Page semi-protected

COVID-19 pandemic in Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

COVID-19 pandemic in Spain
COVID-19 outbreak Spain per capita cases map.svg
Number of confirmed cases per 100,000 residents by autonomous community
DiseaseCoronavirus disease 2019
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationSpain
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[1][2]
Index caseLa Gomera, Canary Islands[3]
Arrival date31 January 2020
(8 months, 3 weeks and 6 days)
Confirmed cases
Hospitalized cases157,881 (total)
2,803 (in last 7 days)[6]
Recovered150,376[5][7]
Deaths
34,752[4][5][6]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Spain is part of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Canary Islands.[3] Post-hoc genetic analysis has shown that at least 15 strains of the virus had been imported, and community transmission began by mid-February.[8] By 13 March, cases had been confirmed in all 50 provinces of the country.

A lockdown was imposed on 14 March 2020.[9] On 29 March, it was announced that, beginning the following day, all non-essential workers were ordered to remain at home for the next 14 days.[10] By late March, the Community of Madrid has recorded the most cases and deaths in the country. Medical professionals and those who live in retirement homes have experienced especially high infection rates.[11] On 25 March, the official death toll in Spain surpassed that of mainland China.[12] On 2 April, 950 people died of the virus in a 24-hour period—at the time, the most by any country in a single day.[13] On 17 May, the daily death toll announced by the Spanish government fell below 100 for the first time,[14] and 1 June was the first day without deaths by coronavirus.[15] The state of alarm ended on 21 June.[16] However, the number of cases increased again in July in a number of cities including Barcelona, Zaragoza and Madrid, which led to reimposition of some restrictions but no national lockdown.[17][18][19][20]

Studies have suggested that the number of infections and deaths may have been underestimated due to lack of testing and reporting, and many people with only mild or no symptoms were not tested.[21][22] Reports in May suggested that, based on a sample of more than 63,000 people, the number of infections may be ten times higher than the number of confirmed cases by that date, and Madrid and several provinces of Castilla–La Mancha and Castile and León were the most affected areas with a percentage of infection greater than 10%.[23][24] There may also be as many as 15,815 more deaths according to the Spanish Ministry of Health monitoring system on daily excess mortality (Sistema de Monitorización de la Mortalidad Diaria - MoMo).[25] On 6 July 2020, the results of a Government of Spain nationwide seroprevalence study showed that about two million people, or 5.2% of the population, could have been infected during the pandemic.[26][27] Spain is the second country in Europe (behind Russia) to record half a million cases.[28] On 21 October, Spain passed 1 million COVID-19 cases, with 1,005,295 infections and 34,366 deaths reported as of 21 October a third of which occurred in Madrid.[29]

Background

On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.[30][31]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in Spain  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases[vii]

Jan Jan Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr May May Jun Jun Jul Jul Aug Aug Sep Sep Oct Oct Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-31 1(n.a.)
1(=)
2020-02-09 2(+100%)
2(=)
2020-02-24 3(+50%)
2020-02-25 9(+200%)
2020-02-26 17(+89%)
2020-02-27
33(+94%)
2020-02-28
54(+64%)
2020-02-29
81(+50%)
2020-03-01
135(+67%)
2020-03-02
192(+42%)
2020-03-03
263(+37%)
2020-03-04
341(+30%)
2020-03-05
532(+56%)
2020-03-06
757(+42%)
2020-03-07
1,080(+43%)
2020-03-08
1,513(+40%) 28(n.a.)
2020-03-09
2,277(+50%) 35(+25%)
2020-03-10
3,258(+43%) 48(+37%)
2020-03-11
4,404(+35%) 86(+79%)
2020-03-12
5,876(+33%) 123(+43%)
2020-03-13
7,596(+29%) 141(+15%)
2020-03-14
9,722(+28%) 292(+107%)
2020-03-15
11,451(+18%) 314(+7.5%)
2020-03-16
13,939(+22%) 496(+58%)
2020-03-17
17,637(+27%) 590(+19%)
2020-03-18
21,677(+23%) 765(+30%)
2020-03-19
26,166(+21%) 993(+30%)
2020-03-20
31,680(+21%) 1,326(+34%)
2020-03-21
36,557(+15%) 1,672(+26%)
2020-03-22
41,182(+13%) 2,136(+28%)
2020-03-23
48,828(+19%) 2,707(+27%)
2020-03-24
57,382(+18%) 3,303(+22%)
2020-03-25
66,327(+16%) 3,918(+19%)
2020-03-26
75,486(+14%) 4,663(+19%)
2020-03-27
83,749(+11%) 5,502(+18%)
2020-03-28
90,159(+7.7%) 6,217(+13%)
2020-03-29
95,961(+6.4%) 6,913(+11%)
2020-03-30
104,107(+8.5%) 7,733(+12%)
2020-03-31
111,541(+7.1%) 8,662(+12%)
2020-04-01
119,096(+6.8%) 9,539(+10%)
2020-04-02
126,337(+6.1%) 10,384(+8.9%)
2020-04-03
133,017(+5.3%) 11,164(+7.5%)
2020-04-04
138,587(+4.2%) 11,834(+6%)
2020-04-05
142,237(+2.6%) 12,462(+5.3%)
2020-04-06
147,510(+3.7%) 13,219(+6.1%)
2020-04-07
153,082(+3.8%) 13,976(+5.7%)
2020-04-08
158,810(+3.7%) 14,757(+5.6%)
2020-04-09
163,416(+2.9%) 15,399(+4.4%)
2020-04-10
168,024(+2.8%) 15,899(+3.2%)
2020-04-11
171,981(+2.4%) 16,505(+3.8%)
2020-04-12
175,141(+1.8%) 17,056(+3.3%)
2020-04-13
178,348(+1.8%) 17,591(+3.1%)
2020-04-14
182,848(+2.5%) 18,276(+3.9%)
2020-04-15
186,606(+2.1%) 18,893(+3.4%)
2020-04-16
190,537(+2.1%) 19,478(+3.1%)
2020-04-17
194,470(+2.1%) 20,043(+2.9%)
2020-04-18
192,961(-0.8%) 20,453(+2%)
2020-04-19
195,179(+1.1%) 20,852(+2%)
2020-04-20
198,125(+1.5%) 21,282(+2.1%)
2020-04-21
200,441(+1.2%) 21,717(+2%)
2020-04-22
203,358(+1.5%) 22,157(+2%)
2020-04-23
205,461(+1.0%) 22,524(+1.7%)
2020-04-24
207,958(+1.2%) 22,902(+1.7%)
2020-04-25
209,604(+0.79%) 23,190(+1.3%)
2020-04-26
211,266(+0.79%) 23,521(+1.4%)
2020-04-27
212,779(+0.72%) 23,822(+1.3%)
2020-04-28
213,602(+0.39%) 24,275(+1.9%)
2020-04-29
214,835(+0.58%) 24,543(+1.1%)
2020-04-30
216,216(+0.64%) 24,824(+1.1%)
2020-05-01
217,452(+0.57%) 25,100(+1.1%)
2020-05-02
218,382(+0.43%) 25,264(+0.65%)
2020-05-03
218,845(+0.21%) 25,428(+0.65%)
2020-05-04
219,849(+0.46%) 25,613(+0.73%)
2020-05-05
220,693(+0.38%) 25,857(+0.95%)
2020-05-06
221,447(+0.34%) 26,070(+0.82%)
2020-05-07
222,857(+0.64%) 26,299(+0.88%)
2020-05-08
223,578(+0.32%) 26,478(+0.68%)
2020-05-09
224,390(+0.37%) 26,621(+0.54%)
2020-05-10
227,436(+1.4%) 26,744(+0.46%)
2020-05-11
228,030(+0.26%) 26,920(+0.66%)
2020-05-12
228,691(+0.29%) 27,104(+0.68%)
2020-05-13
229,540(+0.37%) 27,321(+0.8%)
2020-05-14
230,183(+0.28%) 27,459(+0.51%)
2020-05-15
230,698(+0.22%) 27,563(+0.38%)
2020-05-16
231,350(+0.28%) 27,650(+0.32%)
2020-05-17
231,606(+0.11%[i]) 27,709(+0.21%)
2020-05-18
232,037(+0.19%) 27,778(+0.25%)
2020-05-19
232,555(+0.22%) 27,888(+0.4%)
2020-05-20
233,037(+0.21%[ii]) 27,940(+0.19%)
2020-05-21
234,824(+0.77%[iii]) 28,628(+2.5%)
2020-05-23
235,290(+0.20%[iv]) 28,678(+0.17%)
2020-05-24
235,772(+0.20%) 28,752(+0.26%)
2020-05-25
235,400(-0.16%[v]) 26,834(-6.7%)
2020-05-26
236,259(+0.36%) 27,117(+1.1%)
2020-05-27
236,769(+0.22%) 27,118(=)
2020-05-28
237,906(+0.48%) 27,119(=)
2020-05-29
238,564(+0.28%) 27,121(+0.01%)
2020-05-30
239,228(+0.28%) 27,125(+0.01%)
2020-05-31
239,429(+0.08%) 27,127(+0.01%)
2020-06-01
239,638(+0.09%) 27,127(=)
2020-06-02
239,932(+0.12%) 27,127(=)
2020-06-03
240,326(+0.16%) 27,128(=)
2020-06-04
240,660(+0.14%) 27,133(+0.02%)
2020-06-05
240,978(+0.13%) 28,130(+3.7%)
2020-06-06
241,310(+0.14%) 28,163(+0.12%)
2020-06-07
241,550(+0.10%) 28,178(+0.05%)
2020-06-08
241,717(+0.07%) 28,197(+0.07%)
2020-06-09
241,966(+0.10%) 28,209(+0.04%)
2020-06-10
242,280(+0.13%) 28,226(+0.06%)
2020-06-11
242,707(+0.18%) 28,236(+0.04%)
2020-06-12
243,209(+0.21%) 28,259(+0.08%)
2020-06-13
243,605(+0.16%) 28,275(+0.06%)
2020-06-14
243,928(+0.13%) 28,284(+0.03%)
2020-06-15
244,109(+0.07%) 28,291(+0.02%)
2020-06-16
244,328(+0.09%) 28,299(+0.03%)
2020-06-17
244,683(+0.15%) 28,306(+0.02%)
2020-06-18
245,268(+0.24%) 28,312(+0.02%)
2020-06-19
245,575(+0.13%) 28,315(+0.01%)
2020-06-20
245,938(+0.15%) 28,322(+0.02%)
2020-06-21
246,272(+0.14%) 28,323(=)
2020-06-22
246,504(+0.09%) 28,324(=)
2020-06-23
246,752(+0.10%) 28,325(=)
2020-06-24
247,086(+0.14%) 28,327(+0.01%)
2020-06-25
247,486(+0.16%) 28,330(+0.01%)
2020-06-26
247,905(+0.17%) 28,338(+0.03%)
2020-06-27
248,469(+0.23%) 28,341(+0.01%)
2020-06-28
248,770(+0.12%) 28,343(+0.01%)
2020-06-29
248,970(+0.08%) 28,346(+0.01%)
2020-06-30
249,271(+0.12%) 28,355(+0.03%)
2020-07-01
249,659(+0.16%) 28,363(+0.03%)
2020-07-02
250,103(+0.18%) 28,368(+0.02%)
2020-07-03
250,545(+0.18%) 28,385(+0.06%)
250,545(=) 28,385(=)
2020-07-06
251,789(+0.50%[vi]) 28,388(+0.01%)
2020-07-07
252,130(+0.14%) 28,392(+0.01%)
2020-07-08
252,513(+0.15%) 28,396(+0.01%)
2020-07-09
253,056(+0.22%) 28,401(+0.02%)
2020-07-10
253,908(+0.34%) 28,403(+0.01%)
253,908(=) 28,403(=)
2020-07-13
255,953(+0.81%) 28,406(+0.01%)
2020-07-14
256,619(+0.26%) 28,409(+0.01%)
2020-07-15
257,494(+0.34%) 28,413(+0.01%)
2020-07-16
258,855(+0.53%) 28,416(+0.01%)
2020-07-17
260,255(+0.54%) 28,420(+0.01%)
260,255(=) 28,420(=)
2020-07-20
264,836(+1.8%) 28,422(+0.01%)
2020-07-21
266,194(+0.51%) 28,424(+0.01%)
2020-07-22
267,551(+0.51%) 28,426(+0.01%)
2020-07-23
270,166(+0.98%) 28,429(+0.01%)
2020-07-24
272,421(+0.83%) 28,432(+0.01%)
272,421(=) 28,432(=)
2020-07-27
278,782(+2.3%) 28,434(+0.01%)
2020-07-28
280,610(+0.66%) 28,436(+0.01%)
2020-07-29
282,641(+0.72%) 28,441(+0.02%)
2020-07-30
285,430(+0.99%) 28,443(+0.01%)
2020-07-31
288,522(+1.1%) 28,445(+0.01%)
288,522(=) 28,445(=)
2020-08-03
297,054(+3.0%) 28,472(+0.09%)
2020-08-04
302,814(+1.9%) 28,498(+0.09%)
2020-08-05
305,767(+0.98%) 28,499(=)
2020-08-06
309,855(+1.3%) 28,500(=)
2020-08-07
314,362(+1.5%) 28,503(+0.01%)
314,362(=) 28,503(=)
2020-08-10
322,980(+2.7%) 28,576(+0.26%)
2020-08-11
326,612(+1.1%) 28,581(+0.02%)
2020-08-12
329,784(+0.97%) 28,579(-0.01%)
2020-08-13
337,334(+2.3%) 28,605(+0.09%)
2020-08-14
342,813(+1.6%) 28,617(+0.04%)
342,813(=) 28,617(=)
2020-08-17
359,082(+4.7%) 28,646(+0.1%)
2020-08-18
364,196(+1.4%) 28,670(+0.08%)
2020-08-19
370,867(+1.8%) 28,797(+0.44%)
2020-08-20
377,906(+1.9%) 28,813(+0.06%)
2020-08-21
386,054(+2.2%) 28,838(+0.09%)
386,054(=) 28,838(=)
2020-08-24
405,436(+5.0%) 28,872(+0.12%)
2020-08-25
412,553(+1.8%) 28,924(+0.18%)
2020-08-26
419,849(+1.8%) 28,971(+0.16%)
2020-08-27
429,507(+2.3%) 28,996(+0.09%)
2020-08-28
439,286(+2.3%) 29,011(+0.05%)
439,286(=) 29,011(=)
2020-08-31
462,858(+5.4%) 29,094(+0.29%)
2020-09-01
470,973(+1.8%) 29,152(+0.2%)
2020-09-02
479,554(+1.8%) 29,194(+0.14%)
2020-09-03
488,513(+1.9%) 29,234(+0.14%)
2020-09-04
498,989(+2.1%) 29,418(+0.63%)
498,989(=) 29,418(=)
2020-09-07
525,549(+5.3%) 29,516(+0.33%)
2020-09-08
534,513(+1.7%) 29,594(+0.26%)
2020-09-09
543,379(+1.7%) 29,628(+0.11%)
2020-09-10
554,143(+2.0%) 29,699(+0.24%)
2020-09-11
566,326(+2.2%) 29,747(+0.16%)
566,326(=) 29,747(=)
2020-09-14
593,730(+4.8%) 29,848(+0.34%)
2020-09-15
603,167(+1.6%) 30,004(+0.52%)
2020-09-16
614,360(+1.9%) 30,243(+0.8%)
2020-09-17
625,651(+1.8%) 30,405(+0.54%)
2020-09-18
640,040(+2.3%) 30,495(+0.3%)
640,040(=) 30,495(=)
2020-09-21
671,468(+4.9%) 30,663(+0.55%)
2020-09-22
682,267(+1.6%) 30,904(+0.79%)
2020-09-23
693,556(+1.7%) 31,034(+0.42%)
2020-09-24
704,209(+1.5%) 31,118(+0.27%)
2020-09-25
716,481(+1.7%) 31,232(+0.37%)
716,481(=) 31,232(=)
2020-09-28
748,266(+4.4%) 31,411(+0.57%)
2020-09-29
758,172(+1.3%) 31,614(+0.65%)
2020-09-30
769,188(+1.5%) 31,791(+0.56%)
2020-10-01
778,607(+1.2%) 31,973(+0.57%)
2020-10-02
789,932(+1.5%) 32,086(+0.35%)
789,932(=) 32,086(=)
2020-10-05
813,412(+3.0%) 32,225(+0.43%)
2020-10-06
825,410(+1.5%) 32,486(+0.81%)
2020-10-07
835,901(+1.3%) 32,562(+0.23%)
2020-10-08
848,324(+1.5%) 32,688(+0.39%)
2020-10-09
861,112(+1.5%) 32,929(+0.74%)
861,112(=) 32,929(=)
2020-10-12
888,968(+3.2%) 33,124(+0.59%)
2020-10-13
896,086(+0.80%) 33,204(+0.24%)
2020-10-14
908,056(+1.3%) 33,413(+0.63%)
2020-10-15
921,374(+1.5%) 33,553(+0.42%)
2020-10-16
936,560(+1.6%) 33,775(+0.66%)
936,560(=) 33,775(=)
2020-10-19
974,449(+4.0%) 33,992(+0.64%)
2020-10-20
988,322(+1.4%) 34,210(+0.64%)
2020-10-21
1,005,295(+1.7%) 34,366(+0.46%)
2020-10-22
1,026,281(+2.1%) 34,521(+0.45%)
2020-10-23
1,046,132(+1.9%) 34,752(+0.67%)
1,046,132(=) 34,752(=)
2020-10-26
1,098,320(+5.0%) 35,031(+0.8%)
2020-10-27
1,116,738(+1.7%) 35,298(+0.76%)
Sources:

Notes:

  1. ^ Figures for recoveries have not been updated since 2020-05-17.
  2. ^ Figures for 2020-05-20 do not include data from Catalonia over issues on their validation.
  3. ^ Figures for 2020-05-21 include corrections from several automous communities after a process of data debugging and updating of their historical series.
  4. ^ From 2020-05-23, data is consolidated at 14:00/15:00 rather than at 0:00. This means the register for 2020-05-22 is included within the data of 2020-05-23.
  5. ^ Figures for 2020-05-24 to 2020-06-17 include corrections in the validation of past data from several autonomous communities as a result of the transition to a new surveillance methodology implemented from 2020-05-11.
  6. ^ From 2020-07-06, data for weekends is communicated on the next Monday, unless the country's epidemiological situation requires for this communication to be advanced.
  7. ^ Until 2020-04-15, active cases include PCR-confirmed cases for all regions, and serological tests for some regions. Starting on 2020-04-15, a change of methodology led to a split in both figures for some regions. By 2020-04-18 most regions had switched to the new methodology except for Galicia, which made the switch on 2020-04-28; from that date onwards, active cases refer to PCR-confirmed cases. Negative numbers denote corrections due to cases that were subsequently declared negative.


First cases (31 January–25 February)

On 31 January 2020, Spain confirmed its first COVID-19 case in La Gomera, Canary Islands. A tourist from Germany tested positive and was admitted to University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria.[3][32][33] On 9 February, the second case involved a male British tourist in Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, who contracted the disease after coming into contact with someone in France who subsequently tested positive.[34] On 9 February, Fernando Simón, the head of medical emergencies in Madrid, said "Spain will only have a handful of cases."[35] On 13 February, the first death in Spain was recorded involving a 69-year-old man who had been in Nepal. He died in Valencia and was diagnosed post-mortem.[36] On 24 February, following a COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, a medical doctor from Lombardy, Italy, who was on holiday in Tenerife, tested positive at the University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria in Spain.[37] The H10 Costa Adeje Palace in Tenerife was put on lockdown.[38]

On 25 February, four new cases related to the Italian cluster were confirmed in Spain. In Canary Islands, the wife of the medical doctor from Lombardy, who was on holiday in Tenerife, tested positive.[37] In Catalonia, a 36-year-old Italian woman living in Spain, who visited Bergamo and Milan from 12 to 22 February, also tested positive in Barcelona.[39][40] A 24-year-old man from Madrid, who recently returned from Northern Italy, tested positive and was admitted to Hospital Carlos III.[41][42] In the Valencian Community, a man from Villarreal, who recently travelled to Milan, tested positive and was admitted to Hospital Universitario De La Plana, Castellón.[43]

A retrospective analysis of 28 complete genetic sequences of the virus showed that by 14–18 February at least two different strains were already circulating in Spain, which means there were multiple introductions of the virus to Spain and not a single patient zero.[44][45]

Community transmission (26 February–12 March)

On 28 February, television cameras covered the first coronavirus cases at Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia [es].

On 26 February, the first reported case in Andalusia was confirmed in Seville, the first case of community transmission reported in Spain.[46] The next day, eight cases of Italian origin and one from Iran were reported, in Catalunya, Castile and León, and Valencia.[47][48][49] On 28 February, nine more people tested positive in Andalusia[50][46][51] and a fifth case was confirmed in Madrid.[52] On 29 February, Asturias and Navarre reported their first cases, one each.[53][54] On 1 March, in Andalusia, two doctors were confirmed as infected, increasing the number of Andalusian cases to 12.[55] In the Basque Country another four cases were reported, from other parts of Spain.[56] In Castilla–La Mancha the first case of coronavirus was confirmed,[57] and Extremadura announced the first four cases.[58] On 2 March in Cantabria, nine new cases originating from people who travelled to Italy increased the total cases there 10 cases in the community.[59] In Castile and León five new cases in one day brought the total to eight people affected by coronavirus in the region.[60] Catalonia reported three more positive cases, all related to travel from Italy.[61] There were two new positives in Extremadura, bringing the total to 6.[62] Madrid reported that its total had increased to 29.[63] In La Rioja, the first case was confirmed.[64]

On 3 March, the second and third cases in Asturias were reported.[65][66] In the Balearic Islands a third positive case was confirmed.[67] In the Basque Country three more positives, two in Álava, and the first one in Biscay, raised the total positives to 13 for the region.[68] In Castilla–La Mancha there were four new cases reported, bringing the total up to seven, two in the province of Guadalajara and another two in the province of Toledo.[69] In the Community of Madrid 27 new positive cases of coronavirus brought the total up to 56, with five serious in intensive care.[70] In La Rioja the second case of coronavirus was confirmed.[71] In the Valencian Community, four new cases were confirmed, bringing the number of infected to 19 cases.[72] The first death in Madrid took place on 3 March but was not confirmed until 5 March.[73][74]

On 4 March, the first case of coronavirus was confirmed in Aragon, a 79-year-old man.[75] In the Basque Country 8 more positives brought the total to 21, with 250 people in isolation (about half of these health professionals).[76][77] In Castilla–La Mancha there were five new cases reported, bringing the total up to twelve: seven in the province of Guadalajara, two in Toledo, one in Albacete, one in Almansa and one in Tomelloso.[78] Ten new cases were reported in Catalonia, reaching a total of 28 infected people, some from travel in Italy and others by local contact.[79][80] In Galicia, the first case in the community was confirmed in A Coruña.[81] In the Community of Madrid 20 new positive cases of coronavirus brought the total to 76, of which 41 were hospitalised and 7 in intensive care.[82] Four new cases were reported in La Rioja, bringing the region's total to 6.[83][84] On 5 March, another six cases were confirmed in the Basque Country, raising the total to 27.[85] In Galicia, the second positive in the community was confirmed in Vigo.[86] In the Community of Madrid, 13 new positive cases of coronavirus increase to 89 in total.[73][74] In La Rioja four new positive cases of coronavirus brought the total to ten.[87] Subsequently, that same afternoon the figure was increased to 17 cases.[88] In the Valencian Community the infected rises to 30 cases, with 8 new ones in Castellón, Elche, Orihuela, and Valencia.[89]

On 6 March, another nine cases of coronavirus were confirmed in Aragón, including an 87-year-old man who died a few hours later.[90][91][92] In Basque Country, another 18 people were confirmed to have the disease, 13 in Álava and 5 in Biscay, bringing the total to 45.[93] In Galicia, the third and fourth positives in the community, a 15-year-old and a 47-year-old woman admitted to the Álvaro Cunqueiro de Vigo Hospital were confirmed in Vigo.[94][95] In the Community of Madrid, 46 new positive cases and three deaths are reported, bringing the total to 134 active cases and 4 deaths in total,[96] In La Rioja, 21 new cases of coronavirus were confirmed for a total of 38.[97][98] On 8 March, seven more confirmed deaths were reported,[99] while the first case in the Region of Murcia was diagnosed.[100] On 8 March, around 120,000 people participated in an International Women's Day march in Madrid and some 60,000 football fans filled one of the city's largest stadiums.[101]

International Women's Day march in Madrid, 8 March 2020

On 9 March, the Catalan Ministry of Health reported two new deaths in Catalonia.[102] On 10 March, La Rioja announced its first death due to the virus.[103] Following four confirmed cases in Tarragona[104] and one case in Lleida, all Catalan provinces had at least one case diagnosed.[105] The Catalan regional government suspended events with more than one thousand attendees under its jurisdiction.[106] The first death in Extremadura was reported.[107] On 12 March, most of the autonomous communities shut down their school systems, leaving more than ten million students (a million in university and nine million in primary and secondary education) at home, initially for two weeks.[108] Two cases of the virus are confirmed in the autonomous city of Melilla,[109] while the first two cases reported in the island of La Palma.[110] Spain's stock index, IBEX 35, fell 14%, in the highest drop in history for one day.[111]

State of alarm (13–27 March)

On 13 March, Prime Minister of Spain Pedro Sánchez announced a declaration of a nationwide State of Alarm for 15 days, to become effective the following day after the approval of the Council of Ministers.[112] The president of the Audiencia Nacional announced the suspension of all the ordinary functions of this Court for 15 days, keeping only the urgent proceedings and the court on duty.[113] Judicial activity in the Community of Madrid, Basque Country, Igualada and Haro were suspended by an order of the General Council of the Judiciary.[114] Vicepresident of Castile and León, Francisco Igea, announced the suspension of the Holy Week festivities in the region after talks with the regional administration.[115] All provinces of Spain confirmed at least one positive after cases are confirmed in Ávila, Cuenca, Huesca, Palencia and Soria, leaving the Autonomous City of Ceuta and the islands of El Hierro and Formentera as the only territories without cases reported.[116][117][118][119][120] Catalonia reported 190 new cases in the highest rise in cases in a day.[121] The first two cases were reported in the autonomous city of Melilla.[109]

Disinfection of the underground in Bilbao, Basque Country, 21 March

On 15 March the national lockdown due to the State of Alarm becomes effective.[122][123] All residents are mandated to remain in their normal residences except to purchase food and medicines, work or attend emergencies.[124][125] Lockdown restrictions also mandated the temporary closure of non-essential shops and businesses, including bars, restaurants, cafes, cinemas and commercial and retail businesses, while also announcing that the government will be able to take over private healthcare providers, if needed.[122][126] The announcement came following significant increases in the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Spain, increasing by 66% from 3,146 cases to 5,232 cases on 13 March 2020.[127] The "extraordinary decision", according to the PM Pedro Sánchez, is necessary as Spain deals with a "health, social and economic crisis".[122] Seville's Feria de Abril is postponed to September for the first time in its history.[128] The first case in the autonomous city of Ceuta was diagnosed.[129]

On 17 March, PM Pedro Sánchez announces a support package of more than 200 billion euros, almost 20% of the Spanish GDP, to cushion the impact of the coronavirus crisis. The Royal Decree approved by his government also includes a moratorium on the payment of mortgages for workers and self-employed in economic vulnerability and for those affected by COVID-19, as well as the streamlining of temporary dismissal files (known as ERTE), support for workers and companies affected by downturns, measures to guarantee the liquidity of companies and to promote research to achieve a vaccine.[130][131] The first death in the province of Tarragona is confirmed in Valls hospital, an 88-year-old woman from Badalona.[132]

The Gran Vía of Madrid on 22 March

On 19 March, the first death of a healthcare worker in the country is reported, a nurse from the Basque Country.[133] On 20 March, Spain exceeds 1,000 deaths.[134] The first case is confirmed on the island of El Hierro.[135] On 21 March, the Ministry of Health announces the purchase of 640,000 rapid tests[136] and reports that more than 350,000 tests for COVID-19 had been conducted.[137][138] On 22 March, Spanish PM Pedro Sánchez announces that he will take the petition to extend the State of Alarm in the nation until 11 April to the Congress after consultations with regional presidents.[139][140] The President of the Region of Murcia orders the cessation of all non-essential economic activities, a decision later revoked by the central government.[141] On 23 March, the Spanish Army found elderly people abandoned and dead inside retirement homes, according to Defence Minister Margarita Robles. A criminal investigation is launched.[142] The "Palacio del Hielo", an ice rink in Madrid, begins to be used as a morgue.[143] By this date, 5,400 medical professionals are confirmed to have tested positive for coronavirus and sent home, further straining the hospitals, where a lack of protective equipment has put workers at risk.[144]

Halting of all non-essential activity (28 March–12 April)

Number of cases (blue) and number of deaths (red) on a logarithmic scale
Police cars playing motivational music for confined neighbours in the streets of Miranda de Ebro, Burgos, Castile and León

On 28 March, the Spanish government banned all non-essential activity,[145][146] providing affected workers with paid recoverable leave unless they provide an essential service, work remotely, are on sick leave, or have their contracts suspended.[147] The next day, two cases of coronavirus were diagnosed on Formentera, Balearic Islands, leaving the island of La Graciosa (Canary Islands) as the only territory with no cases detected.[148] On 30 March, Fernando Simón, the head of Spain's Centre for Health Emergencies and the public face of the government's response because of his daily briefings, tested positive for the virus and temporarily resigned.[149][150] On 4 April, Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez asked the Congress of Deputies to extend the State of Alarm for another two weeks, until 26 April,[151] a request that was granted on 9 April.[152]

From 3 April to 11 April, the number of new cases and deaths in general had a decreasing trend. On 3 April, 950 deaths were reported, the highest number for a single country over a 24-hour interval,[153] on the same day, estimates for the basic reproduction number of the virus indicated a number below 1.0 for the first time, meaning that each case was, on average, infecting less than one other person.[154][155] On 4, 5, and 6 April, consecutive decreases in number of new cases and deaths were reported, including 637 new deaths on 6 April, the lowest figure in ten days.[156][157] On 10 April, the number of confirmed deaths dropped to 605, and then on 11 April to 510, the lowest figure in more than a month; the number of confirmed cases increased by only 3%, the lowest amount since the Ministry of Health began collecting data.[158][159]

Lifting of some restrictions (13 April–1 May)

On 13 April, workers in some non-essential sectors, such as construction and industry, who cannot work remotely were allowed to return to work; the government began the distribution of millions of face masks in public transportation hubs.[160] On 21 April, the government announced that from 26 or 27 April children under the age of 14 will be able to go out on short walks with their parents or other adults living in the same household.[161] On 23 April, the state of alarm was extended until 9 May, with further extensions envisioned.[162]

De-escalation (2 May–July)

On 28 April, the government announced a plan for easing lockdown restrictions. The plan has four phases, numbered 0 through 3, and each of the phases 1 through 3 will last at least two weeks. The transition from one phase to the next will be based on public health indicators such as number of cases and capacity of the healthcare system. Phase 0 allowed people out of their homes for short walks and individual sports from 2 May[163]

Phase 1 began on 11 May in 26 provinces and territories comprising about half of the Spanish population.[164] It includes the opening of small shops, of terraces at 50% capacity, and of places of worship at one-third capacity. The plan is estimated to have a duration of eight weeks if there are no setbacks.[165][166]

Preliminary results from a large-scale serologic study, made public on 13 May, suggested that about 5% of the population of Spain had developed antibodies for SARS-CoV-2. The percentage was higher than 11% in the provinces of Soria (14.2), Cuenca (13.5), Segovia (12.6), Albacete (11.6), Madrid (11.3) and Ciudad Real (11.1), but still substantially below the 60% suggested to be needed to achieve herd immunity.[167][168] On 4 June and 6 July, the results of the second and third wave of the nation-wide seroprevalence study showed the percentage of population infected to have slightly increased, reaching 5,2%. According to this study based on sample of more than 63,000 people, Madrid and several provinces of Castilla–La Mancha and Castilla y León would be the most affected areas with a percentage of infection greater than 10%On 6 July 2020, the results of the third and last wave of a Spanish Government nationwide seroprevalence study showed that about two million people, or 5.2% of the population, could have been infected during the pandemic, confirming the data from previous waves.[26][24]

Phase 2 began on 18 May in some Balearic Islands; at the same time, the remaining of Andalusia and the Valencian Community, as well as some territories in Castile and León and in Catalonia joined phase 1.[169] As of 25 May 2020, 47% of the territory of Spain was on phase 2.[170] As of 8 June 2020, 48% of the country was on phase 2 and 52% on phase 3; the latter includes less stringent restrictions for the opening of shops, hotels, bars, entertainment and nightlife venues.[171] As of 15 June 2020, 75% of the Spanish population was on phase 3 and several provinces entered the "new normality" phase.[172]

The state of alarm expired at midnight of Sunday 21 June, and Spain entered a "new normality" phase, in which restrictions such as maximum occupancy in shops are handled by each autonomous community independently.[173] At the state level, the government maintained the obligation to wear masks in public transportation and all other places where a minimum distance of 1.5 meters cannot be maintained; the government also opened all internal borders among autonomous communities as well as the land border with France, and resumed international flights with other European Union countries and the United Kingdom.[16]

  • Bulleted list item

Resurgence (17 July – October)

On 17 July, in response to an increase in the number of cases in the Barcelona metropolitan area, the government of Catalonia forbade gatherings of more than 10 people in public or private spaces, and advised residents to stay at home unless strictly necessary.[174] The government of Aragon issued a similar advisory notice to residents, in response to an increase in the number of cases in Zaragoza.[175]

The number of cases also increased again in July in other cities such as Madrid.[17] Various European countries imposed restrictions on travellers from Aragon, Catalonia, and Navarre.[18] On 7 August, Spain overtook the United Kingdom in the total number of cases reported, which at 309,855 cases was the highest in Western Europe.[176] A number of restrictions were imposed, including closing nightclubs, banning smoking outdoors if social distancing was not possible, and compulsory wearing of face masks in public.[19][177]

The country recorded a series of high daily counts of infection since relaxing its restrictions in June 2020, with 3,715 cases reported on 19 August, giving it a cumulative figure of over 370,000 cases by that date.[178] The country had the highest rate of infection in Europe, with 145 new cases per 100,000 population in the two weeks before 21 August 2020, compared to 51 in France and 21 in the UK. Aragon was the worst-hit region. Officials have blamed socialising by young people for the increase.[179] The numbers of deaths and hospitalisations in August, however, remained relatively low compared to March and April, for example 122 died from COVID-19 on 20 August compared to 950 on 2 April.[180]

On 4 September, the country reported a new record of 10,476 new cases in a day.[181] On 7 September 2020, the number of cases reported reached over half a million, the second country in Europe to reach this milestone after Russia. There were 525,549 infections in total, a third of them in Madrid, with 29,516 deaths reported.[28][182]

  • Bulleted list item

State of Emergency reimposed (1 October - present)

The government ordered a partial lock-down of Madrid on 1 October due to the rise in cases.[183]

On 21 October, Spain passed 1 million COVID-19 cases, the first country in Western Europe to do so.[184]

On 25 October, the government reimposed a state of emergency across the country and introduced a national curfew to counter the resurgence in coronavirus. Local authorities were also given powers to ban travel across different regions. The curfew was initially set to last 15 days, but Pedro Sánchez said that he would ask Parliament to extend it if necessary.[185]

Government response

Quarantines and lockdowns

People maintain social distancing in Valencia.

On 7 March, Haro was put on lockdown due to a concentration of cases.[186] On 12 March, the Catalan regional government quarantined four Catalan municipalities—Igualada, Vilanova del Cami, Santa Margarida de Montbui and Odena—following a cluster of cases being reported at Igualada Hospital; the measure affected 70,000 people and was scheduled to last 14 days.[187][188] The next day, the Government of Spain announced a state of alarm over all of the country would be decreed on the next day, initially for 15 days as specified in the Article 116.2 of the Spanish constitution.[189] Under the state of alarm, the central government retains all powers and all police are under the control of the Interior Ministry. Many nonessential activities are forbidden, including large gatherings, restaurants, museums and the like. However, citizens are still permitted to travel to work and buy essential items, and religious services are allowed under certain conditions.[190] The delay in implementing the lockdown meant some people in Madrid left for the regions, bringing the virus with them.[191]

Some autonomous communities announced emergency measures on the same day. The Basque Country announced a declaration of sanitary emergency in the region, which allows population confinement.[192] The government of Murcia announced the confinement of more than 500,000 people in coastal municipalities.[193] President of the Balearic Islands, Francina Armengol, asked the Prime Minister to suspend traffic between the mainland and the islands.[194] President of Catalonia, Quim Torra, asked the Prime Minister to authorise the closure of all Catalonia's ports, airports and railways.[195] Mayor of Madrid, José Luis Martínez Almeida, ordered the closure of bars and terraces in the capital,[196] and announced that his government is prepared, if needed, to isolate the city. In Extremadura, Arroyo de la Luz was put on lockdown.[197]

Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez with Health Minister Salvador Illa and Spain's health emergency chief Fernando Simón

On 25 March, the parliament—with less than 50 members of 350 present—approved the government's request to extend of the state of alarm until 11 April.[198] On 28 March, the prime minister ordered all non-essential workers to stay home from 30 March to 9 April to bend the curve and contain the epidemic. Fernando Simón said ICUs were expected to be full by the end of this week or early the next week.[199] On 1 April, the state of alarm was scheduled to expire on 12 April and the government planned to ease lockdowns going forward, assuming new infections decrease.[200] Because the previous week had seen many Spaniards die of the disease, on 3 April, Sánchez was considering extending the quarantine another fifteen days to 26 April. He consulted the opposition to obtain its support, and will speak to presidents of the autonomous communities on 5 April.[201] On 13 April, some nonessential workers who are unable to telecommute will be allowed to return to work, although other social distancing measures will remain in place. Instead, the government will distribute masks on public transport and attempt aggressive contact tracing to reduce the spread of the virus.[202]

Travel restrictions

On 10 March 2020, the Government of Spain decreed the immediate cancellation of all direct flights from Italy to Spain until 25 March.[203] On 12 March, all traffic between Morocco and Spain was suspended.[204] On 16 March, Minister of the Interior Grande-Marlaska announces the closing of Spanish frontiers to be in effect from 12:00 pm on 16 March, authorising the entry of only Spanish citizens and those who can prove cause of force majeure or a situation of need. The entry restrictions will have no effect on the transport of merchandise to guarantee the supply chain. It will not affect foreign diplomatic personnel either.[205] Following this, President of the Government of the Balearic Islands, Francina Armengol, would announce that after receiving the approval of the Spanish government, her government will proceed to the closure of all airports and ports in the region, with "a few exceptions".;[206] the Canary Islands would restrict flights between the peninsula and its islands. Air and sea connections to The Balearic Islands cease due to flight companies stopping all flights.[207] Movement between provinces will be forbidden at least until the end of June.[166]

Closures

On 10 March, the Ministry of Culture ordered the closing of its buildings in Madrid, including the museums of El Prado, Reina Sofía, Thyssen, the Spanish Filmoteca Española, Archaeological and Anthropological museums, as well as the National Library and the Royal Palace among others.[208] The Constitutional Court suspended its activity for two days,[209] and the Royal Spanish Academy suspended its plenary sessions.[210] On 12 March, the Spanish Cortes Generales suspended their activity for 15 days[211] and the Ministry of the Interior ordered the isolation of its 69 jails.[212] The Sagrada Familia, in Barcelona, closes for tourists and construction workers.[213] On 13 March 2020 the Government of the Community of Madrid decreed the shutting down of bars, restaurants and "non-alimentary" shops (only allowing the opening of supermarkets and chemist's shops).[214] On 14 March, Asturias, Catalonia, Cantabria, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia and the Basque Country closed all shops except those selling food and basic necessities.[215][216][217][218][excessive citations] The Mayor of Madrid closed parks and public gardens.[219]

Enforcement

Spanish Army deploys to enforce lockdown in Alcañiz, Aragón, 27 March.

As of 23 March 2020, there were 240,245 police officers[220] and more than 2,500 military deployed across the country.[221] Some police made trips to quarantined populations and played music to lift spirits.[222] On 24 March, the government seized control of private nursing homes nationwide, and announced a judicial inquiry after troops found nursing home patients who had died of COVID-19 left dead in their beds.[223] In Madrid, hospitals refused transfers from nursing homes, and a skating rink was used to store dead bodies as the city morgue overflowed.[223] By 31 March, police had issued 100,000 citations and arrested 1,000 people for violating social distancing regulations. Fines can range from €100 to €30,000 for serious violations or up to four months in prison.[224][225] Drones are used for enforcement. Police also set up 30,000 roadblocks to stop people from traveling.[226] By 10 April, 3,000 drivers had been sanctioned for violating quarantine while thousands were being stopped each day.[227]

Criticism

Satirical graffiti in Valencia parodying people wearing face masks in a wrong way.

According to The Guardian, Spain's initially slow response to the coronavirus caused the epidemic to become severe even though it did not share a land border with Italy or other severely affected countries.[191] An analysis in Vox hypothesised that the minority government did not want to risk its hold on power by banning large gatherings early; the prime minister initially defended his decision to allow large gatherings to continue.[226] An opinion piece published by The New York Times blamed the high number of victims on the slow governmental response against the virus, focusing on three causes: a stressed health care system impoverished since the 2008 economic crisis, having to unify the 17 autonomous communities' healthcare systems on a central command, and having an elderly population.[228]

The Spanish government had ordered 640,000 coronavirus test kits from Shenzhen Bioeasy Biotechnology, which claimed an 80 percent accuracy rate. However, the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) found that Bioeasy's test kit, which uses nose swabs, had an accuracy rate of less than 30 percent, and the city of Madrid stopped using them. The Spanish government is trying to get a refund for the defective products.[229][230][231] On 29 March, the Czech Republic donated 10,000 protective medical suits and 90 respirators, which were sent in a Czech Air Force plane.[232]

The Spanish Government faced criticism when it started filtering questions of journalists in its virtual press conferences. 400 journalists signed a letter called The Freedom to Ask requesting the filter be removed. On 6 April, the filter was removed and journalists could ask questions directly via webcam.[233]

At a press conference, the Chief of the General Staff of the Civil Guard, General José Manuel Santiago read a statement where that enumerated the actions that the police force was doing at the moment of the crisis. One of the actions was (as read by Santiago) to minimize disaffection to the Spanish Government.[234][235] Ministry of Internal Affairs excused the general's comments as a lapse. The general explained his comments by clarifying that political criticism is not prosecuted but fake news.[236] An internal email leaked by an unknown source showed that the Civil Guard received orders to report fake news weekly.[237]

Impact

Empty shelves in a Mercadona supermarket in Valencia on 14 March

On 6 March, EFE reported that myths related to the coronavirus were spreading through the country.[238] Panic buying occurred by 10 March.[239] On 28 March, children and young people who obeyed social distancing by staying at home were applauded by Spanish residents for doing their part to combat the epidemic.[240] By 29 March, visits to retail and recreation places, transit stations and parks had fallen by 94%, 88%, and 89% respectively, and visits to workplaces had reduced by 64%, according to a report by Google based on location history data from mobile devices.[241]

The coronavirus has caused a spike in cybercrime;[242] phishing scams imitating the Ministry of Health have targeted WhatsApp users[243] as of 10 April, the National Police Corps has discovered 12,000 fraudulent websites targeting Spaniards. One businessman was arrested for allegedly stealing €5 million in medical equipment. Some companies are selling essential supplies, such as masks or hand sanitizer, at high markup leading to claims of price gouging. Other companies are selling fake miracle cures with aggressive marketing campaigns.[242]

Healthcare system

Daily mortality in Spain April 2018 – April 2020. Black indicates expected deaths with confidence interval in gray; red denotes observed deaths.

From 17 March to 14 April, the death rate in Spain was 68% higher than usual and 21,882 excess deaths occurred, with the vast majority of excess mortality observed among those older than 74 years. The peak of excess deaths occurred during the week of 27 March to 3 April and was five times larger than the flu season of 2019.[244] On 23 March, The Guardian reported that hospitals in the Madrid area were being overwhelmed by coronavirus patients.[245] Per capita, Spain has only a third as many hospital beds as Germany and Austria.[191] As of 28 March, the burden on intensive care units per confirmed case was 7.8, almost as high as Italy and far above any other European country.[246] As of 31 March, intensive care units in Cataluña, Madrid, Castilla–La Mancha, and Castilla y León were at or over 80% capacity, despite efforts to triple the number of beds available; most of the patients were suffering from coronavirus.[247] After 1 April, some hospitals in Madrid saw a small decline in the number of patients in intensive care while others were stable or still rising. The number of patients in intensive care in Galicia, Asturias, and Castilla–La Mancha also dropped. In Castilla y León, Cataluña, and Valencia it was stable, while in Aragón and Andalucía it peaked later.[248] The number of patients in intensive care in the autonomous communities with most cases reached its peak on the first days of April.[249]

Austerity measures, enacted by the previous government of Mariano Rajoy which cut billions of euros from health budgets, were blamed by some experts for reducing the capacity of the healthcare system. Healthcare spending in Spain is 5.9 percent, below the EU average of 7.5 percent. Before the coronavirus epidemic, some doctors were unemployed or had emigrated to look for work. Now, retired healthcare workers are being called back to the job and medical students are being recruited to perform some tasks. The privatisation of hospitals undergone during Rajoy's tenure has undermined efforts to coordinate the response to the crisis.[250][251]

As of 13 April, 18.5% of the cases are in healthcare workers, with a significant gap between women (26% of cases) and men (10% of cases).[252] One cause of infection is the lack of adequate protective gear, leading some healthcare workers to make their own improvised gear. According to Fernando Simón, only 8.8% of diagnosed healthcare workers require hospitalisation, in contrast to 40% of other cases of the disease.[253][246] Twelve nurses and doctors have died of the illness.[254]

Age and economic impact

Local police officer in Madrid is tested for coronavirus, 25 March.

Low income neighbourhoods in Barcelona have seven times the rate of infection of more affluent neighbourhoods. Part of the reason is that essential workers, who have kept going to work despite the epidemic, are likely to work in low-skill jobs such as supermarkets or elder care. Also, many care workers are immigrants, who lack access to unemployment benefits and live in some of the lowest category housing. Homeless people are also at risk and the charities that help them were forced to cease operations because of the disease.[250] The Community of Madrid has asked the Military Emergencies Unit to enter the Cañada Real, the largest illegal slum in a European city, and provide assistance, because the poor living conditions there make self-isolation difficult. The Spanish Red Cross [es] has been providing aid and delivering meals.[255]

Many nursing homes in Spain are understaffed because they are for-profit businesses and elderly Spaniards cannot necessarily afford sufficient care;[191] the salary for most workers is less than €1,000 per month. Even before the crisis, safety violations occurred frequently. The lack of PPE and inability to quarantine infected individuals exacerbated the spread of the disease.[256] In some nursing homes, elderly victims were found abandoned in their beds by Spanish soldiers mounting emergency response. Defense minister Margarita Robles said anyone guilty of neglect will be prosecuted.[245] By 18 April, 38 residences were under investigation.[256] Some hospitals refused to admit sick people from nursing homes.[257] Thousands of elder care workers have been infected.[258] By 18 April, more than 13,600 Spaniards in nursing homes who were probable or confirmed coronavirus cases had died, including ten percent of nursing home residents in the Community of Madrid, while at least 39,000 were infected according to incomplete figures as some communities were not deaggregating their figures.[256]

During the pandemic, the healthcare system is using triage, reserving ventilators for younger and healthier individuals because of the poor prognosis for survival.[259][260][261] A critical care medical association released triage criteria that included the "life expectancy" and "social value" of the patient.[262][263][264] More than 65% of fatalities have occurred in those 80 or older, compared to 50% in Italy and only 15% in China.[265]

Finance

On 9 March, the Spanish stock index IBEX 35 dropped 7.96%, the fourth-largest single-day loss in its history.[266] On 12 March, the stock index dropped another 14.06%, the largest in history, as part of the 2020 stock market crash.[267] The pandemic has also influenced Spain's fragile economy and finances, with economist Toni Roldán saying the country will need €200bn in loans from the European Stability Mechanism.[191] Spanish leaders have called for "corona bonds", similar to the proposed but never implemented eurobonds, to help the country recover from the epidemic.[199][268] Real estate transactions have nearly been frozen by the crisis, and future impact remains uncertain.[269] Employment in Spain saw its largest historical drop in a month in March, with close to 900,000 people losing their jobs between 12 March and 31 March.[270]

Economists estimate that the government deficit will increase from 2.6% in 2019 to 15% in 2020. These estimates are based on a projection that the tax revenue will fall by €40 billion and GDP will drop 5%.[271] As of 28 March, Goldman Sachs was predicting a double-digit GDP decline for Spain.[272] The country's financial institutions are in better shape than they were before the 2008–2014 Spanish financial crisis, and exports and trade balance have improved. However, the debt-to-GDP ratio, government deficit, and unemployment are all higher than they were in 2008, leaving the government less room to manoeuver in its response to the crisis.[269] According to an article in El País, house prices in some parts of Spain have seen significant declines, although few sales are occurring due to the lockdown.[273]

The Spanish cabinet is supposed to approve 3 to 3.5 billion dollars grants to help the poorest during the pandemic so that they can weather the economic fallout. More than 1 million families will benefit from the scheme.[274]

Politics

Due to the pandemic, the Cabinet had to meet virtually for the first time, with the majority of ministers attending via videoconference.[citation needed]

Javier Ortega Smith, member of Vox, tested positive after his party hosted a large meeting with sympathizers on 8 March,[275] leading the Congress of Deputies and the Senate to suspend their parliamentary activity for a period of a week with 52 Vox's lawmakers asked to stay at home.[276] On 11 March, the Assembly of Madrid, regional parliament of Madrid, suspended its activities for a period of 15 days, following Ortega Smith's positive test.[277] The Parliament of Andalusia, regional parliament of Andalusia, suspended its activities for a week after a deputy in the regional chamber from Vox was confirmed positive.[278] The 2020 Basque regional election, scheduled for 5 April, was delayed, after an agreement between all the political parties represented in the Basque parliament; the Galician election was also suspended.[279][280]

On 18 March, The Congress of Deputies met and the Prime Minister reported on the management of the state of Alarm with only 5% of lawmakers present.[281] When the Congress of Deputies approved the extension of the State of Alarm on 18 March, it was the first time opposition parties The People's Party and Vox had supported the government in a vote while separatist parties, such as Catalan Republican Left, abstained.[282] The King Felipe VI addressed a message to the nation in a special speech for the second time in his reign and the sixth by a monarch in 40 years of democracy.[283][284] A donation from the Chinese government of more than 500,000 facemasks arrived in Spain.[285] The Regional Government of Andalusia has paid for sponsored content praising its handling of the coronavirus outbreak, some of which attribute federal initiatives to the Andalusian government. The ads have been published in El Mundo, ABC, El Confidencial, and other media.[286]

Spain's government response to the coronavirus has been criticised as insufficient or late by several international organisations and newspapers.[101][287] Some say[who?] the response was also delayed by the fact that Pedro Sánchez is leading PSOE (in coalition with Unidas Podemos) minority government which is counting on support from opposition parties to enact coronavirus measures, especially with regards to economic stimulus. The cabinet discussed proposals to offer zero-interest loans to tenants to pay rent so smaller landlords who depend on rent income can stay afloat. PP leader Pablo Casado complained that the government was not keeping him informed of developments on the coronavirus. Citizens leader Inés Arrimadas said she supports the government's actions.[282] Vox has called for the prime minister's resignation.[200]

Opposition parties have alleged that Sánchez' government is deliberately understating the death toll. In parliament, Casado said "Spaniards deserve a government that doesn't lie to them," and suggested the actual death toll could be twice the confirmed figure. Vox posted a digitally altered image on social media of Gran Vía, Madrid filled with coffins. The government denies the allegations and the justice ministry asked autonomous communities to examine death records for suspected coronavirus deaths.[288]

On 23 May 2020, Vox held large rallies in Madrid and other cities protesting the government's response to the pandemic.[289][290] By mid June 2020 the (once daily) protests in Madrid had largely dissipated in their core, the well-off (and staunchly conservative) street of Núñez de Balboa. One of the three last protesters still standing blamed the lack of appeal on people becoming tired, "the pubs have opened and football has returned".[291]

Education

Playground in Sant Martí, Barcelona, is shut down.

On 9 March, Isabel Díaz Ayuso announced the cancellation of classes in the Autonomous community of Madrid at all educational levels due to the strong increase in cases in the region, which affected 1.5 million students.[292] The Basque government closed all schools in the municipalities of Vitoria[293] and Labastida.[294] A Barcelona kindergarten was closed after a worker tested positive,[295] On 10 March, the Conference of Rectors of Madrid public universities (CRUMA) delayed the academic calendar, including classes, exams and enrollments, by two weeks.[296] and the regional government of La Rioja suspended classes for two weeks.[297]

On 11 March, the Minister of Health of the Basque government, Nekane Murga [es], announced the closure of all schools in Álava, after 12 pupils were diagnosed with coronavirus; the measure affected more than 60,000 students.[298] On 12 March, the regional governments of Murcia, Galicia, Catalonia, the Basque Country, Asturias, Aragon, Canary Islands, Castile-La Mancha, Navarre, Extremadura, Balearic Islands, Cantabria and the city of Melilla suspend classes at all educational levels in their respective regions,[299][300][301][302][303][304][305][306][307][excessive citations]making a total of 14 out of 17 autonomous communities and one of the autonomous cities with school closures.[308] More than ten million students (a million university and nine million in secondary and primary education) were ordered to stay home, initially for two weeks.[108] On 17 March, the Selectividad (Spanish University Admission Tests), scheduled in June for more than 300,000 students, was delayed until further notice.[309] On 18 March, the Basque Minister of Education extended the closure of schools indefinitely.[310]

School reopened fully in September 2020, but new rules were introduced as the country was experiencing a resurgence of cases, for example, all students over the age of six must wear musks, class sizes were reduced, students were separated in assigned 'bubbles' to prevent mixing, and desks kept 1.5m apart.[311]

Religion

On 6 March, the Spanish Episcopal Conference indicated that churches should remove the holy water from the pillars, avoid the gesture of shaking hands as a way of giving peace, and not kiss religious images, a typical gesture in Lent.[312] Religious processions of Holy Week were suspended.[313] The Royal Decree for the State of Alarm decreed the attendance to religious places was made conditional on the adoption of contention measures in accordance to the features and size of the places. Many masses were suspended. National Police agents evicted twenty churchgoers from the Cathedral of Granada on Good Friday (10 April).[314]

Affected events

Spread to other countries and territories

On 29 February 2020, a woman who had arrived in Ecuador on 14 February from Spain tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and became the first case of coronavirus in the country. Days later she felt discomfort and fever, so she was hospitalised and underwent various tests. The person, 70 years old and with previous illnesses, was isolated and admitted "in intensive care". According to Deputy Minister Julio López, her status was critical and her forecast was reserved.[315] On 13 March 2020, the first death (the first Ecuadorian infection case) was reported by the Minister of Public Health of Ecuador, Catalina Andramuño, during a press conference in Guayaquil.[316] Many of the earlier cases in Ecuador were imported by wealthy Ecuadorian students who were studying abroad and returned home.[317]

On 6 March, Peruvian Ministry of Health and President confirmed the first case in the country from a 25-year-old man who visited Spain, France and Czech Republic.[318]

On 8 March, Portugal confirmed a case originating from Spain.[319] On 10 March, a further case was detected and the following day (11 March) another three cases.[320][321]

On 10 March, a 40-year-old woman returning from Madrid, Spain was confirmed as the first case in Panama.[322]

On 10, March, Honduras confirmed two cases of Coronavirus. The first patient, or patient zero, was a pregnant women who came from Spain on 4 March but was confirmed in the early morning of 10 March.[323]

On 13 March, Venezuelan Vice-President Delcy Rodríguez confirmed two cases of the virus in the state of Miranda.[324][325] Rodríguez asked all the passengers of the 5 and 8 March Iberia 6673 flight to immediately enter into a mandatory preventive quarantine since the two cases were from this flight.[326]

On 14 March, it was reported that a woman coming from the Spanish city of Móstoles became the first case in Equatorial Guinea.[327]

On 17 March, a 47-year-old male Spanish national doing business in Macau tested positive; he took Flight SU2501 from Madrid to Moscow on 15 March, and then the Flight SU204 from Moscow to Beijing. On 16 March, he took Flight NX001 from Beijing to Macau, arriving at Macau Airport at 8:00 pm the same day.[328]

On 20 March, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea James Marape confirmed the first case in the country, from a mine worker who had travelled from Spain.[329]

Statistics

Underreporting

Underreporting of the number of cases

Ministry of Health statistics are underestimates as they are based on incomplete data.[330][331] Confirmed cases are those that test positive, but only those with severe symptoms are offered tests and testing may lag symptom onset by as much as a week.[330][332][333] On 7 March, the Ministry of Health estimated that the actual number of cases is at least 15 times higher than the number of confirmed cases.[334] On 17 April, when the number of confirmed cases stood at 190,000, the ten autonomous communities that were tracking suspected cases had reported an additional 419,000 suspected cases. Three-quarters of probable cases were in Madrid or Catalonia, with Madrid reporting 248,760 suspected cases and 51,993 confirmed. Probable cases are those who have mild acute respiratory infection and have not received any test, either PCR or the less reliable rapid test. People diagnosed as possible cases have to self-isolate at home for two weeks.[335]

A country-wide study of seroprevalence (conducted by the Ministry of Health, along the ISCIII and the INE, in partnership with the autonomous communities) on a representative sample of more than 63,000 people, determined that roughly 5.2% of the population had developed IgG antibodies for the SARS-CoV-2 virus.[336] This represents approximately 2 million people, a figure 10 times higher than the confirmed cases, and is in line with estimates from the CoronaSurveys project.[337] The Community of Madrid and several provinces of Castilla–La Mancha and Castilla y León were found to be the most affected areas with a percentage of infection greater than 10%.[338]

Underreporting of deaths due to COVID

The number of deaths by COVID is also an underestimate because only confirmed cases are considered, and because many people die at home or in nursing homes without being tested.[330] In March, the Community of Madrid estimated 4,260 people have died in nursing homes with coronavirus symptoms (out of 4,750 total deaths in the homes), but only 781 were diagnosed and counted as COVID fatalities.[339] The Catalan government initially reported exclusively deaths of confirmed COVID patients that occurred in medical facilities; it included those happening at homes and in nursing homes on 15 April, nearly doubling its deaths from 3,855 to 7,097.[340] On 17 April, the Ministry of Health announced they would retrospectively revise their data to use a single criterion across autonomous communities.[341]

Mortality reports by Carlos III Health Institute have found significant excess mortality in the first four months of 2020, with about 44,000 more people deceased than in the same period of 2019.[342][343][344] The Spanish Ministry of Health[25] and the BBC[345] estimate that the number of deaths due to COVID are probably about 15,000 more than in official COVID death statistics.

At the end of July, the Spanish newspaper El País reported 44,868 deaths caused by COVID-19, whereas the Government's death toll figure at that moment was 28,000.[331]

Confirmed cases, hospitalisations, recoveries, and deaths

COVID-19 cases confirmed by PCR in Spain per autonomous community as of 24 Aug 2020, 16:30[346] ()
Community Cases Hospit. ICU Deaths Pop.
(2019)
Cases
/100k
Deaths
/100k
Deaths
/Case (%)
Andalusia Andalusia 24,650 6,926 841 1,466 8,414,240 293 17.4 5.95
Aragon Aragon 24,591 3,974 338 1,096 1,319,291 1,864 83.1 4.46
Asturias Asturias (article) 3,048 1,129 130 335 1,022,800 298 32.8 10.99
Balearic Islands Balearic Islands 5,694 1,276 184 228 1,149,460 495.4 19.8 4
Canary Islands Canary Islands (article) 4,990 1,138 210 167 2,153,389 231.7 7.8 3.35
Cantabria Cantabria 3,518 1,143 88 221 581,078 605.4 38 6.28
Castilla–La Mancha Castilla–La Mancha 21,657 9,550 671 3,039 2,399,548 902.5 126.6 14.03
Castile and León Castile and León 25,451 9,143 652 2,812 2,032,863 1,252 138.3 11.05
Catalonia Catalonia 102,032 30,098 3,039 5,725 7,675,217 1,329.4 74.6 5.61
Ceuta Ceuta (article) 220 18 4 4 84,777 259.5 4.7 1.82
Valencian Community Valencian Community 19,978 6,372 777 1,452 5,003,769 399.3 29 7.27
Extremadura Extremadura 4,409 1,837 145 526 1,067,710 412.9 49.3 11.93
Galicia (Spain) Galicia 12,590 3,146 354 632 2,699,499 466.4 23.4 5.02
Community of Madrid Community of Madrid (article) 108,374 44,155 3,705 8,546 6,663,394 1,626.4 128.3 7.89
Melilla Melilla (article) 261 55 3 2 86,487 301.8 2.3 0.77
Region of Murcia Murcia 4,468 893 130 153 1,493,898 299.1 10.2 3.42
Navarre Navarre 8,911 2,190 152 533 654,214 1,362.1 81.5 5.98
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country 25,545 7,109 583 1,567 2,207,776 1,157 71 6.13
La Rioja La Rioja 5,049 1,521 92 368 316,798 1,593.8 116.2 7.29
Total 405,436 131,673 12,098 28,872 47,026,208 862.1 61.4 7.12
Confirmed cases, recoveries, and deaths by day and autonomous communities
COVID-19 cases confirmed by PCR in Spain by day and autonomous communities ()
Reported by AN AR AS IB CN CB CM CL CT CE VC EX GA MD ML MU NA PV RI Confirmed Deaths ICU Rec. Tested Refs Notes
Date Time New Total New Total Total Total Total
2020-01-31 N/A 1 1 1 N/A [347]
2020-02-09 N/A 1 1 2 N/A
2020-02-24 N/A 4 4 6 N/A
2020-02-25 N/A 1 1 2 4 10 N/A
2020-02-27 13:00 1 1 -1 1 2 2 6 16 N/A [348] [A]
2020-02-28 13:00 5 1 2 1 6 1 16 32 N/A [349]
2020-02-29 N/A 6 -1 1 1 1 10 3 1 12 7 6 24 1 9 1 82 N/A N/A [350]
2020-03-01 N/A N/A N/A
2020-03-02 13:00 114 N/A
2020-03-03 13:00 1 4 5 20 4 2 36 150 N/A [351]
2020-03-04 13:00 1 3 5 3 4 1 21 2 4 4 48 198 1 1 7 1 [352]
2020-03-05 13:00 -1 1 3 1 1 1 9 20 4 39 237 2 3 9 3 [353] [A]
2020-03-06 13:00 9 5 3 2 3 11 2 47 28 18 128 365 2 5 11 10 [354]
2020-03-07 N/A 33 7 2 5 11 2 11 9 51 7 1 3 332 4 104 52 634 N/A 11 N/A N/A 30 [355]
2020-03-08 N/A N/A N/A N/A 32
2020-03-09 13:00 999 16 68 32
2020-03-10 13:00 17 25 15 2 3 13 33 49 13 1 16 313 5 9 46 63 623 1,622 19 35 100 35 [356]
2020-03-11 13:00 19 7 10 3 12 32 15 32 15 1 17 242 2 34 30 35 506 2,128 12 47 142 138 [357]
2020-03-12 13:00 25 19 15 6 14 4 44 21 104 11 10 -4 364 15 27 121 26 822 2,950 37 84 190 189 [358]
2020-03-13 13:00 104 16 20 8 19 13 79 77 56 18 20 50 602 2 9 57 71 38 1,259 4,209 36 120 272 193 [359]
2020-03-14 11:30 50 0 25 -2 20 2 95 54 193 36 27 30 950 1 12 16 35 1,544 5,753 16 136 293 517 [360] [A]
2020-03-15 11:30 168 67 45 0 19 20 112 69 206 1 279 29 80 604 5 24 37 213 22 2,000 7,753 152 288 382 517 [361]
2020-03-16 13:00 117 27 40 45 10 7 166 42 188 0 0 16 50 625 0 6 91 0 12 1,438 9,191 101 389 432 530 [362]
21:00 129 33 16 19 29 0 0 97 491 0 132 42 47 706 9 20 66 135 43 1,987 11,178 182 571 563 1,028 [363]
2020-03-17 21:00 176 19 49 20 33 10 108 237 472 0 185 41 49 766 3 25 73 208 64 2,538 13,716 107 678 774 1,081 [364]
2020-03-18 21:00 149 55 50 57 39 15 126 200 836 0 196 47 112 1,140 3 45 96 217 49 3,431 17,147 169 847 939 1,107 [365]
2020-03-19 21:00 279 79 52 34 67 61 243 279 568 4 184 56 125 388 1 37 72 275 29 2,833 19,980 235 1,082 1,141 1,585 [366]
2020-03-20 21:00 228 64 142 43 61 71 379 319 933 0 258 57 161 1,756 1 36 110 260 67 4,946 24,926 324 1,406 1,612 2,125 [367]
2020-03-21 21:00 210 108 59 85 66 67 396 278 501 0 241 30 176 781 0 56 130 372 90 3,646 28,572 394 1,800 1,785 2,575 [368]
2020-03-22 21:00 236 106 49 69 67 65 259 311 1,221 1 297 109 293 873 3 49 92 324 93 4,517 33,089 462 2,262 2,355 3,355 [369]
2020-03-23 21:00 510 120 68 78 76 78 387 405 1,939 0 266 143 207 1,777 0 40 128 307 55 6,584 39,673 514 2,776 2,636 3,794 [370]
2020-03-24 21:00 539 149 117 84 100 85 315 480 2,073 3 449 106 238 2,245 10 92 183 543 126 7,937 47,610 658 3,434 3,166 5,367 [371]
2020-03-25 21:00 396 209 62 98 127 161 603 548 1,655 1 584 227 262 2,569 1 119 214 675 67 8,578 56,188 655 4,089 3,679 7,015 [372]
2020-03-26 21:00 387 222 59 95 94 139 551 644 1,348 7 332 262 407 2,077 3 118 230 655 241 7,871 64,059 769 4,858 4,165 9,357 [373]
2020-03-27 21:00 484 254 104 107 147 127 578 659 1,323 0 502 163 450 2,277 3 88 188 535 200 8,189 72,248 832 5,690 4,575 12,285 [374]
2020-03-28 21:00 405 266 84 96 100 86 734 623 763 4 750 62 367 1,157 3 70 182 604 193 6,549 78,797 838 6,528 4,907 14,709 [375]
2020-03-29 21:00 723 220 70 42 79 77 612 387 1,131 4 326 104 584 1,413 3 67 135 317 104 6,398 85,195 812 7,340 5,231 16,780 [376]
2020-03-30 21:00 413 194 78 69 58 71 566 410 2,616 9 398 68 316 3,419 3 35 159 263 77 9,222 94,417 849 8,189 5,607 19,259 [377]
2020-03-31 21:00 574 219 86 62 118 42 623 636 1,218 17 414 51 393 2,331 8 67 192 518 150 7,719 102,136 864 9,053 5,872 22,647 [378]
Reported by AN AR AS IB CN CB CM CL CT CE VC EX GA MD ML MU NA PV RI Confirmed Deaths ICU Rec. Tested Refs Notes
Date Time New Total New Total Total Total Total
2020-04-01 21:00 580 209 62 73 64 55 635 508 1,813 4 386 158 410 2,315 0 43 185 479 123 8,102 110,238 950 10,003 6,092 26,743 [379]
2020-04-02 21:00 402 189 49 53 46 53 841 520 1,656 7 316 56 377 2,033 8 61 154 510 141 7,472 117,710 932 10,935 6,416 30,513 [380]
2020-04-03 21:00 495 189 89 14 74 63 801 457 1,274 11 277 86 406 2,061 9 43 136 360 181 7,026 124,736 809 11,744 6,532 34,219 [381]
2020-04-04 21:00 432 154 83 22 58 57 707 417 1,298 10 283 68 319 1,335 4 47 101 441 187 6,023 130,759 674 12,418 [B] 38,080 [382]
2020-04-05 21:00 280 115 41 27 27 42 571 367 792 0 150 21 207 1,139 3 24 158 182 127 4,273 135,032 637 13,055 [B] 40,437 [383]
2020-04-06 21:00 186 102 33 49 76 18 475 465 1,499 0 109 48 180 1,746 6 24 124 211 127 5,478 140,510 743 13,798 [B] 43,208 [384]
2020-04-07 21:00 230 100 26 43 37 71 711 477 1,324 1 212 68 207 1,981 1 43 112 431 105 6,180 146,690 757 14,555 [B] 48,021 [385]
2020-04-08 21:00 264 136 32 36 72 47 701 460 1,396 0 309 89 220 1,427 0 30 108 354 75 5,756 152,446 683 15,238 [B] 52,165 [386]
2020-04-09 21:00 249 146 62 40 24 40 574 584 781 7 367 59 188 906 2 27 173 297 50 4,576 157,022 605 15,843 [B] 55,668 [387]
2020-04-10 21:00 202 138 28 19 29 60 393 441 1,160 2 247 154 230 1,066 3 30 69 412 147 4,830 161,852 510 16,353 [B] 59,109 [388]
2020-04-11 21:00 294 101 65 27 31 33 242 575 1,043 0 263 94 160 738 0 36 152 257 56 4,167 166,019 619 16,972 [B] 62,391 [389]
2020-04-12 21:00 181 117 66 16 26 25 356 510 699 2 219 78 158 559 3 14 123 246 79 3,477 169,496 517 17,489 [B] 64,727 [390]
2020-04-13 21:00 5 58 93 21 14 19 275 552 471 1 153 26 103 902 0 24 58 208 62 3,045 172,541 567 18,056 [B] 67,504 [391]
2020-04-14 21:00 403 93 45 35 17 27 351 517 1,308 2 211 78 111 1,478 1 33 96 249 37 5,092 177,633 523 18,579 [B] 70,853 [392]
2020-04-15 21:00 212 228 74 31 13 22 471 683 849 2 191 119 165 1,168 1 78 102 315 459 5,183 182,816 551 19,130 [B] 74,797 [393]
2020-04-16 21:00 246 98 60 31 21 39 846 523 962 1 254 138 140 1,299 1 27 85 299 182 5,252 188,068 585 19,478 [B] 72,963 [394] [C]
2020-04-17 21:00 107 97 42 80 26 106 352 390 1,627 7 76 62 71 953 0 13 123 266 101 4,499 191,726 565 20,043 [B] 74,662 [395]
2020-04-18 21:00 185 70 26 25 12 60 276 328 657 1 142 55 101 1,938 0 6 65 214 57 4,218 188,579 410 20,453 [B] 77,357 [396] [D]
2020-04-19 21:00 118 55 50 15 20 33 171 236 1,076 2 81 50 114 2,079 0 2 76 59 29 4,266 191,164 399 20,852 [B] 80,587 [397]
2020-04-20 21:00 124 52 17 20 18 40 249 402 1,436 0 66 10 169 1,034 1 35 84 182 29 3,968 194,516 430 21,282 [B] 82,514 [398]
2020-04-21 21:00 163 116 54 28 9 37 276 580 690 7 454 34 166 1,202 0 14 118 234 29 4,211 188,508 435 21,717 [B] 85,915 [399]
2020-04-22 21:00 235 183 34 25 19 46 236 563 1,090 0 154 30 171 1,288 1 26 95 392 47 4,635 191,389 440 22,157 [B] 89,250 [400]
2020-04-23 21:00 133 34 5 14 27 61 237 182 652 0 70 3 127 1,097 1 8 4 92 49 2,796 202,990 367 22,524 [B] 92,355 [401]
2020-04-24 21:00 167 55 4 26 15 16 144 298 717 0 127 0 184 628 1 0 46 485 31 2,944 205,905 378 22,902 [B] 95,708 [402]
2020-04-25 21:00 71 33 11 7 12 12 100 232 550 0 94 18 60 307 2 6 85 89 40 1,729 207,634 288 23,190 [B] 98,732 [403]
2020-04-26 21:00 78 30 5 5 11 21 55 182 944 0 20 13 62 295 0 0 21 58 31 1,831 209,465 331 23,521 [B] 100,875 [404]
2020-04-27 21:00 61 19 1 11 9 11 42 185 403 0 24 2 90 363 4 1 26 51 5 1,308 210,773 301 23,822 [B] 102,548 [405]
2020-04-28 21:00 91 38 11 9 15 31 79 101 496 1 32 13 138 981 0 5 35 55 13 2,144 212,917 325 24,275 10,721 108,947 [406] [E]
2020-04-29 21:00 44 49 17 4 3 27 47 195 262 0 95 21 22 406 0 6 21 82 8 1,309 213,435 268 24,543 10,776 112,050 [407]
2020-04-30 21:00 113 25 15 11 1 11 78 108 391 0 16 26 151 52 1 2 33 123 18 1,175 215,216 281 24,824 10,860 114,678 [408]
Date Time AN AR AS IB CN CB CM CL CT CE VC EX GA MD ML MU NA PV RI Confirmed Deaths ICU Rec. Tested Refs Notes
Reported by New Total New Total Total Total Total
2020-05-01 21:00 46 20 5 8 6 17 57 172 543 0 64 13 54 56 0 3 40 63 11 1,147 216,582 276 25,100 10,909 117,248 [409]
2020-05-02 21:00 35 28 2 6 9 4 50 118 384 0 25 20 65 19 2 1 14 51 5 838 217,466 164 25,264 10,974 118,902 [410]
2020-05-03 21:00 19 24 1 0 4 1 33 51 132 0 0 5 44 1 2 0 16 14 9 356 218,011 164 25,428 10,994 121,343 [7]
2020-05-04 21:00 16 19 2 2 6 1 30 95 405 0 64 3 40 143 0 4 18 13 6 867 219,329 185 25,613 11,031 123,486 [411]
2020-05-05 21:00 26 24 2 11 0 6 64 91 153 8 37 13 46 116 0 2 30 43 13 685 220,325 244 25,857 11,082 126,002 [412]
2020-05-06 21:00 32 27 16 8 4 7 40 105 266 0 55 12 37 86 0 3 17 33 6 754 221,447 213 26,070 11,140 128,511 [413]
2020-05-07 21:00 19 16 10 6 5 12 53 91 543 0 27 23 50 148 0 3 23 60 6 1,095 222,857 229 26,299 11,222 131,148 [414]
2020-05-08 21:00 11 17 6 9 10 9 41 91 202 1 42 7 32 73 0 2 33 10 8 604 223,578 179 26,478 11,292 133,952 [415]
2020-05-09 21:00 17 25 1 6 8 3 65 110 151 0 52 5 37 73 0 2 13 45 8 621 224,390 143 26,621 11,328 136,166 [416]
2020-05-10 21:00 26 20 3 3 2 1 44 78 83 0 16 6 27 66 0 9 13 11 0 373 227,436 123 26,744 11,348 137,139 [417]
2020-05-11 21:00 8 23 5 0 8 1 44 53 184 4 11 1 11 48 0 0 16 9 0 426 228,030 176 26,920 11,371 138,980 [418]
2020-05-12 21:00 24 13 5 4 3 10 22 57 136 0 20 0 10 75 0 8 13 38 1 439 228,691 184 27,104 11,436 140,823 [419]
2020-05-13 21:00 42 17 0 1 4 0 17 68 195 2 24 4 16 88 0 7 11 5 5 506 229,540 217 27,321 11,464 143,374 [420]
2020-05-14 21:00 42 43 3 9 5 7 43 99 151 0 29 10 6 49 0 2 11 38 2 549 230,183 138 27,459 11,493 144,783 [421]
2020-05-15 21:00 19 24 7 17 4 2 74 97 123 0 37 11 5 38 0 8 21 34 4 539 230,698 102 27,563 11,463 146,446 [422]
2020-05-16 21:00 30 22 0 9 5 3 31 101 116 0 43 3 10 6 2 9 11 16 4 421 231,350 87 27,650 11,528 149,576 [423]
2020-05-18 00:00 8 25 3 2 5 3 30 42 85 0 21 1 5 5 0 5 30 15 0 285 231,606 59 27,709 11,437 N/A [424] [F]
2020-05-19 00:00 13 17 4 12 0 2 29 37 51 1 5 1 2 92 0 2 24 0 3 295 232,037 83 27,778 11,414 N/A [425]
2020-05-20 00:00 13 31 1 13 6 4 62 37 63 2 22 2 9 112 0 2 5 26 6 416 232,555 95 27,888 11,445 N/A [426]
2020-05-21 00:00 45 37 0 8 7 2 50 41 N/A 0 38 2 10 82 0 10 3 9 0 344 233,037 48 27,940 11,454 N/A [427] [G]
2020-05-22 00:00 29 30 2 13 5 5 41 47 150 5 34 2 7 53 0 2 5 13 3 446 234,824 56 28,628 11,462 N/A [428]
2020-05-23 00:00 21 9 1 2 9 3 25 63 92 1 30 4 14 68 0 1 5 13 0 361 235,290 48 28,678 11,474 N/A [429]
2020-05-24 15:00 3 19 2 2 1 2 34 52 52 0 22 0 7 26 0 1 14 9 0 246 235,772 70 28,752 11,477 N/A [430]
2020-05-25 12:00 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 1 89 0 2 2 0 18 0 6 6 0 2 132 235,400 50 26,834 11,298 N/A [431] [H]
2020-05-26 12:00 1 0 0 0 6 0 2 4 115 0 8 2 3 43 0 0 5 2 3 194 236,259 35 27,117 11,364 N/A [432]
2020-05-27 12:00 4 15 0 5 3 0 0 9 93 0 6 0 2 81 0 1 7 5 0 231 236,769 39 27,118 11,374 N/A [433]
2020-05-28 12:00 7 18 1 1 1 5 0 8 39 0 8 3 3 67 0 3 17 1 0 182 237,906 38 27,119 11,389 N/A [434]
2020-05-29 12:00 7 14 1 1 5 1 3 7 47 6 11 2 1 61 0 1 15 2 2 187 238,564 39 27,121 11,397 N/A [435]
2020-05-30 12:00 8 9 19 0 9 0 7 12 88 0 5 0 1 95 0 1 9 5 3 271 239,228 43 27,125 11,404 N/A [436]
2020-05-31 12:00 5 11 2 0 2 2 6 17 10 0 0 2 0 32 0 0 7 0 0 96 239,429 39 27,127 11,400 N/A [437]
Date Time AN AR AS IB CN CB CM CL CT CE VC EX GA MD ML MU NA PV RI Confirmed Deaths ICU Rec. Tested Refs Notes
Reported by New Total New Total Total Total Total
2020-06-01 12:00 3 4 2 1 1 0 3 11 16 1 6 0 0 18 0 0 5 0 0 71 239,638 35 27,127 11,399 N/A [438]
2020-06-02 12:00 12 8 0 1 4 2 0 0 17 9 1 4 0 73 1 2 1 1 1 137 239,932 34 27,127 11,413 N/A [439]
2020-06-03 12:00 10 20 0 2 5 2 2 4 38 0 13 2 2 112 0 2 2 3 0 219 240,326 63 27,128 11,415 N/A [440]
2020-06-04 12:00 9 3 0 0 4 0 4 14 51 7 4 0 1 87 0 5 4 2 0 195 240,660 56 27,133 11,426 N/A [441]
2020-06-05 12:00 3 22 0 0 1 4 6 2 19 0 9 2 2 94 0 1 10 0 2 177 240,978 52 27,134 11,432 N/A [442]
2020-06-06 14:00 8 12 2 1 2 0 2 4 24 0 11 1 0 86 0 0 10 1 0 164 241,310 67 27,135 11,604 N/A [443]
2020-06-07 14:00 3 11 1 0 5 1 3 3 10 0 6 0 0 49 0 0 3 3 4 102 241,550 72 27,136 11,608 N/A [444]
2020-06-08 14:00 1 4 2 0 1 2 0 5 6 0 9 0 1 8 0 0 6 2 1 48 241,717 56 27,136 11,611 N/A [445]
2020-06-09 14:00 3 5 1 2 1 1 1 4 17 0 1 1 1 45 0 0 1 0 0 84 241,966 50 27,136 11,614 N/A [446]
2020-06-10 14:00 5 14 0 0 0 0 7 3 36 0 13 4 3 62 0 2 4 13 1 167 242,280 40 27,136 11,613 N/A [447]
2020-06-11 14:00 1 7 0 1 1 3 13 5 27 0 15 1 1 72 0 0 4 5 0 156 242,707 32 27,136 11,617 N/A [448]
2020-06-12 14:00 5 8 4 5 2 0 1 2 33 0 9 1 2 74 0 0 4 2 3 155 243,209 25 27,136 11,617 N/A [449]
2020-06-13 14:00 4 3 0 3 3 2 4 3 21 0 3 1 1 75 1 0 3 2 1 130 243,605 27 27,136 11,619 N/A [450]
2020-06-14 14:00 3 4 0 0 0 2 0 3 7 0 8 2 1 12 1 1 0 3 1 48 243,928 26 27,136 11,619 N/A [451]
2020-06-15 14:00 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 3 1 1 12 0 0 0 1 1 40 244,109 25 27,136 11,620 N/A [452]
2020-06-16 14:00 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 14 0 0 2 1 42 0 0 1 2 0 76 244,328 25 27,136 11,624 N/A [453]
2020-06-17 14:00 3 5 0 0 0 2 6 24 23 0 3 1 1 65 0 1 6 0 1 141 244,683 30 27,136 11,630 N/A [454]
2020-06-18 14:00 6 5 0 2 14 3 5 2 16 0 4 7 2 69 0 0 5 3 0 143 245,268 52 27,136 11,630 N/A [455]
2020-06-19 14:00 18 25 0 0 4 1 0 6 32 0 5 1 3 44 0 4 7 2 2 154 245,575 40 28,315 11,633 N/A [456]
2020-06-20 14:00 6 18 0 3 0 0 6 4 25 0 11 2 1 45 0 0 8 4 1 134 245,938 36 28,322 11,637 N/A [457]
2020-06-21 14:00 8 33 0 0 12 1 6 6 23 0 1 5 6 32 0 4 3 1 0 141 246,272 29 28,323 11,637 N/A [458]
2020-06-22 14:00 3 33 0 1 0 0 4 3 24 0 3 4 0 17 3 4 21 5 0 125 246,504 21 28,324 11,638 N/A [459]
2020-06-23 14:00 1 45 0 0 0 N/A N/A 2 15 0 2 1 0 25 0 0 13 4 0 108 246,752 14 28,325 11,643 N/A [460] [I]
2020-06-24 14:00 19 49 0 0 6 2 0 13 28 1 3 6 3 50 0 1 11 4 0 196 247,086 10 28,327 11,650 N/A [461]
2020-06-25 14:00 32 47 0 0 2 0 0 2 11 0 3 2 7 39 0 2 0 9 1 157 247,486 11 28,330 11,651 N/A [462]
2020-06-26 14:00 12 72 0 1 3 0 0 2 36 0 0 6 4 41 0 1 7 5 1 191 247,905 11 28,338 11,651 N/A [463]
2020-06-27 14:00 18 28 0 6 1 0 0 9 72 0 3 0 5 36 0 0 8 5 0 191 248,469 13 28,341 11,643 N/A [464]
2020-06-28 14:00 12 48 0 0 0 7 0 0 14 0 2 0 2 20 0 4 9 0 0 118 248,770 13 28,343 11,658 N/A [465]
2020-06-29 14:00 32 15 0 0 0 1 6 2 11 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 0 84 248,970 12 28,346 11,661 N/A [466]
2020-06-30 14:00 9 10 0 4 0 0 1 2 26 0 6 3 3 29 0 4 0 2 0 99 249,271 20 28,355 11,664 N/A [467]
Date Time AN AR AS IB CN CB CM CL CT CE VC EX GA MD ML MU NA PV RI Confirmed Deaths ICU Rec. Tested Refs Notes
Reported by New Total New Total Total Total Total
2020-07-01 14:00 21 20 0 4 5 1 2 6 17 0 4 5 5 40 0 6 5 7 1 149 249,659 19 28,363 11,664 N/A [468]
2020-07-02 14:00 15 26 0 1 0 1 3 0 28 0 10 6 7 25 0 2 8 1 1 134 250,103 24 28,368 11,667 N/A [469]
2020-07-03 14:00 9 31 0 1 1 0 8 0 42 0 7 7 11 50 0 3 1 3 0 174 250,545 21 28,385 11,704 N/A [470]
2020-07-04 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-05 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-06 14:00 7 13 0 0 0 1 8 0 18 0 4 1 5 16 0 2 3 0 0 78 251,789 12 28,388 11,706 N/A [471]
2020-07-07 14:00 11 26 0 0 1 0 6 0 36 0 8 2 2 22 0 2 2 6 0 124 252,130 9 28,392 11,706 N/A [472]
2020-07-08 14:00 28 60 1 1 0 1 2 2 52 0 7 10 35 35 0 6 4 12 1 257 252,513 9 28,396 11,707 N/A [473]
2020-07-09 14:00 32 59 0 2 6 1 20 1 52 0 10 6 11 22 0 6 4 9 0 241 253,056 10 28,401 11,708 N/A [474]
2020-07-10 14:00 32 68 1 0 1 0 13 4 81 0 17 25 20 30 0 3 26 11 1 333 253,908 10 28,403 11,710 N/A [475]
2020-07-11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-12 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-13 14:00 18 32 0 5 1 3 16 1 42 0 5 16 2 13 0 3 4 0 3 164 255,953 7 28,406 11,716 N/A [476]
2020-07-14 14:00 26 81 5 1 3 0 1 15 66 0 9 11 4 25 0 2 11 1 2 263 256,619 8 28,409 11,721 N/A [477]
2020-07-15 14:00 28 160 0 0 5 3 5 6 91 1 7 6 7 43 2 3 17 3 3 390 257,494 10 28,413 11,723 N/A [478]
2020-07-16 14:00 27 266 0 3 11 2 24 6 142 0 23 10 5 19 0 4 22 16 0 580 258,855 9 28,416 11,726 N/A [479]
2020-07-17 14:00 39 252 0 3 2 1 18 5 121 0 20 26 10 40 1 15 34 39 2 628 260,255 10 28,420 11,728 N/A [480]
2020-07-18 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-19 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-20 14:00 32 325 1 2 17 11 18 4 80 0 43 9 3 13 0 19 30 78 0 685 264,836 9 28,422 11,730 N/A [481]
2020-07-21 14:00 42 187 2 3 1 2 4 15 63 0 22 11 5 48 0 5 82 31 6 529 266,194 9 28,424 11,733 N/A [482]
2020-07-22 14:00 29 309 1 2 11 1 3 3 58 0 26 20 0 70 0 20 132 20 25 730 267,551 12 28,426 11,736 N/A [483]
2020-07-23 14:00 47 415 4 2 5 4 19 5 182 0 33 6 7 102 0 1 66 61 12 971 270,166 7 28,429 11,741 N/A [484]
2020-07-24 14:00 70 298 2 11 8 9 18 17 133 0 40 5 20 107 0 38 93 49 4 922 272,421 10 28,432 11,743 N/A [485]
2020-07-25 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-26 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-07-27 14:00 31 474 5 4 2 5 1 0 71 0 20 3 9 53 0 7 94 76 0 855 278,782 6 28,434 11,748 N/A [486]
2020-07-28 14:00 38 357 3 0 2 11 5 12 126 0 26 6 13 147 0 18 40 99 2 905 280,610 6 28,436 11,759 N/A [487]
2020-07-29 14:00 61 424 12 1 7 1 5 0 211 1 37 23 12 199 0 28 41 88 2 1,153 282,641 9 28,441 11,764 N/A [488]
2020-07-30 14:00 76 352 14 0 5 6 34 7 121 1 105 8 19 225 0 47 61 145 3 1,229 285,430 10 28,443 11,772 N/A [489]
2020-07-31 14:00 107 511 21 22 6 14 33 42 64 0 42 22 33 372 3 22 48 158 5 1,525 288,522 12 28,445 11,777 N/A [490]
Date Time AN AR AS IB CN CB CM CL CT CE VC EX GA MD ML MU NA PV RI Confirmed Deaths ICU Rec. Tested Refs Notes
Reported by New Total New Total Total Total Total
2020-08-01 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-02 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-03 14:00 101 586 7 0 21 22 7 11 N/A 0 51 14 15 N/A 0 10 N/A 123 0 968 297,054 26 28,472 11,809 N/A [491]
2020-08-04 14:00 109 365 6 5 8 35 25 16 109 0 30 7 36 292 1 18 59 52 5 1,178 302,814 34 28,498 11,824 N/A [492]
2020-08-05 14:00 85 614 14 14 16 37 N/A 52 146 0 89 21 20 539 4 48 70 N/A 3 1,772 305,767 25 28,499 11,831 N/A [493]
2020-08-06 14:00 160 329 34 20 30 19 30 61 149 0 21 38 35 310 4 35 81 322 5 1,683 309,855 22 28,500 11,841 N/A [494]
2020-08-07 14:00 158 N/A 28 6 55 30 37 38 113 0 158 30 81 567 3 67 108 403 13 1,895 314,362 16 28,503 11,853 N/A [495]
2020-08-08 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-09 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-10 14:00 133 348 16 1 50 29 13 5 76 0 29 7 46 224 5 5 146 342 11 1,486 322,980 65 28,576 11,887 N/A [496]
2020-08-11 14:00 109 448 14 0 86 13 27 42 100 1 35 13 6 190 12 7 41 243 31 1,418 326,612 64 28,581 11,896 N/A [497]
2020-08-12 14:00 202 306 18 17 64 65 69 51 200 0 45 39 103 N/A 6 47 160 268 30 1,690 329,784 65 28,579 11,912 N/A [498]
2020-08-13 14:00 217 418 29 38 99 45 41 75 164 1 76 58 107 842 2 53 83 545 42 2,935 337,334 70 28,605 11,926 N/A [499]
2020-08-14 14:00 244 481 22 9 108 61 39 93 169 2 167 66 102 731 5 49 108 480 51 2,987 342,813 62 28,617 11,933 N/A [500]
2020-08-15 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-16 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-17 14:00 203 389 18 2 78 48 9 29 129 5 21 27 92 324 4 15 60 344 36 1,833 359,082 54 28,646 11,968 N/A [501]
2020-08-18 14:00 202 374 20 0 86 19 29 25 69 8 46 32 124 704 0 5 49 282 54 2,128 364,196 63 28,670 11,992 N/A [502]
2020-08-19 14:00 261 466 31 0 135 53 69 44 244 3 64 73 101 1535 0 14 85 472 65 3,715 370,867 131 28,797 12,027 N/A [503]
2020-08-20 14:00 302 352 23 0 171 49 88 107 180 7 116 73 116 1020 13 14 113 547 58 3,349 377,906 122 28,813 12,045 N/A [504]
2020-08-21 14:00 303 342 40 0 149 0 92 121 172 6 99 68 182 1199 0 26 98 685 68 3,650 386,054 125 28,838 12,060 N/A [505]
2020-08-22 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-23 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [J]
2020-08-24 16:30 292 216 19 6 115 37 38 33 84 1 2 42 150 409 25 5 95 413 78 2,060 405,436 96 28,872 12,098 N/A [346]
Date Time AN AR AS IB CN CB CM CL CT CE VC EX GA MD ML MU NA PV RI Confirmed Deaths ICU Rec. Tested Refs Notes
Reported by New Total New Total Total Total Total
Cases 405,436 24,650 24,591 3,048 5,694 4,990 3,518 21,657 25,451 102,032 220 19,978 4,409 12,590 108,374 261 4,468 8,911 25,545 5,049 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
ICU 12,098 841 338 130 184 210 88 671 652 3,039 4 777 145 354 3,705 3 130 152 583 92 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Deaths 28,872 1,466 1,096 335 228 167 221 3,039 2,812 5,725 4 1,452 526 632 8,546 2 153 533 1,567 368 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Notes:

  • A negative numbers denote corrections due to cases that were subsequently declared negative.
  • B on these dates official reports in some communities (see reference for each row) referred to currently hospitalized/ICU patients (prevalence), while in other communities referred to patients that had been hospitalized or in an ICU (incidence); these numbers cannot be added.
  • C on 2020-04-17 the historical series began to be adjusted to homogenize counting methods between autonomous communities.
  • D from 2020-04-19 official reports separate cases with a positive antibody test, who might be asymptomatic or may have already recovered.
  • E on 2020-04-28 Galicia reported 7 deaths on the previous 24 hours plus 128 deaths that occurred earlier; they are added to the total deaths but not counted as new deaths. Galicia also consolidated people recovering at home which explains the large increase.
  • F from 2020-05-18 reports are released in the afternoon, based on reports per autonomous community received throughout the morning, and refer to figures consolidated at midnight the night before; they no longer include the number of recoveries
  • G data from Catalonia was not updated due to data validation issues
  • H from 2020-05-25 deaths correspond to those deceased in the last 7 days.
  • I on 2020-06-23 Cantabria and Castile-La Mancha could not upload data due to technical issues.
  • J from 2020-07-04 there were no updates during week ends.
Daily mortality in Spain April 2018–April 2020 by age group; most excess mortality is observed in people older than 74 years.
Breakdown by age, COVID-19 cases from 10 May to 20 August ()
Age
(years)
Cases Hospit. ICU Deaths
n % n % n % n %
< 2 2,195 1.6% 88 4.0% 4 0.2% 2 0.1%
2-4 2,975 2.1% 35 1.2% 2 0.1% 0 0.0%
5-14 9,494 6.8% 75 0.8% 4 0.0% 0 0.0%
15-29 35,513 25.4% 526 1.5% 28 0.1% 2 0.0%
30-39 24,333 17.4% 633 2.6% 40 0.2% 1 0.0%
40-49 23,402 16.7% 819 3.5% 70 0.3% 8 0.0%
50-59 17,536 12.5% 917 5.2% 91 0.5% 24 0.1%
60-60 10,021 7.2% 941 9.4% 108 1.1% 43 0.4%
70-79 6,320 4.5% 998 15.8% 87 1.4% 87 1.4%
≥ 80 8,211 5.9% 1,820 22.2% 37 0.5% 414 5.0%
Total 140,000 100.0% 6,852 4.9% 471 0.3% 581 0.4%
Source: RENAVE report 40 based on analysis of cases from 10 May to 20 August[506]
Breakdown by sex, COVID-19 cases from 10 May to 20 August ()
Age
(years)
Total Women Men
n n % n %
< 2 2,195 1,064 48.5% 1,131 51.5%
2-4 2,975 1,469 49.4% 1,505 50.6%
5-14 9,494 4,757 50.1% 4,734 49.9%
15-29 35,513 17,806 50.1% 17,702 49.8%
30-39 24,333 12,225 50.2% 12,101 49.7%
40-49 23,402 11,676 49.9% 11,725 50.1%
50-59 17,536 9,025 51.5% 8,511 48.5%
60-60 10,021 4,920 49.1% 5,101 50.9%
70-79 6,320 3,408 53.9% 2,912 46.1%
≥ 80 8,211 5,530 67.3% 2,681 32.7%
Total 140,000 71,880 51.3% 68,103 48.6%
Source: RENAVE report 40 based on analysis of cases from 10 May to 20 August[506]
Timeline for COVID-19 patients in Spain, in days ()
Time period Median IQR
Onset of symptoms to consultation 2 1-4
Onset of symptoms to diagnosis 3 1-5
Onset of symptoms to isolation 1 0-3
Consultation to diagnosis 2 1-3
Consultation to isolation 0 0-0
Source: RENAVE report 40 based on analysis of cases from 10 May to 20 August[506]
Pre-existing factors in confirmed COVID-19 cases in Spain ()
Diseases and risk factors % of confirmed % of deceased
Cardiovascular disease 29% 60%
Respiratory disease 11% 21%
Diabetes 16% 33%
Hypertension 21% N/A
Any risk factor(s) 65% 95%
Source: RENAVE report of 2020-05-22.[507]


Charts based on daily reports

Charts based on daily reports from the Spanish Ministry of Health on confirmed cases of COVID-19.[508] Dates correspond to report dates; reports starting from 2020-03-17 refer to numbers consolidated the night before at 9:00 pm; reports starting from 2020-05-18 refer to numbers consolidated the night before at midnight, and no longer include the number of recoveries. From 2020-05-31 deaths only include people whose death was registered within 24 hours of the death taking place.[509] From 2020-06-15 numbers of deaths were revised upwards.

Cases confirmed by PCR per region, for the 10 regions with most cases (logarithmic scale)


New cases, recoveries and deaths per day

No. of new cases (PCR) per day


No. of recoveries per day



No. of deaths per day - from 2020-05-25, this corresponds to daily deaths registered where death occurred in the past 7 days[431]


Sources: see data table in Spain medical cases for notes and references on each data point.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)". www.who.int. Retrieved 2020-03-24. The outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.
  2. ^ Sheikh, Knvul; Rabin, Roni Caryn (2020-03-10). "The Coronavirus: What Scientists Have Learned So Far". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-03-24.
  3. ^ a b c "Sanidad confirma en La Gomera el primer caso de coronavirus en España". El Pais (in Spanish). 2020-01-31. Archived from the original on 2020-01-31. Retrieved 2020-01-31.
  4. ^ a b "Enfermedad por nuevo coronavirus, COVID-19: Situación actual en España (Ministerio de Sanidad)". Ministerio de Sanidad (in Spanish). February–September 2020.
  5. ^ a b c "El mapa del coronavirus en España: 29.418 muertos y más de 498.000 contagiados". RTVE (in Spanish). 2020-09-04.
  6. ^ a b "Actualización nº 200. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b "Actualización nº 95. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  8. ^ Ansede, Manuel (2020-04-22). "El análisis genético sugiere que el coronavirus ya circulaba por España a mediados de febrero". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-23.
  9. ^ "Estado de alarma por crisis sanitaria COVID-19—Atención e informacion—Punto de Acceso General". administracion.gob.es.
  10. ^ "Spain poised to tighten coronavirus lockdown after record daily toll". www.msn.com. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  11. ^ Hedgecoe, Guy (2020-03-26). "'Top of the curve'? Spain hopes Covid-19 peak reached as deaths pass 4,000". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  12. ^ "Coronavirus latest: Britain's Prince Charles tests positive for Covid-19". South China Morning Post. 2020-03-25. Retrieved 2020-03-25. 'Spain's coronavirus death toll overtook that of China on Wednesday, rising to 3,434 after 738 people died over the past 24 hours,' the government said.
  13. ^ Collman, Ashley. "Spain recorded 950 coronavirus deaths in a day, the highest single-day toll of any country". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  14. ^ White House: CDC 'let country down' on testing - COVID-19 updates 17 May 2020 www.aljazeera.com, accessed 30 May 2020
  15. ^ "Por qué nadie celebra el primer día sin muertos por coronavirus en España". El Español (in Spanish). 2020-06-02. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  16. ^ a b "Así fue el día 1 de la nueva normalidad". EL PAIS (in Spanish). 2020-06-22. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  17. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Spain drives fears of European 'second wave'". BBC. 2020-07-25.
  18. ^ a b "Spain's Basque region admits to second wave of Covid-19". El País. 2020-08-06.
  19. ^ a b Badcock, James (2020-08-14). "Spain shuts down nightlife amid fears of major second wave of coronavirus". The Telegraph.
  20. ^ "Spain won't declare another national state of alarm, allows regions to lockdown if necessary". Euroactiv. 2020-08-26.
  21. ^ Lau H, Khosrawipour V, Kocbach P, Mikolajczyk A, Ichii H, Schubert J, et al. (March 2020). "Internationally lost COVID-19 cases". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi. 53 (3): 454–458. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.013. PMC 7102572. PMID 32205091.
  22. ^ Linde, Oriol Güell, Elena Sevillano, Pablo (2020-03-18). "Lack of testing hampering Spain's efforts to slow coronavirus outbreak". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 2020-03-31.
  23. ^ "El 5% de la población española ha superado el Covid-19". Europa Press (in Spanish). 2020-05-13. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  24. ^ a b "Estudio de seroprevalencia: sólo el 5% de los españoles tiene anticuerpos frente al coronavirus". El Mundo (in Spanish). 2020-05-13. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  25. ^ a b "Afloran 12.000 nuevas muertes en los registros civiles: el exceso en la crisis del coronavirus se eleva hasta los 43.000 muertos". El País (in Spanish). 2020-06-03. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  26. ^ a b "El estudio nacional de seroprevalencia concluye que solo un 5,2% de la población española tiene anticuerposs". RTVE (in Spanish). 2020-07-06. Retrieved 2020-07-15.
  27. ^ Vardar, Serdar (2020-05-13). "Dos millones de españoles han estado en contacto con el nuevo coronavirus". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  28. ^ a b Sam Jones; Kim Willsher; Natalie Grover (2020-09-07). "Spain is first country in western Europe to record half a million Covid cases". The Guardian.
  29. ^ https://murciatoday.com/-spain-passes-the-1-million-coronavirus-cases-mark-on-october-21st_1519114-a.html
  30. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 2020-01-30. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  31. ^ Reynolds, Matt (2020-03-04). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  32. ^ "First confirmed coronavirus case in Spain in La Gomera, Canary Islands". Outbreak News Today. 2020-02-03. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
  33. ^ Sanidad, Ministerio de (2020-01-31). "El Centro Nacional de Microbiología ha confirmado, pasadas las diez de esta noche, que una de las muestras enviadas desde La Gomera ha dado positivo en #coronaviruspic.twitter.com/B21LojPzZD". @sanidadgob (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-02-28.
  34. ^ "Spanish authorities confirm Briton is country's second coronavirus case". Reuters. 2020-02-09. Archived from the original on 2020-02-10. Retrieved 2020-02-09.
  35. ^ "How did Spain get its coronavirus response so wrong?". The Guardian. 2020-03-26.
  36. ^ Muere una mujer de 99 años en Madrid con coronavirus: primera víctima en la capital y tercera en España 5 March 2020 Press article, www.20minutos.es, accessed 20 March 2020
  37. ^ a b "Coronavirus, positivi due italiani a Tenerife. Mille persone nell'hotel in quarantena". la Repubblica (in Italian). 2020-02-25. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  38. ^ Maestro LP, Kennedy N, Woodyatt A. "Tenerife hotel on partial lockdown as Italian tests positive for coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  39. ^ "Coronavirus, dall'Italia si spande in Europa. Conte: "Inaccettabili limitazioni agli italiani". Ma molti Paesi prendono misure". la Repubblica (in Italian). 2020-02-25. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  40. ^ "Woman in Barcelona tests positive to coronavirus, the first confirmed case on mainland Spain". thelocal.es. Retrieved 2020-02-26.
  41. ^ Levante-EMV. "Un caso de coronavirus en Madrid eleva a siete los infectados en España". levante-emv.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-02-26.
  42. ^ "Confirmado el primer caso de coronavirus en Madrid". telemadrid.es. 2020-02-26. Retrieved 2020-02-26.
  43. ^ Levante-EMV. "Sanidad confirma el primer caso de coronavirus en la C. Valenciana". levante-emv.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-02-26.
  44. ^ Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Iglesias-Caballero, María; Monzón, Sara; Jiménez, Pilar; Varona, Sarai; Cuesta, Isabel; Zaballos, Ángel; Thomson, Michael M.; Jiménez, Mercedes; García Pérez, Javier; Pozo, Francisco; Pérez-Olmeda, Mayte; Alcamí, José; Casas, Inmaculada (2020-04-20). "Phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Spain". bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.20.050039.
  45. ^ "El análisis genético sugiere que el coronavirus ya circulaba por España a mediados de febrero". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-23. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
  46. ^ a b "Sanidad confirma 5 nuevos casos de coronavirus en Andalucía". Redacción Médica [es] (in Spanish). Sanitaria 2000. 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  47. ^ "Una tinerfeña de 22 años que viajó a Italia, tercer caso "importado" de coronavirus en Cataluña". abc (in Spanish). 2020-02-27. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
  48. ^ "Confirmados en Segovia y Valladolid los dos primeros casos registrados en Castilla y León". Leonoticias (in Spanish). 2020-02-27. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
  49. ^ Levante-EMV. "Sanidad confirma 6 nuevos casos de coronavirus en la C. Valenciana". levante-emv.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-02-27.
  50. ^ Espino, Rafael (2020-02-28). "Confirmado el primer caso de coronavirus en Almería". Diario de Almería (in Spanish). Grupo Joly. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
  51. ^ "Salud confirma cuatro casos de coronavirus en Málaga". La Opinión de Málaga (in Spanish). Grupo Editorial Prensa Ibérica [es]. 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  52. ^ "El quinto caso de positivo por coronavirus en Madrid, también grave". Redacción Médica [es] (in Spanish). Sanitaria 2000. 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  53. ^ "Diagnostican el primer caso de coronavirus en Asturias". El Independiente [es] (in Spanish). 2020-02-29. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  54. ^ "Se detecta el primer caso de coronavirus en Navarra". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-29. Retrieved 2020-02-03.
  55. ^ "Dos jóvenes médicos infectados elevan a 12 los casos andaluces de coronavirus". El Plural (in Spanish). 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  56. ^ "Euskadi mantiene en nueve el número de contagiados". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  57. ^ "Primer caso de coronavirus en Castilla-La Mancha confirmado por el Ministerio de Sanidad". La voz de Talavera (in Spanish). PAR Comunicación Talavera. 2020-03-01. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  58. ^ "Confirmados cuatro casos de coronavirus en Extremadura". El Periódico Extremadura (in Spanish). Editorial Extremadura S.A. 2020-03-01. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  59. ^ "Sanidad confirma otros 9 casos de coronavirus en Cantabria". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  60. ^ Santiago, Ana (2020-03-02). "Cinco nuevos casos en un día elevan a ocho los afectados por coronavirus en la región". El Norte de Castilla (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  61. ^ "Coronavirus: España mantiene el actual escenario de contención". Correo Farmaceutico (in Spanish). Unidad Editorial Revistas, S.L.U. 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  62. ^ "Dos nuevos casos de coronavirus confirmados en Extremadura". El Periódico Extremadura (in Spanish). Editorial Extremadura S.A. 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  63. ^ "Se elevan a 29 los casos positivos de coronavirus en la región". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  64. ^ "Confirmado el primer caso de coronavirus en La Rioja". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  65. ^ "Segundo caso positivo de Coronavirus en Asturias". El Comercio (in Spanish). Vocento. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  66. ^ "Salud detecta un tercer positivo de Covid-19 en Asturias". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  67. ^ "Confirmado un tercer caso positivo por SARS-CoV-2 en Mallorca". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 20 Minutos Editora, S.L. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  68. ^ "El Gobierno vasco confirma el primer caso de coronavirus en Bizkaia". Deia (in Spanish). Editorial Iparraguirre, S.A. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  69. ^ "Castilla-La Mancha confirma cuatro nuevos casos de coronavirus". elDiario.es (in Spanish). El Diario de Prensa Digital S.L. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  70. ^ "Los casos de coronovirus aumentan a 56 en Madrid, según Díaz Ayuso". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). La Vanguardia Ediciones, S.L.U. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  71. ^ "La Rioja confirma un segundo caso de COVID-2019, asintomático y aislado en su domicilio". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  72. ^ "Sanidad confirma en València el primer fallecido con coronavirus en España". Levante (in Spanish). Grupo Prensa Ibérica Media. 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  73. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Tercer muerto en España. Últimas noticias en DIRECTO". elperiodic.com (in Spanish). Editorial Digital 2014 S.L. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  74. ^ a b "Muere una mujer de 99 años en Madrid con coronavirus: primera víctima en la capital y tercera en España". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 20 Minutos Editora S.L. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  75. ^ "Aragón registra su primer caso de coronavirus en un hombre de 79 años a expensas del segundo análisis". Aragóndigital.es (in Spanish). 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  76. ^ "Cuatro nuevos positivos elevan a diecisiete los casos de coronavirus en Euskadi". Deia (in Spanish). Editorial Iparraguirre, S.A. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  77. ^ "Segundo muerto en España infectado con coronavirus: un hombre de Bilbao de 82 años que padecía neumonía". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 20 Minutos Editora S.L. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  78. ^ "Ya hay 12 personas afectadas por el coronavirus en CLM, dos de ellos menores de edad". Encastillalamancha.es (in Spanish). 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  79. ^ "Catalunya confirma seis nuevos casos de coronavirus y la cifra asciende a 24". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  80. ^ "Catalunya confirma cuatro casos más de coronavirus". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  81. ^ "Confirmado el primer caso por coronavirus en Galicia". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  82. ^ "Madrid cuenta con 76 enfermos de coronavirus, de los que 41 están hospitalizados y 7 en la UCI". Telemadrid (in Spanish). Community of Madrid. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  83. ^ "Confirmados cinco nuevos casos riojanos de coronavirus". ConSalud.es (in Spanish). Mediforum S.L.U. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  84. ^ "Los cuatro casos confirmados hoy provienen del entorno del vecino de Casalarreina". LaRioja.com (in Spanish). VOCENTO. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  85. ^ "Ascienden a 27 los casos de coronavirus en Euskadi, al detectarse seis nuevos infectados". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 20 Minutos Editora S.L. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  86. ^ "Confirmado un segundo caso de coronavirus en Galicia, una mujer ingresada en el Álvaro Cunqueiro de Vigo". El Ideal Gallego (in Spanish). Editorial La Capital S.L. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  87. ^ "Confirmados cuatro nuevos casos riojanos de coronavirus, con lo que la comunidad suma ya 11 afectados". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  88. ^ "Sanidad eleva a 17 los casos de contagio de coronavirus en La Rioja". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  89. ^ "Sanidad confirma ocho nuevos casos de coronavirus que elevan a 30 a la cifra de contagiados en la Comunitat Valenciana". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  90. ^ "El Centro Nacional de Microbiología confirma dos casos positivos de coronavirus en Aragón". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 20 Minutos Editora S.L. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  91. ^ "Primera muerte por coronavirus en Aragón". El periódico de Aragón (in Spanish). Prensa Diaria Aragonesa S.A.U. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  92. ^ "Aragón registra nueve casos de coronavirus, tras notificar tres nuevos". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  93. ^ "Euskadi registra 18 nuevos casos de coronavirus en un solo día". Deia (in Spanish). Editorial Iparraguirre, S.A. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  94. ^ "Dos nuevos casos de coronavirus en Galicia: una pareja de mediana edad ingresada en Vigo". ABC (in Spanish). Diario ABC S.L. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  95. ^ "Confirmado el cuarto positivo de coronavirus, un menor en Vigo hijo de una de los infectados". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  96. ^ "La Comunidad de Madrid registra 137 positivos por coronavirus y dos muertes". Infosalus (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  97. ^ "La Rioja confirma doce nuevos casos positivos de coronavirus, alcanzando ya los 29". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  98. ^ "La Rioja confirma esta tarde otros 9 casos positivos, alcanzando ya los 38". Europa Press (in Spanish). Europa Press Noticias S.A. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  99. ^ Sara Polo; Marifé Velasco (2020-03-08) [17:59]. "Coronavirus, última hora | Siete nuevas muertes en Madrid, Zaragoza y País Vasco elevan a 17 las víctimas mortales". Elmundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2020-03-08. Retrieved 2020-03-08.Sara Polo; Marifé Velasco (2020-03-09) [00:49]. "Coronavirus, última hora | Contagiado un bebé de cinco meses en Murcia". Elmundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2020-03-09. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  100. ^ "Se confirma el primer caso de coronavirus en la Región de Murcia - murcia.com". murcia.com. Retrieved 2020-03-08.
  101. ^ a b Minder, Raphael (2020-03-13). "Spain Becomes Latest Epicenter of Coronavirus After a Faltering Response". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  102. ^ "Coronavirus: Dos nuevos fallecidos en Catalunya por Covid-19. Últimas noticias en España, en directo". La Vanguardia. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  103. ^ "Redirect Notice". google.es. 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  104. ^ "Cuatro casos de coronavirus confirmados en Tarragona". Diari de Tarragona (in Spanish). 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  105. ^ "Una dona de Castellserà, primer positiu en coronavirus a Lleida". El Punt Avui (in Catalan). 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  106. ^ Rodríguez, Pau. "Catalunya prohíbe los eventos de más de 1.000 personas por la crisis del coronavirus". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  107. ^ Junta de Extremadura [@Junta_Ex] (2020-03-11). "@GFVara: En Extremadura hay dos casos positivos más, uno de ellos lamentablemente ha fallecido. Nuestra solidaridad y condolencias a la familia #Covid19 #Coronaviruspic.twitter.com/TQksGf1OT2" (Tweet) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-11 – via Twitter.
  108. ^ a b País, El (2020-03-12). "9,5 millones de estudiantes se quedan dos semanas sin clase en España". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  109. ^ a b 20minutos (2020-03-13). "Confirmados los dos primeros casos de coronavirus en Melilla". 20minutos.es - Últimas Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  110. ^ Palma, La Palma Ahora-Santa Cruz de La. "La Palma registra los primeros dos casos de coronavirus y son asintomáticos". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  111. ^ El Comercio (2020-03-12). "El Ibex se desploma un 14%, la mayor caída de su historia en un solo día" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  112. ^ Blas, Carlos E. Cué, Claudi Pérez, Elsa García de (2020-03-13). "Sánche decreta el estado de alarma durante 15 días". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  113. ^ "La Audiencia Nacional suspende las diligencias de instrucción durante quince días" (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  114. ^ "El CGPJ suspende la actividad judicial en País Vasco, Madrid, Haro e Igualada". El País (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  115. ^ Arisqueta, Francisco Igea (2020-03-13). "Gracias a la Junta de Cofradías de Semana Santa de Castilla y León. Una decisión solidaria para una semana de pasión desgraciadamente diferente. @jcylpic.twitter.com/l3VXJoP1WT". @FranciscoIgea (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  116. ^ Cuenca, Las Noticias de (2020-03-13). "Sanidad confirma 11 casos positivos por coronavirus en la provincia de Cuenca". Las Noticias de Cuenca (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  117. ^ Aragón, Heraldo de. "El concejal de Vox en Huesca, primer caso de coronavirus conocido en la provincia". heraldo.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  118. ^ "El director del centro Don Bosco de Villamuriel, primer positivo de Palencia". El Norte de Castilla (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  119. ^ Ávilared, Avilared com. "Tres casos de coronavirus en Ávila, que hasta ahora no había registrado ninguno". El diario digital de Ávila (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  120. ^ Hervás, Juan Carlos (2020-03-12). "Primer caso positivo de coronavirus en Soria". El Miron de Soria (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  121. ^ "Catalunya registra 190 nuevos casos de coronavirus este viernes". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  122. ^ a b c Jones, Sam (2020-03-14). "Spain government set to order nationwide coronavirus lockdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  123. ^ Kollmeyer, Barbara. "Spain may be a week ahead of the U.S. in its coronavirus quarantine: Here's what you can learn from its experience". MarketWatch.
  124. ^ Health, P. M. N. (2020-03-14). "Spain to impose nationwide lockdown – El Mundo | National Post". Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  125. ^ "Real Decreto 463/2020, de 14 de marzo, por el que se declara el estado de alarma para la gestión de la situación de crisis sanitaria ocasionada por el COVID-19" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (67): 25390–25400. 2020-03-14. ISSN 0212-033X.
  126. ^ Gayle, Matthew Weaver (now) Damien; Sullivan (earlier), Helen; Kassam, Ashifa; Robinson, Gregory; Chulov, Martin; Hern, Alex (2020-03-16). "Coronavirus updates: New York, New Jersey and Connecticut in lockdown as global death toll passes 6,500 - live news". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  127. ^ "Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social - Profesionales - Situación actual Coronavirus". mscbs.gob.es. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  128. ^ "La Feria de Abril de Sevilla, aplazada a septiembre por el coronavirus". ABC (in Spanish). 2020-03-15. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  129. ^ "Ceuta confirma el primer caso por coronavirus". Ideal (in Spanish). 2020-03-15. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  130. ^ Landauro, Inti; Aguado, Jesus; Carreno, Belen (2020-03-17). Khalip, Andrei (ed.). "Spain approves 200 billion euro aid package for coronavirus crisis: PM". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  131. ^ Pérez, Jesús Sérvulo González, Manuel V. Gómez, Claudi (2020-03-17). "Sánchez anuncia un plan que movilizará 200.000 millones para amortiguar el impacto de la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  132. ^ "Fallece una vecina de Montblanc por el coronavirus". Diari de Tarragona (in Spanish). 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  133. ^ "El Covid-19 se cobra su primera víctima mortal entre los sanitarios: fallece una enfermera de 52 años en Bizkaia". publico.es. Retrieved 2020-03-19.
  134. ^ RTVE.es (2020-03-20). "Coronavirus | España supera los mil muertos con coronavirus y sigue los pasos de Italia". RTVE.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  135. ^ Palmas, La Provincia-Diario de Las. "El Hierro registra su primer caso positivo con coronavirus y Canarias suma cuatro fallecidos". laprovincia.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  136. ^ FRESNEDA, DIANA (2020-03-21). "Sanidad compra 640.000 test rápidos y cuatro robots que permitirán realizar hasta 80.000 pruebas diarias de coronavirus". RTVE.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  137. ^ "Sanidad dice que ya se han realizado 350.000 tests de coronavirus y espera la llegada de hasta un millón de pruebas rápidas". 20 minutos. 2020-03-21. Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  138. ^ "¿Ha hecho España "355.000 tests" de detección del coronavirus? Los distintos cambios de criterio del Gobierno". Maldita (in Spanish). 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2020-03-31.
  139. ^ Marcos, José (2020-03-22). "El Gobierno decide prorrogar 15 días el estado de alarma por la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  140. ^ "Spain to extend coronavirus state of emergency as deaths soar". CNN. 2020-03-22. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  141. ^ "Murcia ordena el cese de toda actividad económica no esencial". EL Periódico (in Spanish). 2020-03-22. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  142. ^ "Coronavirus: Spanish army finds care home residents 'dead and abandoned". BBC. 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  143. ^ "Spain turns ice rink into a morgue as coronavirus deaths pile up". CNN News. Retrieved 2020-03-24.
  144. ^ Minder, Raphael; Peltier, Elian (2020-03-24). "Virus Knocks Thousands of Health Workers Out of Action in Europe". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2020-03-25.
  145. ^ Marcos, José (2020-03-28). "Paralizada toda actividad no esencial en España". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  146. ^ Jones, Sam (2020-03-28). "Spain orders non-essential workers stay home for two weeks". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  147. ^ "The Spanish state's lockdown 2.0: who has to work, and who receives paid leave". El Nacional. 2020-03-30. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  148. ^ cronicabalear.es (2020-03-29). "Formentera registra los dos primeros casos positivos de coronavirus". Crónica Balear (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  149. ^ País, El (2020-03-30). "Fernando Simón da positivo por coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  150. ^ Quinn (now), Ben; Sullivan (earlier), Helen (2020-03-30). "Coronavirus live news: Spain wakes to more restrictive lockdown as New York state passes 1,000 deaths". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  151. ^ Cué, Carlos E. (2020-04-04). "Pedro Sánchez prorroga dos semanas más el estado de alarma". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  152. ^ "Sánchez logra el apoyo del Congreso y convoca a un acuerdo nacional del que recela la oposición". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-09. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  153. ^ Gayle (now), Damien; Topping, Alexandra; Mohdin, Aamna; Sullivan(earlier), Helen; McCormick, Erin; Greenfield, Patrick; McDonald, Henry; Jones, Sam; Rushe, Dominic (2020-04-02). "Coronavirus live news: Spain death toll passes 10,000 with record single-day rise of 950" – via www.theguardian.com.
  154. ^ "Evolución diaria de la pandemia de COVID-19 en España". Carlos III Health Institute. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  155. ^ Fernández, Juanma (2020-04-04). "Coronavirus: España alcanza el pico de la epidemia; 11 CCAA ya en remisión". Redacción médica (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  156. ^ "Los fallecidos diarios en España por coronavirus caen a 637, la cifra más baja en dos semanas". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-06. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  157. ^ Linde, Pablo (2020-04-04). "Los datos dan un respiro: caen los casos, las muertes y los ingresos hospitalarios por coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-04.
  158. ^ Linde, Pablo (2020-04-10). "El número de muertes por coronavirus cae a 605, el más bajo desde hace más de dos semanas". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  159. ^ "España registra 510 muertos en un día por coronavirus, la menor cifra desde el 23 de marzo". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-11. Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  160. ^ "'I don't know why the heck we have to go back if there's no way of staying apart'". EL PAÍS. 2020-04-13. Retrieved 2020-04-14. Ten million masks will be handed out in total, now that some of Spain's non-essential workers are returning to work after a two-week period during which the economy was placed in 'hibernation' mode.
  161. ^ "Spanish government does U-turn, will allow children aged 14 and under out for walks". EL PAÍS. 2020-04-21. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  162. ^ Live. "Spain extends lockdown till May 9, but will let children out on short walks". France24.com. Retrieved 2020-04-26.
  163. ^ "Coronavirus in Spain full update (2 May)". Spain in English. 2020-05-02. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  164. ^ "Spain's Government approves territories that can move to Phase 1 of de-escalation lifting restrictions for 51% of its population". EuroWeekly. 2020-05-08. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  165. ^ Govan, Fiona (2020-04-28). "What we know about Spain's 'plan for transition to a new normal'". The Local. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  166. ^ a b Sánchez Hidalgo, Emilio (2020-04-29). "Estas son las cuatro fases de la desescalada en España aprobadas por el Gobierno". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  167. ^ "ENE-Covid19 Primera Ronda. Informe Preliminar 13 de mayo de 2020" (PDF). Ministry of Health (Spain). 2020-05-13.
  168. ^ "Consulta el porcentaje de la población de tu provincia que tiene anticuerpos frente al coronavirus, según el estudio de seroprevalencia". eldiario.es. 2020-05-13.
  169. ^ "Así queda el mapa de la desescalada: las provincias y territorios que pasan de fase el 18 de mayo". 2020-05-15. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
  170. ^ Hernández, Quique. "El mapa de la desescalada: las provincias y territorios que pasan de fase el lunes 25 de mayo". La Sexta. Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  171. ^ "El mapa de la desescalada en España: ¿en qué fase está tu provincia?". RTVE (in Spanish). 2020-06-05. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  172. ^ "Toda España estará el lunes en Fase 3 menos Madrid, algunas provincias de Castilla y León y zonas de Barcelona y Lleida". RTVE (in Spanish). 2020-06-12. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  173. ^ "Guía de la 'nueva normalidad', comunidad por comunidad". El Diario (in Spanish). 2020-06-21. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  174. ^ "GUÍA | Qué se puede hacer y qué no en Barcelona y su área metropolitana". El Diario (in Spanish). 2020-07-17. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  175. ^ "La llamada a la prudencia no evitó un repunte del 1% del tráfico en las salidas de Zaragoza". Heraldo (in Spanish). 2020-07-17. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  176. ^ de Benito, Emilio (2020-08-07). "Spain overtakes UK's Covid-19 case count". El País.
  177. ^ "Spain's Catalonia makes masks compulsory in public at all times". Reuters. 2020-07-08.
  178. ^ "Spain Reports 3,715 New Coronavirus Cases in Post-Lockdown Record". Reuters. 2020-08-19.
  179. ^ Dombey, Daniel (2020-08-21). "Socialising pushes Spain's Covid-19 rate far above rest of Europe". Financial Times.
  180. ^ Badcock, James (2020-08-21). "Coronavirus: Why Spain is seeing second wave". BBC.
  181. ^ McMurtry, Alyssa (2020-09-04). "Spain breaks single-day record for highest infections". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 2020-09-13.
  182. ^ "Coronavirus digest: Spain sets Western Europe virus record". DW. 2020-09-07.
  183. ^ "Madrid coronavirus: Spain orders lockdown amid rise in cases". BBC.
  184. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/21/spain-first-western-european-country-to-pass-1-million-covid-cases
  185. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-54682222
  186. ^ Jones, Sam (2020-03-07). "Spanish town faces police lockdown to contain coronavirus". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  187. ^ El País (2020-03-12). "La Generalitat ordena el confinamiento de 70.000 personas en Igualada y otros cuatro municipios por el coronavirus" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  188. ^ "Four towns locked down as Spain announces package to tackle coronavirus". Reuters. 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  189. ^ Hernández, Marisol (2020-03-13). "Pedro Sánchez decreta el estado de alarma en toda España para frenar la expansión del coronavirus". El Mundo.
  190. ^ "Spain's state of alarm: the key measures that are now in place". EL PAÍS. 2020-03-15. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  191. ^ a b c d e Tremlett, Giles (2020-03-26). "How did Spain get its coronavirus response so wrong?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  192. ^ Vitoria, Efe (2020-03-13). "El País Vasco decreta el estado de "alerta sanitaria" por el coronavirus". diariodenavarra.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  193. ^ "Confinadas 500.000 personas en municipios costeros de la Región". La Verdad (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  194. ^ Armengol, Francina (2020-03-13). "He parlat amb el President @sanchezcastejon. Hem analitzat la gravetat de la situació i li he oferit tot el suport. Li he explicat les dures mesures de contenció que hem pres i li he demanat que,per protegir a la nostra gent,restringeixi temporalment les connexions amb les Illes". @F_Armengol (in Catalan). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  195. ^ "Catalonia isolated over coronavirus". Majorca Daily Bulletin. 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  196. ^ Digital, Economía. "Madrid se queda sin terrazas por el coronavirus". Economía Digital. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  197. ^ "Vara pide a los vecinos de Arroyo de la Luz "confianza" en la decisión de decretar su aislamiento social" [Vara asks the residents of Arroyo de la Luz to "trust" in the decision to decree their social isolation]. 20 minutos (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  198. ^ "Parlamento español aprueba extender estado de alarma". San Diego Union-Tribune en Español. 2020-03-26. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  199. ^ a b "El Gobierno obliga a quedarse en casa a los trabajadores de servicios no esenciales del 30 de marzo al 9 de abril". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-28. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  200. ^ a b "Spain's emergency coronavirus measures to be lifted gradually". EL PAÍS. 2020-04-01. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  201. ^ "Sánchez llamará a Casado para informarle de la prórroga del Estado de alarma". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-03. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  202. ^ Linde, Pablo (2020-04-10). "El Gobierno tomó la decisión de reiniciar la actividad laboral sin consultar a su comité de expertos". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  203. ^ Vega, María (2020-03-10). "España prohíbe todos los vuelos directos a Italia hasta el 25 de marzo". El Español.
  204. ^ PAÍS, EL (2020-03-12). "ÚLTIMA HORA | Suspendido el tráfico aéreo y marítimo entre España y Marruecos por la crisis del coronavirus". @el_pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  205. ^ "Última hora del coronavirus en España: Marlaska suspende la libre circulación y restablece los controles de fronteras". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 2020-03-16. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  206. ^ cronicabalear.es (2020-03-17). "Baleares se blinda y cierra sus aeropuertos y puertos con excepciones". Crónica Balear (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  207. ^ Marcos, José (2020-03-19). "Canarias y Baleares se blindan por mar y aire". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-19.
  208. ^ Marcos, Raquel Vidales, Tommaso Koch, Carlos (2020-03-11). "Coronavirus: cierran el Prado, el Reina Sofía, el Thyssen, la Filmoteca y los centros dependientes del ministerio". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  209. ^ "El coronavirus obliga a la RAE y al Tribunal Constitucional a suspender sus plenos". El Imparcial (in Spanish). 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  210. ^ "El Tribunal Constitucional suspende sus sesiones por el coronavirus". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  211. ^ Press, Europa (2020-03-12). "El Congreso suspende 15 días su actividad por el coronavirus". europapress.es. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  212. ^ López-Fonseca, Óscar (2020-03-12). "Interior decide aislar sus 69 centros penitenciarios". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  213. ^ Reuters (2020-03-12). "Barcelona's Sagrada Familia landmark to close to tourists over coronavirus". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  214. ^ "La Comunidad de Madrid decreta el cierre obligatorio de bares, restaurantes y tiendas". El Independiente. 2020-03-13.
  215. ^ Ferrero, Juan José Mateo, Berta (2020-03-13). "Madrid cierra desde el sábado todos los comercios salvo los de alimentación y primera necesidad". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  216. ^ Cantabria, eldiario es. "Cantabria cierra negocios de hostelería, grandes superficies y edificios públicos para frenar al coronavirus". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  217. ^ Mouzo, Àngels Piñol, Jessica (2020-03-13). "Cataluña cierra bares, cafeterías y restaurantes". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  218. ^ "La Comunidad extiende el cierre de comercios a toda la Región de Murcia". La Verdad (in Spanish). 2020-03-14. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  219. ^ Madrid, Ayuntamiento (2020-03-14). "Ante las aglomeraciones de personas que lamentablemente y pese a todos los avisos se están produciendo en espacios públicos de Madrid,el alcalde ha dado la orden de proceder al cierre de todos los parques y jardines de la ciudad a partir de las 16.00 #Coronavirusmadrid #COVID19". @MADRID (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  220. ^ Press, Europa. "Las FyCSE han realizado 48.000 propuestas de sanción por no respetar el estado de alarma". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  221. ^ EFE. "El Ejército ayuda en 73 residencias de mayores y patrullará con la Guardia Civil". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  222. ^ Friedenberger, Heidi (2020-03-23). "Spanish police sing to families during coronavirus lockdown in Mallorca – video". The Guardian.
  223. ^ a b "Grim find: Bodies of virus victims in Spanish nursing homes". AP NEWS. 2020-03-24. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  224. ^ Dolz, Patricia Ortega (2020-03-24). "926 detenidos y 102.000 denuncias por incumplir el estado de alarma". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  225. ^ Johnson, Miles; Ghiglione, David; Dombey, Daniel. "Tempers fray as coronavirus lockdown fatigue hits Italy and Spain". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  226. ^ a b Ward, Alex (2020-03-20). "How Spain's coronavirus outbreak got so bad so fast". Vox. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  227. ^ Dolz, Patricia Ortega (2020-04-10). "Más de 3.000 conductores sancionados por no respetar los límites de movilidad del estado de alarma". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  228. ^ Jiménez, David (2020-04-13). "Spain's Lethal Secret: We Didn't Have 'the Best Health Care in the World'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  229. ^ Sevillano, Elena G. (2020-03-27). "La empresa china cambiará los 640.000 test defectuosos por otro modelo de prueba rápida". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  230. ^ "Los test rápidos de coronavirus comprados en China no funcionan bien". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-03-25. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  231. ^ Sevillano, Elena G. (2020-04-20). "El Gobierno trata de recuperar el dinero de los test defectuosos tras comprobar que el reemplazo tampoco funciona". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  232. ^ "Coronavirus response: Czech medical aid arrives in Spain, heads to Italy". NATO. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  233. ^ "Coronavirus: Spanish government yields to the pressure of journalists and agrees to live press conferences". Reporters Without Borders. 2020-04-09. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  234. ^ "Declaraciones Jefe Estado Mayor Guardia Civil, General José Manuel Santiago - Rueda prensa 19-04-20" (Video). Youtube (in Spanish). 2020-04-19. Retrieved 2020-04-27.
  235. ^ Ortega Dolz, Patricia (2020-04-20). "Tormenta política tras declarar un general que la Guardia Civil trabaja para minimizar bulos contrarios al Gobierno" (in Spanish). El País. Retrieved 2020-04-27. José Manuel Santiago, declared on the actions against disinformation campaigns: 'On one side avoid social stress produced by fake news. On the other hand, minimize the environment of opposition to the government's crisis management.'
  236. ^ "El general de la GC explica su 'lapsus': "Hablamos de bulos, no de crítica política"" (in Spanish). El Confidencial. 2020-04-21. Retrieved 2020-04-27.
  237. ^ "Marlaska encargó un informe semanal a la Guardia Civil para vigilar qué se dice sobre el Gobierno" (in Spanish). 20 Minutos. 2020-04-21. Retrieved 2020-04-27.
  238. ^ Alberto García, Ramiro Fuente y Desirée García. "Las falsedades sobre el coronavirus se propagan por España" (in Spanish). EFE. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  239. ^ Al-Arshani, Sarah (2020-03-10). "Photos show how coronavirus precautions left everything from schools to stadiums deserted across Spain—as cases spike past 1,600". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  240. ^ Artusa, Martina (2020-03-28). "Coronavirus en España: aplausos desde los balcones para los chicos que soportan el encierro en casa". Clarín (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  241. ^ "COVID-19 Community Mobility Report of 29 March 2020" (PDF). Google. 2020-03-29. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  242. ^ a b Sánchez-Silva, Carmen (2020-04-10). "Timos y abusos empresariales en los tiempos del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  243. ^ Juárez, Belén (2020-03-09). "Los cibercriminales suplantan al Ministerio de Sanidad para robar datos a los usuarios de Whatsapp". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  244. ^ "Infomes MoMo - Vigilancia de la Mortalidad Diaria" [MoMo Reports - Daily Mortality Surveilance] (in Spanish). ISCIII. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  245. ^ a b Jones, Sam (2020-03-23). "Spanish minister says older people found 'dead and abandoned'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  246. ^ a b Ana Alfageme and Isabel Valdés (2020-03-28). "Necesito volver a trabajar y sentir que hago algo". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  247. ^ "Cuatro comunidades tienen sus UCI saturadas, el resto puede aguantar". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-04-01. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  248. ^ "Las UCI empiezan a respirar". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-06. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  249. ^ Zuil, María (2020-04-14). "La verdadera curva del Covid: caen los casos en hospitales en las CCAA más azotadas". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  250. ^ a b Madrid, Stephen Burgen Sam Jones in (2020-04-01). "Poor and vulnerable hardest hit by pandemic in Spain". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  251. ^ Hedgecoe, Guy (2020-03-28). "In Spain, austerity legacy cripples coronavirus fight". POLITICO. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  252. ^ "Informe sobre la situación de COVID-19 en España" (PDF) (in Spanish). Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (RENAVE). 2020-04-13. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  253. ^ "Spain's Health Staff Are Catching The Coronavirus As Protective Gear Runs Short". NPR.org. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  254. ^ Ordaz, Pablo (2020-04-05). "Cuando se pierde la vida por curar a los demás". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  255. ^ De Vega, Luís; Ferrero, Berta (2020-04-17). "El virus excluye más todavía al asentamiento ilegal de La Cañada Real: 50 años dentro son 70 fuera". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-18.
  256. ^ a b c "Residencias, la trampa mortal de los más vulnerables". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-18. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
  257. ^ ""They just sedate them"; coronavirus overwhelms Spain's care homes". Reuters. 2020-04-03. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  258. ^ Troya, María Sosa (2020-04-03). "Al menos 3.600 personas han muerto en residencias de mayores por el coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  259. ^ "Spanish Doctors Are Forced to Choose Who to Let Die". Bloomberg. 2020-03-25. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  260. ^ "Agonizing decisions being made in Spain's virus hot spots". Associated Press. 2020-04-02. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  261. ^ "Doctors without defenses". EFE. 2020-03-29. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  262. ^ "RECOMENDACIONES ÉTICAS PARA LA TOMADE DECISIONES EN LA SITUACIÓN EXCEPCIONAL DE CRISIS POR PANDEMIA COVID-19 EN LAS UNIDADES DECUIDADOS INTENSIVOS" (PDF). Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  263. ^ "Criterios para ingreso en UCI con coronavirus: Expectativa de vida y valor social". EFE (in Spanish). 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  264. ^ "Las UCI plantean un "triaje" de los pacientes según su "valor social" o esperanza de vida en caso de colapsar". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  265. ^ Minder, Raphael; Peltier, Elian (2020-03-25). "A Deluged System Leaves Some Elderly to Die, Rocking Spain's Self-Image". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  266. ^ "Plunging stocks, remote work: The economic effects of the coronavirus in Spain". EL PAÍS. 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-04-04.
  267. ^ "El Ibex 35 sufre el mayor desplome de su historia por el pánico del coronavirus". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-04-04.
  268. ^ "The EU can't agree on how to help Italy and Spain pay for coronavirus relief". CNN. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  269. ^ a b Aranda, José Luis (2020-04-06). "La nueva crisis pilla a España con menos margen pero con nuevas armas". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  270. ^ "La crisis del coronavirus destruyó 900.000 empleos en la última quincena de marzo y supuso la mayor subida histórica del paro". El Diario. 2020-04-02. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  271. ^ Femmine LD (2020-04-15). "Los economistas calculan que el déficit se disparará al 15% del PIB este año frente al 2,6% de 2019". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  272. ^ Fariza, Ignacio (2020-03-28). "El reto de congelar la economía". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  273. ^ Letón, Sandra López (2020-04-10). "Los propietarios rebajan ya el precio de sus viviendas ante el temor de un gran desplome del mercado". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  274. ^ US attacks WHO for 'failure' to curb coronavirus: Live updates 00:00 GMT - Bolsonaro defies coronavirus advice with selfies, 18 May 2020 www.aljazeera.com, accessed 30 May 2020
  275. ^ Carvajal, Álvaro (2020-03-10). "Javier Ortega Smith da positivo por coronavirus y Vox pide perdón por celebrar Vistalegre" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  276. ^ Cruz, Marisa (2020-03-10). "El Congreso suspende su actividad una semana tras el positivo del diputado Ortega Smith" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  277. ^ Press, Europa (2020-03-11). "La Asamblea de Madrid suspende su actividad parlamentaria durante 15 días por el coronavirus". europapress.es. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  278. ^ Cela, Daniel. "El Parlamento de Andalucía suspende su actividad toda la semana por el riesgo de coronavirus en los diputados de Vox". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  279. ^ Gorospe, Pedro (2020-03-16). "Urkullu aplaza las elecciones vascas hasta superar la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  280. ^ Vizoso, Pedro Gorospe, Sonia (2020-03-16). "Galicia y País Vasco aplazan las elecciones hasta superar la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  281. ^ "Las imágenes de un pleno inédito en el Congreso marcado por la ujier Valentina". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-18. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  282. ^ a b "Government counting on opposition support for coronavirus measures despite lack of dialogue". EL PAÍS. 2020-03-31. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  283. ^ "Rey Felipe VI. El discurso del monarca por la crisis del coronavirus y reacciones, en directo". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-18. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  284. ^ "Discurso del Rey Felipe VI por el coronavirus, en directo: "Este virus no nos vencerá, nos va a hacer más fuertes como sociedad"". ABC.es (in Spanish). 2020-03-18. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  285. ^ "Un avión procedente Shanghai aterriza en Zaragoza con 500.000 mascarillas quirúrgicas". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2020-03-18. Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  286. ^ Colomé, Jordi Pérez (2020-04-09). "La Junta de Andalucía paga por artículos elogiosos de su gestión de la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  287. ^ Tremlett, Giles (2020-03-26). "How did Spain get its coronavirus response so wrong?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  288. ^ Minder, Raphael (2020-04-16). "Body Counting and Finger-Pointing as Spain Tallies Coronavirus Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  289. ^ Wilson, Joseph; León, Alicia (2020-05-23). "Spain's far-right holds car protest against virus lockdown". Associated Press. Retrieved 2020-05-23.
  290. ^ Jones, Jessica (2020-05-23). "Easing lockdown, Spain to reopen for tourism in July". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-05-23.
  291. ^ Viejo, Manuel (2020-06-19). "Los tres últimos manifestantes de las caceroladas de Núñez de Balboa: "La gente se ha cansado y ha vuelto el fútbol"". El País.
  292. ^ Ferrero, Juan José Mateo, Berta (2020-03-09). "Madrid deja sin clases a 1,5 millones de alumnos y cancelará operaciones y citas para combatir el coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  293. ^ Ormazabal, Mikel (2020-03-09). "Cierre de todos los centros educativos de Vitoria por la epidemia de coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  294. ^ "Labastida cierra sus dos colegios y Vitoria uno, los primeros del país, para evitar una epidemia". El Correo (in Spanish). 2020-03-09. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  295. ^ "Tanquen una escola bressol de Barcelona pel positiu en coronavirus d'una treballadora". ccma.cat. 2020-03-09. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  296. ^ "Madrid retrasa dos semanas el calendario académico". telemadrid.es (in Spanish). 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  297. ^ "Logroño cierra sus escuelas infantiles, las ludotecas, los centros jóvenes y La Gota de Leche". La Rioja (in Spanish). 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  298. ^ País, El (2020-03-11). "Euskadi suspende las clases en Álava para frenar la expansión de la enfermedad". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  299. ^ Agencias (2020-03-12). "Suspendidas las clases en todos los centros educativos de Euskadi, Galicia y Murcia". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  300. ^ "País Vasco, Cataluña, Galicia y Murcia cierran los colegios ante el brote de coronavirus". LaSexta (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  301. ^ "El Consejo de Gobierno acordará esta tarde el cierre temporal durante 14 días naturales de todos los centros educativos del Principado" (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  302. ^ Navarra.com. "Navarra ordena el cierre de todos los colegios". Navarra.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  303. ^ RTVE.es (2020-03-12). "País Vasco, Murcia, Galicia, Cataluña, Navarra, Canarias y Aragón cierran sus centros educativos por el coronavirus". RTVE.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  304. ^ "Castilla-La Mancha suspende desde mañana viernes las clases". ENCLM (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  305. ^ "La Junta de Extremadura suspende las clases en los colegios, institutos y en la Universidad". Hoy (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  306. ^ "Los colegios de Baleares cierran las puertas a partir del lunes". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  307. ^ COPE (2020-03-12). "Se suspenden las clases en Cantabria a partir del lunes 16 de marzo". COPE (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  308. ^ "Suspendidas las clases en Melilla durante 14 días". El Faro de Melilla (in Spanish). 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  309. ^ Lucas, Beatriz (2020-03-17). "La Selectividad se retrasa por la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  310. ^ "La suspensión de clases de los centros educativos vascos se prorroga hasta nuevo aviso". El Periódico (in Spanish). 2020-03-18. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  311. ^ Atika Shubert; Laura Perez Maestro (2020-09-08). "Spain heads back to school, but the pandemic is exposing inequality". CNN.
  312. ^ "Indicaciones de la CEE ante el coronavirus". conferenciaepiscopal.es. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  313. ^ "Ingenio en la cuarentena: 'procesiones' de Semana Santa de balcón a balcón". El País. 2020-03-23.
  314. ^ Ossorio, J. "El 'limbo' de ir a misa: el estado de alarma lo consiente "con medidas" y la Policía lo desmiente". El Español.
  315. ^ "Coronavirus: España 'exporta' el primer caso con una mujer ecuatoriana diagnosticada de vuelta a su país". Correo Farmaceutico (in Spanish). Unidad Editorial Revistas, S.L.U. 2020-02-29. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
  316. ^ "Ecuador confirma primera muerte por coronavirus". Infobae (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  317. ^ Cabrera, José María León; Kurmanaev, Anatoly (2020-04-08). "Ecuador Gives Glimpse Into Pandemic's Impact on Latin America". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
  318. ^ "Peru records first confirmed case of coronavirus, President Vizcarra says". Reuters. 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2020-03-14 – via www.reuters.com.
  319. ^ "RELATÓRIO DE SITUAÇÃO". Direção-Geral da Saúde (in Portuguese). 2020-03-08.
  320. ^ "RELATÓRIO DE SITUAÇÃO". Direção-Geral da Saúde (in Portuguese). 2020-03-10.
  321. ^ "RELATÓRIO DE SITUAÇÃO". Direção-Geral da Saúde (in Portuguese). 2020-03-12.
  322. ^ "The Latest: Panama confirms 1st case of coronavirus". ABC News (in Portuguese). 2020-03-10.
  323. ^ "Salud confirma los dos primeros casos de COVID-19 en el territorio hondureño" [Health confirms the first two cases of COVID-19 in the Honduran territory] (in Spanish). Secretaría de Salud Honduras. 2020-03-13.
  324. ^ "Régimen de Maduro confirma dos primeros casos de coronavirus". NTN24.com (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  325. ^ "Venezuela confirms coronavirus cases amid public health concerns". Reuters. 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
  326. ^ "Gobierno convoca a viajeros del vuelo 6673 presentarse para cumplir la cuarentena". El Pitazo (in Spanish). 2020-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  327. ^ "Equatorial Guinea announces first coronavirus case". Deccan Herald. 2020-03-14. Archived from the original on 2020-03-15. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  328. ^ "電台新聞>本澳今日確診2宗新冠肺炎(2020.03.17 19:47)". www.tdm.com.mo. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  329. ^ "PNG Confirms first Case of Coronavirus-COVID -19". Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  330. ^ a b c Linde, Pablo (2020-04-03). "Una epidemia en la que todas las cifras son una incógnita". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  331. ^ a b Romero, José Manuel (2020-07-25). "Los muertos de la pandemia en España: 44.868". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  332. ^ Ansede, Manuel (2020-03-31). "¿Hay ya siete millones de infectados en España?". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  333. ^ Flaxman, S.; Mishra, S.; Gandy, A.; Unwin, H.; Coupland, H.; Mellan, T.; Zhu, H.; Berah, T.; Eaton, J.; Perez Guzman, P.; Schmit, N.; Cilloni, L.; Ainslie, K.; Baguelin, M.; Blake, I.; Boonyasiri, A.; Boyd, O.; Cattarino, L.; Ciavarella, C.; Cooper, L.; Cucunuba Perez, Z.; Cuomo-Dannenburg, G.; Dighe, A.; Djaafara, A.; Dorigatti, I.; Van Elsland, S.; Fitzjohn, R.; Fu, H.; Gaythorpe, K.; et al. (2020-03-30). "Report 13: Estimating the number of infections and the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in 11 European countries". Imperial College of London. doi:10.25561/77731.
  334. ^ "Más del 90% de contagios están ocultos". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-07. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  335. ^ Grasso, Daniele; Sevillano, Elena (2020-04-17). "Diez comunidades contabilizan al menos 419.000 casos posibles de coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-18.
  336. ^ "Segunda ronda estudio nacional de sero-epidemiología de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en España (segundo informe preliminar)" (PDF). Ministry of Health (Spain). 2020-06-03. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
  337. ^ Oluwasegun Ojo; et al. (2020-05-24). "CoronaSurveys: Using Surveys with Indirect Reporting to Estimate the Incidence and Evolution of Epidemics". arXiv:2005.12783 [cs.DC].
  338. ^ "ESTUDIO DE SEROPREVALENCIA: España sigue sin inmunidad frente al coronavirus". El Mundo (in Spanish). 2020-06-03. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  339. ^ Mateo, Juan José (2020-04-08). "Madrid admite que 4.260 personas murieron en residencias con coronavirus o síntomas, de las que solo 781 estaban diagnosticadas". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  340. ^ White, Cristina Tomàs. "Coronavirus in Catalonia: daily figures explained in graphs". www.catalannews.com. Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  341. ^ "Sanidad se ve obligada a corregir la serie histórica ante las discrepancias en los datos sobre coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 2020-04-17. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  342. ^ "Spain's National Statistics Institute registers 44,000 excess deaths in first five months of the year compared to 2019". elpais. 2020-06-03. Retrieved 2020-06-11.
  343. ^ Altimira, Oriol Solé; Sánchez, Raúl (2020-04-06). "España registra un aumento del 47% en la mortalidad pero los expertos piden tiempo para relacionarlo con el coronavirus" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  344. ^ Andrino, Borja; Grasso, Daniele; Llaneras, Kiko (2020-04-10). "La epidemia de coronavirus ha provocado ya cinco veces más muertes que la gripe de 2019". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  345. ^ "Coronavirus: What is the true death toll of the pandemic?". BBC News. 2020-06-18. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
  346. ^ a b "Actualización nº 191. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  347. ^ "Actualización nº 31. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  348. ^ "Actualización nº 32. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  349. ^ "Actualización nº 33. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  350. ^ "Actualización nº 34. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  351. ^ "Actualización nº 35. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  352. ^ "Actualización nº 36. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  353. ^ "Actualización nº 37. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  354. ^ "Actualización nº 38. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  355. ^ "Actualización nº 39. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  356. ^ "Actualización nº 40. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  357. ^ "Actualización nº 41. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  358. ^ "Actualización nº 42. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  359. ^ "Actualización nº. 43. Enfermedad por el conoravirus (COVID-19)" (PDF). Ministerio de Sanidad.
  360. ^ "Actualización nº 44. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  361. ^ "Actualización nº 45. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  362. ^ "Actualización nº 46. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  363. ^ "Actualización nº 47. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  364. ^ "Actualización nº 48. Enfermedad por el coronavirus COVID-19)" (PDF).
  365. ^ "Actualización nº 49. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  366. ^ "Actualización nº 50. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  367. ^ "Actualización nº 51. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  368. ^ "Actualización nº 52. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  369. ^ "Actualización nº 53. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  370. ^ "Actualización nº 54. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  371. ^ "Actualización nº 55. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  372. ^ "Actualización nº 56. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  373. ^ "Actualización nº 57. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  374. ^ "Actualización nº 58. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  375. ^ "Actualización nº 59. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  376. ^ "Actualización nº 60. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  377. ^ "Actualización nº 61. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  378. ^ "Actualización nº 62. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  379. ^ "Actualización nº 63. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  380. ^