AP European History Unit 2: Reformation ID's Flashcards | Quizlet

AP European History Unit 2: Reformation ID's

Albrecht Durer
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
Christian Humanism
A movement that developed in northern Europe during the renaissance combining classical learning with the goal of reforming the catholic church
Great Schism
A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
John Wycliffe
English scholar and theologian. He wrote the papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in the Scriptures and that the Scriptures should alone be the foundation of Christian belief and practice. He led the Lollards. (394)
Some Cardinals tried to work together to end the Great Schism. They wanted to end the chaos, as everyone was exasperated with the popes. A problem-solving council of cardinals was opposed by both popes, because it would show that God's authority did not rest solely in the pope's hands.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Martin Luther
A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
95 Things
Written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences
Edict of Worms
When Charles V exiled or outlawed Luther from The Holy Roman Empire or any of it's other lands.
German Peasants' Revolt
Wanting to be freed from serfdom - destroy everything. Luther is in shock & writes to the princes showing no mercy. The princes' armies kill 100,000 people, and many peasants reject Luther's religious leadership
Reformers who protested some practices of the catholic church
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler.
Huldrych Zwingli
Swiss priest who led the protestant movement in Switzerland.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Jean Calvin
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
The belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power.
Henry VIII
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. (p. 447)
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Most influential figure of the Roman Baroque whose sculpture emphasizes drama and incites the viewer to respond to it rather than sit and observe; also influential in architecture.
Printing Press
Invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects.
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century. (p. 401)
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
French Protestants
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Catherine de Medici
The wife of Henry II. She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89).
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots.
Public figures who placed politics before religion and believed that no religious truth was worth civil war
French Catholic League
The Catholic League of France, sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Roman Catholics as the Holy League, a major player in the French Wars of Religion, was formed by Duke Henry of Guise in 1576.[1] In a time when religious fundamentalism was unusual, the League was an extremist group bent on the eradication of French Protestants--also known as Calvinists or Huguenots--during the Protestant Reformation. Pope Sixtus V, the Jesuits and Philip II of Spain were all supporters of this Catholic party. The League immediately began to exert pressure on Henry III of France.
Henry of Navarre (IV)
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
War of the 3 Henrys
The last conflict in France's religious wars. Fought between Henry III of France, Henry of Navarre, and Henry I, Duke of Guise. It began when Henry III issued an edict outlawing Protestantism and annulled Henry of Navarre's right to the throne.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants.
Cardinal Richelieu
French prelate and statesman
Emperor Ferdinand II
A religious war between the Catholics and Protestants, which resulted in the political restructuring of Europe and the development of nation states - the Dutch Republic, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, granted religious freedom in many parts of Europe and encouraged the secularization of government.
German Catholic League
Initially a loose confederation of Roman Catholic German states formed on July 10, 1609 to counteract the Protestant Union (formed 1608), whereby the participating states concluded an alliance "for the defense of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire." Modeled loosely on the more intransigent ultra-Catholic French Catholic League (1576), the German Catholic league initially acted politically to negotiate issues with the slightly older Protestant Union. Nevertheless, the league's founding, as had the founding of the Protestant Union, further exacerbated long standing tensions between the Protestants reformers and the Roman Catholics which thereafter began ratcheting upwards with ever more frequent episodes of civil disobedience, repression, and retaliations that would eventually ignite into the first phase of the Thirty Years' War roughly a decade later with the act of rebellion and calculated insult known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May 1618.
Protestant Union
(1608) alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism. Catholic princes responded with the Catholic League (1609). The two armed camps erupted in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). (p. 499)
Albert Wallenstein
Led Catholic imperial army, argued with Catholic league leading to a division of forces, enforced edict of restitution.
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish King who backed the Bohemian Protestants in the 30 Years' War.