1812 and 1813 United States House of Representatives elections

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1812 and 1813 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1810 & 1811 August 3, 1812 – April 30, 1813 1814 & 1815 →

All 182 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
92 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Henry Clay.JPG TimothyPitkin.jpg
Leader Henry Clay Timothy Pitkin
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Kentucky 2nd Connecticut at-large
Last election 107 seats 36 seats
Seats won 114 68
Seat change Increase 7 Increase 32

Speaker before election

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 13th Congress were held at various dates in different states between April 1812 and August 1813 as James Madison was re-elected President.

Following the 1810 Census, Congress added 39 seats to the House. Most relative population growth was in the West.

After America's entry into the War of 1812 against Britain, the Democratic-Republican and Federalist parties maintained pro-war and anti-war positions, respectively. Democratic-Republican representatives supported by voters in agrarian regions and Southern and Western states promoted war, asserting that Britain had violated American sovereignty and that despite Britain's strength, war was a manageable risk. Federalists and their supporters in New England and more densely populated Eastern districts opposed the war, citing likely damage to American trade and infrastructure.

This election saw significant voter support shift to the declining Federalists for the last time, almost entirely in New England, New York, and New Jersey. Despite this shift, Federalists did not approach national political recovery, House control, or meaningful policy influence.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1810 Census, the House was reapportioned, adding 39 new seats.[1]

114 68
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type
Date
Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican
Federalist
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Kentucky District August 3, 1812 10 Increase4 10 Increase4 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 25, 1812 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
New Hampshire At-large August 31, 1812 6 Increase1 0 Decrease4 6 Increase5
Vermont At-large September 1, 1812 6 Increase2 6 Increase3 0 Decrease1
Connecticut At-large September 21, 1812 7 Steady 0 Steady 7 Steady
Louisiana At-large September 28–30, 1812 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 5, 1812 6 Increase2 6 Increase2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large October 6, 1812 2 Increase1 0 Steady 2 Increase1
Maryland Districts October 12, 1812 9 Steady 6 Steady 3 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 12–13, 1812 9 Increase1 9 Increase1 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 13, 1812 6 Increase5 6 Increase5 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts 23 Increase5 22 Increase5 1 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 5, 1812[a] 20 Increase3 4 Decrease5 16 Increase8
New York Districts December 15–17, 1812 27 Increase10 9 Decrease3 18 Increase13
New Jersey Districts January 12–13, 1813 6 Steady 2 Decrease4 4 Increase4
Late elections (After the March 4, 1813 beginning of the next Congress)
Virginia Districts April 1813 23 Increase1 17 Steady 6 Increase1
Tennessee Districts April 1–2, 1813 6 Increase3 6 Increase3 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts April 30, 1813 13 Increase1 10 Steady 3 Increase1
Total 182 Increase39 114
62.6%
Increase7 68
37.4%
Increase32
House seats
Dem-Republican
62.64%
Federalist
37.36%

Special elections[edit]

There were special elections in 1812 and 1813 to the 12th United States Congress and 13th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

12th Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Massachusetts 17 Barzillai Gannett Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent resigned in 1812.
New member elected April 6, 1812.[2][c]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated June 3, 1812.[3]
Successor later lost re-election, see below.
Georgia at-large Howell Cobb Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent resigned before October 1812 to accept a captain's commission in the U.S. Army.
New member elected October 5, 1812.[c]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated November 27, 1812.[3]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
New York 6 Robert L. Livingston Federalist 1808 Incumbent resigned to accept commission as a lieutenant colonel.
New member elected December 15–17, 1812.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated January 29, 1813.[3]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 3 Thomas Blount Democratic-Republican 1793
1798 (Lost)
1804
1808 (Lost)
1810
Incumbent died February 7, 1812.
New member elected January 11, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 30, 1813.[3]
Successor later re-elected, see below.

13th Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Pennsylvania 13 John Smilie Democratic-Republican 1792
1794 (Retired)
1798
Incumbent/member-elect died December 30, 1812.
New member elected February 16, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated May 24, 1813.[5]
Ohio 6 John S. Edwards Federalist 1812 Member-elect died February 22, 1813.
New member elected April 20, 1813.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor seated June 8, 1813.[5]
New York 15 William Dowse Federalist 1812 Member-elect died February 18, 1813.
New member elected April 27–29, 1813.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated June 21, 1813.[5]
Election was later successfully challenged by Isaac Williams Jr. (Democratic-Republican).
Kentucky 8 John Simpson Democratic-Republican 1812 Member-elect died January 22, 1813.
New member elected April 29, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated May 28, 1813.[5]
Pennsylvania 15 Abner Lacock Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent/member-elect resigned March 3, 1813 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected May 4, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated May 28, 1813.[5]
Ohio 3 Duncan McArthur Democratic-Republican 1812 Member-elect resigned April 5, 1813 to stay in the state militia.
New member elected May 10, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated June 15, 1813.[5]
Pennsylvania 5 Robert Whitehill Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Member-elect died April 8, 1813.
New member elected May 11, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated May 28, 1813.[5]
Pennsylvania 3 John Gloninger Federalist 1812 Incumbent resigned August 2, 1813.
New member elected October 12, 1813.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor seated December 6, 1813.[5]
Pennsylvania 7 John M. Hyneman Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent resigned August 2, 1813.
New member elected October 12, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 6, 1813.[5]
Georgia at-large William W. Bibb Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
New member elected December 13, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated February 7, 1814.[5]
New York 2 Egbert Benson Federalist 1789
1793 (Retired)
1812
Incumbent resigned August 2, 1813.
New member elected December 28–30, 1813.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor seated January 22, 1814.[5]

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut elected its members September 21, 1812. Its apportionment was unchanged after the 1810 census.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Benjamin Tallmadge Federalist 1801 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Timothy Pitkin Federalist 1805 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
John Davenport Federalist 1798 Incumbent re-elected.
Lewis B. Sturges Federalist 1805 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan O. Moseley Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected.
Epaphroditus Champion Federalist 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Lyman Law Federalist 1810 Incumbent re-elected.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware gained a seat after the 1810 Census, and chose to elect both seats on a general ticket. The ten years between 1813 and 1823 were the only time when Delaware was represented by more than one Representative, and is one of only three states (the other two being Alaska and Wyoming) that have never been divided into districts.

Delaware elected its members October 6, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Henry M. Ridgely Federalist 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.

Georgia[edit]

Georgia gained two seats after the 1810 Census.

Georgia elected its members October 5, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
William W. Bibb Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
George M. Troup Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Howell Cobb Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent resigned before October 1812 to accept a captain's commission in the U.S. Army.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the current term, see above.
Bolling Hall Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Illinois Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Indiana Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Kentucky[edit]

Kentucky gained four seats after the 1810 Census.

Georgia elected its members August 3, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Kentucky 2 Henry Clay
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 3 Richard M. Johnson
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 4 Joseph Desha
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 5 Anthony New
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Kentucky 7 Samuel McKee
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 8 Stephen Ormsby
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor died January 22, 1813, leading to a special election see above.
Kentucky 9 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Kentucky 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Louisiana[edit]

Louisiana held its election for the 13th Congress September 28–30, 1812, at the same time as the election for the 12th Congress, with nearly-identical results.

12th Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana at-large None (District created) New district, seat created.
New member elected September 28–30, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New member seated December 23, 1812.[3]
Member also elected the same day to the next term, see below.

13th Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Louisiana at-large None (District created) New district, seat created.
New member elected September 28–30, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor elected the same day to finish the current term, see above.

Maryland[edit]

Maryland's apportionment was unchanged. It elected its members October 12, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Maryland 1 Philip Stuart Federalist 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 2 Joseph Kent Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 3 Philip Barton Key Federalist 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Maryland 4 Samuel Ringgold Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Alexander McKim Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
Peter Little Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland 6 Stevenson Archer Democratic-Republican 1811 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 7 Robert Wright Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican) 53.7%
  • Samuel W. Thomas (Federalist) 46.3%
Maryland 8 Charles Goldsborough Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected.

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts gained three seats after the 1810 Census, all of which were added to the District of Maine. Its elections were held November 5, 1812, but since Massachusetts law required a majority for election, which was not met in the 19th district, a second ballot was held there January 6, 1813.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
"Suffolk district"
Josiah Quincy Federalist 1804 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts 2
"Essex South district"
William Reed Federalist 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 3
"Essex North district"
Leonard White Federalist 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts 4
"Middlesex district"
William M. Richardson Democratic-Republican 1811 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5
"Hampshire South district"
William Ely Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William Ely (Federalist) 67.5%
  • Enos Foot (Democratic-Republican) 19.6%
  • Joseph Lyman (Federalist) 11.3%
  • Samuel Fowler (Democratic-Republican) 1.6%
Massachusetts 6
"Hampshire North district"
Samuel Taggart Federalist 1803 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Samuel Taggart (Federalist) 87.3%
  • Solomon Snead (Democratic-Republican) 9.3%
  • Joseph Rice (Federalist) 3.4%
Massachusetts 7
"Plymouth district"
Charles Turner Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 8
"Barnstable district"
Isaiah L. Green Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 9
"Bristol district"
Laban Wheaton Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Laban Wheaton (Federalist) 60.2%
  • John Hawes (Democratic-Republican) 39.8%
Massachusetts 10
"Worcester South district"
Elijah Brigham Federalist 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 11
"Worcester North district"
Abijah Bigelow Federalist 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Abijah Bigelow (Federalist) 76.6%
  • Edmund Cushing (Democratic-Republican) 23.4%
Massachusetts 12
"Berkshire district"
Ezekiel Bacon Democratic-Republican 1807 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY Daniel Dewey (Federalist) 53.4%
  • Samuel Wheeler (Democratic-Republican) 46.6%
Massachusetts 13
"Norfolk district"
Ebenezer Seaver Democratic-Republican 1802 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 14
"1st Eastern district", District of Maine
Richard Cutts Democratic-Republican 1801 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 15
"2nd Eastern district", District of Maine
William Widgery Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 16
"3rd Eastern district", District of Maine
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 17
"4th Eastern district", District of Maine
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Abiel Wood (Democratic-Republican) 85.5%
  • Joshua Head (Federalist) 5.8%
  • Others 8.8%
Massachusetts 18
"5th Eastern district", District of Maine
Francis Carr
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic-Republican 1812 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 19
"6th Eastern district", District of Maine
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (November 5, 1812):
James Parker (Democratic-Republican) 49.3%
Thomas Rice (Federalist) 49.0%
Others 1.7%

Second ballot (January 6, 1813):
nowrap |
Massachusetts 20
"7th Eastern district", District of Maine
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Levi Hubbard (Democratic-Republican) 52.6%
  • Ebenezer Fessenden (Federalist) 47.4%

Mississippi Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Missouri Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire gained one seat after the 1810 Census. Its elections were held August 31, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Josiah Bartlett Jr. Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Samuel Dinsmoor Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Obed Hall Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
John Adams Harper Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
George Sullivan Federalist 1811 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey kept its delegation at six seats but changed from electing its Representatives on a statewide general ticket to using three plural districts of two seats each. These districts were used only for the 1812 election, and These districts were used only for the 1812 electionThese districts were used only for the 1812 electionthe state returned to using a single at-large district in 1814. This was only the second time that New Jersey used districts (the first being in 1798).

There was a statewide at-large election held in November 1812, that was invalidated:

In October 1812, when the Federalists captured the State Legislature, both parties had already nominated their tickets for Presidential Electors and Congress. That election was scheduled for November 1812. However, … the Federalist[s], now controlling the legislature, changed the method of selecting Presidential Electors, from popular vote, to a choice by the Legislature and as a result the election for Presidential Electors was invalidated. In addition to changing the method of choosing Presidential electors, the Federalist also decided to alter the election of congressmen from state wide At-Large to Districts. The scheduled November elections were postponed and three separate Districts were created, each electing two Congressmen. This election was held January 12th and 13th 1813. Some towns, either because word of the these changes did not reach them in time, or most likely in defiance, went ahead and held elections. The Republican ticket received almost all of the votes cast, with the Federalist getting only a single votes in two towns, which suggests they were protesting the changes made by the Legislature. These returns were never reported in the newspapers.

— "New Jersey 1812 U.S. House of Representatives (Note 1)". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1
"Northern district" Plural district with 2 seats
Lewis Condict
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Lewis Condict (Democratic-Republican) 38.8%
  • Green tickY Thomas Ward (Democratic-Republican) 38.3%
  • Jacob S. Thompson (Federalist) 11.3%
  • John M. Cumming (Federalist) 9.7%
  • Adam Boyd (Federalist) 2.0%
Adam Boyd
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1803
1804 (Retired)
1808 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New Jersey 2
"Central district" Plural district with 2 seats
James Morgan
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
George C. Maxwell
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New Jersey 3
"Southern district" Plural district with 2 seats
Thomas Newbold
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Jacob Hufty
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected as a Federalist.
Federalist gain.

New York[edit]

Ten seats were added after the 1810 Census, bringing New York's representation to 27, the largest of any state at the time. New York would remain the state with the most members until surpassed by California in the 1970 Census. There were two separate House of Representatives elections in 1812. The first was held in April 1812 for an un-reapportioned 17 representatives. This election was subsequently declared void and a new election was held on December 15–17, 1812, in which only three incumbents ran and two of whom were re-elected. New York thereby lost 4 Democratic-Republicans and gained 14 Federalists.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
Plural district with 2 seats
Ebenezer Sage Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Results of the election were contested but no action was taken by the House.
None (Second seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel L. Mitchill Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
William Paulding Jr. Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 3 Pierre Van Cortlandt Jr. Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 4 James Emott Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
  • Green tickY Thomas J. Oakley (Federalist) 57.3%
  • Theodorus R. Van Wyck (Democratic-Republican) 42.7%
New York 5 Robert L. Livingston
Redistricted from the 6th district (Second seat)
Federalist 1808 Incumbent resigned May 6, 1812 to accept a commission as a lieutenant colonel.
Federalist hold.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the term, see above.
Thomas B. Cooke Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican loss.
New York 6 Asa Fitch Federalist 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Jonathan Fisk (Democratic-Republican) 51.4%
  • John Bradner (Federalist)28.4%
  • Anthony Davis (Federalist) 20.1%
New York 7 Harmanus Bleecker Federalist 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 8 Benjamin Pond Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 9 Thomas Sammons Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 10 Silas Stow Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 11 Thomas R. Gold Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John W. Taylor (Democratic-Republican) 52.8%
  • Samuel Stewart (Federalist) 47.2%
New York 12
Plural district with 2 seats
Arunah Metcalf Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
None (Second seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 13 Uri Tracy Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 14 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY Jacob Markell (Federalist) 55.6%
  • James McIntyre (Democratic-Republican) 44.4%
New York 15
Plural district with 2 seats
Peter B. Porter Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY Joel Thompson (Federalist) 26.7%
  • Green tickY William Dowse (Federalist) 26.4%
  • Robert Roseboom (Democratic-Republican) 23.5%
  • Amos Patterson (Democratic-Republican) 23.4%
None (second seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 16 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY Morris S. Miller (Federalist) 63.3%
  • George Brayton (Democratic-Republican) 36.7%
New York 17 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY William S. Smith (Federalist) 56.9%
  • Hubbard Smith (Democratic-Republican) 43.1%
New York 18 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 19 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 20
Plural district with 2 seats
Daniel Avery
Redistricted from 14th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Second seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 21
Plural district with 2 seats
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
None (Second seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.

North Carolina[edit]

North Carolina gained one representative as a result of the Census of 1810. Its elections were held April 30, 1813, after the term began but before Congress's first meeting.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1 Lemuel Sawyer Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 2 Willis Alston Democratic-Republican 1798 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Willis Alston (Democratic-Republican) 56.0%
  • Daniel Mason (Federalist) 44.0%
North Carolina 3 William Kennedy Democratic-Republican 1803
1813 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 4 William Blackledge Democratic-Republican 1803
1810
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
North Carolina 5 William R. King Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 6 Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 7 Archibald McBryde Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
North Carolina 8 Richard Stanford Democratic-Republican 1796 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Richard Stanford (Democratic-Republican) 61.7%
  • James Mebane (Democratic-Republican) 38.2%
North Carolina 9 James Cochran Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Bartlett Yancey (Democratic-Republican) 61.1%
  • James Martin (Federalist) 38.9%
North Carolina 10 Joseph Pearson Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Joseph Pearson (Federalist) 54.1%
  • Alexander Gary (Democratic-Republican) 45.9%
North Carolina 11 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Peter Forney (Democratic-Republican) 50.5%
  • John Phifer (Federalist) 49.5%
North Carolina 12 Israel Pickens
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 13 Meshack Franklin
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.

Ohio[edit]

The 1810 Census revealed dramatic population growth in Ohio since 1800, resulting in its representation increasing from a single Representative to six, resulting in the State being broken up into 6 districts, abolishing the at-large district. Jeremiah Morrow (Democratic-Republican), who had served since Ohio achieved statehood in 1803, retired to run for U.S. Senator, so that all six seats were open. Its elections were held October 13, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Ohio 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John McLean (Democratic-Republican) 71.3%
  • Ethan Stone (Federalist) 16.6%
  • John Bigger (Federalist) 10.7%
  • Othneil Looker (Democratic-Republican) 1.4%
Ohio 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor resigned April 5, 1813, after the new Congress began but before it first met, leading to a special election, see above.
Ohio 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

There was aspecial election in the 6th district, held due to the death of Representative-elect John S. Edward before Congress met. That election was won by Reasin Beall.

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania gained five seats in the House of Representatives as a result of the Census of 1810, which awarded it a total of 23 seats. Pennsylvania was re-districted into 15 districts, one with 4 seats, five with 2, and the remaining nine with 1 seat each. There were seven open seats for this election, five resulting from the increase in apportionment, and two resulting from the retirement of incumbents. Its elections were held October 13, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[8]
Pennsylvania 1
Plural district with 4 seats
Adam Seybert Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
William Anderson Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
James Milnor Federalist 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Roger Davis
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Roberts Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 3
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph Lefever Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor later resigned, leading to a special election.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Successor later resigned, leading to a special election.
Pennsylvania 4 None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Hugh Glasgow (Democratic-Republican) 58.6%
  • Jacob Eichelberger (Federalist) 41.4%
Pennsylvania 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Robert Whitehill
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
William Crawford
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 6
Plural district with 2 seats
Robert Brown
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1798 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
William Rodman
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 7 John M. Hyneman
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John M. Hyneman (Democratic-Republican) 59.4%
  • Daniel Rose (Federalist) 40.6%
Pennsylvania 8 William Piper
Redistricted from the 7th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William Piper (Democratic-Republican) 63.5%
  • Samuel Riddle (Federalist) 36.5%
Pennsylvania 9 David Bard
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1802 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY David Bard (Democratic-Republican) 76.0%
  • John Blair (Federalist) 24.0%
Pennsylvania 10
Plural district with 2 seats
George Smith
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 11 William Findley
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1802 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William Findley (Democratic-Republican) 55.3%
  • Thomas Pollock (Federalist) 44.7%
Pennsylvania 12 Aaron Lyle
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Aaron Lyle (Democratic-Republican) 73.5%
  • Joseph Pentecost (Federalist) 25.1%
  • Thomas L. Burch (Democratic-Republican) 1.5%
Pennsylvania 13 John Smilie
Redistricted from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1792
1794 (Retired)
1798
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Smilie (Democratic-Republican) 60.4%
  • Thomas Meason (Federalist) 39.6%
Pennsylvania 14 None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 15 Abner Lacock
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island's apportionment was unchanged. Its elections were held August 25, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Richard Jackson Jr. Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
Elisha R. Potter Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected.

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina gained one representative as a result of the 1810 Census, increasing from 8 seats to 9. Its elections were held October 12–13, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
"Charleston district"
Langdon Cheves Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2
"Beaufort district"
William Lowndes
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3
"Georgetown district"
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
South Carolina 4
"Orangeburgh district"
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John J. Chappell (Democratic-Republican) 63.1%
  • Edmund Bacon (Democratic-Republican) 29.5%
  • John Bynum (Democratic-Republican) 7.4%
South Carolina 5
"Newberry district"
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
South Carolina 6
"Abbeville district"
John C. Calhoun Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7
"Pendleton district"
Elias Earle
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special)
1806 (Lost)
1810
Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 8
"Chester district"
Thomas Moore
Redistricted from the 7th district
Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
South Carolina 9
"Sumter district"
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee's representation increased from 3 seats to 6 as a result of the 1810 Census.

Its elections were held April 1–2, 1813, after the term began but before Congress's first meeting.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Tennessee 1 John Rhea Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Rhea (Democratic-Republican)
  • Unopposed
Tennessee 2 John Sevier Democratic-Republican 1790 (in North Carolina)
1790 (Retired)
1811
Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
The difference between the top two candidates was a single vote. William Kelly unsuccessfully contested the election.
  • Green tickY Thomas K. Harris (Democratic-Republican) 31.3%
  • William Kelly 31.3%
  • James Rogers 21.9%
  • Bird Smith 11.9%
  • James R. Rogers 3.5%
Tennessee 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee 5 Felix Grundy
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Vermont[edit]

Vermont gained two seats after the 1810 Census. Rather than re-district, however, Vermont replaced its districts with a single at-large district. It would continue to use an at-large district in 1814, 1816, and 1818, then one more time in 1822 (with 5 seats).

Its elections were held September 1, 1812.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Samuel Shaw
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Strong
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
James Fisk
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1805
1808 (Lost)
1810
Incumbent re-elected.
Martin Chittenden
Redistricted from the 4th district
Federalist 1802 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Virginia[edit]

Virginia gained one seat after the 1810 Census, bringing its representation in the House of Representatives to 23 seats, the largest number Virginia would ever have. Virginia went from having the most representatives to having the second-most tied with Pennsylvania. New York, with its 27 seats, surpassed Virginia and remained the most populous state until the late 1960s.

Its elections were held in April 1813, after the term began but before Congress's first meeting.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[b]
Virginia 1 Thomas Wilson Federalist 1811 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Virginia 2 John Baker Federalist 1811 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Virginia 3 John Smith Democratic-Republican 1801 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 4 William McCoy Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William McCoy (Democratic-Republican) 57.1%
  • Samuel Blackburn (Federalist) 42.9%
Virginia 5 James Breckinridge Federalist 1809 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 6 Daniel Sheffey Federalist 1809 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Daniel Sheffey (Federalist) 74.3%
  • Edward Campbell (Democratic-Republican) 25.7%
Virginia 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Virginia 8 Joseph Lewis Jr.
Redistricted from the 7th district
Federalist 1803 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 9 John Taliaferro
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1801
1803 (Retired)
1811
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Incumbent later unsuccessfully challenged the results.
Virginia 10 Aylett Hawes
Redistricted from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 11 John Dawson
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic-Republican 1797 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Dawson (Democratic-Republican) 97.7%
  • Stapleton Crutchfield 1.2%
Virginia 12 John Roane
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1809 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Roane (Democratic-Republican) 73.0%
  • James Hunter (Federalist) 26.8%
Virginia 13 Burwell Bassett
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic-Republican 1805 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Virginia 14 William A. Burwell
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic-Republican 1806 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 15 Matthew Clay
Redistricted from the 14th district
Democratic-Republican 1797 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY John Kerr (Democratic-Republican) 46.4%
  • Matthew Clay (Democratic-Republican) 34.0%
  • William Rice (Federalist) 19.6%
Virginia 16 John Randolph
Redistricted from the 15th district
Democratic-Republican 1799 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia 17 James Pleasants
Redistricted from the 16th district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 18 Thomas Gholson Jr.
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic-Republican 1808 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 19 Peterson Goodwyn
Redistricted from the 18th district
Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 20 Edwin Gray
Redistricted from the 19th district
Democratic-Republican 1799 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia 21 Thomas Newton Jr.
Redistricted from the 20th district
Democratic-Republican 1799 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Thomas Newton Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 64.8%
  • Swepson Whitehead (Federalist) 35.2%
Virginia 22 Hugh Nelson
Redistricted from the 21st district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 23 John Clopton
Redistricted from the 22nd district
Democratic-Republican 1801 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Clopton (Democratic-Republican) 63.2%
  • Richard M. Morris (Federalist)

Non-voting delegates[edit]

Four territories had delegates in the 13th Congress: Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, and Missouri. Illinois Territory and Missouri Territory elected their delegates in 1812 for both the end of the 12th and the start of the 13th Congresses.

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois Territory at-large None (District created) Illinois Territory had been created in 1809, but was not awarded a delegate until 1812.
New delegate elected on an unknown date.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New delegate seated December 3, 1812.[3]
Indiana Territory at-large Jonathan Jennings Democratic-Republican 1809 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi Territory at-large George Poindexter Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Missouri Territory at-large None (District created) Missouri Territory was created in 1812 when Louisiana became a state.
New delegate elected on an unknown date.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New delegate seated January 4, 1813.[3]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Massachusetts law required a majority to elect, which was not met in the 19th district, so a second election was held January 6, 1813.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  3. ^ a b Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election (source: Congressional Biographical Directory). In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.
  4. ^ Party affiliation not listed in source.
  5. ^ Detailed records not available, said to have won "by a small margin."
  6. ^ Vote counts not available, won by a margin of 62 votes.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source.
  8. ^ Changed parties
  9. ^ Percent based on partial returns.
  10. ^ Vote totals unavailable, source states that Gourdin won by 174 votes.
  11. ^ Source does not give full name.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stat. 669
  2. ^ Dubin, Michael J. (1998). 1788–1997 United States Congressional Elections: The Official Results. McFarland and Company.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "12th Congress March 4, 1811, to March 3, 1813". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  4. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Thirteenth Congress March 4, 1813, to March 3, 1815". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  6. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. House of Representatives, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 12, 2018., although listed in the source as a "special" election, it was a regular or "initial" election for the 12th Congress.
  7. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  8. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  9. ^ South Carolina-Beaufort 1812
  10. ^ Sobel, Robert; Raimo, John (1978). Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789–1978. 1. Westport, Connecticut: Meckler Books. p. 365. ISBN 9780930466008.
  11. ^ "Missouri 1812 U.S. House of Representatives (Territorial Delegate)". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 13, 2018.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]