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Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne

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Earldom of Strathmore and Kinghorne
Quarterly: 1st and 4th, Argent a Lion rampant Azure armed and langued Gules within a Double Tressure flory counterflory of the second (for Lyon); 3rd and 4th, Ermine three Bows strings palewise proper (for Bowes); as a Royal Augmentation, granted to the holder of the Earldom only, an Inescutcheon en surtout Azure thereon a Rose Argent barbed Vert seeded Or ensigned with an Imperial Crown proper within a Double Tressure flory counterflory of the second, the said Inescutcheon ensigned with an Earl's Coronet proper.
Creation date1606 (Scottish title)
1937 (British title)
PeeragePeerage of Scotland (1606)
Peerage of the United Kingdom (1937)
First holderPatrick Lyon, 1st Earl of Kinghorne
Present holderSimon Bowes-Lyon, 19th and 6th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
Heir presumptiveThe Hon. John Fergus Bowes-Lyon
Subsidiary titlesViscount Lyon
Lord Lyon and Glamis
Lord Glamis
Lord Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Strathdichtie
Baron Bowes
Seat(s)Glamis Castle
Former seat(s)Gibside
Streatlam Castle
St Paul's Walden Bury
MottoIn Te Domine Speravi ("In Thee, O Lord, have I put my trust")

Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne is a title in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The earl is also Chief of Clan Lyon.

History[edit]

The established history of Clan Lyon states that the family is of French origin, with the original name de Leonne, but James Balfour Paul, in his Scots Peerage, states that the family is likely of Celtic origin. The family's earliest recorded possessions, the thanages of Glamis, Glamis, Tannadyce and Belhelvies, were in a Celtic stronghold, while government positions held by family chiefs would have required fluency in Gaelic.[1]

The first recorded family member, John Lyon, Lord of Glamis, was a courtier and diplomat, who was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1371 on the accession of Robert II. He acquired significant lands, and on 18 March 1372, Robert II granted him "the free barony of Glamuyss in the sheriffdom of Forfar." Glamis has remained the seat of the family ever since.[1] His descendant Patrick Lyon, 1st Lord Glamis was created the first Lord Glamis in the Peerage of Scotland in 1445.

In 1606, the earldom was first created as Earl of Kinghorne in the Peerage of Scotland for Patrick Lyon, the ninth Lord Glamis, who was also created Lord Lyon and Glamis at the same time. In 1677, the designation of the earldom was changed to "Strathmore and Kinghorne" for Patrick Lyon, the third Earl. He was also granted the subsidiary titles of Viscount Lyon and Lord of Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Strathdichtie. The 10th Earl sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish representative peer from 1796 to 1806, and again from 1807 to 1812. In 1815, he was created Baron Bowes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, but upon his death five years later without legitimate issue, the peerage became extinct. The Scottish peerages were inherited by his younger brother, the 11th Earl.

The 11th Earl was succeeded by his grandson, the 12th Earl, who also sat in the House of Lords as a representative peer from 1852 to 1865. He married but left no children, and the peerages were inherited by his brother, the 13th Earl, who sat in the Lords as a representative peer from 1870 until 1892. In 1887, he was created Baron Bowes of Streatlam Castle, in the County of Durham, and of Lunedale, in the County of York, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. This gave him and his successors an automatic seat in the House of Lords, which the earldom did not entitle them to until the Peerage Act 1963, which extended that right to all holders of Scottish peerages. The 13th Earl was succeeded by his son, the 14th Earl, who in 1937 was created Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, leading to his becoming the 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

The eldest son of the earl uses Lord Glamis as a courtesy title. Normally, the highest subsidiary title (in this case Viscount Lyon) would be used, but Lord Glamis is used instead to prevent confusion with the officer of arms, Lord Lyon King of Arms.[2] Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (1900–2002) was the daughter of the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and the sister of the 15th Earl.

The family seat is Glamis Castle, in Angus, Scotland. Other family seats were Gibside, near Burnopfield, County Durham and Streatlam Castle, near Barnard Castle in County Durham. The traditional burial place of the Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne is in an aisle of Glamis parish church.[3]

Thanes of Glamis (1372)[edit]

Masters of Glamis[edit]

Lord Glamis (1445)[edit]

Earls of Kinghorne (1606)[edit]

Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne (1677)[edit]

The heir presumptive is the present’s holder's younger brother Hon. John Fergus Bowes-Lyon (b. 1988)
The heir presumptive’s heir apparent is his son, Albemarle John Bowes-Lyon (b. 2023)

Line of succession[edit]

Arms[edit]

Coat of arms of the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
Crest
Between two Slips of Laurel a Demi Lady to the girdle habited and holding in her right hand a Thistle all prope.
Escutcheon
Quarterly: 1st and 4th, Argent a Lion rampant Azure armed and langued Gules within a Double Tressure flory counterflory of the second (for Lyon); 3rd and 4th, Ermine three Bows strings palewise proper (for Bowes); as a Royal Augmentation, granted to the holder of the Earldom only, an Inescutcheon en surtout Azure thereon a Rose Argent barbed Vert seeded Or ensigned with an Imperial Crown proper within a Double Tressure flory counterflory of the second, the said Inescutcheon ensigned with an Earl's Coronet proper.
Supporters
On the dexter side an Unicorn Argent armed unguled maned and tufted Or, and on the sinister side a Lion per fess Or and Gules.
Motto
In Te Domine Speravi (In Thee, O Lord, have I put my trust)
Symbolism
The Arms of the Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne are famous for being canting as they represent the name of the holders of the title: Bowes-Lyon in that they feature bows and lions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Balfour Paul, Sir James (1904). The Scots Peerage. Vol. XIII. Edinburgh: D. Douglas. pp. 262–268.
  2. ^ "Will the real Lord Lyon please stand up!" (PDF). The Armorial Register Newsletter. 1 (3). The Armorial Register Ltd: 1. November 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
  3. ^ Neale, John Preston; Moule, Thomas (1822). Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen, in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Sherwood, Jones and Company. p. 279. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  4. ^ "18th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon". The Courier (Dundee). 29 February 2016. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.