Alphabetical Browse | Britannica
  • conservative force (physics)

    Conservative force, in physics, any force, such as the gravitational force between the Earth and another mass, whose work is determined only by the final displacement of the object acted upon. The total work done by a conservative force is independent of the path resulting in a given displacement

  • Conservative Judaism

    Conservative Judaism, religious movement that seeks to conserve essential elements of traditional Judaism but allows for the modernization of religious practices in a less radical sense than that espoused by Reform Judaism. Zacharias Frankel (1801–75), whose ideology inspired early Conservative

  • conservative management (therapeutics)

    avascular necrosis: Treatment: …options for avascular necrosis include conservative management, joint replacement, core decompression (to relieve pressure in the bone), and osteotomy (cutting and reshaping of the bone). Conservative management involves bed rest, partial weight bearing with crutches, weight bearing as tolerated, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents for pain management. This…

  • Conservative Party (political party, Denmark)

    Denmark: The Right and the Left: …Liberals had merged with the Conservatives to form the Right (Højre) Party.

  • Conservative Party (political party, Sweden)

    Moderate Party, centre-right Swedish political party. The Moderate Party was founded in 1904 as the Conservative Party but took its current name in 1969. From its inception the party has promoted a market economy, lower taxes, and a smaller role for the government in the economy. For much of its

  • Conservative Party (political party, Venezuela)

    Venezuela: Páez and the Conservatives: The first of the military dictators was General José Antonio Páez, who gave the country better government than it would see again for nearly a century. Bolívar had left Páez in charge of the armed forces of Venezuela, and he soon took full control…

  • Conservative Party (political party, United Kingdom)

    Conservative Party, in the United Kingdom, a political party whose guiding principles include the promotion of private property and enterprise, the maintenance of a strong military, and the preservation of traditional cultural values and institutions. Since World War I the Conservative Party and

  • Conservative Party (political party, Bolivia)

    Bolivia: Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties: Starting with the presidency (1880–84) of Narciso Campero, Bolivia moved into an era of civilian government. The country’s upper classes divided their support between two parties—Liberal and Conservative— and then proceeded to share power through them. This intraclass political party system finally brought…

  • Conservative Party (political party, South Africa)

    P. W. Botha: …in 1982 to form the Conservative Party. Botha was still able to get the constitution passed by referendum of whites in 1983. The following year he was elected under the new constitution as state president by an electoral college selected from the racially segregated, white-dominated Parliament. During his term in…

  • Conservative Party (political party, Norway)

    Norway: Political process: The Conservative Party (Høyre), which traditionally has been the major alternative to the DNA, accepts the welfare state and approves of the extensive transfers of income and of government control of the economy. Between 1945 and 1961 the government was formed by the DNA, which won…

  • Conservative Party (political party, Ecuador)

    Ecuador: Shift to liberalism (1875–97): Conservatives and liberals struggled for power. But Ecuador had become part of the world market; the importance of the coast slowly increased, and the liberals of that area increasingly dominated the economy.

  • Conservative Party of Canada (political party, Canada)

    Conservative Party of Canada, conservative Canadian political party. The party was formed in 2003 by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party. The idea for a merger of Canada’s main conservative parties arose in the 1990s when national support for the Progressive

  • Conservative Party of Nicaragua (political party, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Political process: … (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista; PLC), the Conservative Party of Nicaragua (Partido Conservador de Nicaragua; PCN), and the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional; FSLN). The FSLN was established in the early 1960s as a guerrilla group dedicated to the overthrow of the Somoza family. They governed Nicaragua from…

  • Conservative People’s Party (political party, Denmark)

    Denmark: Political process: …nonsocialist parties headed by the Conservative People’s Party (Konservative Folkeparti) and the Liberal Party (Venstre) ruled until 1993, when the Social Democrats regained power. A centre-right Liberal-Conservative coalition held power from 2001 to 2011, when a centre-left coalition led by the Social Democrats took the reins of government. Other prominent…

  • Conservative Political Action Conference (American political conference)

    Young Americans for Freedom: …Conservative Union to create the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), an annual event that later developed into one of the largest meetings of conservatives in the United States. YAF’s influence was perhaps greatest in 1980, when it supported Ronald Reagan—who had joined the group’s National Advisory Board in 1962—in his…

  • conservative-modernist controversy (American Protestant history)

    Christian fundamentalism: Origins: During the 19th century, major challenges to traditional Christian teachings arose on several fronts. Geologic discoveries revealed Earth to be far older than the few thousand years suggested by a literal reading of the biblical book of Genesis and the various scriptural genealogies. The work of Charles Darwin (1809–82) and…

  • Conservative–Social Christian Party (political party, Switzerland)

    Christian Democratic People’s Party, Swiss centre-right political party that endorses Christian democratic principles. With FDP. The Liberals, the Social Democratic Party, and the Swiss People’s Party, the Christian Democratic People’s Party (CVP) has governed Switzerland as part of a grand

  • Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève (research centre, Geneva, Switzerland)

    Geneva City Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, major botanical research centre in Geneva, Switz., specializing in such areas as floristics, biosystematics, and morphology. Founded in 1817, the 19-hectare (47-acre) municipal garden cultivates about 15,000 species of plants; it has important

  • Conservatoire National de Musique et d’Art Dramatique (educational institution, France)

    Sarah Bernhardt: Early life and training: …for her to enter the Paris Conservatoire, the government-sponsored school of acting. She was not considered a particularly promising student, and, although she revered some of her teachers, she regarded the Conservatoire’s methods as antiquated.

  • Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (institution, Paris, France)

    Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, (French: “National Conservatory of Arts and Trades”; CNAM) public institution of higher learning in Paris, dedicated to applied science and technology, that grants degrees primarily in engineering. It is also a laboratory that specializes in testing,

  • Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique (educational institution, France)

    Sarah Bernhardt: Early life and training: …for her to enter the Paris Conservatoire, the government-sponsored school of acting. She was not considered a particularly promising student, and, although she revered some of her teachers, she regarded the Conservatoire’s methods as antiquated.

  • Conservatori, Palazzo dei (museum, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Capitoline: The Palazzo dei Conservatori (“Palace of the Conservators”), on the south side of the square, was the initial site of a papal collection of Classical works offered back to the citizens of Rome by Sixtus IV in 1471. Following its completion in the 17th century, the…

  • conservatory (building)

    Conservatory, in architecture, building in which tender plants are protected and displayed, usually attached to and directly entered from a dwelling. It was not until the 19th century that a conservatory was distinguished from a greenhouse, also a building in which tender plants are cultivated but

  • conservatory (musical institution)

    Conservatory, in music, institution for education in musical performance and composition. The term and institution derive from the Italian conservatorio, which in the Renaissance period and earlier denoted a type of orphanage often attached to a hospital (hence the term ospedale also applied to

  • conserve (food)

    jelly: Preserves, jams, conserves, and marmalades differ from jellies in their inclusion of whole fruit or fruit pulp.

  • Conshelf Saturation Dive Program (oceanography)

    Jacques Cousteau: He led the Conshelf Saturation Dive Program, conducting experiments in which men lived and worked for extended periods of time at considerable depths along the continental shelves. The undersea laboratories, called Conshelf I, II, and III, sat at depths of 10 metres (about 30 feet), 30 metres (about…

  • Considérant, Victor-Prosper (French political scientist)

    Victor-Prosper Considérant, French Socialist who, after the death of Charles Fourier in 1837, became the acknowledged leader of Fourierist Utopianism and took charge of La Phalange, its theoretical organ. Educated at the École Polytechnique in Paris, Considérant entered the French army as an

  • consideration (contract law)

    Consideration, in contract law, an inducement given to enter into a contract that is sufficient to render the promise enforceable in the courts. The technical requirement is either a detriment incurred by the person making the promise or a benefit received by the other person. Thus, the person

  • Considerations on Representative Government (work by Mill)

    democracy: Solving the dilemma: …Stuart Mill, concluded in his Considerations on Representative Government (1861) that “the ideal type of a perfect government” would be both democratic and representative. Foreshadowing developments that would take place in the 20th century, the dēmos of Mill’s representative democracy included women.

  • Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament (treatise by Wilson)

    James Wilson: …in 1774 of his treatise Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament. In this work he set out a scheme of empire in which the British colonies would have the equivalent of dominion status. In 1774 he became a member of the Committee…

  • Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution (work by Staël-Holstein)

    Germaine de Staël: Banishment from Paris.: …can be found in the Considérations sur la Révolution française [1818; Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution], which represents a return to Necker’s ideas and holds up the English political system as a model for France).

  • Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies (work by Dulany)

    Daniel Dulany: …Act of 1765, he wrote Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies (1765), which was the most influential pamphlet that appeared in opposition to the Stamp Act. He opposed revolutionary action against British rule, however, and, during the American Revolution, he remained a loyalist, being deprived…

  • Considerations on the State of the Currency (work by Tooke)

    Thomas Tooke: …and Low Prices (1823) and Considerations on the State of the Currency (1826) traced the causes of low prices to underlying cyclic conditions. He continued work along these lines in his monumental History of Prices, 6 vol. (1838–57), in the last two volumes of which he collaborated with William Newmarch.

  • Considerations on Volcanoes (work by Scrope)

    George Julius Poulett Scrope: His first work, Considerations on Volcanoes (1825), is regarded as the earliest systematic treatise on volcanology, since it was the first attempt to frame a satisfactory theory of volcanic action and to show the part volcanoes have played in the Earth’s history. He early appreciated the important part…

  • Considérations sur la France (work by Maestre)

    history of Europe: Postrevolutionary thinking: … and Joseph de Maistre his Considérations sur la France. They differed on many points, but what both saw, like their successors, was that revolution was self-perpetuating. There is no way to stop it because liberty and equality can be endlessly claimed by group after group that feels deprived or degraded.…

  • Considérations sur la Révolution française (work by Staël-Holstein)

    Germaine de Staël: Banishment from Paris.: …can be found in the Considérations sur la Révolution française [1818; Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution], which represents a return to Necker’s ideas and holds up the English political system as a model for France).

  • Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (work by Montesquieu)

    Montesquieu: Major works: …et de leur décadence (1734; Reflections on the Causes of the Grandeur and Declension of the Romans, 1734). He had thought of publishing the two together, thus following an English tradition, for, as Voltaire said, the English delighted in comparing themselves with the Romans.

  • Considérations sur les corps organisés (work by Bonnet)

    Charles Bonnet: …the aphid, Bonnet argued in Considérations sur les corps organisés (1762; “Considerations on Organized Bodies”) that each female organism contains within its germ cells (i.e., eggs) an infinite series of preformed individuals, leading to an immortality and immutability of species. He responded to fossil evidence of extinct species with La…

  • Considerations Tending to the Happy Accomplishment of England’s Reformation in Church and State (work by Hartlib)

    Samuel Hartlib: …education was set forth in Considerations Tending to the Happy Accomplishment of England’s Reformation in Church and State (1647), in which he proposed a labour exchange and an international bureau for the dissemination of religious and educational ideas. Hartlib further showed his concern for universal education in his many treatises…

  • Considerazioni intorno ai ‘Discorsi’ del Machiavelli (work by Guicciardini)

    Francesco Guicciardini: He disagreed, however, in his Considerazioni intorno ai “Discorsi” del Machiavelli (“Considerations on the ‘Discourses’ of Machiavelli,” c. 1530), with Machiavelli’s interpretation of Roman history as evidence for a political science. After the city’s surrender, he returned as papal representative and took a leading part in the persecution of the…

  • Considerazioni sopra le rime del Petrarca (work by Tassoni)

    Alessandro Tassoni: …on Petrarch and his followers, Considerazioni sopra le rime del Petrarca (1609; “Observations on Petrarch’s Poems”), together with a collection of philosophical, literary, scientific, and political thoughts, Dieci libri di pensieri diversi di Alessandro Tassoni (1620; “Ten Books of Diverse Thoughts of Alessandro Tassoni”).

  • consigliere (mafia)

    Mafia: …or deputy director, and a consigliere, or counselor, who had considerable power and influence. Below the underboss were the caporegime, or lieutenants, who, acting as buffers between the lower echelon workers and the don himself, protected him from a too-direct association with the organization’s illicit operations. The lieutenants supervised squads…

  • consignment selling (business)

    marketing: Marketing intermediaries: the distribution channel: For instance, in consignment selling, the producer retains full legal ownership even though the goods may be in the hands of the wholesaler or retailer—that is, until the merchandise reaches the final user or consumer.

  • Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (work by Wilson)

    Edward O. Wilson: In Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1998), he strove to demonstrate the interrelatedness and evolutionary origins of all human thought. In Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth (2006), he developed further the evolutionarily informed humanism he had earlier explored in On Human Nature. In…

  • Consilium de emendanda ecclesia (historical document)

    Italy: The Papal States: …which produced the important blueprint Consilium de emendanda ecclesia (“Project for the Reform of the Church”), and in 1537 he made the first attempt at convoking a reform council. By the 1540s, however, hopes for reunification of Catholics and Protestants had foundered. A true Counter-Reformation—that is, the Roman Catholic Church’s…

  • Consilium Principis

    ancient Rome: The Roman Senate and the urban magistracies: …and an imperial council (Consilium Principis), which he consulted on matters of policy, in the manner of a republican magistrate seeking the opinion of his advisory committee, consisted of the consuls, certain other magistrates, and 15 senators—not handpicked by him but chosen by lot every six months.

  • Consilium rationis bellicae (work by Tarnowski)

    Jan Tarnowski: …war against the Turks, and Consilium rationis bellicae (1558; “Plans on Methods of War”), on traditional Polish methods of warfare.

  • consistency (logic)

    metalogic: The axiomatic method: …that non-Euclidean geometries must be self-consistent systems because they have models (or interpretations) in Euclidean geometry, which in turn has a model in the theory of real numbers. It may then be asked, however, how it is known that the theory of real numbers is consistent in the sense that…

  • consistency proofs, Gödel’s theorem on (logic)

    incompleteness theorem: The second incompleteness theorem follows as an immediate consequence, or corollary, from Gödel’s paper. Although it was not stated explicitly in the paper, Gödel was aware of it, and other mathematicians, such as the Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann, realized immediately that it followed as…

  • consistory (religion)

    Consistory, (from Latin consistorium, “assembly place”), a gathering of ecclesiastical persons for the purpose of administering justice or transacting business, particularly meetings of the Sacred College of Cardinals with the pope as president. From the 11th century, when the institution of the

  • consociational democracy (government)

    Consociationalism, a stable democratic system in deeply divided societies that is based on power sharing between elites from different social groups. Consociational democracy can be found in countries that are deeply divided into distinct religious, ethnic, racial, or regional segments—conditions

  • consociationalism (government)

    Consociationalism, a stable democratic system in deeply divided societies that is based on power sharing between elites from different social groups. Consociational democracy can be found in countries that are deeply divided into distinct religious, ethnic, racial, or regional segments—conditions

  • consol (economics)

    Consol, British government security without a maturity date. The name is a contraction for Consolidated Annuities, a form of British government stock that originated in 1751. The first issue of consols carried an interest rate of 3 percent (reduced to 2.75 percent in 1888 and to 2.5 percent in

  • consolation (literary genre)

    Crantor: …a new literary genre, the consolation, which was offered on the occasion of a misfortune such as death. One of Crantor’s consolatory arguments, reminiscent of Plato’s Phaedo or Aristotle’s Eudemus, was that life is actually punishment; death, the release of the soul. He wrote the first commentary on Plato’s Timaeus,…

  • Consolation of Philosophy (work by Boethius)

    fable, parable, and allegory: Diversity of forms: Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy (c. ad 524) and Dante’s The New Life (c. 1293) interrupt the prose discourse with short poems. Verse and prose then interact to give a new thematic perspective. A related mixing of elements appears in Menippean satire (those writings deriving from the…

  • Consolationes (works by Seneca)

    Seneca: Philosophical works and tragedies: Of the Consolationes, Ad Marciam (To Marcia) consoles a lady on the loss of a son; Ad Helviam matrem (To Mother Helvia), Seneca’s mother on his exile; and Ad Polybium (To Polybius), a powerful freedman on the loss of a son but with a sycophantic plea for…

  • Consolations, Les (work by Sainte-Beuve)

    Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve: Early life and Romantic period: …Thought of Joseph Delorme”) and Les Consolations (1830), which on their publication attracted some attention—not least because of their deliberate flatness and apparent uncouthness, much in contrast to the grander manner of Hugo and the poet Alfred de Vigny.

  • console (piano)

    upright piano: …heights; the shortest are called spinets or consoles, and these are generally considered to have an inferior tone resulting from the shortness of their strings and their relatively small soundboards. The larger upright pianos were quite popular in the later 19th and early 20th centuries. The action (hammer and damper…

  • console (electronic device)

    electronic fighting game: Home console games: Two reasons for the decline of arcades in the 1990s were the steep learning curve for newcomers to the fighting games and the increasing power of home video consoles. As the 16-bit home consoles, such as the Sega Genesis (1988) and the Super…

  • console (architecture)

    Console, in architecture, type of bracket or corbel, particularly one with a scroll-shaped profile: usually an ogee (S or inverted S curve) or double-ogee terminating in volutes (spirals) above and below. A console projects about one-half its height or less to support a windowhead, cornice, shelf,

  • console (furniture)

    Console, in furniture, a type of side table placed against a wall and normally fixed to it, requiring legs or other decorative support only at the front. Because it was viewed only from the front or sides, the back was left undecorated; the top was often of marble. In 17th-century Italy the console

  • console (music)

    keyboard instrument: Stop and key mechanisms: …that is controlled at the console.

  • Consolida ambigua (plant)

    larkspur: …genus Consolida) include the common rocket larkspur (D. ajacis or C. ambigua) and its varieties, up to 60 centimetres (2 feet) tall, with bright blue, pink, or white flowers on branching stalks. Perennial larkspurs, which tend toward blue flowers but vary to pink, white, red, and yellow, include a puzzling…

  • consolidant (art)

    art conservation and restoration: Stone sculpture: …by the introduction of a consolidant. The characteristics of good stone consolidants include long-term stability and strength under adverse conditions (outdoors), the ability to penetrate deeply into the stone and provide even distribution of the final consolidating product throughout the stone, and a minimal effect upon the appearance of the…

  • Consolidated Annuities (economics)

    Consol, British government security without a maturity date. The name is a contraction for Consolidated Annuities, a form of British government stock that originated in 1751. The first issue of consols carried an interest rate of 3 percent (reduced to 2.75 percent in 1888 and to 2.5 percent in

  • Consolidated Bank and Trust Company (bank, Richmond, Virginia, United States)

    Maggie Lena Draper Walker: …African Americans and became the Consolidated Bank and Trust Company. Walker served thereafter as the bank’s chairman of the board. She also helped found the Richmond Council of Colored Women (1912). Serving as president, she helped raise large sums for the support of such institutions as Janie Porter Barrett’s Virginia…

  • Consolidated Diamond Mines of South West Africa, Ltd. (Namibian company)

    Sir Ernest Oppenheimer: Two years later he formed Consolidated Diamond Mines of South West Africa, Ltd. (reformed as the Namdeb Diamond Corp. in 1994). This diamond prospecting corporation was so successful that he gained control of the De Beers Consolidated Mines, which once dominated the world diamond market, and in 1930 established The…

  • Consolidated Edison (American company)

    George Metesky: …he was then terminated by Consolidated Edison. Although Metesky filed a worker’s compensation claim stating that the accident had led to pneumonia that progressed to tuberculosis, his claim was denied ostensibly because he had waited too long to file. His three appeals were likewise denied. Unemployed and living with his…

  • Consolidated Rail Corporation (American company)

    Consolidated Rail Corporation, publicly owned American railroad company established by the federal government under the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 to take over six bankrupt northeastern railroads. Conrail commenced operations on April 1, 1976, with major portions of the Central

  • consolidated statement (accounting)

    accounting: Consolidated statements: Most large corporations in the United States and in other industrialized countries own other companies. Their primary financial statements are consolidated statements, reflecting the total assets, liabilities, owners’ equity, net income, and cash flows of all the corporations in the group. Thus, for…

  • Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation (American corporation)

    history of flight: Postwar airlines: …Corporation, more commonly known as Convair, built the speedy twin-engine 240/340/440 series, with trendy tricycle landing gear, which sold more than 1,000 models between 1947 and 1956, plus several hundred military versions that often trickled back into civil service. Convairs had a maximum cruising speed of 280 miles (450 km)…

  • Consolidated-Vultee B-24 Liberator (aircraft)

    B-24, long-range heavy bomber used during World War II by the U.S. and British air forces. It was designed by the Consolidated Aircraft Company (later Consolidated-Vultee) in response to a January 1939 U.S. Army Air Force (USAAF) requirement for a four-engined heavy bomber. The B-24 was powered by

  • consolidation (soil mechanics)

    mechanics of solids: Continuum plasticity theory: …also introduced the concept of consolidation, in which the compression of a fluid-saturated soil can take place only as the fluid slowly flows through the pore space under pressure gradients, according to Darcy’s law; this effect accounts for the time-dependent settlement of constructions over clay soils.

  • consolidation (business)

    automotive industry: Consolidation: The trend toward consolidation in the industry has already been traced. In each of the major producing countries the output of motor vehicles is in the hands of a few very large firms, and small independent producers have virtually disappeared. The fundamental cause of…

  • consolidation (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: Consolidation: Many of the same consolidation processes used for traditional ceramics—e.g., pressing, extrusion, slip casting—are also employed for advanced ceramics. A high degree of sophistication has been obtained in these processes. An outstanding example is the extruded honeycomb-shaped structure used as the catalyst…

  • Consolidation Coal Company (American company)

    Conoco: In 1966 it acquired Consolidation Coal Company, the second largest coal company in the United States, and shortly thereafter began venturing into uranium and copper mining. Later diversifications included chemicals, plastics, and fertilizer businesses. In 1981 it was acquired by E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company and was…

  • Consolo, Vincenzo (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Fiction at the turn of the 21st century: …Mariner) consolidated the reputation of Vincenzo Consolo, who has been compared to authors as different as fellow Sicilian Leonardo Sciascia (for his rational lucidity) and Carlo Emilio Gadda (for his stylistic experiments).

  • consommé (food)

    soup: Consommé can be served cold, in which case it takes the form of a jelly as a result of the natural gelatin present in the bony meats from which it is prepared.

  • consonance (music)

    Consonance and dissonance, in music, the impression of stability and repose (consonance) in relation to the impression of tension or clash (dissonance) experienced by a listener when certain combinations of tones or notes are sounded together. In certain musical styles, movement to and from

  • consonance (prosody)

    Consonance, the recurrence or repetition of identical or similar consonants; specifically the correspondence of end or intermediate consonants unaccompanied by like correspondence of vowels at the end of two or more syllables, words, or other units of composition. As a poetic device, it is often

  • consonant (phonetics)

    Consonant, any speech sound, such as that represented by t, g, f, or z, that is characterized by an articulation with a closure or narrowing of the vocal tract such that a complete or partial blockage of the flow of air is produced. Consonants are usually classified according to place of

  • consonant cluster (linguistics)

    North American Indian languages: Phonology: …is their use of complex consonant clusters, as in Nuxalk (also called Bella Coola; Salishan family) tlk’wixw ‘don’t swallow it.’ Some words even lack vowels entirely—e.g., nmnmk’ ‘animal.’

  • consonant gradation (phonetics)

    Uralic languages: Consonant gradation: …known as consonant gradation (or lenition) is sometimes thought to be of Uralic origin. In Baltic-Finnic, excluding Veps and Livonian, earlier intervocalic single stops were typically replaced by voiced and fricative consonantal variants, and geminate (double) stops were shortened to single stops just in case the preceding vowel was stressed…

  • consonantal writing system (linguistics)

    writing: Types of writing systems: Consonantal writing systems, as the name implies, represent the consonantal value of a syllable while ignoring the vocalic element. Such a system, therefore, would represent the syllables pa, pe, pi, po, pu with a single character. Such scripts have graphs for consonant sounds but not…

  • consort (music)

    Consort, in music, instrumental ensemble popular in England during the 16th and 17th centuries. The word consort was also used to indicate the music itself and the performance. Though the authenticity of such terms is doubtful, some researchers have suggested that there were “whole” consorts, in

  • conspecific brood parasitism (animal behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: The ultimate causes of social behaviour: Conspecific brood parasitism, however, occurs in over 30 species of ducks and geese as well as in the northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), wood pigeon (Columba palumbus), European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), cuckoo (Cuculidae), and a variety of other

  • conspicuous consumption (economics)

    Conspicuous consumption, term in economics that describes and explains the practice by consumers of using goods of a higher quality or in greater quantity than might be considered necessary in practical terms. The American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen coined the term in his book The

  • conspiracy (law)

    Conspiracy, in common law, an agreement between two or more persons to commit an unlawful act or to accomplish a lawful end by unlawful means. Conspiracy is perhaps the most amorphous area in Anglo-American criminal law. Its terms are vaguer and more elastic than any conception of conspiracy to be

  • Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron (play by Chapman)

    English literature: Other Jacobean dramatists: Chapman’s Bussy d’Ambois (1604) and Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron (1608) drew on recent French history to chart the collision of the magnificent but redundant heroism of the old-style aristocrat, whose code of honour had outlived its social function, with pragmatic arbitrary monarchy; Chapman doubtless had the career and…

  • Conspiracy of the Batavians (painting by Rembrandt)

    Rembrandt: Fourth Amsterdam period (1658–69): …one of these works, the Conspiracy of the Batavians. It seems that the painting ultimately was not accepted.

  • Conspiracy Theory (film by Donner [1997])

    Richard Donner: The 1990s and beyond: Far better was Conspiracy Theory (1997), which featured Gibson as a New York cabbie who sees conspiracies at every turn. He enlists the help of an attorney (played by Julia Roberts) when it appears that his paranoia might be grounded in reality. Donner’s last film of the 1990s…

  • conspiracy theory

    Conspiracy theory, an attempt to explain harmful or tragic events as the result of the actions of a small powerful group. Such explanations reject the accepted narrative surrounding those events; indeed, the official version may be seen as further proof of the conspiracy. Conspiracy theories

  • Conspirator, The (film by Redford [2010])

    Robert Redford: Redford subsequently directed The Conspirator (2010), about the trial of Mary Surratt, who was accused of having collaborated in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, and The Company You Keep (2012), in which he starred as a family man running from his radical activist past. His directing style is…

  • constable (government official)

    Constable, officer of state in western European countries from medieval times and also of certain executive legal officials in Great Britain and the United States. The title comes stabuli is found in the Roman and particularly in the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire from the 5th century ad as

  • Constable Hook (New Jersey, United States)

    Bayonne, city, Hudson county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., on a 3-mile (5-km) peninsula between Newark and Upper New York bays, adjacent to Jersey City, New Jersey, and within the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Bayonne is connected with Staten Island, New York City (south), by a

  • Constable, Archibald (Scottish publisher)

    Archibald Constable, the most gifted bookseller-publisher of Edinburgh’s Augustan Age and, for a decade, owner of Encyclopædia Britannica. At the age of 14 Constable was apprenticed to an Edinburgh bookseller, Peter Hill; after six years he left to open his own bookstore. He began to publish

  • Constable, John (British artist)

    John Constable, major figure in English landscape painting in the early 19th century. He is best known for his paintings of the English countryside, particularly those representing his native valley of the River Stour, an area that came to be known as “Constable country.” The son of a wealthy

  • Constança (work by Castro)

    Eugénio de Castro: …(1899; “Longings for Heaven”), and Constança (1900), a sensitive interpretation of the personal drama of the wife of Dom Pedro, who later became Peter I of Portugal. Dom Pedro’s mistress, Inês de Castro, figures prominently in Portuguese history and literature.

  • Constance (Germany)

    Konstanz, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It is situated where the Rhine River flows out of Lake Constance (Bodensee), adjacent to Kreuzlingen, Switzerland, and within a small enclave of German territory on the south side of the lake. The site of a Roman fort, it was

  • Constance (queen of Sicily)

    Constance, queen of Sicily (1194–98) and Holy Roman empress-consort (1191–97), whose marriage to a Hohenstaufen gave that German dynasty a claim to the throne of Sicily and whose political skill preserved the throne for her son. The daughter of King Roger II of Sicily, Constance married the future

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