AP European History Unit 3: Reformation Flashcards | Quizlet

AP European History Unit 3: Reformation

Charles V
- Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1558)
- King of Spain (1516-1556)
- Summoned the Edict of Worms (1521)
- Summoned the Council of Trent (1545- 1563)
- Reason for Martin Luther being excommunicated
Peace of Augsburg
- a.k.a. Augsburg Settlement
- Treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League
- Ended the religious struggle between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire
- Allowed the Holy Roman Empire state's princes to select their Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they controlled
Henry VIII
- English King
- Created the church of England because Pope refused to annul his marriage
- Married 6 times
- 1. divorced 2. beheaded 3. died 4. divorced 5. beheaded 6. survived
- Did a lot to further England
- Mainly a monster
Catholic Reformation
- Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church
- Begun in response to the Protestant Reformation
- Clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline
Defenestration of Prague
- The hurling of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague
- Done by Protestants
- Set off the Thirty Years War
Cardinal Richelieu
- French clergyman, noble, and statesman
- Became a Cardinal in 1622
- Remained in office until his death in 1642
Thirty Year's War
- Religious war
- Fought between Catholics and Protestants
- Resulted in political restructuring of Europe and the development of nation states
- Granted religious freedom in many parts of Europe and encouraged the secularization of government
Emperor Ferdinand II
- Strict Catholic, Jesuit educated emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
- His election was one of the events to spark the Thirty Years War
Albrecht Durer
- Known for painting and engraving
- Established his influence in his 20's
- Made "The Apocalypse" series
- Gothic
- Well-known engravings: "Knight, Death, and the Devil"; "Saint Jerome in his Study"; and "Melancholia"
- One of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance
- Inspiration to Raphael
Desiderius Erasmus
- a.k.a. Erasmus of Rotterdam of Erasmus
- Dutch Renaissance Humanist and Catholic priest
- "The crowning glory of the Christian humanist"
- Wrote: "On Free Will", The Praise of Folly", and "Handbook of a Christian Knight"
Christian Humanism
- Emphasizes the humanity of Jesus, his social teachings and his propensity to synthesize human spirituality and materialism
- Regards humanists principles like universal human dignity and individual freedom and the primacy pf human happiness as essential and principal components of the teaching of Jesus
- Philosophical union of Christian ethics and humanists principles
Great Schism
- a.k.a. Western Schism or Papal Schism
- Split within the Roman Catholic Church
- 1378 to 1417
- 3 men became the pope
- Division driven by politics
- Urban VI was 1st elected but turned out to be very violent
- 2nd elected was Robert of Geneva (Clement VII)
- 3rd was Innocent VII
- Ended by resignations of the popes (involuntary)
John Wyclif
- English Scholastic philosopher, theologian, preacher, translator, reformer, and Oxford teacher
- Followers known as Lollards
- Lollard movement was precursor to the Protestant Movement
- He was the "Morning Star of the Reformation"
- Opponent of Papal authority over secular power
- Reform movement in the 14th, 15th, and 16th century Catholic Church
- Held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council apart from the pope
- Emerged in response to the Great Schism
- Cardinals tried to work together after Great Schism, when everyone was tired of popes, to take power away from popes
- Showed that God's authority didn't rely in popes hands
- Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church
- Used to bring money into the Church
- It repaid sins and earned the living and dead time out of purgatory
- This practice lead to the Reformation
- Not mentioned in the Bible
Martin Luther
- German monk
- One of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church
- Wrote the 95 Theses
- Statements of belief attacking the Church practices
- Very devout monk
- Confessed, prayed, and fasted often
95 Theses
- Written by Martin Luther
- Widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation
- These theses were used for the intent of the displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's behavior
- Ex) indulgences, living lives of luxury, sexual relations, and families
Edict of Worms
- Decree issued by Charles V (The Holy Roman Emperor)
- Banned the writings of Martin Luther
- This decree labeled him a heretic and an enemy of the Catholic state
- One of the main conflicts that caused this was the selling of indulgences
German Peasants' Revolt
- When peasants wanted to be free from serfdom
- They destroyed everything
- Shocked Luther
- Luther wrote to princes about it but they showed no mercy
- The princes armies killed 100,000 people
- Caused many peasants to then reject Luther's religious leadership
- Organized the Protestant Reformation
- One of the three major divisions of Christendom
- Origins in Germany
- Begun in 1517 when Luther published the 95 Theses as a reaction to the selling of indulgences
Schmalkaldic League
- A defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire during the mid-16th century
- Originally started for religious motives after the start of the Protestant Reformation
- However, eventually intended to replace the Holy Roman Empire as their source of political allegiance
- Substantial military to defend political and religious interests
Huldrych Zwingli
- a.k.a. Ulrich Zwingli
- leader of the Reformation in Switzerland
- Preached ideas on reforming the Catholic Church
- He attacked the custom of fasting during Lent
- Agreed with clerical marriage
Sacramentarian Controversy
- Doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
- Established in the Roman Church
- First major doctrinal dispute among Protestants
- Sealed by Augsburg Confession of 1530
- Secretariats who formed communities of believers in Switzerland and sOuthern Germany
- Sought isolation form struggles of sinful world
- Wouldn't participate in political life and didn't believe in having ties with temporal government rejecting secular agreements, refused to take civil oaths, pay taxes, hold public office or serve in army
Jean Calvin
- French Protestant
- Stressed doctrine of predestination
- Established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva
- Encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education
- Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
- The belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Act of Supremacy
- Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the church of England in 1534
Ignatius Loyola
- Founded the Society of Jesus
- Resisted the spread of Protestantism
- Wrote spiritual exercises
Council of Trent
- Called by Pope Paul III
- Meant to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants
- Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend
- Elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture
- Flourished in Europe
- 17th century
Gianlorenzo Bernini
- Most influential figure of the Roman Baroque
- Sculptures emphasizes drama and incites the viewer to respond to it rather than sit and observe
- He was also influential in architecture
Printing Press
- invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454
- First book was Gutenberg Bible
- Changed private and public lives of Europeans
- Used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, and propaganda
- Laid basis for formation of distinct political parties
- Enhanced literacy
- People sought books on all subjects
Hanseatic League
- an economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany
- Founded about 1241
- Most powerful alliance in the fourteenth century
- Members of a French Protestant denomination with origins in the 16th or 17th centuries
- French Protestants inspired by the writings of John Calvin in the 1530s
- Majority of Huguenots endorsed the Reformed tradition of Protestantism
Concordat of Bologna
- 1516
- Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council
- Obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots
Poor Wretches
- Group of rebels who reflect abject poverty and desperation
- Rose up against nobles in central and souther France in 1594-1595
- Exposed popular belief that violence might restore imagined world of social justice in which wise rulers looked after the needs of their people
Catherine de Medici
- Wife of the King, Henry II
- Acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons
- Francis II
- Charles IX
- Henry III
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
- Six weeks long
- Slaughter of Huguenots
- Occurred when Huguenots nobles were in Paris
- They were attending the marriage of Catherine's Daughter to a Huguenot prince (Henry of Navarre)
- Public figures
- Placed politics before religion
- Believed that no religious truth was worth a civil war
French Catholic League
- a.k.a. Catholic League of France
- Referred to by contemporary Roman Catholics as the Holy League
- Major player in the French Wars of Religion
- Formed by Duke Henry of Guise in 1576
- Extremist group bent on the eradication of French Protestants
- Immediately began to exert pressure on Henry III of France
Henry of Navarre (IV)
- Political leader of the Huguenots
- Member of the Bourbon Dynasty
- Succeeded to the throne as Henry IV
- Realized that by being Protestant the Catholic Church wouldn't accept him so he converted to Catholicism
- Became King in 1594 then fighting in France stopped
War of the Three Henrys
- Last conflict in Frances Religious wars
- Fought between Henry III of France, Henry of Navarre, and Henry I, Duke of Guise
- Began when Henry III issued an edict outlawing Protestantism and annulled Henry of Navarre the throne
Edict of Nantes
- 1598
- Decree promulgated by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France
- Defined the rights of the French Protestants
Holy Roman Emperor
- Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
- Only as strong as his armies and alliances
- Crowned by the pope
German Catholic League
- A loose confederation of Roman Catholic German states
- Formed on July 10, 1609 to counteract the Protestant Union
- Modeled loosely on the more intransigent ultra-Catholic French Catholic League
- Long standing tensions between Protestants and Catholics began frequent episode of civil disobedience
Protestant Union
- 1608
- Alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism
- Catholic princes respond with Catholic league
Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate
- Known as Winter King
- a.k.a. King Frederick I
- Briefly ruled Bohemia and was elector Palantine
Albert Wallenstein
- Led Catholic Imperial army
- Argued with Catholic League leading to a division of forces
- Enforced Edict of Restitution
Gustavus Adolphus
- King of Sweden
- Victories in battle made Sweden a European power
Axel Oxensternia
- Right hand man to Gustavus
- Adviser until he got killed in battle
- Helped accomplish may things
- Died shortly after from disease of some sort
Treaty of Westphalia
- A group of treaties that ended the religious wars
- Thirty Years' War
- Eighty Years' War (between the Spanish and Dutch)