A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by one dictator or by a small clique. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium).
Like the term "tyrant" (which was originally a non-pejorative Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive rule. Thus, in modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents; not abiding by the rule of law procedures, and cult of personality. Dictatorships are often one-party or dominant-party states.
A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states, dominant-party states, and civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators. They may hold left or right-wing views, or may be apolitical.
Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic and the Etruscan culture, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now. A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing.
The term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century (during which the office was ostensibly abolished) as well as de facto eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla's example in 49 BC and in February 44 BC was proclaimed Dictator perpetuo, "Dictator in perpetuity", officially doing away with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his assassination the following month.
Following Julius' assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, but he declined it. Later successors also declined the title of dictator, and usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers.
As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications. For example, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the national leader Lajos Kossuth was often referred to as dictator, without any negative connotations, by his supporters and detractors alike, although his official title was that of regent-president. When creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi officially assumed the title of "Dictator" (see Dictatorship of Garibaldi). Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was also the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski.
Past that time, however, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is often associated with brutality and oppression. As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have also come to grant themselves increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours. For instance, Idi Amin Dada, who had been a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor[A] Idi Amin Dada, VC,[B] DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular". In the movie The Great Dictator (1940), Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself.
A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with the regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, and often makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term. It might be seen as a republic a form of enlightened despotism. The label has been applied to leaders such as Ioannis Metaxas of Greece (1936–41), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1953–80), and Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore (1959–90).
The association between a dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and they often wear military uniforms. In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain; Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces. In other cases, the association is mere pretense.
Some dictators have been masters of crowd manipulation, such as Mussolini and Hitler. Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Stalin and Franco. Typically the dictator's people seize control of all media, censor or destroy the opposition, and give strong doses of propaganda daily, often built around a cult of personality.
Mussolini and Hitler used similar, modest titles referring to them as "the Leader". Mussolini used "Il Duce" and Hitler was generally referred to as "der Führer". Franco used a similar title "El Caudillo" ("the Head") and for Stalin his adopted name became synonyms with his role as the absolute leader. For Mussolini, Hitler, and Franco, the use of modest, non-traditional titles displayed their absolute power even stronger as they did not need any, not even a historic legitimacy either.
Modern usage in formal titles
Because of its negative and pejorative connotations, modern authoritarian leaders very rarely (if ever) use the term dictator in their formal titles, instead they most often simply have title of president. In the 19th century, however, its official usage was more common:
- In the former city-state of Venice, and while it was a republic resisting annexation by either the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia or the Austrian empire, a former Chief Executive (president, 23 March 1848 – 5 July 1848), Daniele Manin (b. 1804 – d. 1857), was styled Dictator 11–13 August 1848 before joining the 13 August 1848 – 7 March 1849 Triumvirate.
- The Dictatorial Government of Sicily (27 May – 4 November 1860) was a provisional executive government appointed by Giuseppe Garibaldi to rule Sicily. The government ended when Sicily's annexation into the Kingdom of Italy was ratified by plebiscite.
- Józef Chłopicki was styled Dictator from 5 December 1830 – 23 January 1831
- Jan Tyssowski was Dictator from 24 February 1846 – 2 March 1846.
- Ludwik Mierosławski was Dictator from 22 January 1863 – 10 March 1863
- Marian Langiewicz was Dictator from 10 March 1863 – 19 March 1863
- An Executive Dictatorial Commission of three members existed from 19 March 1863 – 20 March 1863
- Romuald Traugutt was Dictator from 17 October 1863 – 10 April 1864
- Nazarov was Dictator of the Don Republic (which before, since its founding on 2 December 1917 at Novocherkassk, had been governed by a Triumvirate including the last pre-Soviet Ataman, Aleksei Maksimovich Kaledin) from 11 February 1918 till 25 February 1918 when Bolshevik troops ended their existence
- Prince N. Tarkovsky was Dictator of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.
Human rights abuses
Over time, dictators have been known to use tactics that violate human rights. For example, under the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, government policy was enforced by extrajudicial killings, secret police and the notorious Gulag system of concentration camps. Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time. Data collected from Soviet archives gives the death toll from Gulags at 1,053,829. Other human rights abuses by the Soviet state included human experimentation, the use of psychiatry as a political weapon and the denial of freedoms of religion, assembly, speech and association.
Pol Pot became dictator of Cambodia in 1975. In all, an estimated 1.7 million people (out of a population of 7 million) died due to the policies of his four-year dictatorship. As a result, Pol Pot is sometimes described as "the Hitler of Cambodia" and "a genocidal tyrant".
In game theory
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In social choice theory, the notion of a dictator is formally defined as a person who can achieve any feasible social outcome he/she wishes. The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators.
- The strong dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind (e.g. raise taxes, having someone killed, etc.), a definite way of achieving that goal. This can be seen as having explicit absolute power, like Sulla.
- The weak dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind, and for any political scenario, a course of action that would bring about the desired goal. For the weak dictator, it is usually not enough to "give their orders", rather he/she has to manipulate the political scene appropriately. This means that the weak dictator might actually be lurking in the shadows, working within a political setup that seems to be non-dictatorial. An example of such a figure is Lorenzo the Magnificent, who controlled Renaissance Florence.
Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion. Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers (the nobility or the army).
List of dictators from the 19th to the 21st century
- Mobutu Sese Seko (1965-1997), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zaire
- Milton Obote (1966-1971), Uganda
- Idi Amin (1971-1979), Uganda
- Gnassingbé Eyadéma (1967-2005), Togo
- Muammar Gaddafi (1969-2011), Libya
- France-Albert René (1977-2004), Seychelles
- Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (1979-present), Equatorial Guinea
- Robert Mugabe (1980-2017), Zimbabwe
- Omar al-Bashir (1989-2019), Sudan
- Idriss Déby (1990-present), Chad
- Yahya Jammeh (1996-2017), The Gambia
- Adama Barrow (2017-present), The Gambia
- Abdelaziz Bouteflika (1999-2019), Algeria
- Emilio Aguinaldo (1889-1901), Philippines
- Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1986), Philippines
- Chiang Kai-shek (1928-1975), China, Taiwan[B]
- Mao Zedong (1949-1976), China[C]
- Xi Jinping (2012-present), China[D]
- Hideki Tojo (1941-1944), Japan
- Kim Il-sung (1948-1994), North Korea
- Kim Jong-il (1994-2011), North Korea
- Kim Jong-un (2011-present), North Korea
- Syngman Rhee (1948-1960), South Korea
- Park Chung-hee (1963-1979), South Korea
- Chun Doo-hwan (1979-1988), South Korea[E]
- Ayub Khan (1958-1969), Pakistan
- Yahya Khan (1969-1971), Pakistan
- Ziaul Haq (1977-1988), Pakistan
- Pervez Musharraf (1999-2008), Pakistan
- Lee Kuan Yew (1959-1990), Singapore
- Ne Win (1962-1988), Burma
- Saw Maung (1988-1992), Myanmar
- Than Shwe (1992-2011), Myanmar
- Suharto (1967-1998), Indonesia
- Pol Pot (1975-1979), Cambodia
- Hun Sen (1985-present), Cambodia
- Saparmurat Niyazov (1985-2006), Turkmenistan
- Islam Karimov (1991-2016), Uzbekistan
- Emomali Rahmon (1992-present), Tajikistan
- Sheikh Hasina (2009-present), Bangladesh
- Maximiliano Hernández Martínez (1931-1934; 1935-1944), El Salvador
- Salvador Castaneda Castro (1945-1948), El Salvador
- Fidel Sánchez Hernández (1967-1972), El Salvador
- Carlos Humberto Romero (1977-1979), El Salvador
- Anastasio Somoza García (1937-1947; 1950-1956), Nicaragua
- Luis Somoza Debayle (1956-1963), Nicaragua
- Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1967-1972; 1974-1979), Nicaragua
- Omar Torrijos (1968-1981), Panama
- Manuel Noriega (1983-1989), Panama[F]
- Napoleon (1799-1815), France
- Napoleon III (1852-1870), France
- Louis-Jules Trochu (1870-1871), France
- Philippe Pétain (1940-1942), France
- Lajos Kossuth (1849), Hungary
- Mátyás Rákosi (1949-1956), Hungary[G]
- Ludwik Mierosławski, Marian Langiewicz, Romuald Traugutt (1863-1864), Poland[H]
- Józef Piłsudski (1918-1922), Poland
- Wojciech Jaruzelski (1981-1990), Poland
- Giuseppe Garibaldi (1880), Sicily
- Vladimir Lenin (1917-1924), Soviet Russia, Soviet Union
- Joseph Stalin (1924-1953), Soviet Union
- Nikita Khrushchev, (1953-1964), Soviet Union
- Leonid Brezhnev, (1964-1982), Soviet Union
- Benito Mussolini (1922-1945), Italy, Italian Social Republic[I]
- António de Oliveira Salazar (1932-1968), Portugal
- Marcelo Caetano (1968-1974), Portugal
- Adolf Hitler (1933-1945), Germany
- Ioannis Metaxas (1936-1941), Greece
- Francisco Franco (1939-1975), Spain
- Ion Antonescu (1940-1944), Romania
- Nicolae Ceaușescu (1965-1989), Romania
- Josip Broz Tito (1953-1980), Yugoslavia
- Alexander Lukashenko (1994-present), Belarus
- Kemal Atatürk (1923-1938), Turkey
- Reza Shah (1925-1941), Iran
- Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1975-1979), Iran
- Ruhollah Khomeini (1979-1989), Iran
- Ali Khamenei (1989-present), Iran
- Gamal Abdel Nasser (1954-1970), Egypt
- Anwar Sadat (1970-1981), Egypt
- Hosni Mubarak (1981-2011), Egypt
- Abd al-Karim Qasim (1958-1963), Iraq
- Abdul Salam Arif (1963-1966), Iraq
- Saddam Hussein (1970's-2003), Iraq[J]
- Hafez Al-Assad (1971-2000), Syria
- Bashar al-Assad (2000-present), Syria
- Ali Abdullah Saleh (1978-2012) Yemen
- Fulgencio Batista (1952-1959), Cuba
- Fidel Castro (1959-2011), Cuba[K]
- François Duvalier (1957-1971), Haiti
- Jean-Claude Duvalier (1971-1986), Haiti
- Getúlio Vargas (1930-1945), Brazil
- Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco (1964-1967), Brazil
- Artur da Costa e Silva (1967-1969), Brazil
- Emílio Garrastazu Médici (1969-1974), Brazil
- Ernesto Geisel (1974-1979), Brazil
- João Figueiredo (1979-1985), Brazil
- José Félix Estigarribia (1939-1940), Paraguay
- Higinio Morínigo (1940-1948), Paraguay
- Alfredo Stroessner (1954-1989), Paraguay
- Juan Perón (1946-1955; 1973-1974), Argentina
- Juan Carlos Onganía (1966-1970), Argentina
- Isabel Martínez de Perón (1974-1976), Argentina
- Jorge Rafael Videla (1976-1981), Argentina
- Roberto Eduardo Viola (1981), Argentina
- Leopoldo Galtieri (1981-1982), Argentina
- Reynaldo Bignone (1982-1983), Argentina
- Marcos Pérez Jiménez (1952-1958), Venezuela
- Juan Velasco Alvarado (1968-1975), Peru
- Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990), Chile
- Authoritarian personality
- Benevolent dictator for life
- Benevolent dictatorship
- Dictator novel
- Emergency powers
- List of coups d'état and coup attempts
- List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country
- List of political leaders who held active military ranks in office
- List of political leaders who suspended the constitution
- Lists of state leaders by year
- Maximum Leader (disambiguation)
- Military rule (disambiguation)
- President for life
- Strongman (politics)
- Supreme Leader
- Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943, but a few months later he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy – Mussolini held this post until his death in 1945.
- Deposed as the leader of mainland China in 1949, but remained dictator of the Republic of China in Taiwan until his death in 1975.
- Served as the de facto paramount leader of Communist China, as Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party.
- Serving as the de facto paramount leader of Communist China, as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
- Emerged as the de facto leader of South Korea as Republic of Korea Army general in December 1979 before formally ascending to the presidency nine months later.
- Served as the de facto leader of Panama as commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces.
- Served as the de facto Stalinist leader of Communist Hungary, as General Secretary of the Hungarian Working People's Party.
- All three men concurrently served as dictator of the January Uprising in Poland.
- Deposed as the prime minister of Italy in 1943, but remained dictator of the Italian Social Republic until his assassination in 1945.
- While Hussein formally ascended to the presidency in 1979, he had already been the de facto leader of Iraq for several years beforehand, with no one year in the 1970's agreed upon as a starting point.
- Served as prime minister of Cuba until 1976, but remained the de facto leader of Cuba as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba until his resignation in 2011.
- A ^ He conferred a doctorate of law on himself from Makerere University.
- B ^ The Victorious Cross (VC) was a medal made to emulate the British Victoria Cross.
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"...All Yugoslavs had educational opportunities, jobs, food, and housing regardless of nationality. Tito, seen by most as a benevolent dictator, brought peaceful co-existence to the Balkan region, a region historically synonymous with factionalism."
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On June 20, Aguinaldo issued a decree organizing the judiciary, and on June 23, again upon Mabini’s advice, major changes were promulgated and implemented: change of government from Dictatorial to Revolutionary; change of the Executive title from Dictator to President
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'..an authoritarian ruling style is characteristic of me [Lukashenko]'
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Unlike his predecessor, Lukashenka consolidated authoritarian rule. He censored state media, closed Belarus's only independent radio station [...].
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