Timeline of the 19th century

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
State leaders:
Categories: BirthsDeaths

This is a timeline of the 19th century.

Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. The war swings decisively against the French Empire.
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.


The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology.


1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.


1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane ("Crushing") that depopulated large areas of southern Africa.


The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.



The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal.


Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century.[7]
David Livingstone, Scottish explorer and missionary in Africa.
From 1865 to 1870 Paraguay lost more than half of its population in the Paraguayan War against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.
Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed.



First motor bus in history: the Benz Omnibus, built in 1895 for the Netphener bus company.
Miners and prospectors ascend the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush.
Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c. 1890




  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Herman Willem Daendels [1] Access date 29 March 2009
  2. ^ Frederick Artz, Reaction and Revolution, 1814–1832 (1934)
  3. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. S2CID 131663534.
  4. ^ Spring Hermann (1997) "Geronimo: Apache freedom fighter". Enslow Publishers. p.26 ISBN 0-89490-864-2
  5. ^ a b Norton, Mary Beth (2015). A people & a nation : a history of the United States (Tenth edition, Student ed.). Stamford, CT. ISBN 978-1-133-31272-7. OCLC 890080129.
  6. ^ "Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8
  7. ^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009.
  8. ^ proclamation
  9. ^ McPherson, J. M. (2014). Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth Amendment. In E. Foner, & J. A. Garraty (Eds.), The Reader's companion to American history. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rcah/emancipation_proclamation_and_thirteenth_amendment/0
  10. ^ 13th Amendment
  11. ^ Hamdani, Sylviana (3 February 2010). "Taking a Train Trip Down Memory Lane in Indonesia". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d e Vickers (2005), page xii
  13. ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203

Further reading[edit]

  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events online free
  • Morris, Richard B. and Graham W. Irwin, eds. Harper Encyclopedia of the Modern World: A Concise Reference History from 1760 to the Present (1970) online