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Eastern Orthodoxy by country

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Based on the numbers of adherents, the Eastern Orthodox Church (also known as Eastern Orthodoxy) is the second largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church, with the most common estimates of baptised members being approximately 220 million.[1][2][3] The numerous Protestant groups in the world, if taken all together, substantially outnumber the Eastern Orthodox,[4] but they differ theologically and do not form a single communion.[5]

Eastern Orthodoxy is the predominant religion in the world's largest country, Russia (77%),[6][7][8] where roughly half the world's Eastern Orthodox Christians live. The religion is also heavily concentrated in the rest of Eastern Europe, where it is the majority religion in Ukraine (65.4%[9]–77%),[10] Romania (82%),[11] Belarus (48%[12]–73%[13]), Greece (95%–98%),[11] Serbia (97%),[11] Bulgaria (88%),[11] Moldova (93%),[11] Georgia (84%),[11] North Macedonia (65%),[11] Cyprus (89%)[11] and Montenegro (72%);[11] it is also predominant in the disputed territories of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.

Significant minorities are present in several European countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina (31%),[11] Latvia (18%), Estonia (14%), Albania (7%),[14] Lithuania (4%), Croatia (4%), Slovenia (2%), and Finland (1.5%). In the former Soviet republics of Central Asia, Eastern Orthodoxy constitutes the dominant religion in northern Kazakhstan, representing 23.9% of the population of the region,[15] and is also a significant minority in Kyrgyzstan (17%), Turkmenistan (5%), Uzbekistan (5%), Azerbaijan (2%),[11] and Tajikistan (1%). In the Middle East, the most significant Eastern Orthodox populations are in Lebanon (8%),[16] Syria (5–8% prior to the 2011 civil war) in Palestine (0.5%–2.5%)[17] and Jordan (over 1%).

The percentage of Christians in Turkey, home to an historically large and influential Eastern Orthodox community, fell from 19% in 1914 to 2.5% in 1927,[18] due to demographic upheavals caused by the Armenian Genocide, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey,[19] and the emigration of Christians to foreign countries (mostly in Europe and the Americas).[20] Today there are more than 160,000 people of different Christian denominations.[21]

Recent immigration and missionary activity have raised the numbers of Eastern Orthodox adherents in traditionally Catholic and Protestant countries, including Australia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain, Canada and Switzerland, where they comprise roughly 2% of the population in each.

Eastern Orthodox population by country

Eastern Orthodox population by country

The number of members of the Eastern Orthodox Church in each country has been subject to debate. Each study performed that seeks to discover the number of adherents in a country may use different criteria, and be submitted to different populations. As such, some numbers may be inflated, and therefore inaccurate. Examples of this are Greece and Russia, where estimates of adherence to Eastern Orthodoxy may reach 80–98%, but where surveys found lower percentages professing Eastern Orthodoxy or belief in God. The likely reason for this disparity is that many people in majority Eastern Orthodox countries will culturally identify with the Eastern Orthodox Church, especially if they were baptized as children, even if they are not currently practicing. This includes those who may be irreligious, yet culturally identify with the Eastern Orthodox Church, or for whom Eastern Orthodox Christianity is listed on official state records. Other cases of incongruent data also might be due to counting ethnic groups from Eastern Orthodox countries rather than actual adherents. For example, the Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions in the United States, which has large numbers of immigrants from Eastern Orthodox countries, have collectively reported a total of 2–3 million across the country.

However, a 2010 study by Alexei Krindatch sought data from each parish, with the specific criteria of annual participation, discovering that there were only about 817,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians actively practicing their faith (i.e., attending church services on a regular basis) in the United States. The study explained that such a difference was due to a variety of circumstances, for example the higher numbers having counted all people who self-identify as Eastern Orthodox on a census regardless of active participation, or all people belonging to ethnic groups originating in Eastern Orthodox countries. This study, while initially controversial, proved groundbreaking, and has since been officially approved for use by the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United States of America.

Eastern Orthodox Church religious adherence by country
Country Total population % Eastern Orthodox Eastern Orthodox total
 Albania (details) 2,621,977 6.75% (as per census, number likely upwards of 20%) 148,992[22] (census unreliable, deemed corrupt, number is expected to be much higher)
 Armenia (details) 3,262,200 0.02% 7,587
 Australia (details) 23,824,600 2.6% 563,100[23]
 Austria (details) 8,773,000 6% 500,000
 Azerbaijan (details) 9,624,900 2.5% 240,000
 Belarus (details) 9,481,000 73% 4,590,000[12]
 Bosnia & Herzegovina (details) 3,502,227 31%[11] 1,086,733
 Brazil (details) 210,147,125 0.064% 135,000
 Bulgaria (details) 7,348,328[24] 59.4%[25] 4,374,135
 Canada (details) 33,476,688 1.7% 550,690[26]
 China (details) 1,386,000,000 0.001% 15,000
 Croatia (details) 4,284,889 4.44%[27] 195,969
 Cyprus (details) 838,897 89.1%[11] 781,900
 Czech Republic (details) 10,538,275 0.2% 20,533
 Egypt (details) 100,075,480 0.35% 350,000
 Estonia (details) 1,294,486 13.66% 176,773[28][29]
 Ethiopia (details) 114,000,000 0.01% 2,000
 France (details) 67,150,000 1% 500,000–700,000[30]
 Fiji (details) 912,241 0.022% 200+[31]
 Finland (details) 5,477,359 1.10%[32] 70,000
 Georgia (details) 3,729,635 82.1% 3,550,000
 Germany (details) 80,716,000 1.87% 1,500,000
 Greece (details) 10,423,054 90%[33] 9,380,749
 Grenada (details) 107,317 0.1% 100[34]
 Guatemala (details) 17,263,239 3% 200,000–550,000
 Israel (details) 9,010,050[11] 0.67%[11] 100,000
 Italy (details) 60,795,612 1.5% 900,000[35]
 Jordan (details) 9,531,712 2–4.5% 150,000–350,000
 Kazakhstan (details) 17,948,816 23.9% 4,300,000[15]
 Korea, South (details) 51,413,925 0.01% 6,000
 Kosovo (details) 1,433,842 1.48% (as per census) 25,837 (census boycotted by Northern Kosovo, and by a part of Serbs in the south)
 Kyrgyzstan (details) 5,895,100 17%[36] 1,000,000
 Latvia (details) 2,027,000 17.9% 370,000[37]
 Lebanon (details) 4,525,247 9% 330,000
 Lithuania (details) 2,966,954 4.2 125,189[38]
 Madagascar (details) 26,262,313 0.057% 15,000[39]
 Mexico (details) 121,736,809 0.00012% 15,000
 Moldova (details) 3,383,332 93.3% 3,158,015
 Montenegro (details) 629,320 81.0% 509,749[40]
 New Zealand (details) 4,599,327 0.3% 13,883[15]
 North Macedonia (details) 2,022,547 69.8% 1,610,184[41]
 Norway (details) 5,328,212 0.41% 21,993[42]
 Palestine (details) 4,550,368 2.50%[17] 100,000
 Poland (details) 38,386,000 1.4% 504,400[43]
 Romania (details) 20,121,641 81.1% 16,321,389[44]
 Russia (details)[45] 145,500,000 72.0%[6][7] 101,450,000[46]–104,000,000[47][48]
 Serbia (details) 8,740,680 97.06% 8,478,459[49]
 Slovakia (details) 5,397,036 0.9% 49,133[50]
 Slovenia (details) 2,055,496 2.2% 45,000
 Spain (details) 46,464,053 3.10% 1,500,000
 Sweden (details) 9,775,572 1.5% 145,279[51]
  Switzerland (details) 8,211,700 1.7% 140,000[52]
 Syria (details) 22,457,336 3,1% 700,000
 Tajikistan (details) 8,208,000 2% 160,000
 Transnistria (details) 505,153 91%[53] 460,000
 Turkey (details) 84,277,439 1.0% 180,000 (include Syriacs)
 Turkmenistan (details) 5,171,643 5.3%[54] 270,000
 Ukraine (details) 40,000,000 65.4%–76.6%[10] 27,802,000[9]–34,850,000[10]
 United States (details) 321,163,157 1.55% 1,043,850[55]
 Uzbekistan (details) 29,559,100 5%[56] 1,000,000
TOTAL NA NA ~220 million[2]

Eastern Orthodox Church by jurisdiction

Autocephalous Orthodox Churches

The Eastern Orthodox Church is organized as a union of several autocephalous subdivisions, which are also called "Churches" (or, sometimes, "jurisdictions"). Some are associated with a specific country, while others are not. This table presents some known data regarding individual jurisdictions. "NA" means that data is not available.

Eastern Orthodox Church by jurisdiction
Jurisdiction Bishops Priests Monastics Monasteries Parishes
Constantinople 125 NA 1,800[Note 1] 142 648
Alexandria 41 NA NA NA NA
Antioch 36 NA NA NA NA
Jerusalem 20 NA NA NA NA
Russia 217 30,675 NA 807 30,142
Serbia 45 NA NA 286 3,100
Romania 53 15,068 7,605 359 15,717
Bulgaria 15 1,500 NA 120 2,600
Georgia 37 730 NA NA 600
Cyprus 16 NA NA 67 NA
Greece 101 10,000 3,541[57] 646[57] 9146[58]
Poland 12 NA NA NA 400
Albania 6 135 NA 150 909
Czech Lands & Slovakia 6 NA NA NA 172
Orthodox Church in America 50 2700 NA 100 1200
Ukraine NA NA NA NA 7,000[59][60]
Total 743 54,382 12,946 2,256 61,939

Notes

  1. ^ This is including Mount Athos

References

  1. ^ Fairchild, Mary (17 March 2017). "Eastern Orthodox Denomination". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b Brien, Joanne O.; Palmer, Martin (2007). The Atlas of Religion. Univ of California Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-520-24917-2. There are over 220 million Orthodox Christians worldwide.
  3. ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Eastern Orthodox Church". www.bbc.co.uk.
  4. ^ Jay Diamond, Larry. Plattner, Marc F. and Costopoulos, Philip J. World Religions and Democracy. 2005, page 119.(also in PDF file Archived 2008-04-13 at the Wayback Machine, p. 49), saying "Not only do Protestants presently constitute 13 percent of the world's population—about 800 million people—but since 1900 Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America." "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Major Branches of Religions
  6. ^ a b VTSIOM
  7. ^ a b Public Opinion Foundation
  8. ^ There is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In August 2012, ARENA determined that about 46.8% of Russians are Christians (including Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, and non-denominational), which is slightly less than an absolute 50%+ majority. However, later that year the Levada Center Archived 2012-12-31 at the Wayback Machine determined that 76% of Russians are Christians, and in June 2013 the Public Opinion Foundation determined that 65% of Russians are Christians. These findings are in line with Pew's 2010 survey, which determined that 73.6% of Russians are Christians, with VTSIOM's 2010 survey (~77% Christian), and with Ipsos MORI Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine's 2011 survey (69%).
  9. ^ a b РЕЛІГІЯ, ЦЕРКВА, СУСПІЛЬСТВО І ДЕРЖАВА: ДВА РОКИ ПІСЛЯ МАЙДАНУ (Religion, Church, Society and State: Two Years after Maidan) Archived 2017-04-22 at the Wayback Machine, 2016 report by Razumkov Center in collaboration with the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches. pp. 27-29.
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  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-11-14. Retrieved 2015-07-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  33. ^ https://www.pewforum.org/2017/05/10/religious-affiliation/
  34. ^ https://eadiocese.org/news_190308_1
  35. ^ Caritas Dossier Immigrazione 2007 Archived November 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ United States Department of State
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  44. ^ 2011 Census Religion Statistics (final results) (in Romanian)
  45. ^ There is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In August 2012, ARENA determined that about 46.8% of Russians are Christians (including Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, and non-denominational), which is slightly less than an absolute 50%+ majority. However, later that year the Levada Center Archived 2012-12-31 at the Wayback Machine determined that 76% of Russians are Christians, and in June 2013 the Public Opinion Foundation determined that 65% of Russians are Christians. These findings are in line with Pew's 2010 survey, which determined that 73.6% of Russians are Christians, with VTSIOM's 2010 survey (~77% Christian), and with Ipsos MORI Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine's 2011 survey (69%).
  46. ^ http://fom.ru/obshchestvo/10953 Public Opinion Foundation
  47. ^ http://masterrussian.com/russia/facts.htm
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  54. ^ "Religions in Turkmenistan | PEW-GRF". www.globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 2020-06-06.
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  56. ^ United States Department of State
  57. ^ a b "CNEWA – Church of Greece". Archived from the original on 2009-08-02. Retrieved 2013-07-03.
  58. ^ http://www.ekathimerini.com/215056/article/ekathimerini/community/greeces-many-places-of-worship
  59. ^ "Epifaniy: Orthodox Church of Ukraine counts nearly 7,000 parishes and is open to other communities". risu.org.ua.
  60. ^ (in Ukrainian) In the CPC, the number of parishes and commented on the seizure of temples, Ukrayinska Pravda (21 December 2018)