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Sophia Jagiellon, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Sophia Jagiellon of Poland, a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty, was a Polish princess and Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1556 to 1568 by her marriage with Duke Henry V. Sophia was born in Kraków, a daughter of King Sigismund I of Poland and his second wife, the Italian princess Bona Sforza, she was the third of her parents' six children and raised at the royal court of Wawel Castle with her siblings including Isabella Jagiellon, Sigismund II Augustus, Anna Jagiellon, Catherine Jagiellon and Albert Jagiellon. When in 1548 her mother Bona Sforza entered into conflict with her son King Sigismund II Augustus over the marriage with his mistress Barbara Radziwiłł, Sophia and her sisters were removed from the Kraków court to live in Masovia. Between 22 and 25 February 1556 she married the 66-year-old Duke Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; the Catholic duke had been a loyal supporter of the Habsburg emperor Charles V in the Schmalkaldic War. He had been firstly married to a daughter of Count Henry of Württemberg.

The couple had eight children, though only one surviving son, Prince Julius, whose elder brothers were killed in the 1553 Battle of Sievershausen. His father wished for another heir to the throne, she was accompanied to Germany with a retinue of 500 courtiers, among whom Agnieszka was to be her influential confidante and favorite. On 11 June 1568 Sophia was widowed. After the death of her husband she retired to the families residence in Schöningen. Shortly after, she fell into dispute with her stepson Duke Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Julius, did not honor the terms and in 1573 Sophia had to ask for help from Emperor Maximilian II. In the spring of 1570 Sophia converted to Lutheranism and therefore was the first and only Protestant member of the Jagiellonian dynasty, she died on 28 May 1575 at Schöningen Castle. She is buried in the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Wolfenbüttel

Meritorious Unit Commendation

The Meritorious Unit Commendation is a mid-level unit award of the United States Armed Forces. The U. S. Army awards units the Army MUC for exceptionally meritorious conduct in performance of outstanding achievement or service in combat or non-combat, the U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps award units the Navy MUC for valorous or meritorious achievement or service in combat or non-combat, the U. S. Coast Guard awards units the Coast Guard MUC for valorous or meritorious achievement or service not involving combat. Army Meritorious Unit Commendation The Army MUC emblem worn to represent award of the MUC is 1 ​7⁄16 inches wide and ​9⁄16 inches in height; the emblem consists of a ​1⁄16 inch wide gold frame with laurel leaves which encloses a scarlet 67111 ribbon. The authorized emblem was a gold color embroidered laurel wreath, 1 ​5⁄8 inches in diameter on a 2 inches square of olive drab cloth; the Army MUC is awarded to units for exceptionally meritorious conduct in performance of outstanding services for at least six continuous months during the period of military operations against an armed enemy occurring on or after 1 January 1944.

Service in a combat zone must be directly related to the combat effort. Units based in CONUS are excluded from this award; the unit must display such outstanding devotion and superior performance of exceptionally difficult tasks as to set it apart and above other units with similar missions. The degree of achievement required is the same as that which would warrant award of the Legion of Merit to an individual. Recommendations for units larger than a brigade will not be submitted. For services performed during World War II, awards will be made only to service units and only for services performed between 1 January 1944 and 15 September 1946. Effective 1 March 1961, the MUC was authorized for units or detachments of the Armed Forces of the United States for exceptionally meritorious conduct in performance of outstanding services for at least six continuous months during military operations against an armed enemy without regard to duties performed or the type of unit performing the duties; such service is interpreted to relate to combat service support type activities and not to the type of activities performed by senior headquarters, combat, or combat support units.

Effective 11 September 2001, the MUC is authorized for units and/or detachments of the Armed Forces of the United States for exceptionally meritorious performance for at least six continuous months during military operations against an armed enemy without regard to type of duties performed or the type of unit performing the duties. All members of the unit cited for the award are approved to wear the emblem of the MUC; the emblem is thought of as an individual decoration for those in connection with the cited acts and is approved to be worn if they continue as members with the unit or not. Other personnel serving with the unit are approved to wear the emblem to show that the unit is a recipient of the MUC; the Army Meritorious Unit Commendation is worn after the Valorous Unit Award and before the Superior Unit Award. Additional awards of the Army MUC are denoted by bronze oak leaf clusters; the Meritorious Service Unit Plaque was established by War Department Circular 345 on 23 August 1944. The circular provided units which received the Plaque were entitled to wear on their right sleeves of their service coat and shirt the Meritorious Service Unit Insignia.

A gold star placed on the plaque represented additional awards until War Department Circular No. 54, 1946, provided that additional awards would be shown by placing a gold numeral on the inside of the wreath. In December 1946, the Meritorious Service Unit Plaque was eliminated, replaced with the issue of the Meritorious Unit Commendation. A new design of the Meritorious Service Unit Emblem was approved in April 1947; this replaced the sleeve insignia and was to be effective 1 January 1949. On 16 May 1947, AR 260-15 announced the MUC, granted the wear of the MUC emblem, provided for the display of the scarlet MUC streamer, with the name of the applicable theater of operations in white letters. On 11 April 1949, TAG advised D/PA that the stock position was such that it would not be exhausted prior to 1959. By Comment 2, 1 March 1960, DCSPER stated that for planning purposes the new Meritorious Service Unit emblem would be authorized for wear on or after 1 January 1961, with wear of the old one prohibited after 30 June 1962.

However, the stock level was still so high that it was not introduced into the supply system until 14 July 1966. Navy Meritorious Unit CommendationThe Navy MUC was authorized by SECNAV Notice 1650 on 17 July 1967 and is awarded by the Secretary of the Navy, Chief of Naval Operations, or Commandant of the Marine Corps to any unit of the Navy or Marine Corps that has distinguished itself, under combat or non-combat conditions, by either valorous or meritorious achievement, which renders the unit outstanding compared to other units performing similar service, but not sufficient to justify award of the Navy Unit Commendation; this award may be conferred upon units of the other branches of the U. S. Armed Forces, the armed forces of friendly foreign nations serving with U. S. Armed Forces, provided such units meet the standards established for Marine Corps units. To justify this award, the unit must have performed service of a character comparable to that which would merit the award of a Bronze Star Medal, or achievement of like caliber in a non-combat situation, to an individual.

Normal performance of duty or participation in many comb

Maryland Senate

The Maryland Senate, sometimes referred to as the Maryland State Senate, is the upper house of the General Assembly, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Maryland. Composed of 47 senators elected from an equal number of constituent single-member districts, the Senate is responsible, along with the Maryland House of Delegates, for passage of laws in Maryland, for confirming executive appointments made by the Governor of Maryland, it evolved from the upper house of the colonial assembly created in 1650 when Maryland was a proprietary colony controlled by Cecilius Calvert. It consisted of the Governor and members of the Governor's appointed council. With slight variation, the body to meet in that form until 1776, when Maryland, now a state independent of British rule, passed a new constitution that created an electoral college to appoint members of the Senate; this electoral college was abolished in 1838 and members began to be directly elected from each county and Baltimore City. In 1972, because of a Supreme Court decision, the number of districts was increased to 47, the districts were balanced by population rather than being geographically determined.

To serve in the Maryland Senate, a person must be a citizen of Maryland 25 years of older. Elections for the 47 Senate seats are held every four years coincident with the federal election in which the President of the United States is not elected. Vacancies are filled through appointment by the Governor; the Senate meets for three months every year. It has been controlled by Democrats for a number of years. In the 2018 election, more than two-thirds of the Senate seats were won by Democrats. Senators elect a President to serve as presiding officer of the legislative body, as well as a President Pro Tempore; the President appoints chairs and membership of six standing committees, four legislative committees as well as the Executive Nominations and Rules Committees. When compared to other state legislatures in the United States, the Maryland Senate has one of the strongest presiding officers and some of the strongest committee chairs. Senators are organized into caucuses, including party- and demographically-based caucuses.

They are assisted in their work by paid staff of the non-partisan Department of Legislative Services and by partisan office staff. The origins of the Maryland Senate lie in the creation of an assembly during the early days of the Maryland colony; this assembly first met in 1637, making it the longest continuously operating legislative body in the United States. The assembly was unicameral, but in 1650, the Governor and his appointed council began serving as the upper house of a now bicameral legislature; these appointees had close political and economic ties to the proprietors of the Maryland colony, Cecilius Calvert and his descendants. Thus, the upper house in colonial times disagreed with the lower house, elected, tended to be more populist, pushed for greater legislative power in the colony; the upper house was abolished during the English Civil War, as Puritan governors attempted to consolidate control and prevent the return of any proprietary influence. It was again abolished by Governor Josias Fendall in 1660, who sought to create a colonial government based on an elected unicameral legislature like that of the Virginia colony.

The position of Governor was removed from the legislature in 1675, but for the following century, its function and powers remained the same. In 1776, following the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Maryland threw off proprietary control and established a new constitution. Under this new constitution, the upper house of the General Assembly first became known as the Maryland Senate; the new body consisted of fifteen Senators appointed to five-year terms by an electoral college. The college, made up of two electors from each county and one each from the cities of Baltimore and Annapolis, was limited in its selections only by the stipulation that nine Senators need be from the western shore and six from the eastern shore; the first election under the 1776 constitution took place in 1781, the system would not change again until 1838. In the interim, a number of problems had cropped up in the appointment process, the 1838 election saw the passage of a number of constitutional amendments that fundamentally changed how Senators were chosen.

The electoral college was abolished, terms were lengthened to six years with rotating elections such that a third of the senate would be elected every two years, a single Senator was chosen by direct election from each county and the City of Baltimore. The Senate no longer acted as the Governor's Council, although they would continue to confirm the Governor's appointments. Constitutional changes altered this new system in 1851, when terms were shortened to four years, 1864, when Baltimore City was given three Senate districts rather than one, but substantial change to the structure of the Senate did not come again until 1964. In 1964, the Supreme Court ruled in Reynolds v. Sims that state legislative seats must be apportioned on the principle of one man, one vote. A number of state legislatures, including Maryland, had systems based on geography rather than population, the court rules that this violated the 14th Amendment. Disproportionate population growth across Maryland since 1838 meant that the principle of one seat per county gave the voters of some counties, such as those on the eastern shore, disproportionate representation.

Other counties those in suburban areas, were underrepresented. A special session of the legislature in 1965 changed the Senate to represent 16 districts and reapp

Yugoslav gunboat Beli Orao

Beli Orao was a royal yacht built for the Royal Yugoslav Navy in 1939–1940, with the intention she would serve as an escort in wartime. She was captured by the Italians during the World War II Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, was re-armed and saw service as a gunboat in the Royal Italian Navy as Alba Zagabria, undertaking harbour protection and coastal escort duties. After the Italian armistice with the Allies in September 1943, she was handed back to the Royal Yugoslav Navy-in-exile in December of that year. After the war she remained in Yugoslav hands under the names Biokovo Jadranka, serving as a naval yacht and as a presidential yacht for the President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito, as a dispatch boat. In 1978, she was still in service as a private yacht. Beli Orao had a length overall of 65 metres, a length between perpendiculars of 60.08 m, a beam of 8.08 m, a draught of 2.84 m. She had a standard displacement of 567 tonnes, displaced 660 t at full load, she was powered by two Sulzer diesel engines driving two propellers.

Her engines were rated at 1,900 brake horsepower and were designed to drive her at a top speed of 18 knots. She was armed with two machine guns, she was ordered for service as a royal yacht for use by the regent Prince Paul during peacetime, as an escort during wartime. Built by Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico at Trieste in Italy, she was laid down on 23 December 1938, launched on 3 June 1939, completed on 29 October of that year; when Beli Orao was completed, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia had not yet been drawn into World War II. This changed with the April 1941 German-led Axis invasion of the country. At the time of the invasion, Beli Orao was located at the main Royal Yugoslav Navy fleet base at the Bay of Kotor, she was captured there by the Italians during the invasion, was put into service with the Royal Italian Navy as Alba. She was renamed Zagabria, during her service with the Italians her two 40 mm guns were replaced by two Oerlikon 20 mm L/70 guns. At the time, she was one of the largest gunboats operated by the Italians.

Like other Italian gunboats, she was employed only on harbour protection and coastal escort duties. In September 1943, the Italians negotiated an armistice with the Allies, on 7 December of that year, Beli Orao was returned by them to the Royal Yugoslav Navy-in-exile, she continued in service until the end of the war. After the war, she was renamed Biokovo and Jadranka, serving as a Yugoslav Navy yacht and as a presidential yacht for the President of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito. In 1969–1970 she was serving as a dispatch boat. In 1978, she was in private hands, still serving as a yacht. Blackman, Raymond V. B.. Jane's Fighting Ships 1969/70. London, England: Sampson Low and Company. ISBN 978-0-354-00050-5. Brescia, Maurizio. Mussolini's Navy. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59114-544-8. Chesneau, Roger, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922–1946. London, England: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-146-5. "Zagabria". Marina Militare. Italy: Italian Ministry of Defence.

2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017. Haworth, R. B.. "Bjeli Orao". Miramar Ship Index. New Zealand: R. B. Haworth. 6110710. Retrieved 5 December 2016. Jane's Information Group. Jane's Fighting Ships of World War II. London, England: Studio Editions. ISBN 978-1-85170-194-0. Niehorster, Dr. Leo. "Balkan Operations Order of Battle Royal Yugoslavian Navy 6th April 1941". Dr. Leo Niehorster. Retrieved 15 March 2017. Willmott, H. P.. The Last Century of Sea Power: From Washington to Tokyo, 1922–1945. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35214-9

Methandriol bisenanthoyl acetate

Methandriol bisenanthoyl acetate, or methylandrostenediol bisenanthoyl acetate known as 17α-methylandrost-5-ene-3,17β-diol 3,17β-di, is a synthetic, injected anabolic-androgenic steroid and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 5-androstenediol. It is an androgen ester – the C3,17β di ester of methandriol – and acts as a prodrug of methandriol in the body. Methandriol bisenanthoyl acetate is administered by intramuscular injection and, relative to methandriol, has an extended duration via this route due to a depot effect afforded by its ester. Methandriol diacetate Methandriol dipropionate Methandriol propionate Bolandiol dipropionate

Papyrus 37

Papyrus 37 designated by P 37 is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew dating to the 3rd century, sometime around 250-260 CE, due to its affinities with P 53, The correspondence of Heroninos and a letter by Kopres, it is housed at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Library, was purchased in Cairo, Egypt, in 1924. Its exact origin is unknown, but it most came from Egypt; the manuscript is a fragment of a single leaf consisting of one column of 33 lines 12.1 cm by 22.4 cm. The fragment is damaged on all sides with considerable lacunae and was originally 15 cm by 25.5 cm. The surviving text of Matthew are verses 26:19-52; this portion of Matthew depicts the Last Supper, the betrayal by Judas, the beginning of the Arrest of Jesus. The papyrus uses a cursive-like script with irregular character linking; the cursive letters resemble the cursive, common between the years 200 and 350. There are many variations in the letters, which makes a precise dating based on paleography difficult.

The writer was most literate and educated because the letters do not appear crude or imitative, but the irregularities suggest the writer was not an experienced scribe. The handwriting is similar to personal documents from the mid 3rd century. Certain nomina sacra are employed in the text. There are no accent marks. There are, dots that appear in irregular intervals, placed in the text by a hand to help reading; this suggests. Because the manuscript is so short, it is difficult to gauge the regularity of the dots, or their purpose for certain; the text-type follows Western readings. By Sander's count, there are 85 extant variants in this portion of Matthew. 18 of those readings are supported by nearly all manuscripts. 11 are unique to the manuscript. The remaining 56 fall within Western and Caesarean text-types; the text has to be reconstructed in places of lacuna by comparing the amount of space missing to the number of letters in various readings. Based on the reading variations, the text most originated in Egypt.

Aland placed this manuscript in Category I. List of New Testament papyri Matthew 26 Sanders, Henry A. An Early Papyrus Fragment of the Gospel of Matthew in the Michigan Collection, Harvard Theological Review. Vol. 19. 1926, pp. 215–226. E. von Dobschuetz, ZNW 25 p. 301. University of Michigan Library entry, with scanned images: recto verso