Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

DyneemaUHMWPESpectraultra high molecular weight polyethyleneUHMWDyneema/SpectraP-TexSpectra/DyneemaDyneema and Spectrahigh-modulus polyethylene
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene.wikipedia
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Polyethylene

polythenePEpolyethene
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene.
Such resins, in the form of UHMWPE fibers, have (as of 2005) begun to replace aramids in many high-strength applications.

DSM (company)

DSMDSM CompanyDutch State Mines
Today UHMWPE powder materials, which may be directly molded into a product's final shape, are produced by Ticona, Braskem, DSM, Teijin (Endumax), Celanese, and Mitsui.
DSM Dyneema is the inventor, manufacturer and marketer of Dyneema.

Thermoplastic

thermoplasticsthermoplastic polymerplastic
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene.

Kevlar

aramid fibreKevlar armourKevlar K-29
In contrast, Kevlar derives its strength from strong bonding between relatively short molecules.
These interactions have a greater influence on Kevlar than the van der Waals interactions and chain length that typically influence the properties of other synthetic polymers and fibers such as Dyneema.

Creep (deformation)

creepcreep resistancecreep strength
Under tensile load, UHMWPE will deform continually as long as the stress is present—an effect called creep.
At typical work loads (5 up to 50%) ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra, Dyneema) will show time-linear creep, whereas polyester or aramids (Twaron, Kevlar) will show a time-logarithmic creep.

Sintering

sinteredsinterPressureless sintering
UHMWPE is processed variously by compression moulding, ram extrusion, gel spinning, and sintering.
Sintered ultra high molecular weight polyethylene materials are used as ski and snowboard base materials.

Paragliding

paragliderparaglidersparaglide
Civil applications containing UHMWPE fibers are cut-resistant gloves, bow strings, climbing equipment, fishing line, spear lines for spearguns, high-performance sails, suspension lines on sport parachutes and paragliders, rigging in yachting, kites, and kites lines for kites sports.
Paraglider lines are usually made from Dyneema/Spectra or Kevlar/Aramid.

Armour

armorarmoredArmoured
UHMWPE are used as composite plates in armor, in particular, personal armor and on occasion as vehicle armor.
Today, ballistic vests, also known as flak jackets, made of ballistic cloth (e.g. kevlar, dyneema, twaron, spectra etc.) and ceramic or metal plates are common among police forces, security staff, corrections officers and some branches of the military.

Interceptor Body Armor

Outer Tactical VestInterceptor body armourbody armor
Recently developed additions to the US Military's Interceptor body armor, designed to offer arm and leg protection, are said to utilize a form of Spectra or Dyneema fabric.
SAPI and ESAPI are the most technically advanced body armor fielded by the U.S. military, and are constructed of boron carbide ceramic with a Spectra shield backing that breaks down projectiles and halts their momentum.

Webbing

webbing equipmentnylon webbingweb gear
In climbing, cord and webbing made of combinations of UHMWPE and nylon yarn have gained popularity for their low weight and bulk.
Webbing is also made from exceptionally high-strength material, such as Dyneema, and Kevlar.

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer

carbon fibrecarbon fibercarbon-fibre
It is used in skis and snowboards, often in combination with carbon fiber, reinforcing the fiberglass composite material, adding stiffness and improving its flex characteristics.
The composite material may contain aramid (e.g. Kevlar, Twaron), ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), aluminium, or glass fibers in addition to carbon fibers.

Body armor

body armourpersonal armorpersonal armour
UHMWPE are used as composite plates in armor, in particular, personal armor and on occasion as vehicle armor.
Another fiber used to manufacture a bullet-resistant vest is Dyneema ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

Rope

cordagecordropemaker
Ships' hawsers and cables made from the fiber (0.97 specific gravity) float on sea water.
Synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, nylon, polyesters (e.g. PET, LCP, Vectran), polyethylene (e.g. Dyneema and Spectra), Aramids (e.g. Twaron, Technora and Kevlar) and acrylics (e.g. Dralon).

Monofilament fishing line

monofilamentmonofilament linefishing line
Spun UHMWPE fibers excel as fishing line, as they have less stretch, are more abrasion-resistant, and are thinner than traditional monofilament line.
New materials, e.g., Spectra or Dyneema, are finding growing usage as fishing lines.

Triple fisherman's knot

knotthird round turn
The fiber's very high lubricity leads to poor knot-holding ability, and is mostly used in pre-sewn 'slings' (loops of webbing) — relying on knots to join sections of UHMWPE is generally not recommended, and if necessary it is recommended to use the triple fisherman's knot rather than the traditional double fisherman's knot.
It is an extension of the double fisherman's knot and is recommended for tying slippery, stiff ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and aramid cored ropes.

Fishing line

lineslinehook-and-line
Civil applications containing UHMWPE fibers are cut-resistant gloves, bow strings, climbing equipment, fishing line, spear lines for spearguns, high-performance sails, suspension lines on sport parachutes and paragliders, rigging in yachting, kites, and kites lines for kites sports.
Modern fishing lines intended for spinning, spin cast, or bait casting reels are almost entirely made from artificial substances, including nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF, also called fluorocarbon), polyethylene, Dacron and UHMWPE (Honeywell's Spectra or Dyneema).

Aramid

aramid fiberAramidepara-aramid
Strength-to-weight ratios for Dyneema are about 40% higher than for aramid.
Aramids share a high degree of orientation with other fibers such as ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, a characteristic that dominates their properties.

Ultralight backpacking

ultralightultralight backpackerslightweight backpacking
More recently it has found new applications, most notably in the manufacture of lightweight and ultralight camping and backpacking equipment such as tents and backpacks.
The common ultralight alternative to an internal frame pack is a frameless pack made of ripstop nylon, silnylon, or Dyneema Composite Fabric (DCF), formerly known as Cuben Fiber, with a carrying limit of 25 lb.

Ultimate tensile strength

tensile strengthtensileultimate strength
The end-result is a fiber with a high degree of molecular orientation, and therefore exceptional tensile strength.

Young Engineers' Satellite 2

YES2
Dyneema was used for the 30-kilometre space tether in the ESA/Russian Young Engineers' Satellite 2 of September, 2007.
The mission objective was to deploy a 30 km long and 0.5 mm thin tether (made of Dyneema) in two controlled stages, in order to release a small, spherical, lightweight reentry capsule called Fotino into a predetermined trajectory to a landing area in Kazakhstan.

Yield (engineering)

yield strengthyield stressyield
They have yield strengths as high as 2.4 GPa (2.4 kN/mm 2 or 350,000 psi) and density as low as 0.97 g/cm 3 (for Dyneema SK75).

High-density polyethylene

HDPEhigh density polyethylenehigh-density polyethylene (HDPE)
These molecules are several orders of magnitude longer than those of familiar high-density polyethylene (HDPE) due to a synthesis process based on metallocene catalysts, resulting in UHMWPE molecules typically having 100,000 to 250,000 monomer units per molecule each compared to HDPE's 700 to 1,800 monomers.

Fencing

fencerswordplayfence
Dyneema provides puncture resistance to protective clothing in the sport of fencing.
Other ballistic fabrics, such as Dyneema, have been developed that resist puncture, and which do not degrade the way that Kevlar does.

Vehicle armour

armored vehiclearmoured vehiclearmour
UHMWPE are used as composite plates in armor, in particular, personal armor and on occasion as vehicle armor.
Spall liners are made of Kevlar, Dyneema, Spectra Shield, or similar materials.

Sling (climbing equipment)

slingslingsclimbing equipment
Civil applications containing UHMWPE fibers are cut-resistant gloves, bow strings, climbing equipment, fishing line, spear lines for spearguns, high-performance sails, suspension lines on sport parachutes and paragliders, rigging in yachting, kites, and kites lines for kites sports.
Increasingly, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene sold under the brand names Dyneema, Dynex and Spectra is used.