List of city nicknames in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This partial list of city nicknames in the United Kingdom compiles the aliases, sobriquets and slogans that cities and towns in the United Kingdom are known by (or have been known by historically), officially and unofficially, to locals, outsiders or their tourism boards or chambers of commerce. City nicknames can help in establishing a civic identity, helping outsiders recognize a community or attracting people to a community because of its nickname; promote civic pride; and build community unity.[1]

Nicknames and slogans that successfully create a new community "ideology or myth"[2] are also believed to have economic value.[1] Their economic value is difficult to measure,[1] but there are anecdotal reports of cities that have achieved substantial economic benefits by "branding" themselves by adopting new slogans.[2]

Some unofficial nicknames are positive, while others are derisive. The unofficial nicknames listed here have been in use for a long time or have gained wide currency.

A[edit]

Granite is one of the principal materials used in the architecture of Aberdeen, to the extent that it has become known as "The Granite City"
  • Aberdare
    • "Swît Byr-dɛ̄r (Gwentian Welsh), Sweet 'Berdare (English)"[3] – A nickname remembered by the very old in the town, but no longer in general use. Popular in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Example of its use in 1916: "You do not hear a lot about us, but we are nevertheless doing our duty toward our King and country. I hope that I shall be spared to see Sweet 'Berdare once again. – I remain, B. J. Edwards. Sto. No. I. Mess, H.M.S. Colossus, c/o G.P.O. London."
  • Aberdeen
    • "Energy Capital of Europe"[4]
    • "Furryboots City"[5] – a humorous rendering of the Doric, "far aboots?" ("Whereabouts?"), as in "Far aboots ye frae?" ("Whereabouts are you from?")
    • "The Granite City"[6][7] – the most well-known, due to the copious use of local grey granite in the city's older buildings.
    • "Oil Capital of Europe"[4][8] – there are numerous variants on this, such as "Oil Capital of Scotland" etc.
  • Accrington
    • "Accy"[9] – simple contraction of the name.

B[edit]

Architecturally unredeemed shops in Basingstoke town-centre, circa 2009
  • Barnsley
    • "Tahn" or "Tarn" – derived from pronunciation of 'town' in the local dialect, although the term is often used with an increasing sense of irony given the relatively neutral accents of younger people in the town.[10]
  • Basingstoke
  • Belfast
    • "Old Smoke" – reference to the observation that in the Victorian era, while much of Ireland (Dublin excepted) remained rural and agricultural, Belfast became the island's primary industrial city.[12]
    • "Linenopolis" – a now largely defunct Victorian title given the city when it led the World's linen industry.
  • Birmingham
    • "Brum" – shortened form of "Brummagem", a local form of the city's name. The derived term "Brummie" can refer both to the people of the area, and the local dialect and accent.[13]
    • "City of a Thousand Trades"[14] – with reference to the city's former industrial might.
    • "Venice of the North" – a name likening the city to Venice, Italy, in southern Europe, due to both having a large number of canals.[15]
    • "Workshop of the world"[16] – also a reference to the city's industrial heritage.
    • "Second City" – used by many traders, politicians, and is the popular name of the derby between the city's two football clubs, Aston Villa and Birmingham City[17]
    • "The Pen Shop of the World" – Historical, in reference to Birmingham's huge pen trade in the 1800s.[18]
      The Wool Exchange, Bradford, reflecting the importance of the wool trade to the city
  • Bracknell
    • "Cracknell" – denigratory reference to Bracknell's predominantly lower middle class population, many of whom are assumed to be drug dealers. However, there is no evidence to suggest that drug use is higher in Bracknell than in any other part of the country.[19]
  • Bradford
    • "Bratford" – the way "Bradford" is pronounced by some Bradfordians.[20][21][22]
    • "Bradistan" – suffix -stan refers to the city's large Asian community, particularly from Pakistan. The nickname is used by white and Asian people alike, and came to many people's attention in the film East is East.[23][24]
    • "Bruddersford" – name coined by J. B. Priestley for his fictional portrayals of Bradford.[25][26]
    • "Curry Capital of Britain" or simply "Curry Capital" – a title gained by the city's rich history with curry. It won the Curry Capital of Britain (which ran from 2001 to 2016) a record seven times. It also hosts the World Curry Festival.[27][28]
    • "Woolopolis" – reference to the Victorian era woolen industry in the city, in the style of Manchester's "Cottonopolis"[29]
    • "Wool City" – same reason as above, as it was the former "Wool Capital of the World".[30]
    • "Worstedopolis" – as above, but more frequently used.[31][32]
    • "City of Film" or "Film City" – a title bestowed upon the city in 2009 when it became the first UNESCO City of Film.[33] It has a long history with film and filmmaking, which started with inventors and pioneers of film in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The city has many cinemas, and courses, festivals and other events to do with film. The city is often used as a location for film and TV productions,[34] and is home to the National Science and Media Museum.
  • Brighton and Hove
    • Brighton
    • Hove
      • "Hove actually" – imagined response distinguishing the area from Brighton.[40]
  • Bristol
    • "Bristle" or "Brizzle" – an unusual feature of the Bristol dialect, is the Bristol L (or terminal L), in which an L sound is appended to words.[41]

C[edit]

Two of the three spires of Coventry: Holy Trinity Church to the left, and the remains of the 14th Century St. Michael's Cathedral to the right
  • Cambridge
  • Cardiff
  • Chichester
    • "Chi" – shortened version of Chichester, pronounced 'Chy'.[52]
  • Coventry
    • "Cov" - abbreviation of Coventry.
    • "CoVegas"
    • "Britain's Detroit" – arising from its one-time status as the centre of UK car manufacturing; an appellation dating back to at least 1916.[53][54][55][56]
    • "City of Peace and Reconciliation" – branding adopted from 2008 onwards, as part of the City of Sanctuary movement.[57][58]
    • "City of three spires" – referring to the cathedral spire; Holy Trinity Church; and Christ Church's spire.[59][60]
    • "Motor City" – as with "Britain's Detroit", an allusion to the city's motorcar industry.[53][54][61]
    • "Poventry" - Portmanteau of poverty and Coventry - a denigratory reference to Coventry's societal deprivation, urban decay and uglification compared to other British cities. However, in recent times it is regarded as a hub of the 'Midlands Engine', with high levels of employment in modern industries.
  • Cumbernauld
    • "What's it called? Cumbernauld" – used repeatedly in a TV advert[62]

D[edit]

Part of the never-breached Walls of Derry, giving rise to the name "Maiden City"
  • Derby
    • "Derbados"[63] – portmanteau of Derby and Barbados
  • Derry
    • "The Maiden City"[64] – name allegedly attaches since the city's walls were never breached[65]
    • "Stroke City" – referring to a normal form of presenting the two names of the city – Derry/Londonderry[66]
  • Doncaster
    • "Donny"[67][68] – shortened version of Doncaster.
  • Dundee

E[edit]

The National Gallery of Scotland, an 1859 neo-classical construction
  • Edinburgh
    • "Athens of the North" – a reference to the many new public buildings of the Greek neo-classical style built in the eighteenth century, the most visually prominent of which, the incomplete National Monument, was modelled on the Parthenon.[71]
    • "Auld Reekie"[72] (Scots for Old Smoky) – because when buildings were heated by coal and wood fires, chimneys would spew thick columns of smoke into the air.
  • Ely
    • "The Ship of The Fens" – referring to the size of the city's cathedral, and that due to the area's low-lying topography, it can be seen from miles around.

G[edit]

  • Glasgow
    • "Dear Green Place"[73] – from one interpretation of the Scottish Gaelic name Glaschu. The name has older British Celtic (Brythonic) roots, reflected in modern Welsh as Glas-coed or -cae. (Green wood, or hollow). The Britons of Strathclyde (Ystrad Clud) were gradually displaced by the Dal Riata Scots, originally from Ireland, in the sixth and seventh centuries.
    • "Red Clydeside" – based on a post-World War I reputation as a centre of left-wing activity[74]
    • "Second City of the Empire" – reference to the Victorian era industrial past of the city.[75]
    • "Shipbuilding capital of the world"[76] – another reference to the Victorian period in which the Clydeside shipyards were one of the foremost builders in the world.
  • Great Yarmouth
    • "Yarco" – simple contraction of the name.

H[edit]

I[edit]

K[edit]

  • Kingston upon Hull
    • "Hull" – very commonly used shortening of the full name.[81]
    • "Hull on Earth" – pun on the phrase "Hell on Earth".[82]

L[edit]

The construction of inner-city motorways in Leeds such as the Inner Ring Road (pictured) and the M621 in the 1970s led to its nickname motorway city of the 1970s
  • Leeds
    • "Capital of the North"[83][84][85]
    • "Gothic City"[86]
    • "Knightsbridge of the North"[87]
    • "London of the North"[88]
    • "Motorway City of the Seventies"[89]
  • Leicester
    • "City of Kings" due to Leicester being the burial place of Richard III and King Leir (legendary/mythical founder of the city, after whom the city is said to have been named, and inspiration for King Lear) and, tongue in cheek, of the ghost of Lady Jane Grey the "Lady King" who is said to haunt Bradgate Park, just North of the city.
    • "King of the Midlands" from the time when Leicester was reputed to be the second richest city in Europe.
    • "Centre of England" due to the geographical centre of England being in a field just to the West of the city.
  • Lichfield
  • Liverpool
    • "Ireland's Second Capital"[92][93][94]
    • "The World in One City"[95]
      London's smogs inspired its nickname "The Smoke", as well as this work by Claude Monet
  • City of London
    • "The City"[96]
    • "The Square Mile" – reference to the area of the City.[96] Both these terms are also used as metonyms for the UK's financial services industry, traditionally concentrated in the City of London.
  • London
    • "The Great Wen" – disparaging nickname coined in the 1820s by William Cobbett, the radical pamphleteer and champion of rural England. Cobbett saw the rapidly growing city as a pathological swelling on the face of the nation.[97]
    • "The Smoke" / "The Big Smoke" / "The Old Smoke" – air pollution in London regularly gave rise to pea soup fogs, most notably the Great Smog of 1952, and a nickname that persists to this day.[98][99][100]

M[edit]

Manchester earned the nickname "Cottonopolis" in the 19th century due to its large number of cotton mills, as shown in this 1857 painting Manchester from Kersal Moor
  • Manchester
    • "Cottonopolis" – originated in the 19th century, in reference to the predominance of the cotton industry there.[101]
    • "Capital of the North" – the Greater Manchester Built-up Area is the largest metropolitan area in Northern England.[102][103][104][105][106][107][108]
    • "Granadaland" – coined from the region's commercial TV operator, Granada Television, which is based in the city at Granada Studios, it was also used as a moniker for Manchester itself, especially in the media world.[109]
    • "Gunchester" – name attached to the city by media in the 1990s because of the high incidence of gun crime in south Manchester.[110][111]
    • "Madchester"[112] – the name arising from a musical scene in the city in the late 1980s and early 1990s; and which has been attributed to Shaun Ryder, of the Happy Mondays[113]
    • "Manche" - abbreviation of Manchester.
    • "Manchesterford" – portmanteau of Manchester and Salford, began as a fictional setting for Victoria Wood's 1980s series of sketches on BBC TV, Acorn Antiques,[114] but gained colloquial popularity, especially on the gay scene and was immortalized in iron and song lyrics during a 2005 staging of a stage musical version of the TV sketches.[115]
    • "Rainy City" – Manchester is often perceived to have rainy weather.[116]
    • "Warehouse city" – also emerged as a nickname in the 19th century thanks to the large number of warehouses constructed (1,819 by 1815), particularly concentrated in a square mile around the city centre. Many of these were noted for their scale and style.[117]
  • Middlesbrough
    • "Boro" – shortening of "borough", originally used to refer just to Middlesbrough F.C.[118]
    • "Ironopolis" – from the city's former role in the iron industry.[119]
    • "The Steel River" – not a specific nickname for Middlesbrough itself but rather the River Tees owing to the areas expansive steel industry on both sides of the river.[120]
  • Morecambe
    • "Bradford-on-Sea" – because of the numbers of people from Bradford who holidayed at the resort.[121]

N[edit]

O[edit]

An aerial view of Oxford city centre, showing some of the spires that give the city its nickname
  • Oxford
    • "The City of Dreaming Spires" – a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold in reference to the harmonious architecture of Oxford's university buildings.[130]

P[edit]

  • Padstow
  • Perth
  • Plymouth
    • "Ocean City" – rebranded by Plymouth City Council as of 2013.[132]
    • "Spirit of Discovery" – local council backed tag for the city, which relates to the Pilgrim Fathers, who departed from Plymouth for America in the 17th century.[133]
    • "Guzz" – naval term, from a south Asian word for a measurement (yard – dockyard – homeport – Devonport – Plymouth).[134]
  • Pontefract
    • "Ponte Carlo"[11] – ironically alluding to the dissimilarity with Monte Carlo
  • Portsmouth
    • "Pompey" – thought to have derived from shipping entering Portsmouth harbour making an entry in their logs as Pom. P. in reference to Portsmouth Point. Navigational charts also use this abbreviation. Other derivations of the name exist, and the city's football club is also nicknamed "Pompey".[135]
  • Preston
    • "Proud Preston" – this nickname was said by Edmund Calamy to have been common in 1709,[136] and it remains in use to this day.[137] A common misconception is that the "PP" on the city's coat of arms stands for "Proud Preston", though the city council states that it actually stands for "Princeps Pacis" (Prince of Peace).[138]

S[edit]

Tower blocks in Salford

T[edit]

W[edit]

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Muench, David "Wisconsin Community Slogans: Their Use and Local Impacts" Archived 9 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine, December 1993, accessed 10 April 2007.
  2. ^ a b Alfredo Andia, Branding the Generic City :) Archived 21 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine, MU.DOT magazine, 10 September 2007
  3. ^ "From Somewhere in the North Sea". The Aberdare Leader. 4 November 1916. Papurau Newydd Cymru Arlein (Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru) – Welsh Newspapers Online (National Library of Wales). Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b Arnold, James (12 November 2003). "A burst of energy in Europe's oil capital". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  5. ^ "BBC Have Your Say: Regional accents: Your experiences". BBC News. 16 August 2005. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  6. ^ "The Granite City". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  7. ^ "Granite City Wanderers Hockey Club". Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  8. ^ "OIL & GAS SITUATION REPORT : UKCS and North East Scotland (Mid 1999)". Archived from the original on 21 May 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  9. ^ "Accy's Easter Rising". MEN Media – Accrington Observer. 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  10. ^ "The light young things". Barnsley. 26 November 2015.
  11. ^ a b "What's in a place name?". Ordnance Survey. 20 October 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  12. ^ Rick Steve's Europe – Belfast
  13. ^ Birmingham or Brummagem?, Birmingham City Council
  14. ^ Chiefs admit Brum skyline mix-up, BBC News website, 14 August 200
  15. ^ Smith, Oliver. "Quiz: Birmingham or Venice – can you tell the difference?". The Daily Telegraph.
  16. ^ The Workshop of the World – An Outlook for Birmingham[permanent dead link], Barclays Capital, 2011
  17. ^ Tongue, Steve (25 April 2010). "No love lost between Firm friends in Second City derby". independent.co.uk. London. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  18. ^ Pen Trade of Birmingham
  19. ^ Bracknell #1 Chav Town
  20. ^ "'Appen tha'll be from Bratford then!". Bradford Telegraph and Argus. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  21. ^ "By 'eck! Bratford-speak is dyin' out". Bradford Telegraph and Argus. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  22. ^ "city slicker Bradford". The Independent. 3 July 1995. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  23. ^ Hussain, Yasmin; Paul Bagguley (1 July 2005). "Citizenship, ethnicity and identity: British Pakistanis after the 2001 'Riots'". Sociology. 39 (3): 407–425. doi:10.1177/0038038505052493. S2CID 143223835.
  24. ^ Shackle, Samira (20 August 2010). "The mosques aren't working in Bradistan". New Statesman.
  25. ^ "Bradford's Sculpture Trail" (PDF). Bradford City Centre Management. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  26. ^ Baxendale, John (Spring 2001). "'I Had Seen a Lot of Englands': J. B. Priestley, Englishness and the People". History Workshop Journal. 51 (51): 98. doi:10.1093/hwj/2001.51.87. JSTOR 4289722. But it is Bruddersford, obviously Priestley's Bradford, where the most vivid and successful scenes are set
  27. ^ "Previous Winners". Curry Capital of Britain. 6 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  28. ^ "Bradford crowned Curry Capital of Britain for sixth year in a row". ITV News. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  29. ^ Jim Greenhalf, "Sir Mark hails our musical tradition", Telegraph & Argus, 20 September 2010
  30. ^ "The rise and fall of Wool City". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  31. ^ Cudworth, William (1888). Worstedopolis: A Sketch History of the Town and Trade of Bradford, the Metropolis of the Worsted Industry. Bradford: W. Byles and Sons.
  32. ^ Jowitt, Tony (1989). "A Town Built on Cloth: The Making of 'Worstedopolis'". Costume. 23 (1): 86–97. doi:10.1179/cos.1989.23.1.86.
  33. ^ Wainwright, Martin (11 June 2009). "Bradford wins Unesco City of Film award". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Bradford, City of Film... Really?". NME. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  35. ^ Darwin Porter, Frommer's England 2011
  36. ^ William Davenport Adams, Songs of society, from Anne to Victoria[permanent dead link], 1880
  37. ^ John Lane, Talk of the Town
  38. ^ Antram, Nicholas; Morrice, Richard (2008). Brighton and Hove. Pevsner Architectural Guides. London: Yale University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-300-12661-7.
  39. ^ "Brighton's come a long way from Skid Row-on-Sea", The Argus
  40. ^ Weaver, Paul (3 August 1999). "The light young things". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  41. ^ Stoke, Harry; Vinny Green (2003). A Dictionary of Bristle. Bristol: Broadcast Books. ISBN 978-1-874092-65-0.
  42. ^ Frederic Raphael (1976). The Glittering Prizes. New York : St. Martin's Press.
  43. ^ Graham Chainey (1995). A literary history of Cambridge. CUP Archive. p. 277.
  44. ^ Perspiring dreams: Cambridge students' alternative prospectus. Cambridge Students Union. 1979.
  45. ^ "The Cambridge cluster: University challenge". The Economist. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  46. ^ Robert Liebman (2 April 2003). "Hot Spot: Cambridge". The Independent. London. Retrieved 27 September 2010.[dead link]
  47. ^ "Revitalised Cardiff sheds rust belt past". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  48. ^ "Arcades were Victorian version of St David's 2". Media Wales. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  49. ^ "Morgan Quarter – Our History". Morgan Quarter website. Morgan Quarter. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  50. ^ "Cardiff is the City of Arcades". Visit Cardiff. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  51. ^ The Free Library A world behind the shop fronts
  52. ^ Stahl, Dean A.; Landen, Karen (2001). Abbreviations Dictionary (10 ed.). CRC Press. p. 233. ISBN 9781420036640.
  53. ^ a b Probert, Sarah (14 February 2014). "How the West Midlands became the driving force behind an urban revolution". Birmingham Post. Birmingham. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  54. ^ a b Probert, Sarah (25 February 2014). "Look: When Coventry was transformed into Britain's 'Motor City'". Coventry Telegraph. Coventry. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  55. ^ Beaven, Brad (2005). Leisure, Citizenship and Working-class Men in Britain, 1850–1945. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 2.
  56. ^ "Coventry's history". Coventry City Council website. Coventry City Council. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  57. ^ City of Sanctuary – Coventry
  58. ^ Kaczka-Valliere, Jeanne; Rigby, Andrew (2008). "Coventry-Memorializing Peace and Reconciliation". Peace & Change. 33 (4): 582–599. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0130.2008.00519.x.
  59. ^ Warwickshire from Camelot International
  60. ^ Iain Soden, A Typical English Churchyard?, BuildingConservation.com
  61. ^ Ruddick, Graham (23 April 2016). "It was once Britain's motor city. Now Coventry's wheels are turning again". The Observer. London: Guardian Media Group.
  62. ^ "What's it called? Cumbernauld". 21 November 2001. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  63. ^ "Soapbox, Rachel Fernie: If you don't like living in Derbados, why not just leave?". Derby Telegraph. Derby: Local World. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2016.[permanent dead link]
  64. ^ Lisa Smyth, "New twist in Maiden City name change row", The Belfast Telegraph, 24 September 2009
  65. ^ Images Of Ireland – The Maiden City
  66. ^ [Derry / Londonderry: Stroke City], BBC Radio 4, Routes of English
  67. ^ Burke, Darren (5 November 2015). "10 things that prove you're from Donny". Thorne and District Gazette. Doncaster: Johnston Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  68. ^ "Made In Doncaster: The pies the limit for upper crust town bakery". South Yorkshire Times. Doncaster: Johnston Publishing Ltd. 26 March 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  69. ^ Macfarlane, Stuart (21 March 2016). "Stuart Macfarlane: Coming up with a deal to save Scotland's heritage". The Scotsman. Edinburgh: Johnston Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  70. ^ "7 reasons to visit Dundee before the V&A opens". Scotland Now. Glasgow: Media Scotland Ltd. 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  71. ^ Stana Nenadic, "The Rise of Edinburgh", British History in-depth, BBC
  72. ^ "Auld Reekie is the most miserable place to live in Britain", The Times, 27 August 2008
  73. ^ "Deadly Green Place". Daily Record
  74. ^ Iain Maclean, "No Mean City : 1914 to 1950s", The Glasgow Story
  75. ^ "Victorian Glasgow", BBC History
  76. ^ "Victorian Scotland", BBC History
  77. ^ Robehmed, Sophie (9 February 2012). "Why is Hebden Bridge the lesbian capital?". BBC News. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  78. ^ Pert, Sean (28 February 2019). "Hebden Bridge Is Famously A Safe Home For Gay Men, Women And Allies – Here's Why". HuffPost UK. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  79. ^ "Hundreds take part in protest to save Hudds A & E". ITV. 27 February 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  80. ^ a b c Did You Know? – Nicknames of Scottish Town
  81. ^ "Kingston upon Hull". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  82. ^ Biggs, Alan (14 September 1999). "Hull on earth as Murphy mauls Tigers". The Guardian. London.
  83. ^ "Leeds is the North Unofficial Capital City", StreetDirectory.com
  84. ^ "Leeds astrological chart: Capital of the north?", BBC Leeds
  85. ^ "Leeds: the facts and figures" Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Yorkshire Forward (regional development agency)
  86. ^ Dawson, James (11 April 2016). "Life as a goth in 1980s Yorkshire". Dazed. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  87. ^ "City is 'Knightsbridge of North'". BBC News website. BBC. 24 May 2005. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  88. ^ Hollands, Robert; Chatterton, Paul; Brynes, Bernie; Read, Cait. Youth Cultures, Urban Change and Nightlife in Leeds. Newcastle University. p. 1.
  89. ^ "London: Roads to nowhere", The Independent, 8 February 2011
  90. ^ "From Lichfield to Lich Vegas: MP claims new scheme will make his city the place to be". 7 December 2015.
  91. ^ "King of Lich Vegas". 9 March 2010.
  92. ^ "12 reasons Liverpool is Ireland's second capital". Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  93. ^ McDermott, Paul. "Welcome to my place ... Liverpool". The Irish Times. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  94. ^ O'Connor, Brian. "Long-standing love affair: Irish eyes riveted on Liverpool's title quest". The Irish Times. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  95. ^ "Is Liverpool still the world in one city?". Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  96. ^ a b Mills, A. D. (2001). Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford.
  97. ^ Cobbett, William (November 2005) [First published 1830]. Rural Rides. Vol. 1. Cosimo Classics. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-59605-577-3.
  98. ^ Glancey, Jonathan (30 November 2002). "London's grime hard to scrub away". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  99. ^ Pizzichini, Lilian (9 December 2002). "The big smoke". New Statesman.
  100. ^ Wills, Matthew (24 August 2015). "Old Smoke: London's Famous Fog". JSTOR Daily.
  101. ^ Partridge, Eric; Simpson, Jacqueline (1973). The Routledge Dictionary of Historical Slang. Routledge. p. 214. ISBN 9780710077615.
  102. ^ "Manchester 'the north's dynamite capital'". England's North West. 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  103. ^ "About Manchester". The University of Manchester. 2003. Archived from the original on 27 October 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2006.
  104. ^ "Northern Soul Club UK Life Guide". British Council. 2003. Retrieved 24 October 2006.
  105. ^ "What is the Northern Powerhouse?". BBC News. 14 October 2015.
  106. ^ "Manchester, UK: The new 'cool' capital north of London". Traveller.au. 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  107. ^ "Is Manchester the Capital of the North?". Insider Media. 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  108. ^ "Capital of the North: A guide to Manchester". HBAA. 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  109. ^ "Manchester on TV: Ghosts of Winter Hill". BBC News. 30 October 2009.
  110. ^ Randell, Tom (15 September 2006). "North West: Trying to banish 'Gunchester'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  111. ^ Wainwright, Martin (20 July 2007). "'Gunchester' fears after tit-for-tat gangland murder". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  112. ^ Sounds of 1989 – Madchester
  113. ^ Jonathan Schofield, Music Capital City – Introduction Archived 4 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, in Music Capital – History of Manchester Pop in four chapters
  114. ^ Acorn Antiques (DVD), BBCShops.com website
  115. ^ Rupert Smith, "Little shop of horrors", The Guardian, 7 February 2005
  116. ^ "Guy Garvey's Rainy City", BBC 6 Music, 14 October 2010
  117. ^ "Manchester and the City Centre". spinningtheweb.org.uk. Manchester City Council. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  118. ^ Adrian Room (2006). Nicknames of Places: Origins and Meanings of the Alternate and Secondary Names, Sobriquets, Titles, Epithets and Slogans for 4600 Places Worldwide. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. p. 37. ISBN 978-0786424979.
  119. ^ Lloyd, Anthony (2013). Labour Markets and Identity on the Post-Industrial Assembly Line. ISBN 978-1472402325.
  120. ^ "England's North East – Middlesbrough and surrounds".
  121. ^ "Morecambe: The holiday hotspot that drew many from factories, mills and schools". Telegraph and Argus. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  122. ^ "Geordie Slang Dictionary". Geordies.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 February 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
  123. ^ "'Up the 'Port': Good luck messages sent to County players and fans ahead of Middlesbrough match".
  124. ^ White, Jim (15 February 2019). "Newport County's FA Cup run symbolic of a club and city emerging from the shadows". The Telegraph.
  125. ^ "About Newport RFC – NEWPORT RFC".
  126. ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Norwich-England#:~:text=Norwich%20is%20the%20traditional%20regional,miles%20(39%20square%20km).
  127. ^ https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/30320/the-mysterious-unenunciated-w-in-the-wich-of-english-place-names
  128. ^ https://www.visitnorwich.co.uk/article/introducing-norwich-the-city-of-stories/
  129. ^ Jenkins, Simon (20 October 2006). "From green belt to rust belt: how the Queen of the Midlands was throttled". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  130. ^ "Oxford – city of dreaming spires". Visit Britain. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  131. ^ Savill, Richard (14 October 2008). "Rick Stein defends impact of his seafood empire on Padstow".
  132. ^ "Britain's Ocean City".
  133. ^ "A new life in the New World". The BBC. 1 February 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
  134. ^ "How Plymouth Command Got its Two Proverbial Names".
  135. ^ "Pompey, Chats and Guz Origins of the Naval Town nicknames for Portsmouth, Chatham and Devonport". Royal Naval Museum website. Royal Naval Museum. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  136. ^ "The parish of Preston". A History of the County of Lancaster. 7: 72–91. 1912. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  137. ^ "'Proud Preston' wins city status". BBC News Online. 14 March 2002. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  138. ^ "Civic crest". preston.gov.uk. Preston City Council. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  139. ^ Beard, Matthew (24 October 2005), "Salford tries to shake off its image of a 'dirty old town'", The Independent, London
  140. ^ "Sunny Scunny was the joint-warmest place in England today". GrimsbyLive. 21 February 2019. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  141. ^ "Seven ways you told us you were from Scunthorpe without actually saying". GrimsbyLive. 10 April 2021. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  142. ^ Nicholson, Rebecca (10 February 2013). "Why Scunthorpe is not the least romantic place in Britain". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  143. ^ Steel City: an Archaeology of Sheffield's Industrial Past, University of Sheffield
  144. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster. "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 19 May 1997 (pt 17)". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 11 October 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  145. ^ The rise and fall of socialism in one city, Issue 69, International Socialism Journal, Winter 1995
  146. ^ "Sheffield – 'the largest village in England'" – sheffield.org.uk website
  147. ^ Naldrett (2016), p. 126.
  148. ^ "Snozzle Fun".
  149. ^ Arnold Bennett – Son of Stoke-on-Trent, The Potteries.org website
  150. ^ the Potteries, Encyclopædia Britannica
  151. ^ Hughes, Stephen (April 2005). Copperopolis: Landscapes of the Early Industrial Period in Swansea (2nd Revised ed.). Royal Commission on the Ancient & Historical Monuments of Wales. ISBN 978-1-871184-27-3.
  152. ^ "Plans to celebrate 'Copperopolis'". BBC News. 8 March 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  153. ^ Visit South Devon Community Interest Company. "The English Riviera". Visit South Devon.
  154. ^ noddleit (11 April 2010), Torbados, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 12 June 2019
  155. ^ Wakefield facts[permanent dead link] Wakefield Family History Sharing website
  156. ^ The Pitkin City Guides, Winchester
  157. ^ Winchester A Miscellany
  158. ^ Worcester Cathedral during the English Civil War – 1642 to 1651 – Worcester Cathedral Website.