The main work of the life of Peter Kleinmichel
Military Review

The main work of the life of Peter Kleinmichel

45
The main work of the life of Peter Kleinmichel

Article P. A. Kleinmikhel. "Steel ram of sovereign will" we talked about the origin of this man, his family, the beginning of the service and how the decision was made in Russia to build a railway between St. Petersburg and Moscow. Today we will continue this story.


At that time, two railways were built in the Russian Empire. The first was Tsarskoye Selo - a single-track railway track only 27 km long, leading from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo. The movement on it was started in October 1837.

Tsarskoye Selo Railway

The second was the Warsaw-Vienna Railway, the movement of which began in 1845. Its length on the territory of the Russian Empire was 308 versts (328,57 km), and the rail gauge was set according to the Western European standard - 4,75 feet (1 mm). It was connected to the Austrian Krakow-Upper Silesian Railway on April 435, 1.

Railway viaduct of the Warsaw-Vienna road (in Jędrzejów)

"A lot of plans"


Now the railway was supposed to connect the two capitals of the Russian Empire - the old and the new. The length of the new highway was 604 versts (644,35 km), and it was decided to immediately build it as a two-track one.

P. A. Kleinmichel did not have the slightest idea about the railway business (as did many other Russian officials, by the way). Suffice it to say that at first he was sure that the tender of the “steamboat” (as steam locomotives were then called) was a small vessel needed in the event that the train somehow fell into the water.

Steam locomotive with a tender on the Nikolaev railway

Exactly the same layman in nuclear physics was L. Beria, who was appointed to oversee the USSR Atomic Project in 1944. What was required of Kleinmichel and Beria was not theoretical knowledge or practical skills, but purely administrative talents. They had to create the most comfortable conditions for the work of professionals, while avoiding the temptation to actively interfere in their work.

By the way, very soon Kleinmikhel, as they say, "came up to speed" and, having assessed the needs of the future road in coal, began research on the possibility of building a new highway - to the Donbass.

So, Kleinmichel accepted the offer to lead the large-scale construction of the new railway. Moreover, he even promised to complete the construction by 1851 so that Emperor Nicholas I could travel by train to Moscow for the 25th anniversary of his coronation (as you can see, the tradition of increased pre-Congress commitments has long roots). Hearing the conversation between Kleinmichel and the emperor, engineer P. P. Melnikov, head of the construction of the highway in the section from St. Petersburg to Bologoy, the future First Minister of Railways, was horrified and declared that the deadline he had indicated was unrealistic - and heard a harsh and categorical answer:

"It must be and will be!"

The traveling engineer A. Shtukenberg, who knew Kleinmichel, later recalled:

“He was hard for his subordinates, the personality of another did not exist for him, but he always had work ahead of him and the achievement of his extremely quick intentions, directed to a benefit that was not always clear. It was a steel battering ram, which was needed for the sovereign will of the sovereign in order to break through the walls of all obstacles and difficulties, which is proved by many useful works in the department of communications, which were postponed for many years and were only fulfilled under him.

Highway construction


The imperial decree on the construction of a railway between St. Petersburg and Moscow was signed on February 1, 1842.

The opponents of both this large-scale project and Kleinmichel himself did not decrease after the decision of the emperor. Prince Alexander Menshikov, a descendant of the famous favorite of Peter I and the most famous wit of that time, for example, spoke of three large construction projects in St. Petersburg and Russia - St. Isaac's Cathedral, a stone bridge across the Neva (its construction was also supervised by Kleinmichel) and the railway:

“We will not see the completed cathedral, but our children will see it; we will see the bridge, but our children will not see it; but we will not see the railway, neither we nor our children.

What Menshikov himself is worth was soon clearly shown by the Crimean War, when he found himself in the post of commander of the land and sea forces on the peninsula. Kleinmichel, on the other hand, shamed all opponents. When it became clear that both the bridge and the railway would still be built (the bridge earlier - in 1850), tales of a different kind began to spread among his enemies, in which Kleinmichel looked like a “German sergeant major” - a stupid and soulless pedant. For example, it was alleged that he allegedly fined the engineer Curbedz for coming up with a machine for driving piles too late.

The first Russian "London inmate" - Alexander Herzen, was not shy, all the more. In the British-funded magazine Kolokol, he briskly riveted articles in which Kleinmichel, who performed the most important state task, was called "the evil of the fatherland, and his poisonous wound, and the ataman of a gang of lackeys-robbers of his country." The owners of the dissident were very pleased.

Work on the construction of the railway began on June 8, 1843 and, according to the memoirs of contemporaries, were carried out with unprecedented energy. At the same time, from 40 to 60 thousand people worked at the construction in different years. They planned to spend 43 million rubles in silver, the real costs, according to various estimates, ranged from 67 to 72 million rubles, which, however, was still less than when implementing similar projects in Europe and the USA.

It was possible to "save" on cheap labor. It turned out, for example, that Russian men are cheaper than overseas steam excavators, and they work faster. As you can see, the famous Soviet army rhyme “two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator” was relevant at that time.

As a result, the four available excavators were practically not used - as unnecessary. Civilian peasants were attracted to the work, who were promised good wages and free food. There was even competition for jobs. It was said that some artel elders even took bribes from candidates, while others arranged checks, offering to lift a sleeper weighing about 50 kg, drive a pile into the ground, and dig a trench in a set time. Since the breaks for meals were planned to be minimal, it was also checked how quickly the future employee could eat a bowl of hot kulesh.

However, reality quickly shattered the bright hopes of the workers: the working day lasted from 16 to 18 hours, they had to live in damp dugouts or cold barracks, food was poorly organized, tenants mercilessly cheated. As a result, for the season (from May to November), the digger earned about 35 rubles (less than 6 rubles per month), and the leveler 17 rubles 50 kopecks (less than three rubles per month). Is it a lot or a little? Judge for yourself: lunch in a tavern cost an average of 30 kopecks, a live chicken - 70 kopecks, cowhide boots - 5 rubles, a draft horse - 70 rubles. When the railway started operating, the fare in the first class was set at 19 rubles, in the second - at 13, in the third class the fare cost 7 rubles.

However, for many peasants, even such an expected income seemed very significant. True, few people managed to get the named amount of money. Workers were fined for not fulfilling the plan, for being in the infirmary (20 kopecks were calculated for each day, with an average daily wage of 19 kopecks), and even for forced downtime due to adverse weather conditions.

K. A. Savitsky. "Workers on the Railroad"

Contractors saved on everything, even on working tools. Kleinmichel, whose honesty even enemies did not doubt, could not follow everything and everyone, and embezzlement flourished. So, for example, some Gromov and Scriabin supplied sleepers at a price of one and a half rubles apiece, but they themselves bought them for 70 kopecks from those who, in turn, paid the manufacturers 27 kopecks each.

Nekrasov in his famous poem did not at all exaggerate the plight of the workers, who died en masse from typhus, scurvy, dysentery, pneumonia and other diseases. Later it was calculated that each verst of the railway track cost from 100 to 115 thousand rubles and almost two human lives.

A legend about the finger of the emperor is connected with the construction of this highway: he allegedly drew the route of the future road along the ruler, but the pencil caught on his finger, forming a small arc. No one dared to fix this "squiggle". A hundred years later, they will tell a similar legend about the emergence of the metro ring line - they say, Stalin put a cup of coffee on the map so well, that's why the color of the line is brown.

In fact, there was a clearing, which, back in the XNUMXth century, was cut through from St. Petersburg to the Valdai Heights by order of Peter I. They were going to build a new road to Moscow, but did not have time to finish the work. And the wife of the deceased Emperor Catherine I and his daughter Elizabeth had other concerns: the first quickly became an inveterate drunkard, the second arranged “mashkerads” and bought new dresses for every day. The clearing, of course, was already overgrown, but it was much easier to clear it than cut a new one.

However, it turned out to be impossible to continue the construction in a straight line due to the site of a large elevation difference - more than 120 meters (angle of inclination - 8,2 degrees). It was the Verebyinsky ascent, 14,5 versts long - from the Burga station to the Torbino station, which turned out to be unbearable for the steam locomotives of that time. It was discovered too late, and the trains bound for Moscow had to be literally dragged up in parts. It took 2 hours to overcome the Verebinsky ascent. Sometimes the cars broke off and rolled down, colliding with the lower ones. Already on February 12, 1852, the first such crash occurred with human casualties.

And therefore, Menshikov, mentioned above, slandered: they say, if Kleinmichel challenges him to a duel, he will choose weapons a train ride to Moscow - whoever survives will win.

And the trains heading to St. Petersburg picked up such speed that they often skipped the Verebye station. It soon became clear that if we shifted the line to the north by several miles, filling in the ravine and building an embankment 49 meters high, then the slope angle would change to an acceptable value of 5,8 degrees, it would be possible to do without two bridges, and the length of the route would increase by only 6 verst. Work on the construction of the bypass was completed in 1881. But at the same time, the new path turned out to be extremely curved, which forced us to sharply slow down on it. A rise of 8,2 degrees for modern locomotives was no longer critical. In October 2001, the line of the highway was straightened, and the famous Verebyinsky bypass was eliminated. However, the numbering has been preserved, and now on the Oktyabrskaya railway, after the 205th kilometer, there is the 211th.

The construction of the railway lasted 8 years, and was completed, as promised by Kleinmichel, in 1851 - the official opening of the road took place on November 1.

Image of the railway St. Petersburg - Moscow. Lubok leaf. Metallography by Efim Yakovlev. 1859

The first train from St. Petersburg departed at 11:15 and arrived in Moscow the next day at 9:21 am. Thus, he was on the road for 45 hours and 29,6 minutes, his average speed was XNUMX km / h.

Petersburg, landing stage. 1851

Tver, station of the Nikolaev railway, 1863

Khimka Station

Nikolaevsky railway station, Moscow

The reaction of society to the opening of railway traffic between St. Petersburg and Moscow was enthusiastic. N. V. Kukolnik wrote the poem “A Passing Song”, which he set to the music of M. I. Glinka (“Our Orthodox people rejoice”). Professor S. Shevyrev, a literary historian and critic, wrote an ode with the words:

"Lie down, mountains!
Arise, abysses!
Submit to us the earth!
And roll, iron path,
From the Neva to the Kremlin.

Russian folk print of the XNUMXth century

The end of the career of Peter Kleinmichel


With the coming to power of Alexander II, liberals of all stripes became more active. They immediately launched an attack on P. Kleinmichel, who was one of the symbols of the reign of the former emperor.

His opponents judged by themselves and could not even imagine that it was possible not to steal, leading the construction of such a scale. However, all verifications proved the honesty and disinterestedness of Kleinmichel. This did not prevent him from being dismissed from all posts, for decency, retaining only a seat in the State Council.

In 1869, P. Kleinmichel died at the age of 75. He was buried at the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.
Author:
45 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Paul Siebert
    Paul Siebert 15 July 2022 10: 51
    +5
    Wonderful article!
    Written in a light, very atmospheric language, with a fair amount of humor!
    Read with pleasure!
    1. gsev
      gsev 23 July 2022 01: 12
      0
      One of the best content on the site. At least I was hooked as a solid literary and historical work!
  2. Engineer
    Engineer 15 July 2022 10: 53
    +12
    The estimated cost was exceeded by less than two times for a unique facility, the like of which has not yet been built in Russia. In retrospect, Kleinmichel is a monument for planning and conscience. Even if something settled in the pockets, the self-interest by today's standards was ridiculously small.
  3. DenVB
    DenVB 15 July 2022 11: 15
    +5
    Prince Alexander Menshikov, descendant of the famous favorite of Peter I

    He is Menshikov, not Menshikov. As did his great-grandfather.
  4. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 15 July 2022 11: 38
    +6
    Prince Alexander Menshikov, a descendant of the famous favorite of Peter I and the most famous wit of that time

    There was nothing left of this Alexander Sergeevich but a collection of witticisms and bad anecdotes.
    With the coming to power of Alexander II, liberals of all stripes became more active. They immediately launched an attack on P. Kleinmichel, who was one of the symbols of the reign of the former emperor.

    Kleinmichel and his family, whatever one may say, were feudal lords. When carrying out long overdue and overripe reforms, no benefit was expected from people like him.
    1. VLR
      15 July 2022 11: 59
      +11
      The paradox is that if it were the serf-owner Kleinmichel who had been instructed to carry out the emancipation of the peasants, things might well have gone much faster. Since a person is used to fulfilling the will of the emperor at all costs, breaking resistance through the knee.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 15 July 2022 12: 59
        +2
        Since a person is used to fulfilling the will of the emperor at all costs, breaking resistance through the knee.

        An analogue of Arakcheev's behavior under Alexander?
        1. VLR
          15 July 2022 13: 13
          +5
          Kleinmichel was the closest collaborator of Arakcheev - not just like that. The count "felt" a kindred spirit.
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 15 July 2022 14: 04
        +3
        Quote: VlR
        The paradox is that if it were the serf-owner Kleinmichel who had been instructed to carry out the emancipation of the peasants, things might well have gone much faster.

        The trouble is that Nikolai Pavlovich never made up his mind. In general, he was a peculiar person, he saw and understood a lot, but he never took up the correction.
        It can be said that he ruled the state in manual mode (I ask without generalizations!) And, characteristically, a lot worked out, and then everything went awry...
  5. Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 15 July 2022 11: 38
    +7
    Kleinmichel, whose honesty even enemies did not doubt, could not follow everything and everyone, and embezzlement flourished.

    And who was to be responsible for these outrages?
    - Jeeves, what is this type of question called?
    - Rhetorical, sir.
    hi
    1. VLR
      15 July 2022 11: 55
      +4
      The big question, of course, is whether one personally honest person, albeit endowed with enormous powers, can keep track of absolutely all his subordinates, contractors and suppliers? Kleinmichel, according to the recollections of people who knew him, seemed to be trying, but his efforts sometimes resembled a war with windmills.
      1. PPD
        PPD 15 July 2022 12: 24
        +1
        Maybe if he wants to.
        And if you don’t care how many people died at the same time, how they live and how much they are paid, then yes, you need to answer in style
        of course, can one ..., albeit endowed with enormous powers, trace

        Overworked, poor fellow
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 15 July 2022 14: 01
        +3
        Quote: VlR
        The big question, of course, is whether one personally honest person, albeit endowed with enormous powers, can keep track of absolutely all his subordinates, contractors and suppliers?

        Should at least try.
      3. Alexander Salenko
        Alexander Salenko 16 July 2022 20: 48
        +1
        So, of course, he couldn’t, both because of the large economy, and because if he didn’t steal, then he couldn’t think like a thief. Therefore, it could well be bypassed.
  6. burigaz2010
    burigaz2010 15 July 2022 12: 02
    +3
    Colleagues, good afternoon! Valery to you as always! Just now they will peck you, you mentioned Beria! And since there would be more like Kleinmichel. Well, I don’t even dream about Lavrenty Palych.
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 15 July 2022 12: 46
    +4
    Yes, it is undeniable that most of the buildings that Kleinmichel led were erected faster than before. The only exceptions here are the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and St. Isaac's Cathedral, the construction of which dragged on for many years, but at the same time, abuses, arbitrariness and embezzlement reigned at these construction sites.
  8. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 15 July 2022 12: 46
    +2
    With the coming to power of Alexander II, liberals of all stripes became more active. They immediately launched an attack on P. Kleinmichel, who was one of the symbols of the reign of the former emperor.
    This did not prevent him from being dismissed from all posts, for decency, retaining only a seat in the State Council.
    I remember how V. Pikul describes this moment in the novel "The Battle of the Iron Chancellors":
    The emperor dismissed dignitaries inherited from the father, whom Herzen called "unforgettable." True, the change of office was not easy, I even had to endure the hysteria of my mother. The blackened and dry vixen, the granddaughter of Frederick the Great, shouted at her son: “How are you going to rule the country of fools and thieves without your father’s faithful servants—without the Kleinmichels!” without Nesselrode! The king gave his mother an answer that became historic: - My dad was a genius, so he could afford to surround the throne with dunces. And I'm not a genius - I need smart people ...
    The granddaughter of Frederick the Great is Empress Dowager Alexandra Feodorovna, born Frederick Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina of Prussia.
    1. VLR
      15 July 2022 13: 10
      +8
      Pikul, for all his virtues, was a biased and enthusiastic person. As for Alexander II, oddly enough, it was the nobles who were very pleased with him and he was praised very much, whom he seemed to have deprived of serfs, and the peasants, whom he supposedly "beneficialed", were very disliked and very scolded. The land price for the peasants was set at 25% above the market price, and the peasants still had to pay interest - 6% per annum. Those who could not pay on time became temporarily liable” and paid the landowner dues or worked out, as before, corvée. According to the plan of Alexander II the peasants had to finally pay for the land in 1932! But after the revolution of 1905-1907, the frightened authorities realized that it was no longer possible to rob the peasants - the most pro-monarchist class was becoming disloyal before our eyes. And in 1907, nevertheless, they decided to stop demanding payments from the peasants.
      But in the future, it was precisely the "sugary" point of view of the nobles that prevailed - the "tsar-liberator" and all that, because it was the nobles who left the written sources.
      All other reforms of Alexander II, by the way, were half-hearted, more unsuccessful than successful, and led to the radicalization of society and the growth of revolutionary sentiment. Nicholas I walked around the Summer Garden without guards. For some reason, the "grateful Russians" hunted for Alexander II like a wild beast.
      1. Vladislav 73
        Vladislav 73 15 July 2022 13: 58
        +3
        As for the "half-heartedness" and "incompleteness" of many of the reforms of Alexander II, I completely agree - "one step forward, two steps back, shying left and right." Maybe only the military reform of the 1860s-70s ... Although it also causes conflicting assessments request Pikulya remembered, this rather vivid quote just ran into his memory. But in general, with all my former respect for Pikul, it disappeared after reading his last (unfinished) novel "Barbarossa" (Square of the Fallen Fighters). If it were not for the inscription "Valentin Pikul" - I would never have believed it! The impression that someone like Solzhenitsyn wrote ... I will not analyze this "anti-Soviet paperwork" in detail here, everyone can read and draw conclusions for themselves. In short, if someone is "an ardent anti-Soviet and an admirer of Solzhenitsyn", the novel is definitely for him! hi
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 15 July 2022 14: 29
          +1
          Quote: Vladislav 73
          Maybe only the military reform of the 1860s-70s...

          The most incompetent of all. I could never understand why Milyutin was declared the "best minister of war" of all times and peoples.
          Quote: Vladislav 73
          The impression that someone like Solzhenitsyn wrote ...

          To paraphrase Voznesensky - who is alive then did not blame him?
          1. gsev
            gsev 23 July 2022 01: 24
            0
            Quote: Senior Sailor
            The most incompetent of all. I could never understand why Milyutin was declared the "best minister of war" of all times and peoples.

            However, it was under him that they were able to end the Caucasian war against the highlanders. The armament of the Russian army was reformed. Russia was able to catch up with England in the production of steel guns, rifles, and began building steamships. It can be said that a revolution took place in Russian metallurgy. Although 20-30 years after the start of the reforms of Alexander 2 in Russian industry, a 20% -30% decline in production was observed.
            1. Senior seaman
              Senior seaman 23 July 2022 19: 46
              0
              Quote: gsev
              However, it was under him that they were able to end the Caucasian war against the highlanders.

              Yes, only Baryatinsky did it.
              Quote: gsev
              The armament of the Russian army was reformed.

              Well, yes. We came to the only right decision as soon as we tried all the others. The so-called "Unfortunate Gun Drama".
              Quote: gsev
              started building boats.

              That's who has nothing to do with it, so it's Milyutin.
              Quote: gsev
              It can be said that a revolution took place in Russian metallurgy.

              See above.
              And now for the points. In fact, the artillery was withdrawn from the infantry, which had a negative impact on the interaction.
              Supply - a complete failure, fully manifested in the war of 1877-78.
              For a long time and stubbornly they were wiser with the states, but they left the division into rifle and line companies, with the same weapons.
              By the way, it’s not that they were late with rearmament ... before the war, there were more than 200 thousand of the latest Berdan rifles in warehouses, but the main part of the army went into battle with the Krynks. But they thought that the Russian peasants were not smart enough to master the new weapon. face result.
              And most importantly, in 1871, the Prussian military organization showed complete superiority over the French. Guess whose organization we copied?
              Moreover, the reform really began in 1874.
              Something like that.
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 15 July 2022 14: 00
        +4
        Quote: VlR
        As for Alexander II, oddly enough, it was the nobles who were very pleased with him and he was praised very much, whom he seemed to have deprived of serfs, and the peasants, whom he supposedly "beneficialed", were very disliked and very scolded.

        Oh really?
        Executive Committee of the People's Will
        Barannikov A.I. - nobleman
        Kvyatkovsky N.N. - nobleman
        Kolodkevich NN - nobleman
        Makkhaylov A.D. - nobleman
        Morozov N.A - the illegitimate son of the landowner Shchelochkin
        Olovennikova M.N. - noblewoman daughter of a large landowner.
        Tikhomirov L.A. - nobleman
        I am simply silent about the general's daughter Zasulich.
        Of the people, only Zhelyabov, the son of the estate manager Shiryaev, and the non-commissioned officer's son Frolenko.
        We go further, Karakozov is a nobleman.
        Berezovsky - gentry
        Solovyov - the son of a petty official
        Khalturin, - I won’t say anything, from the workers.
        But here is Osip Kommisarov - from the Kostroma peasants!
        Are you firmly convinced that it was the peasants who "hated and strongly scolded"?

        Quote: VlR
        All rest reforms of Alexander II, by the way, were half-hearted, mostly unsuccessful

        The word "others" is superfluous here. Reforms, except, perhaps, the judiciary, were indeed not very good. But ... Alexander still managed to lead them. but his unforgettable parent Nikolai Pavlovich did not dare.
        1. VLR
          15 July 2022 14: 11
          +5
          In 1861, about 1100 riots of "grateful liberated peasants" were recorded. And mass peasant uprisings continued as early as 1862-1863. This "liberation from slavery" was so enslaving and flagrantly unjust.
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 15 July 2022 14: 26
            +1
            This is all, of course, true, but ... do not remind me what slogans these riots were held under?
          2. Alexander Kuksin
            Alexander Kuksin 15 July 2022 19: 00
            -2
            Thank you, they reminded me ... Once I wrote a comparative analysis of the liberation of the peasants * reactionary * Arakcheev and one liberal general ... If I find it and the admins miss it, I will make a post. ;))
          3. KVIRTU
            KVIRTU 17 July 2022 20: 54
            +1
            I will specify
            1861 g. - 1859
            1862 g. - 844
            1863 g. - 509
        2. Alexander Trebuntsev
          Alexander Trebuntsev 15 July 2022 18: 42
          +4
          Nikolai Pavlovich did a lot to gradually squeeze the nobles. They were afraid to throw them into life like puppies into the water. They wouldn't float. They were slowly encouraged to learn how to earn a living following the example of their beloved Europe. But to the last they wanted to live in the old way. Nicholas allowed to issue free peasants without any prohibitions. Previously, if a nobleman released serfs into the wild, and even massively, relatives of any distance could demand that the authorities cancel this. A person was declared incompetent and deprived of all estates, all this passed to satisfied relatives. Now it didn't roll. And Nicholas also forbade remortgaging the estates to the nobles. If you watch all our films about the 19th century ("The Last Victim", etc.), everyone was interested in whether anyone had everything. And before the nobles all their lives remortgaged the estates at a minimum percentage and lived on this all their lives. That is, at someone else's expense. And he forbade the pawning of serfs, and earlier they were pawned in a bank as a thing. He pressed the nobles to live more carefully and learn to work. After the liberties of Catherine II, in general, everything looked like genocide in the eyes of the nobles. That's why they gave him the nickname "Nikolai Palkin". And they lied about him from 10 boxes. In Soviet times, this was repeated intensively in schools, because it emphasized the baseness of the "Prison of Peoples". He did a lot wrong, of course, but he crushed the nobles. And by the way, he made me speak Russian. At court, from the first days, he demanded to speak only in Russian. Even those who did not know Russian and showed contempt for him spoke in half a year. That is why he did not like the officers of the "victors of Napoleon." They were almost all Westerners, they thought a lot about themselves. He raised intelligent and simple officers.
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 15 July 2022 22: 45
            0
            "according to the totality of merit" - the father said about "why the monument to the king was not demolished near Isakia"
      3. Vladislav 73
        Vladislav 73 15 July 2022 14: 30
        +1
        Quote: VlR
        But in the future, it was precisely the "sugary" point of view of the nobles that prevailed - the "tsar-liberator" and all that, because it was the nobles who left the written sources.

        Speaking of nobles. Not quite on topic, but the relationship between Alexander II and his inner circle, and the nobility in general, was very much spoiled by his romance with Ekaterina Dolgorukova, the future Princess Yuryevskaya. "Shameless Queen". And when a morganatic marriage was concluded with her (previously unthinkable for the Sovereign!) and when a rumor spread that the sovereign, after the conclusion of the marriage, wanted to deprive the rightful heirs of the throne!... belay
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 15 July 2022 19: 54
          +3
          Quote: Vladislav 73
          And when a morganatic marriage was concluded with her (previously unthinkable for the Sovereign!)

          Yeah, it’s conceivable for the empress, but for the sovereign it’s directly unthinkable :)))
          In general, morganatic marriages flourished among the Romanov-Holstein-Gogtorpskys both before and after. The chip was in another. Alexander Nikolaevich married a month and a half after the death of the Empress. That is, he did not observe decency.
          a rumor spread that the sovereign, after marriage, wants to deprive the throne of the rightful heirs!.

          It's not even that. Just the recognition of the children of Ekaterina Mikhailovna could not please his brothers and their offspring, as well as the hangers-on at the grand dukes. Painfully many would have to move away from the feeder.
        2. Revolver
          Revolver 21 July 2022 09: 43
          0
          Quote: Vladislav 73
          And when a morganatic marriage was concluded with her (previously unthinkable for the Sovereign!)

          Peter the Great - he finally married the corrupt girl Marta Skavronskaya from under a friend-friend-drinking companion Menshikov, and named her Empress Catherine. And after the death of the emperor, she became the autocratic ruler Catherine the First, and again brought His Serene Highness Prince Menshikov closer to her, and not only in the sense of a statesman. So next to her, Princess Yuryevskaya is a model of decency and nobility.
  9. hohol95
    hohol95 15 July 2022 14: 24
    0
    "As you can see, the famous Soviet army rhyme "two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator" was relevant at that time."
    Take LESS - throw MORE!
    While flying - RELAX!!!
  10. Andrey Moskvin
    Andrey Moskvin 15 July 2022 18: 13
    +1
    True, few people managed to get the named amount of money.
    According to Nekrasov, then -
    "I expose a barrel of wine to the workers,
    And - I give the arrears. "
  11. Alexander Trebuntsev
    Alexander Trebuntsev 15 July 2022 18: 28
    +2
    Excellent. Only as far as I remember, the construction battalion was completely said like this - two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator, two soldiers from the disbattalion replace the floor of the construction battalion. :)
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 15 July 2022 20: 05
      +3
      - two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator, two soldiers from the disbat replace the floor of the construction battalion. :)
      And one of the air defenses replaces at least someone. laughing
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 July 2022 20: 49
        +1
        As an air defense officer, I confirm!
    2. Obliterator
      Obliterator 17 July 2022 19: 52
      0
      Quote: Alexander Trebuntsev
      two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator, two soldiers from the disbattalion replace the floor of the construction battalion. :)

      And one frontier detachment replaces the entire construction battalion!
  12. Alexander Kuksin
    Alexander Kuksin 15 July 2022 18: 52
    -1
    The article is really good! Although I liked the second part less. There is a scent of Soviet historiography. Somewhere in my archive there is an article that interprets the period of construction of the railway in a slightly different way, in which the author argues with the great poet and card sharper Nikolai Nekrasov. The Russian peasants were mostly fugitive peasants - Belarusians who fled from the oppression of the Poles. The supply of bread was at the level ... And the steam excavators worked ... We must look for this article and compare it with this one.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 15 July 2022 22: 49
      0
      Time demanded faster, higher, stronger... Develop an empire. They didn't pull.
      Before the Black Sea and the Urals, no one had time to build
      1. Alexander Kuksin
        Alexander Kuksin 15 July 2022 23: 31
        -1
        Nevertheless, in parallel, Russia was building not only this railway. Built something else the author does not indicate. And highways.... I found this article in my archives. It is rather not about Kleinmichel, but about the construction of railways and highways in Russia.
        1. EvilLion
          EvilLion 17 July 2022 18: 59
          +1
          Highway for whom? Horses and wagons without rubber wheels?
          1. Alexander Kuksin
            Alexander Kuksin 17 July 2022 20: 44
            -1
            Highways are paved roads. The first major highway was completed in 1834. It passed through Novgorod, Vyshy Volochek, Torzhok and Tver. From St. Petersburg to Moscow, the courier could travel in two days. Soon the highway connected Pskov and Riga, Moscow and Brest. The network of roads to the west of the Dvina thickened especially rapidly, which also had a military-strategic function. The highway was stretched from Bialystok to Grodno, from Brest to Grodno and Kyiv, from Kyiv to the Dniester, from Pinsk to Dubno, from Bobruisk to Mozyr and Brest-Kyiv Highway, from Dinaburg to Vitebsk and Smolensk, from Smolensk to Orsha. In the 1840s, up to 258 miles of highways were built. Under the next emperor, no more than 15 versts. The Nikolaev road saved both liberal reformers and revolutionary democrats from losing their soles in the mud. The reign of Nicholas I accounts for the construction of almost half of all highways created in Russia before 1917.
  13. EvilLion
    EvilLion 16 July 2022 14: 41
    +1
    And that no one quotes the well-known poem of the great gambler, hunter and just a reveler Nekrasov?
  14. Alexander Salenko
    Alexander Salenko 16 July 2022 20: 45
    +1
    Great article, topic completely unfamiliar to me.
18+
Opinion editorial "Military Review" may not coincide with the point of view of the authors of publications