proto afroasiatic language : definition of proto afroasiatic language and synonyms of proto afroasiatic language (English)

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definition - proto afroasiatic language

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Proto-Afroasiatic language

                   

Proto–Afroasiatic is the hypothetical proto-language from which modern Afroasiatic languages are descended.

Contents

  Consonant correspondences

The following table shows consonant correspondences in Afroasiatic languages, along with some reconstructed consonants for Proto-Afroasiatic.

Correspondences in Afro-Asian languages[1][2]
Proto-Afroasiatic Proto-Semitic Egyptian Berber East Cushitic West Chadic
*b *b b *β, ? *b, *-∅- *b *b, *ḅ1
*p *p p *f, ? *b *p *p, *f, *ḅ1
*f f f
*d *d d *d *d *d, *ḍ1
*t *t t *t *t *t
*ṭ *ṭ d(~t) *ḍ [dˁ] / *ṭ (→ *ṭṭ [tˁː]) *ṭ (→ *ḍ) *ḍ
?? d *z *z *dʒ
ś, ?? š *s *s1(=*s)
*θ̣ dz- *ẓ [zˁ] South Cushitic
*c̣
*z s *z *z *dz
*s *s ś *s- ? s2- *c
*c̣ dz *ẓ [zˤ] *c̣ *c̣
ś *s *s2(=) s,
Central Chadic:
*s,
š, ? ś *s, *z- *l,
SCush.
, *ẑ
*ṣ̂ dz, ? d- *s1 ?,
SCush.
*ĉ̣
-*ĉ̣-
*g g, dz *g *g *g
*k k, c *k, ? *k *k
*ḳ , dz , ? *ḳ (→ *ḳḳ [kˤː])
χ-, ʕ- ? *h2
χ, , ħ *H- *h-, *-Ø- *-H-?
ʕ *H- -, *-Ø-ʔ
ħ *H- -, *-Øː-
*h ı͗- *h1, *h2 -
ı͗, ? ꜣ , -Ø-
*r , r *r -*r- *r
*l n-, [l-], r, *l -*l- *l
*w w-, ı͗, y *w, *Ø *w, *Ø *w-?
*y ı͗-, y-, -Ø- *y, *i, *Ø *y, *i, *Ø *y, *Ø
Proto-Afroasiatic PS Egyptian Berber East Cushitic West Chadic
  1. under special conditions

  Pronouns

Ehret (1995) reconstructs the following pronouns, most of which are supported by at least five of the six branches:

Proto-Afroasiatic Pronouns[3]
Singular, bound Singular, independent Plural
1 *i, *yi *(ʔ)ân-/(ʔ)în- *(ʔ)ǎnn-/(ʔ)ǐnn-
2 m. *ku, *ka *(ʔ)ânt/(ʔ)înt- *kuuna
2 f. *ki
3 *si, *isi *su, *usu

  Numerals

Ehret (1995) reconstructs the following cardinal numbers (Ehret does not include Berber in his reconstruction):

Cardinal Numbers in Afroasiatic[4]
Number Proto-Afroasiatic Proto-Semitic Egyptian Proto-Cushitic Proto-Chadic Proto-Omotic
two *tsan, *can *θny snwj
*tsîr(n), *cîr(n) *θər *sər
*ɬâm- *ɬmʔl "left hand" *ɬâ(a)m- *lam-
three *xayaz- *knɗ- *x2ayz-
four *fâzw- fdw *fʷaɗə

The first root for "two" has been compared to Berber (Tamazight) sin[5]. Other proposed cognate sets include, among others: "six": Egyptian srs, Proto-Semitic *šidṯ-, Berber (Tamazight) sddis[5], "seven": Egyptian sfḫ, Proto-Semitic *šabʕ-, Berber (Tamazight) ssa[5].

  Homeland

The limited size of the Afro-Asiatic language area (prior to its expansion in the historic era) has limited the potential areas where that language family's original homeland or Urheimat could be. Generally speaking, two proposals have been developed: that Afro-Asiatic arose in a Semitic Urheimat in the Middle East aka Southwest Asia, or that Afro-Asiatic languages arose in northeast Africa (generally, either between Darfur and Tibesti or in Ethiopia and the other countries of the Horn of Africa). The African hypothesis is considered to be rather more likely at the present time, because of the greater diversity of languages with more distant relationships to each other there.

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ Dolgopolsky (1999), pp. 38-39.
  2. ^ Prasse (2000), p. 346.
  3. ^ Ehret (1995)
  4. ^ Ehret (1995)
  5. ^ a b c Takács, Gábor (1999-). Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian. Brill. 

  References

  • Dolgopolsky, Aron (1999). From Proto-Semitic to Hebrew. Milan: Centro Studi Camito-Semitici di Milano. 
  • Ehret, Christopher (1995). Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): vowels, tone, consonants, and vocabulary. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-09799-8. 
  • Prasse, Karl G. (2000). Études berbères et chamito-sémitiques: mélanges offerts à Karl-G. Prasse. 

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of proto afroasiatic language


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