Nilotic languages - Wikipedia

Nilotic languages

The Nilotic languages are a group of related languages spoken across a wide area between South Sudan and Tanzania by the Nilotic peoples, who traditionally practice cattle-herding.

Nilotic
Geographic
distribution
Southwestern Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan, northeastern Congo (DRC), northern/eastern Uganda, western/southern Kenya and northern Tanzania
Linguistic classificationNilo-Saharan?
Subdivisions
Glottolognilo1247[1]
Nilotic languages.png
Region where Nilotic languages are spoken

EtymologyEdit

The word Nilotic means of or relating to the Nile River or to the Nile region of Africa.[2]

DemographicsEdit

Nilotic peoples, who are the native speakers of the languages, originally migrated from the Gezira area in Sudan. Nilotic language speakers live in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.[3]

SubdivisionsEdit

According to linguist Joseph Greenberg, the language family is divided up into three subgroups:[4]

Before Greenberg's reclassification, Nilotic was used to refer to Western Nilotic alone, with the other two being grouped as related "Nilo-Hamitic" languages.[5]

Blench (2012) treats the Burun languages as a fourth subgroup of Nilotic.[6] In previous classifications, the languages were included within the Luo languages. Starostin (2015) treats the Mabaan-Burun languages as "West Nilotic" but outside the Luo level.[7]

ReconstructionEdit

Over 200 Proto-Nilotic lexical roots have been reconstructed by Dimmendaal (1988).[8] Dimmendaal reconstructs the proto Nilotic consonants as follows:

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Plosive voiceless p t c k (q)
voiced b d (ɟ) ɡ
Fricative s ʀ
Implosive ɓ ɗ ʄ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant j w

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[9]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Eastern, Bari Bari ɡɛ́lɛ̀ŋ mʊ̀rɛ́k mʊ̀sálà ɪ́ŋwàn mʊ̀kánàt búkɛ̀r búryò búdö̀k bʊ́ŋwàn púwö̀k
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo Lopit F/ M nàbóìtóì / lòbóìtóì lòhórìk, arik lòhúnìk lóŋwán mìyét (litː < 'hand') ile hatarik (5 + 2) hotohunɪk (5 + 3) hotoŋwan (5 + 4) tomon
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo Lotuho (Lotuxo) (1) ábótè áréhè húníhe áŋwàn mìyyàt (litː < 'hand') ɪ́lle hàtmɪk (5 + 2) hùtohunɪk (5 + 3) hùtoŋwan (5 + 4) tòmmòn
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo Lotuho (Lotuxo) (2) ʌ̀bóíté / âbotye ʌ̀ríxèy / árrexai xúnixòì / xunixoi aŋwân míèt < 'hand' ɪ́llɛ́ xáttàrɪ̀k (5 + 2) xóttóxúnìk (5 + 3) xɔ́ttɔ́ŋwàn (5 + 4) tɔ́mɔ̀n
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa Maasai nabô (fem), obô (masc), nebô (place) aré (fem), aàre/ɔáre (masc) uní (fem), okúni (masc) oŋwán (fem), oóŋwan (masc) ímíêt ílɛ̂ / íllɛ̂ naápishana (f.), oópishana (m.) ísíêt < Kalenjin naáudo (fem), oódó (masc) tɔ́mɔ̂n < Kalenjin
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa Samburu naɓô (fem), oɓô (masc), noɓô (place) aré (fem), waáre (masc) uní (fem), okúni (masc) onɠwán (fem), oónɠwan (masc) ímɟêt / ímʄêt ílê sápâ ísɟêt / ísʄêt < Kalenjin sâːl tômôn < Kalenjin
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Teso (Ateso) (1) ìdʸòpét ìɑɾè íwúní íwóŋón íkɑ̀ɲ íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂pè (5 + 1) íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂ɾè (5 + 2) íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂wùní (5 + 3) íkɑ̀ɲɑ̂wòŋòn (5 + 4) ítòmòn
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Teso (Ateso) (2) -diope -árèy -(w)únì -oŋôn -kaɲ < 'hand' kaɲ kape (5 + 1) kaɲ karey (5 + 2) kaɲ kauni (5 + 3) kaɲ kaoŋon (5 + 4) tɔ́mɔ̀n
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Karamojong (Dodotho) (1) ɲípéí ŋíááréí ŋúúní ŋóómwán ŋííkan (< hand) ŋíkan ka péí (5 + 1) ŋíkan ka áréí (5 + 2) ŋíkan ka úní (5 + 3) ŋíkan ko ómwán (5 + 4) ŋítomón
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Karamojong (2) ɛpei ŋiarei ŋiuni ŋiomwɔn ŋikan < hand ŋíkàn kà-pei (5 + 1) ŋíkàn kà-arei (5 + 2) ŋíkàn kà-uni (5 + 3) ŋíkàn kà-omwɔn (5 + 4) ŋítɔ̀mɔ́n
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Nyangatom a-péy ̀ ŋa-áréy ̀ ŋa-uní ̀ ŋa-omwɔn ̀ ŋa-kànɪ (litː hand) ŋa-kanɪ̀ ka-pey (5 + 1) ŋa-kanɪ̀ ka-arey (5 + 2) ŋa-kanɪ ka-uni (5 + 3) ŋa-kanɪ ka-omwɔn (5 + 4) ŋa-tɔ̀mɔn
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Toposa péì áréì ʊ́nì ɔ́ŋwɔ́n kànì̥ < hand kànì̥ kà-péì (5 + 1) kànì̥ kà-àréì (5 + 2) kànì̥ kà-ʊ́ní (5 + 3) kànì̥ kà-ɔ́ŋwɔ́n (5 + 4) tɔ̀mɔ́ní̥
Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Turkana a-péy ̀ ŋa-áréy ̀ ŋa-úní ̀ ŋa-ómwɔ̀n ̀ ŋa-kànɪ̥ < hand ŋa-kanɪ ka-péy (5 + 1) ŋa-kanɪ ka-áréy (5 + 2) ŋa-kanɪ ka-úní (5 + 3) ŋa-kanɪ ka-ómwɔ̀n (5 + 4) ŋa-tɔ̀mɔn
Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon Kupsabiny (Sebei) aɡeenɡe [akɛ́ːŋkɛ] äyëëny [ɑréːɲ] sömök [sómok] anɡʼwan [aŋwán] müüt [múːt] müüt äk aɡeenɡe [múːt ɑk akɛ́ːŋkɛ] müüt äk äyëëny (5 + 2) müüt äk sömök (5 + 3) müüt äk anɡʼwan (5 + 4) taman [támán]
Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon Sabaot (Koony dialect) akeenke [ aɡɛ́ːŋɡɛ] āyēēnɡʼ [ɑyéːŋ] sōmōk [sómok] anɡʼwan [aŋwán] mūūt / muut [múːt] lo [lɑ] tisab [tɪ́sap] sisiit [sɪsɪ́ːt] sokool [sɑ́kɑːl] taman [támán]
Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Markweta Cherang'any àkɛ́ɛ́ŋkɛ̀ ʌ́yíín sómòk áŋwaan múút lɔ̀ tɪsáp sìsít sʌ́ɡʌ́l támán
Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Markweta Endo (Marakwet) ɒ́kɔ́ːŋɔ ərèːɲ sómók ɒ́ŋwɒ̀n mùːt lɔ́ tɪ́sɔ́p sisíːt sɔkɔ̀ːl tɒmɒn
Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi Keiyo àkɛ́ŋɡɛ̂ / àɛ́ŋɡɛ̂ aɛ́ːŋ /aɛ́ːɲ sɔ̀mɔ̂k àŋwàn mʊ́ːt lɔ̂ tɪ̀sâp sɪ̀sɪ́ːt sɔ́kɔ́ːl támán
Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi Tugen àɣééɲɡé àééɲ sómók àɲwán múút tísáp sìsíít sóɣóòl tàmán
Southern, Kalenjin, Okiek Akie (Okiek) akɛɛnkɛ ayen somok aŋwàn mʊ́ʊ́t ílɛ nápíʃana ísíêt náúdo taman
Southern, Kalenjin, Pokot Pökoot (Suk) àkɔ́ɔ́ŋkɔ̀ oɣë̀ë̀ŋ / òdë̀ë̀ŋ sä́mä́k àŋwân múut múut ŋɡɔ́ àkɔ́ɔ́ŋɔ̀ (5 + 1) múut ŋɡɔ́ òdë̀ë̀ŋ (5 + 2) múut ŋɡɔ́ sä́mä́k (5 + 3) múut ŋɡɔ́ àŋwân (5 + 4) támàn
Southern, Tatoga Asimjeeg Datooga (1) àkàlɛːlɛ̀ː / ák / (àqàlɛːlɛ̀ː) íjèɲ sàmòɡw àŋwàn mùːt ísːpò sìs ʃàɡàʃ dàmàn
Southern, Tatoga Datooga (2) ɑ̀ɡi íiyèeɲɑ sɑ́mɑ̀ɡu ɑ́ŋwɑ́n mʊ̀ʊt lɑ́ íispɑ̀ sís ʃɑ́ɡɛ̀ɛʃ dɑ̀mɑ́nɑ́mʊ́qʊ̀ʊʃ
Southern, Tatoga Datooga (3) ʔàɡi íyèeɲa sàmàɡu ʔàŋwàn mùuti ~ bánàakta mùuti làh ìsbà ~ isbwà sìss ~ sìs ʃàɡèeʃʃ ~ ʃàɡèeʃ dàmáná múqùuʃ
Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka Dinka Agaar ʈɔ́k rɔ́ʷ dʲák ŋʊ̀ʷân ðíɟ ðɛ̀ʈem ðɜ̀rʊ́ʷ bɛ̀ʈ ðɔ̀ŋʊ́ʷàn t̪íʲàːr
Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka Dinka Padang tò̤k ròw dyá̤k ŋwán d̪yì̤c d̪ètém d̪ɔ̀rɔ́w bɛ̤́t d̪ɔ̀ŋwán t̪yɛ́ɛ̀r
Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer Nuer (1) kɛ̀ːl rɜ̀ʷ dɪʲɔ̂k ŋʊ́ʷǎn ðɪ́ʲɛ̀ɟ bakɛ̀l (5 + 1) bàraʷ (5 + 2) bɛ̀dak (5 + 3) bɜ̀ŋʊ́ʷǎn (5 + 4) wɜ́ːl
Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer Nuer (2) kɛ́ɛ̀l rɛ̌w dyɔ̌k ŋwán d̪yè̤c bʌ̤́kɛ̀l (5 + 1) bʌ̤rɔ̀w (5 + 2) bʌ̤̀dá̤k (5 + 3) bʌ̤́ŋwàn (5 + 4) wá̤l
Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak Anuak(Anyua) (1) àcíɛ̀l àríyɔ̀ àdʌ́k àŋwɛ́ɛ́n àbíc àbícìɛ̀l (5+ 1) àbíríyɔ̀ (5+ 2) àbárà (5+ 3) àbíŋwɛ̀ɛ̀n (5+ 4) àpár
Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak Anuak (2) aciel / acíɛ̀l ariio̤ / aríɪàw ada̤k / adʌ́ɡ aŋween / aŋwɛ́ɛn abi̤i̤c / abíiɟ abi̤ciel / abícíɛ̀l (5+ 1) abi̤riio̤ /abíríɪàw (5+ 2) aba̤ra / abʌ́rʌ́ (5+ 3) abi̤ŋween / abíŋwɛ̀ɛn (5+ 4) apaar / apáar
Western, Luo, Northern, Bor Belanda Bor ákɛɛ̂l arɛ̂w àdéɡ àŋwɛ́n àbíc àbíc kúkɛ́l (5+ 1) àbíc kúrɛ̂w (5+ 2) àbíc kùdēēk (5+ 3) àbíc kúŋwɛ̂n (5+ 4) áfaàr
Western, Luo, Northern, Jur Luwo áciɛ̄lɔ́ á̟riɔ̄w á̟dá̟ɡ áŋwɛ̄ːn àbī̟ːj ábíciɛ̄l (5 + 1) ábɛ́riɔ̄w (5 + 2) á̟bɛ̟́dā̟ɡ (5 + 3) ábɛ́ŋwɛ̄ːn (5 + 4) āpāːr
Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Burun Burun (Mayak) kɛɛl / kɛ̀ɛl rɛɛ / rɛ̄ ɖʌk /ɖʌ̄k ŋan / ŋān d̪oc / dōoc ɖowk /ɖɔ́ùk ŋat̪ukɛl / ŋàtúkɛ́l ŋunu / ŋɔ̀nʊ́ ɟucukɛl / ɲùcúkɛ́l caac / cáac
Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan Mabaan cyɛ́ɛlɔ̀ yɛ́ɛwɔ̀ ɗɔ́ɔ́ɡɔ́ ŋáánɔ̀ d̪ɔ́ɔ́yɔ̀ d̪ɔ́ɔ́yɔ̀ wílin nè cyɛ́ɛlɔ̀ (5 + 1) d̪ɔ́ɔ́yɔ̀ wítkɛ̀n nè yɛ́ɛwɔ̀ (5 + 2) d̪ɔ́ɔ́yɔ̀ wítkɛ̀n nè ɗɔ́ɔ́ɡɔ́ (5 + 3) d̪ɔ́ɔ́yɔ̀ wítkɛ̀n nè ŋáánɔ̀ (5 + 4) ínyáákkɛ̀n (lit: both hands)
Western, Luo, Northern, Shilluk Shilluk àkjɛ̀l áɾjɛ̀w ádə̀k áŋwɛ̀n ábîc ábîkjɛ̀l (5 + 1) abìɾjɛ̀w (5 + 2) àbîdèk (5 + 3) ábîŋwɛ̀n (5 + 4) pjáár
Western, Luo, Northern, Thuri Thuri ácîel aríòw ádeèk àŋwɛɛ̀n àbííc abícbícèl (5+ 1) àbícbə́riə́ɔ̀w (5+ 2) àbícbídèk (5+ 3) àbíc bə́ŋwɛ́ɛn (5+ 4) ápaàr
Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified Päri (Lokoro) (1) ácɛ̀lɔ́ árìyɔ́ ádòɡó áŋwɛ̀nɔ́ ábìd͡ʒɔ́ àbícɛ̀lɔ́ (5+ 1) àbírìyɔ́ (5+ 2) ábʌ̄rà (5+ 3) ábúŋwɛ̀nɔ́ (5+ 4) ápàr
Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified Päri (Lokoro) (2) acyelo, took aryo, ireek adöɡo, ɡala aŋweno abijo, kunat abicyelo (5+ 1), bukel abiryo (5+ 2), buryo abidö̈ɡo, aböra (5+ 3), bodök abuŋweno (5+ 4), buŋwan apar
Western, Luo, Southern, Adhola Adhola (1) ɑ́cêr ɑ́rîo ɑ́dêːk ɑ́ŋʷên ɑ́bîːc ɑ̀ᵘcèr (5+ 1) ɑ̀bírîo (5+ 2) ɑ́bôːrò (5+ 3) ɑ̀búŋʷèn (5+ 4) ɑ́pɑ̂ːr
Western, Luo, Southern, Adhola Adhola (2) àcíɛl àríó àdeék àŋwɛɛ̂n àbîc àwúciɛ̄l (5+ 1) àbíirò (5+ 2) àbɔ́ɔ̀rò (5+ 3) àbúŋwɛ́n (5+ 4) ápāar
Western, Luo, Southern, Kuman Kumam ɑ̀cɛ́l ɑ̀ré ɑ̀dēk òŋwɔ́n kɑ̄ɲ kɑ́ɲ ɑ̀pé (5 + 1) kɑ̄ɲ ɑ̀ré (5 + 2) kɑ̄ɲ ɑ̀wūní (5 + 3) kɑ̄ɲ ɑ̀ŋɔ́n (5 + 4) tɔ̄mɔ́n
Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur Alur àcìɛ̄l àríɔ̀ àdék àŋùén àbîc àbúcìɛ̀l (5+ 1) àbírɔ́ (5+ 2) àboônà (5+ 3) àbúŋwɛ̄ɛ̄n (5+ 4) àpáàr
Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Acholi (Labwor) àcíèl àríò àdék àŋwɛ̂n àbîc àbícíèl (5+ 1) àbíìrɔ́ (5+ 2) àboôrà (5+ 3) àbúŋwɛ́n (5+ 4) àpáàr
Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Lango àcɛ̂l àryɔ̂ àdêk àŋwɛ̂n àbîc àbícɛ̀l (5 + 1) àbíryɔ̀ (5 + 2) àbórò (5 + 3) ?? àbóŋwɛ̀n (5 + 4) àpâr
Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo Dholuo àcìɛ̄l àríɔ̀ àdék àŋùén àbîc àúcìɛ̀l (5+ 1) àbíríɔ̀ (5+ 2) àborô ɔ́cíkɔ̀ àpáàr

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nilotic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "the definition of Nilotic". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
  3. ^ Payne, Doris. "Nilotic Family". pages.uoregon.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
  4. ^ Barnard, Alan; Spencer, Jonathan (1996). Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Taylor & Francis. p. 10. ISBN 9780415099967.
  5. ^ Ki-Zerbo, Joseph (1981). Methodology and African Prehistory. UNESCO. p. 306. ISBN 9789231017070.
  6. ^ Roger Blench (2012) Nilo-Saharan language list
  7. ^ George Starostin (2015) The Eastern Sudanic hypothesis tested through lexicostatistics: current state of affairs (Draft 1.0)
  8. ^ Dimmendaal, Gerrit Jan. 1988. "The lexical reconstruction of proto-Nilotic: a first reconnaissance." Afrikanistische (AAP) 16: 5-67.
  9. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Nilo-Saharan Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.
  • Creider, Chet A. (1989). The syntax of the Nilotic languages: Themes and variations. Berlin: D. Reimer. ISBN 3-496-00483-5.

External linksEdit