtissin von Frauenmünster

1484-87 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Helfenstein of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

The first Count von Helfenstein, Helfrich is recorded as being a citizen of Rome in 225 CE. He was captain of the 5th Legion of Veterans in Germany, and Lord of the Fils River. His Legion fought against Hannibal in 210-205, hence the elephant symbol in the coat of arms. In the 800s another Count of Helfenstein was given magnificent lands in Swabia, in the South-West of Germany.

Lensmand Birgitte Thott

1484-95 County Sheriff Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott of the County of Dronningholm, Denmark

Birgitte Thott was a major landowner and was married to the Swedish Councillor of State and lagmand Erengisle Nilsson, who died 1469. She was in dispute with her husband's children of first marriage over her Swedish castles, and with her stepmother, Anne Present, over the ownership of Vallø-Castle, which Birgitte had inherited from her mother, Karen Falk. She was supported by the Danish king, who appointed her Lensmand (County Sheriff) of the Royal Lands of Dronningholm, and as such she was in charge of local administration. She sold many of her possessions to king Hans. Much of her troubles with inheritance and keeping on to her lands must be seen as a result of her having no children. (d. 1498)


1485... Joint Lady Maria de Ayala of five parts of Lanzarote and half of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste (Spain)

After the death of her father, Diego García de Herrera y Ayala, his possessions were divided among her and her brothers and sister. She was married to Diego de Silva Count of Portalegre. Their other brother, Fernan Peraza, got the islands Gomera and Hierro, but was killed by the inhabitants of Gomera. She did not have any children.


1485.... Joint Lady Constanza Sarmiento of three parts of Lanzarote, and half of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste (Spain)

Her oldest brother, Pedro Garcia de Herrera was disinherited, and the third brother, Sancho de Herrera (1442-1534) inherited five parts (Fuerteventura, Alegranza, Graciosa, Lobos and Santa Clara) She was married to Pedro Fernandez de Saavedra and was mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter.

Lady Margaret Beaufort

1485-1509 Politically influential Lady Margaret Beaufort in England (United Kingdom)

Involved in the running of the government during the reign of her son, Henry VII Tudor, who inherited the throne through her - and his wife, Elizabeth of York. Margaret was the daughter of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp, and was married at the age of about 7 to John De La Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, but the union was later dissolved. Henry VI, who had no children always looked upon the Beauforts as possible heirs and, in 1455, married the 12-year-old Margaret to his own maternal half-brother, Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, who died 1456, the same year their son was born. She, soon afterward, married Henry Stafford, the second son of the Duke of Buckingham, and submitted to the Yorkist rule; but, after the Battle of Tewkesbury, she was obliged to send her son, Henry to seek refuge in Bretagne. Margaret's fourth husband was a pronounced Yorkist, Thomas, Lord Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby; but his final defection from Richard III on the field of Bosworth secured the victory to his stepson, Henry VII. Margaret, though she seldom appeared at her son's court, remained his constant correspondent and one of his wisest advisers. She took vows of religion in 1504, but continued to live out of a nunnery. Also a very learned person, she lived (1441-1509).


1485-1504 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gandersheim (Germany) 

In 1503 the chapter had to accept the occupation of Wilhelmsburg and the Convent of Barfüßer by the Duke of Braunschweig. She was also Abbess of Neuenheerse (1486-92) and of Kaufungen (1495-1504). She was daughter of Georg I von Anhalt-Zerbst and Sophie (d. 1451), and her sister Scholastika, was Abbess of Gernrode (1465-1505). She lived (1445-1504).


1486-1503 Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Mansfeld of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort (Germany)

Possibly also known as Margareta. She became regent for her one-year-old son, Albrecht VII, after the death of her husband, Ernst I, and lived (1450-1531).


1486-1538 Hereditary Steward Elisabeth of Hunolstein and Heiress of Neumagen and Sankt-Johannisberg (Germany)

Elisabeth von Hunolstein-Neumagen was married to Count Salentin VII of Isenburg in Salm und Hohenstein (d. circa 1534). Mother of 8 children, and lived (circa 1475-1538).


1486-Circa 1494 Regent Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Bolchen zu Zolveren of the Stewardship of Hunolstein, Neumagen and Sankt-Johannisberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Heinrich von Hunolstein, Vogt von Hunolstein-Neumagen, she was in charge of the lordships in the name of her daughter. (d. 1506/07)


1486-1531 Princess-Abbess Eva von Isenburg of Thorn (The Netherlands)

In the first years of her reign she was in dispute with Amalia van Rennenberg over the position of sovereign of the territory. Eva had the support of emperor Maximillian, who in 1494 and 1499 declared that the Abbey and its lands were under the protection of the realm (Holy Roman Empire). The dispute was settled in 1502 in her favour, but she encountered many complaints over her reign, high taxes and her immoral conduct. Eva was daughter of Gerlach II von Isenburg in Grenzau and Hildgard von Sirck, Heiress of Meinsberg and Frauenberg.


1486-99 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor de Mendoza I of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her family was very powerful and the many braches held many high state and ecclesiastical office - including the office of Señora Abadesaes of Las Huelgas.


1486 Pretender Ludovica Francesca di Savoia to the County of Roemont and the Lordship of Vaud (France and Switzerland)

Daughter of Giacomo di Savoia and Maria de Luxembourg, Countess of Saint-Pôl, Marle and Soissons. 1503 she married Count Heinrich III von Nassau-Diez. (d. 1511).


1487-96 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth V von Wissemburg-Krenkingen
of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

In charge of the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.

1487-88 Queen Regnant Paccha of Quito (Cara) (Ecuador)

After the death of her father Cacha Shyri XV, Inca Huayna Cápac invaded the kingdom and the chiefs and nobles of the Kingdom appointed her sovereign. They then married and they became parents of two sons who divided the Inca Empire.


Until 1487 Dame Jeanne de Bourbon of Rochefort (France)

Daughter of king Jean II de Bourbon, Count de Vendôme etc. and Isabelle de Beauvau, Dame de La Roche-sur-Yon (1436-74), and married to Louis de Joyeuse, Count de Grand-Pré. She lived (1460-87).

Anne de Bretagne

1488-1514 Sovereign Duchess Anne of Bretagne and Montfort-l'Amaury  (France)

Also known as Anne de Dreux Montfort, she became Duchess at the age of 11, just after her land had been invaded by French troops who demanded that she should not marry without the consent of the crown. Afraid that Bretagne would be absorbed into France, she made an alliance with Maximilian of Austria (whom she married by proxy in 1490), Henry VII of England and Ferdinand II of Aragon, but eventually, after a long siege, she was forced to marry the French king Charles VIII in 1491. After he died without an heir in 1498, Anne had to marry his successor Louis XII. But she insisted that Bretagne should form a separate part of the inheritance, going to a second son or daughter, or to her own heirs. Anne was a great patron of scholars, poets and artists, and lived (1476-1514).


1488-98 Regent Dowager Duchess Ludmiła of Bohemia of Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg) (Poland)
1488-1503 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Brzeg and Oława

Also known as Ludmilla Poděbrady or Ludmiła z Podiebradu. After the death of her husband, Friederich I von Chojnów-Oława-Legnica-Brzeg-Lubin, she first reigned for her sons; Jan, Fryderyk II and Jerzy, and then held Brzeg as her dowry. She was daughter of king Georg Podebrad of Bohemia, and (1456-1503).

 Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ulloa, Gobernadora del Islas El Hierro and La Gomera

1488-98 Acting Governor  Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ulloa of The islands El Hierro and La Gomera  in the Canary Islands  (Spain)

Also called Isabel or Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ossorio, she acted on behalf of her son Guilléna Perazy de Ayala after the death of her husband, Ferdinand de Peraza y Ayala, the son of Inés de Peraza de Las Casas, Governor of the whole of the Canary Islands 1552-85. In 1498, she married Alphonse Fernández de Lugo, the Governor whole of the Canary Islands. She was known for her beauty and cruelty. the daughter of Juan Fernández de Bobadilla and doña Leonor de Aza y Ulloa and of Jewish origin. At the age of 17 years, was the lady-in-waiting on the court of Isabel the Catholic, and lived (1462-1501).


1488-1505 Reigning Abbess Walburga Gretter of Gutenzell (Germany)

The chapter for noble ladies was situated in Gutenzell-Hürbel in Württemberg.


1489-1521 Princess-Abbess Meyna Amoena von Daun-Oberstein of Essen (Germany)

The first Princess-Abbess to represent the 3 estates (Ladies of the Chapter, the male canons and the office-holders) in the local Diet (Landtag) for their approval of proposed tax-rises. As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin) she had a vote in the College of Prelates of the Rhine, which had one joint vote in the Council of Princes on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1489-98 Abbess Nullius Marcella Orsini of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Member of the large Orsini-family.

Beatrix of Aragon of Hungary

1490 Dowager Queen Beatrix de Aragón of Hungary

After the death of King Matthias Corvinius (1458-90) she was de facto regent in the interregnum. She did her utmost to prevent her stepson, John Corvinius' succession to the throne. Determined to have a word in the kingdom's government she used her considerable wealth to help Vladislav of Bohemia, a son of a sister of King Lazlo of Hungary. She married the new king - who became king Laslo VI (1490-1516), but she gradually realised that she had been deceived, after nine years her husband managed to divorce her, her possessions were confiscated and she spend the rest of her life in Napoli. Also known as Beatrice, was daughter of King Ferrante of Napoli (1431-94) and Isabelle de Clermont, she did not have any children, and lived (1457-1508).

Bianca di Monferrato of Savoia

1490-96 Regent Dowager Duchess Bianca di Monferrato of Savoia, the counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte  (Italy) 

Married to Carlo I, who was surnamed the Warrior was the Duke of Savoy 1482-90 and titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem from 1485. After his death she was regent for their son, Carlo II (1489-96). She lived (1472-1519).


1490-1503 Olangio to tilaiot Ntihedud Raja To Tilayo of Upper Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)

The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Tilayo Branch and her title means ruler of the upper parts. She was daughter of Uloli (1427-1450) and succeeded her brother, Polamalo I (1481-1490) and was later followed on the throne by his son.


1490-94 Princess-Abbess Guillelme de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Also known as Wilhelmine, she was the fourth of the Mérode-Franckenberg family to reign the territory.

1491-1500 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Bourgogne of Rethel (France/Belgium)

Succeeded father, Count Jean de Nevers, de Rethel, d’Étampes et d'Eu (1415-91). Her sister, Elisabeth de Rethel, was heiress of Nevers and Eu, but died 1483 - she was married to Johann I of Clèves. Charlotte married Jean d'Albret, Seigneur d'Orval (d. 1524) and was succeeded by daughter Maria d'Albret de Rethel. Charlotte lived (1472-1500).


Until 1491 Princess-Abbess Ursula II von Prassberg of Lindau  (Germany)

In 1466 the Abbess of the Ladies Chapter was granted the position of a worldly Princess of the Realm within the Holy Roman Empire. (die Würde einer weltlichen Reichsfürstin innerhalb des "Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation"), which is the reason why her successor was Member of the Bench of Secular Princes in the Swabian Circle Estate. It is not known when Ursula II was elected as ruler of the territory.


1491-1531 Princess-Abbess Amalie von Reischach of Lindau (Germany)

When the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 6 circles (later 10), she became member of the Bench of Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Together with a Prince-Abbot and the Princess-Abbess of Buchau). In 1528 the City of Lindau became Protestant, but the Chapter and the surroundings remained Catholic, and the Chapter and City of Lindau were often engaged quarrels over their territory. The "Gefürstete Äbtissin" Amaile was daughter of the Count von Reischach who was also in charge of Burg Neuhewen in Bavaria.


1491-1534 Reigning Abbess Renée de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Possibly the greatest of the abbesses of the Chapter, both on account of the numbers of priories in which she re-established discipline, and the victory which she gained over the rebellious religious at Fontevrault by the reform, enforced with royal assistance in 1502. The result was a great influx of novices of the highest rank, including several princesses of Valois and Bourbon. At her death there were 160 nuns and 150 monks at Fontevrault. She was daughter of Jean II de Bourbon, Comte de La Marche et de Vendôme and Isabelle de Beauvau, Dame de La-Roche-Sur-Yon, and lived (1468-1534).


1492-1504 Sovereign Duchess Agnieszka Zatorska of Wadowice (Poland)

Also known as Agnes of Zator was daughter of Duke Władysław I of Zator and Anna. In 1492 her father left her Wadowice in his will. But in 1503 King Aleksander Jagiellończyk granted the Duchy to Piotr Myszkowski of Mirów. She fought for her heritage, but the following year the king adjudicated, that Wadowice also belonged to Piotr. Married to Jan of Tworków and Kobierzyn (died in 1504). Mother of one son. She lived (1477/80-1505).


1492-1528 Sovereign Lady Cordula von Gemen of Gemen (Germany)

The daughter of Heinrich IV von Gemen and Anna von Wevelinghoven, she married Count Johann IV von Holstein-Schaumburg as her second husband and they founded the line of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen. The Lordship had been "reichsunmittelbar und reichsstündisch" - an Imperial immediacy - that is placed directly under the Realm of the Empire - since 1431 and from 1495 with a seat in the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Westphalia.

1492-1520 Regent Dowager Duchess Marguerite de Lorraine-Vaudémont of  Alençon (France)

After the death of her 23 year older husband, René, she reigned the Duchy for 20 years in the name of her son, Charles IV (1489-1524). She declared holy in 1921 by Pope Pius XI because of her work for the poor. She also founded a convent and entered it after her children came of age, but refused to become the Abbess. Her oldest daughter, Françoise d'Alençon, succeeded Charles in 1524. Marguerite de Lorraine was Daughter of Duke Ferry II de Vaudémont and Yolande d'Anjou, Titular Queen of Sicily and mother of three children and lived (1463-1521).


1492-93 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV von Goldenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

A candidate in the 1482 elections but lost as she was not yet 30 years old at the time. She confirmed the tenancy of Johnannes Meyer von Knonau with the Meierhof ("verge estate") in 1492. Member of a knightly family from Zürich

Abbesse Antoniette of Jouarre

1492-1515 Reigning Abbess Antoinette de Moustier of Jouarre (France)

Had already put in the lower room of the Tower the beautiful entombment, the work of Michel Colombe, a famous sculptor of the time: the principal figures that have survived are presently in the Parish Church.

Beatrice d'Este

1492-97 Politically Influential Duchess Beatrice d'Este of Bari and Milano (Italy)

Visited Vennetia in 1492 as ambassador for her husband, Lodovico de' Medici in his political schemes, which consisted chiefly in a desire to be recognized as duke of Milan and when Gian Galeazzo Sforza died the same year, his usurpation of the Duchy of Milano was legalized, and after the Battle of Fornovo in 1495, they both took part in the peace congress of Vercelli between Charles VIII of France and the Italian princes, at which she showed great political ability. But her brilliant career was cut short by death through childbirth. She surround herself with learned men, poets and artists, such as Niccolo da Correggio, Bernardo Castiglione, Bramante, Leonardo da Vinci and many others. The daughter of Ercole I d’Este and Eleonora d'Aragona, she lived (1475-97).


1493-1506 Duchess Regnant Barbara von Schlesien of Jägerndorf-Rybnik (Poland)

Daughter of Duke Nikolaus IV (circa 1400-52) and Margareta Clemm von Elguth, she succeeded brother, Johan IV in Jägerndorf. She married Duke Hanus IV of Auschwitz, was mother of one daughter, Helena, and lived circa (circa 1445-1510).

Empress Zhang

1493 Taoist Priest Empress Zhang in China

The scroll that documents her ordination as a Taoist priest is one of the most important surviving documents of the relationship between Taoism and the Ming imperial family. The painting shows her with a group of divine ladies called "jade maidens," the Taoist priest who ordained her, and a procession of deities. An accompanying inscription can identify each deity, making this work an invaluable source for the identification of images of Taoist gods in the Ming dynasty. The depiction of empress and priest together with Taoist gods indicates that the human figures have achieved divine status. She was married to Emperor Hongzhi.

Isabella Arágon

1494-99 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella de Aragón of Milano (Italy)
1502-24 Sovereign Princess of Bari, Rossano, Crottaglie, Ostuni and Monteserico

Widow of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, she was in charge of the regency for son, Francesco Sforza, until the King of France, Louis XII, ordered him into exile in France. Faced with limited options, she recognized the supremacy of the Spanish King Ferdinand the Catholic and was able to take the throne in Bari and Rossano. She was very strong and self-determined and she knew what it took to achieve her political goals. She managed the budget and resources very well and they soon started bringing profits. In 1518 her only surviving child, Bona, married to King Sigmund I of Poland, who later succeeded her mother as ruler of Bari etc. She was daughter of King Alfonso of Napoli and lived (1470-1524).


1494-1520 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III van Herzelles of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a very illustrious Belgium family, which was in charge of many lordships.


1494-1520 Reigning Abbess Ponzetta Boniseth von Limburg-Stirum of Herford (Germany)

Became member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Westphalischer Kreis (Westphalian Circle) when the regional assembly was created by Emperor Maximilian I in 1500. She was daughter of Count Wilhelm I von Limburg and Agnes von Limburg. Her sister Anna vas Abbess of Vilich and Borghorst. Apparently she resigned in favour of her relative, Anna, and died four years later in 1525.


1494/94 Princess-Abbess Sussana von Sal of Schänis (Switzerland)

Appears to have died just after her election. She was daughter of Konrad von Sal, of a local knigly family


1495-1525 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Trüllerey of Schänis (Switzerland)

Like her predecessors she confirmed Johnannes Meyer von Knonau as tenant of the Meierhof ("verge estate") in 1492.  She began rebuilding the choir of the church of Schänis. Member of a knightly family from Aaargau.


1495-1533 Reigning Abbess Adrienne de Noyelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Also known by the surname de la Chapelle, she was daughter of the Lord de Noyelle and Calonne.


Around 1495 Reigning Abbess Jeanne Chrétien of Faremoutiers (France)

As Abbess she held clerical and seigneurial rights, but the chapter was in decay and 3 nuns had children.


1495-1515 Sovereign Grand Princess Alexandra Olena Olelkowicz-Slucki of Pinsk (Belarus)

Daughter of Simeon Olelkowicz, and succeeded her brother, Vasily Olelkowicz, Prince of Pinsk (1488-95), and married Fiodor Ivanovich in 1498, and he became Prince of Pinsk (†V.1527).

1495-96 Co-ruler Queen Consort Giovanna IV of Napoli (Naples) (Italy)

Daughter of Ferrante I of Naples (1458-94) and his third wife Infanta Juana of Aragon (Giovanna III) (1454-1517), and married to her nephew, King Ferrante II (1469-95-96), who succeeded her half-brother, Alphonso II, who abdicated because of the approaching invasion of Charles VIII of France and the general dissatisfaction of his subjects. Her husband defeated the French garrisons but died shortly after. Her mother tried to have her placed on the throne. She lived (1478-1518).


1495-1525 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Chalon of Joigny (France)

Successor of her father, Charles de Chalon, and married Adrien de Sainte-Maure Count de Nesle et de Joigny (d. 1504) and Francois de Tourzel, seigneur de Precy.

1495-1522 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth zu Stolberg-Wernigerode of the Administrative Office and Castle of Stauffenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)

Her husband, Wilhelm II zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel was deposed in 1595 after he had deposed and imprisoned his brother, Friederich. Their sons inherited the dukedom. She promoted mining and the area propored economically. (d. 1522)

1495-1506 Politically Influential Queen Helena Moskiewska of Poland 

Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Aleksander Jagiellonczyk (the Jagiellonian). In 1503 she negotiated an armistice between Moscow and Lithuania. (1476-1513).

1496-98 Regent Duchess Anna of Poland of Pommern (Pomerze) (Poland/Germany)

Her husband Bogislaw X of Pommern (1454-71-1523) charged her with the government when he left for a meeting with Emperor Maximilian asking him to mediate in the ongoing conflict with his brother-in-law about various lands. He then went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and did not return until two years later. She was his second wife, mother of nine children and daughter of King Kazimierz IV of Poland and Elisabeth of Austria. She lived (1475-1503).

Louise de Savoie

1496-1515 Sovereign Countess Louise de Savoie of Angoulême 
1515-31 Sovereign Duchess d'Angoulême, Nemours, d'Auvergne, Bourbonnais et Châtellerault, Comtesse du Maine, de Beaufort, Clermont-en-Beauvaisis et Gien 
1516-31 Sovereign Duchess d'Anjou 
1523-27 Sovereign Duchess de Bourbon and La Dombes
1525-26 Regent of France
1528 Sovereign Duchess de Touraine (France)

Daughter of Philippe II de Savoie and Marguerite de Bourbon, married to Charles d'Orléans, and succeeded him as Duchess of Angoulême and d'Anjou. She was very influential during the reign of her son, King François I of France, and during his absence in the Italian Wars, she acted as regent, and during his captivity in Spain 1525–26 she made an alliance with King Henry VIII of England, in which Henry deserted his alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, François' opponent in the Italian Wars. In 1529 she also negotiated the so-called Ladies’ Peace with Margaret of Austria, Charles V’s aunt. Louise lived (1476-1531).

Louise de France

1496-1539 Sovereign Countess Louise de Bourbon of Montpensier, Princesse des Dombes, Dauphine d'Auvergne  (France)
1530-61 Countess of Mortain
1538-61 Duchesse of Auvergne 
1539-61 Duchesse of Montpensier

She was daughter of Gilbert de Bourbon, Comte de Montpensier, Dauphin d'Auvergne, Archduke de Sessa, Vice-roi de Napoli (1443-99) and Claire de Gonzaga of Mantua. First married to André de Chauvigny and then to Louis de Bourbon, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon. She lived (1482-1561).

1496-1539 Sovereign Baroness Renée de Bourbon-Montpensier of Mercoeur (France)

Succeeded her father, Gilbert (1443-86-96), comte de Montpensier et dauphin d'Auvergne, under the guardianship of her mother, Claire Gonzaga (1464-1503). She was married to Duke Antoine of Lorraine (1489-1544) and succeeded by her son, François (1517-45), She lived (1494-1539).

Barbara Gonzaga, Herzogin von Württemberg

1496-1503 Reigning Dowager Lady Duchess Barbara Gonzaga of Böblingen in Württemberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband Eberhard V von Württemberg (1445-57-96), she took up residence at her dowry. Her only daughter, Barbara had died a few months after her death. She was Daughter of Ludovico II, Margrave of Mantua and Barbara of Brandenburg, and lived (1455-1503).

Fürstäbtissin Katharina von Frauenmünster, Frau von Zürich

1496-1524 Princess-Abbess Katharina von Zimmern of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 

Around 13 years old when she, together with her older sister, Anna, entered the Chapter. As Fürstäbtissin was she the titular Head of the City, but most of the executive rights had already been transferred to the city. As a result of the reformation it became her task to dissolve the small state and she sold the remaining territories to the City of Zürich. She then married Eberhard von Reischach, who was killed by the battle of Kappel. They first lived in Schaffhausen and Diessenhofen until 1529 when they moved back to Zürich. Mother of one daughter, and lived (1478-1547).


1497 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Werdenberg of Buchau (Germany)

Elected as the successor of her sister, Margarethe, on the 20th of February 1497, she was inaugurated at 11th of March but died already at 23rd of October the same year.


1497-1523 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Gundelfingen of Buchau (Germany)

One of the important rulers of the territory she was elected at the age of 25 and therefore obtained papal dispensation a few months later, because the minimum age for abbesses was 30. 1507 Mentioned in the Inventory of the Realm (Reichsmatrikel) as Princess Abbess, 1510 she was the first leader of Buchau to sign a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid). 1517 she was represented by the Abbot of Weissenau in the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag). She reformed the internal affairs of the Chapter and was much preoccupied with the affairs of the territory and its neighbours. The daughter of Freiherr Georg von Gundelfingen and Countess Waldburga von Fugger-Kirchberg, she lived (1473-1523).


1497-1505  Princess-Abbess Margaretha II von Harbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Her family posessed many estates in both Niederbayern and Austria.


1497-1506 Reigning Abbess Anna II von Stein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Head of the Franciscan Ladies Chapter for noble ladies and of its territories and lands in Switzerland and France.


1497-98 Princess-Abbess Sussana von Saal of Schänis (Switzerland)

Only women of the aristocracy were accepted as community members. Applicants were initially obliged to prove descent from four grandparents of the higher aristocracy, but later from 16 great-great-grandparents of the same rank. In this way Schänis became a place of care for the unmarried female offspring of the higher nobility of southern Germany.


1498-1525 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Trüllerey of Schänis (Switzerland)

Apparently member of an important family in the Canton of Schaffenhausen.

1498-1505 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne de Valois of Berry (France)

Daughter of King Louis IX and Charlotte de Savoie. Married to Louis II, Duc d'Orléans and later King Louis XII of France. She was crippled and a hunchback, the marriage was never consumated and they divorced in 1498 and she retired to Bourges, where she founded a convent. In 1950 she was canonized as Sainte Jeanne de France. She lived (1464-1505).


1498-1504 Reigning Abbess Barbara von Hausen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter was a major landowner with seigneurial rights.

Lucrezia Borgia

1499-1502 Governor Lucrezia Borgia of Spoleto and Foligno (Italy)
1501-02 In charge of the Administration of the Vatican and the Catholic Church
1506 Regent of Ferrara

Daughter of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) and Vannozza de Cattanei. First married to Giovanni Sforza, Prince of Pesaro. After their divorce in 1497 she served as her father's hostess at diplomatic receptions. Also in 1497 she had a child by her young lover, who was given the name of Giovanni and legitimised as the son of her father, which led to rumours they had an incestuous relationship. The following year she was married to Prince of Alfonso Aragon, Alfonso, Duke of Bisceglia and Salerno in Napoli. She was appointed governor of Spoleto by her father, an office usually reserved for cardinals, and she administered the city well. In 1500 Alfonso was murdered by her brother, Cesare. A year later her father left the administration of the Vatican and the Church in her hands. A woman of twenty-one, acting as the head of Christendom, did not shock the cardinals of the Curia, accustomed as they were to the excesses of the papacy of Alexander. 1502 she was married to Afonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio and had four children by him, at the same time as she carried on a romance with the poet Pietro Bembo. At this time Lucrezia sided with her brother in his various military adventures. She brought her two sons, Giovanni, who posed as her brother and her son by her second husband, Rodrigo, to the court of Ferrara. Eventually, the two young boys were sent to Isabella of Aragon. As regent of Ferrara in absence of her husband in 1506 she issued an edict in favour of the Jews. After Rodrigo died in 1512, she retired a convent, but later returned to her husband. After giving birth to her fifth child, who died shortly after being born, she contracted puerperal fever and died. She lived (1480-1519).


1499-1521 Politically Influential Princess Jadwiga of Cieszyn-Głogów of Hungary

Since 1483 married to the Hungarian Palatin Stefan Zapolya (died in 1499) and a mother of Barbara (since 1512 Queen of Poland) and Janos II. She fought for her the Hungarian Throne for her son, but he did not become king until 1526. She was daughter of a prince of Cieszyn-Głogów and Anna Mazowiecka, and lived (1469-1521).  


1499-1529 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa de Ayala of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her official title was "noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals", and she reigned over vast territories in Castilla and Leon.

Last update 25.03.17

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