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Maersk Alabama hijacking, incident involving the seizure of a U.S.-flagged cargo ship by four Somali pirates in the Indian Ocean on April 8, 2009. Although the crew eventually repelled the attackers, Capt. Richard Phillips was taken hostage aboard one of the Maersk Alabama’s lifeboats. The resulting standoff with the U.S. Navy ended on April 12 after Navy SEAL snipers killed three of the captors; a fourth had already surrendered.
In April 2009 the 508-foot (155-metre) Maersk Alabama was sailing from Ṣalālah, Oman, to Mombasa, Kenya, with 21 Americans onboard, including Phillips. On April 7 the ship was a few hundred miles off the coast of Somalia. The area was well known for pirate attacks, and Phillips had received warnings but did not alter course. In the late afternoon, the vessel was approached by several pirate boats that ultimately turned back without incident.
On the morning of April 8, the Alabama sighted a small speedboat carrying four pirates armed with AK-47s. The unarmed crew attempted to ward off an attack, shooting off flares and spraying fire hoses. However, two Somalis were able to board the vessel, marking the first time in some 200 years that pirates had set foot on a ship sailing under the U.S. flag. The crew managed to disable the Alabama, and most retreated to the fortified steering room. However, Phillips and several others were captured on the bridge. Around this time, the remaining two pirates also boarded the ship.
A captive crewman was ordered below deck to retrieve his colleagues but failed to return. One of the pirates then accompanied another crew member to search for them, and he was ambushed and taken prisoner. After negotiating an exchange of hostages, the crew released their captive, but the pirates took Phillips hostage. With their own boat having capsized earlier, they forced the captain into a covered lifeboat and demanded a ransom of $2 million. After restoring the Alabama’s power, the Americans began following the 18-foot (5.5-metre) craft.
A crew member had earlier sent out distress calls, and on April 9 the destroyer USS Bainbridge reached the Alabama; it was later joined by other U.S. vessels and aircraft. At this point the Alabama was ordered to continue sailing to Kenya, and it left after being given a security detail of armed sailors. On April 10 Phillips jumped overboard but was quickly recaptured. As negotiations with the pirates stalled, Navy SEAL Team 6 was dispatched from Virginia and arrived at the Bainbridge on April 11. Later that day the pirates allowed the U.S. ship to attach a tow to the lifeboat, which had run out of fuel. While the cable was ostensibly to keep the small craft stable in rough waters—the pirates allegedly had run out of khat, a stimulant that also eases motion sickness—the tether was slowly shortened until the lifeboat was well within distance of Navy SEAL snipers on the Bainbridge’s fantail.
On April 12 one of the pirates effectively surrendered after requesting medical treatment onboard the Bainbridge; in 2011 a U.S. court sentenced him to 33 years in prison. Later that day a captor was seen pointing a gun at Phillips. Believing that the captain was in imminent danger, three Navy SEAL snipers were ordered to take action. When the pirates were all visible, the snipers simultaneously fired, killing them. Phillips was unharmed.
While Phillips was widely portrayed as a hero, other crew members alleged that he failed to heed warnings and set a course that put them in danger. In 2009 they sued the cargo ship’s Danish owner, Maersk Line, and the suit was later settled for an undisclosed sum. In the wake of the hijacking, many cargo ships began hiring security details, and the number of pirate attacks in the waters off Somalia decreased. Phillips gave his version of events in A Captain’s Duty (2010; cowritten with Stephan Talty), and the book was later adapted into the 2013 film Captain Phillips, which starred Tom Hanks in the title role.