definition of Wikipedia
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2011)|
|Christopher of Bavaria|
|King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden|
|Portrait of Christopher of Bavaria.|
|Reign||9 April 1440 – 5 January 1448|
|Coronation||1 January 1443 in Ribe|
|Reign||June 1442–5 January 1448
|Coronation||2 July 1442 in Oslo|
|Reign||1441 – 5 January 1448|
|Coronation||13 September 1441 in Uppsala|
|Spouse||Dorothea of Brandenburg|
|House||Pfalz-Neumarkt as branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty|
|Father||John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt|
|Mother||Catherine of Pomerania|
|Born||26 February 1416
Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz
|Died||5/6 January 1448
|Burial||Roskilde Cathedral, Roskilde|
Christopher of Bavaria or Christopher the Bavarian; as king named Christopher (Cristofforus); Danish and Norwegian: Christoffer af/av Bayern; Swedish Kristofer av Bayern (26 February 1416 – 5 or 6 January 1448) was union king of Denmark (1440–1448 as Christopher III), Sweden (1441–1448) and Norway (1442–1448).
He was probably born at Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz, the son of John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt, and Catherine of Pomerania, the daughter of Wartislaw VII, Duke of Pomerania in Pomerania-Stolp, and Catherine of Pomerania, sister of the Scandinavian king, Eric of Pomerania. Count Palatine John was a son of King Rupert of Germany. In 1445, Christopher married Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430 – 25 November 1495), in Copenhagen.
Eric of Pomerania was deposed as king of Denmark and Sweden in 1439. As Eric's nephew, Christopher, who was rather unfamiliar with Scandinavian conditions, was elected by the Danish State Council as the successor to his uncle, first as regent from 1439, and then proclaimed King of Denmark at the Viborg Assembly (Danish landsting) on 9 April 1440. He was meant to be a puppet, as evidenced by the saying: "Had the Council demanded the stars of heaven from him, he would have ordered it." However he succeeded in maintaining some personal control. As a whole his rule, according to the politics of the nobility and his succession, might be called the start of the long period of balance between royal power and nobility which lasted until 1660. He was later elected king of Sweden in 1441, and Norway in June 1442.
|Jutland Peasant Rebellion|
|Part of Late Medieval Peasant rebellions|
|Jutland peasant rebel army||Jutland nobles, Danish Royal Army|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Henrik Reventlow||Eske Brok, Christopher of Bavaria|
|25,000 lightly armed peasants||Outnumbered by rebels but including armoured knigts|
|Casualties and losses|
|Thousands killed||Thousands killed|
At the start of his reign, he put down peasant rebellions ln Funen and Jutland. Once the rebellion on Funen was suppressed, he turned his attention the uprising in Jutland. North Jutland, especially Vendsyssel, was so restive that a peasant army of 25,000 led by Henrik Reventlow posed a serious threat to Christopher's continued reign. Before the king could act, Jutland's noble families raised their own army and marched west of Aalborg to meet Reventlow's forces.
The peasants had created a gigantic wagon fortress three layers deep to protect themselves from the mounted knights they knew would come against them. They also placed tree branches across the bog in front of the camp and then cast earth on top to make it look like solid ground. The overconfident army of nobles led by Eske Brok appeared at St Jorgen's Hill on 3 May, 1441. The knights charged the camp, and were quickly mired down in the bog. The peasants moved in for the kill. Brok was killed and dismembered and the pieces sent to the towns in the area as a warning. The peasants then raided the area's most important manor at Aagard and burned it, forcing the noble Niels Guldenstierne to flee with nothing but a staff.
The treatment of the captives after the battle strengthened Christopher's determination to put down the peasants. With his own army Christopher rode north to the rebel camp at Husby Hole near St Jorgen's Hill in northern Jutland. Because the rebels outnumbered his troops, Christopher sent word that anyone who left the camp and went home would not be punished for rebellion. The men from the island of Mors and Thisted left, for which they were called cowards and traitors ever after. Christopher ordered the attack on the rebel camp on 8 June, 1441 and despite fighting ferociously the rebels could not overcome the heavily armed knights. Thousands of rebels were killed, those who survived were fined heavily. The more severe consequence was that rebels lost their free status and became serfs on the farms where they worked. The king made it a capital crime for peasants to carry weapons longer than a short knife. The subjugation of Denmark's once free peasants was complete.
In May 1442 Christopher traveled to Lödöse to meet with the nobles from all three kingdoms. He was crowned King of Norway there and then went to Oslo and the Trondheim to be confirmed as the king. The next year he was proclaimed King of Denmark at the Urnehoved Assembly near Ribe. When his residence at Roskilde burned down, Christopher moved to Copenhagen and made it the capital of Denmark.
The Swedish nobles were not happy to relinquish any power and thus didn't like him, claiming he was too German for them and that he allowed his uncle (ex-King Eric) to plunder shipping from his castle on Gotland without any attempt to stop him. They blamed a series of bad harvests on him. People were so hungry they mixed ground tree bark with the little flour they could find. Christopher was contemptuously nicknamed the "Bark King" in Sweden.
On the other hand he tried to support the cities and their merchants as far as the limits of nobility and Hanseatic cities allowed. During his reign Copenhagen was made permanently the capital of Denmark (municipal charter of 1443).
He carried on an ineffective policy of war and negotiations against Eric in Gotland which did little to help the dissatisfaction within both Sweden and the Hanseatic League. The Kalmar Union Treaty was changed so that the aristocracy had most of the policy-making powers, and the king lost many of the powers monarchs had acquired since Viking times. The results of this policy of balance were still not reached when he suddenly died as the last descendant of Valdemar IV of Denmark.
In 1654 his Wittelsbach family would return to power in Sweden.
|Ancestors of Christopher of Bavaria|
Media related to Christopher of Bavaria at Wikimedia Commons
Christopher of Bavaria
Cadet branch of the House of WittelsbachBorn: 26 February 1416 Died: 6 January 1448
Title last held byEric of Pomerania
|King of Denmark
Title next held byChristian I
|King of Norway
Title next held byCharles I & VIII
|King of Sweden
|Count Palatine of Neumarkt
A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !
With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.
Improve your site content
Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.
Crawl products or adds
Get XML access to reach the best products.
Index images and define metadata
Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.
Please, email us to describe your idea.
Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
computed in 0.046s