Homosexuality and Lutheranism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Lutheran viewpoints concerning homosexuality are diverse because there is no one worldwide body which represents all Lutherans. The Lutheran World Federation, a worldwide 'communion of churches' and the largest global body of Lutherans, contains member churches on both sides of the issue. However, other Lutherans, including the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference and International Lutheran Council, completely reject homosexuality.[1][2]

Luther's view[edit]

Martin Luther, who had spent time in Rome,[3] claimed that Pope Leo X had vetoed a measure that cardinals should restrict the number of boys they kept for their pleasure, "otherwise it would have been spread throughout the world how openly and shamelessly the pope and the cardinals in Rome practice sodomy" and encouraged Germans not to spend time fighting fellow countrymen in defense of the papacy.[4]

Luther also noted:

I for my part do not enjoy dealing with this passage [Genesis 19:4-5], because so far the ears of the Germans are innocent of and uncontaminated by this monstrous depravity; for even though disgrace, like other sins, has crept in through an ungodly soldier and a lewd merchant, still the rest of the people are unaware of what is being done in secret. The Carthusian monks deserve to be hated because they were the first to bring this terrible pollution into Germany from the monasteries of Italy.[5]

Synods allowing homosexual relationships[edit]

In North America[edit]

In 1970, Strommen, et al. surveyed 4,745 Lutheran adults between the ages of 15 and 65. They were members of the American Lutheran Church, Lutheran Church in America, and Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. 1% stated that they frequently had homosexual intercourse during the past year and 3% stated that they did so occasionally. 90% said that they never had homosexual intercourse during the past year, and 7% did not respond.[6]

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America[edit]

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the largest Lutheran church body in the United States, allows for LGBTQ+ marriage and ordination of LGBTQ+ clergy. ELCA policy states that LGBTQ+ individuals are welcome and encouraged to become members and to participate in the life of the congregation. The ELCA has provided supplemental resources for the rite of marriage in Evangelical Lutheran Worship which use inclusive language and are suitable for use in LGBTQ+ marriage ceremonies.[7] The group ReconcilingWorks supports the full inclusion of LGBTQ+ members in Lutheran churches in the ELCA, and provides resources to assist ELCA congregations in becoming more welcoming communities for LGBTQ+ persons. ReconcilingWorks recognizes ELCA congregations that have committed to embracing LGBTQ+ persons as Reconciling in Christ congregations.[8]

The current policy on LGBTQ+ inclusion in the ELCA developed over a period of several years.

In 2001, a Social Statement on Sexuality was requested by the Churchwide Assembly and entrusted to a Task Force. In light of the ongoing work of that task force, the 2007 Churchwide Assembly passed a resolution asking bishops to exercise restraint in discipline of those congregations and pastors in violation of 'Vision and Expectations.'[9]

Prior to August 2009, the ELCA expected "ordained ministers who are homosexual in their self-understanding" to "abstain from homosexual sexual relationships".

The 2009 ELCA Churchwide Assembly in Minneapolis passed "Human Sexuality, Gift and Trust",[10] which approved more positive assessments of same-gender partnerships in the church. On 21 August 2009, the same body passed four ministry policy resolutions that opened the way for congregations to recognize and support such partnerships and for those in committed same-gender partnerships to be rostered leaders within the ELCA.[11][12] A separate motion at the same assembly recommended that a rite of blessing for same-sex unions be provided.

In 2013, Guy Erwin, who has lived in a gay partnership for 19 years, was installed in California as Bishop of the ELCA's Southwest California Synod, becoming the first openly gay person to serve as a Bishop in the ELCA.[13]

Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada[edit]

In July 2011 Churchwide Assembly of Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada passed a new sexuality statement, permitting clergy in committed same-gender partnerships and allowing the blessing of same-sex unions.[14]

In Europe[edit]

In many European Lutheran churches, open LGBT people can work as Lutheran pastors.

EKD in Germany[edit]

Ecumenical worship service at the Emmaus Church in Berlin, Germany.
Churches in the German EKD, where blessings of same-sex marriages were allowed in 2020 (dark purple); churches with blessings of same-sex unions (in light purple).

In the year 2000, the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) passed the resolution Verantwortung und Verlässlichkeit stärken, in which same-gender partnerships are supported.[15] In November 2010, EKD passed a new right for LGBT ordination of homosexual ministers, who live in civil unions.[16] All churches within the EKD allowed blessing of same-sex marriages.[17]

  1. Evangelical Church in Baden (Evangelische Landeskirche in Baden), a united church body in Baden[18][19]
  2. Evangelical Church Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (Evangelische Kirche in Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz), a united church body in Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia merged in 2004 from:
  3. Evangelical Church of Bremen (Bremische Evangelische Kirche), a united church body in Bremen[23]
  4. Protestant Lutheran State Church of Brunswick (Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche in Braunschweig), a Lutheran church body in Brunswick[24]
  5. Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Hanover (Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Hannovers), a Lutheran church body in the former Province of Hanover[25]
  6. Protestant Church in Hesse and Nassau (Evangelische Kirche in Hessen und Nassau), a united church body in the former People's State of Hesse and Nassau[26][27]
  7. Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck (Evangelische Kirche von Kurhessen-Waldeck), a united church body in former Hesse-Cassel and Waldeck[28][29][30]
  8. Church of Lippe (Lippische Landeskirche), a Reformed church body of Lippe[31][32]
  9. Evangelical Church in Central Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Mitteldeutschland),[33][34] a united church body that was created in 2009 from the merger of:
  10. Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany (Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Norddeutschland)[35][36] a Lutheran church body that was created in 2012 from the merger of:
  11. Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg (Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Oldenburg), a Lutheran church body in Oldenburg[37][38]
  12. Evangelical Church of the Palatinate (Evangelische Kirche der Pfalz) or Protestantische Landeskirche, a united church body in Palatinate[39]
  13. Evangelical Church in the Rhineland (Evangelische Kirche im Rheinland), a united church body in the Rhineland[40][41][42]
  14. Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony (Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Sachsens), a Lutheran church body in Saxony[43]
  15. Evangelical Church of Westphalia (Evangelische Kirche von Westfalen), a united church body in Westphalia[44]
  16. Evangelical Reformed Church (Regional Church) Evangelisch-reformierte Kirche (Landeskirche), a Reformed church body, covering the territories of No. 3, 5, 7, 12, 16, 17, and 19 [45][46]
  17. Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria (Evangelische-Lutherische Landeskirche in Bayern), a Lutheran church body in Bavaria[47]
  18. Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg, a Lutheran church body in Württemberg[48]
  19. Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schaumburg-Lippe, a Lutheran church body in Lower Saxony[49]
  20. Evangelical Church of Anhalt, a United church body in Saxony-Anhalt[50]

Nordic countries[edit]

The Church of Iceland allows same-sex marriage.[51] The Church of Sweden has permitted the blessing of same-sex unions and the ordination of partnered gays and lesbians since 2006. Starting in November 2009, the church officiates same-sex marriage, after the Riksdag allowed same-sex marriage starting 1 May 2009 – however, individual priests can choose not to perform marriages for couples of the same gender. The Church of Denmark also provides for such blessings, as does the Church of Norway, which also ordains gays and lesbians.[52]

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is the largest Lutheran church in Europe that does not permit blessing of same-sex unions – despite ongoing controversy. As of October 2010 the Church of Finland allows priests to pray for same-sex couples: For registered partnerships, the church says that "the [same-sex] couple may organise prayers with a priest or other church workers and invited guests".[53] Additionally, Archbishop Kari Mäkinen expressed his support for the new law permitting same-gender marriages.[54] In 2016, although the bishops in Finland did not agree to perform same-sex marriages, "bishops have taken the position that it is possible to hold prayer services to bless same-sex couples".[55] Tens of thousands of Finns have resigned from the church during the 2010s due to comments made by church officials either supporting or condemning same sex marriages and relations.[56][57] in 2018 59 bishops voted against homosexual marriage and 49 supported it.[58]

South America[edit]

Argentina and Uruguay[edit]

The Evangelical Church of the River Plate, which includes Lutherans and Waldensians, and the United Lutheran Church have supported civil unions and same-sex marriages.[59]

Evangelical Church of the Lutheran Confession in Brazil[edit]

In 2011, the church released a pastoral letter accepting the Supreme Court's decision to allow same-sex marriage in Brazil, and supported the families of same-sex couples.[60]

Denominations against homosexual activity[edit]

In North America[edit]

In Europe[edit]

In South America[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ninety-Five Theses for the 21st Century For Confessional Lutherans Arranged in the Order of Luther's Small Catechism As Approved at Grimma, Germany on June 29, 2017" (PDF). Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference. June 29, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017. #23 – God's Word says that homosexuality is contrary to God's intention for males and females. People with homosexual tendencies can find forgiveness in Christ and strength to live in harmony with God's will.
  2. ^ "A Statement from the International Lutheran Council". International Lutheran Council. August 31, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2018. Rooted in the Bible's witness and in keeping with Christian teaching through 2000 years, we continue to believe that the practice of homosexuality—in any and all situations—violates the will of the Creator God and must be recognized as sin.
  3. ^ Mullett 2015, p. 281.
  4. ^ Wilson 2007, p. 282; This allegation (made in the pamphlet Warnunge D. Martini Luther/ An seine lieben Deudschen, Wittenberg, 1531) is in stark contrast to Luther's earlier praise of Leo's "blameless life" in a conciliatory letter of his to the pope dated 6 September 1520 and published as a preface to his Freedom of a Christian. See on this, Hillerbrand 2007, p. 53.
  5. ^ Luther's Works, Vol. 3, 251-252
  6. ^ See Merton P. Strommen et al., A Study of Generations (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing, 1972), p. 372.
  7. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. "Supplemental Resources for use within the Evangelical Lutheran Worship Service of Marriage" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Worship. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  8. ^ ReconcilingWorks (24 August 2015). "Reconciling in Christ". Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  9. ^ Derose, Jason (August 11, 2007). "Evangelical Lutherans Urged Not to Discipline Gay Clergy". NPR. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  10. ^ "Legislative summary 4 & 5" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. August 19, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  11. ^ "Legislative summary 8 & 9" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. August 21, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  12. ^ Strickler, Jeff (August 20, 2009). "ELCA validates 'chaste' same-sex relationships". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  13. ^ "The Rev. Dr. R. Guy Erwin Elected Bishop" (Press release). Southwest California Synod, ELCA. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  14. ^ "Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada votes to bless same-sex marriage and is cheered on by the Anglican Church of Canada". Anglican Samizdat. 19 July 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  15. ^ "Verantwortung und Verlässlichkeit stärken". Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  16. ^ "EKD-Synode beschließt neues Pfarrdienstgesetz". Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (in German). November 10, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  17. ^ Bechtold, Markus; Kampf, Anne; Sussmann, Johannes (November 23, 2020). "Segnung homosexueller: Bunt wie ein Regenbogen". Evangelisch.de (in German). Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  18. ^ "Landessynode genehmigt Homo-Trauungen". Stuttgarter Zeitung (in German). April 23, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  19. ^ "Landeskirche genehmigt gleichgeschlechtliche Trauungen". Badische Zeitung (in German). April 23, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  20. ^ "SYNODE ERMÖGLICHT FÜRBITT- UND SEGENSANDACHTEN FÜR MENSCHEN IN GLEICHGESCHLECHTLICHEN LEBENSPARTNERSCHAFTEN". Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-Schlesische Oberlausitz (in German). November 16, 2011. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  21. ^ Tagesspiegel.de: Trauung in der Kirche ab 2016 möglich (german)
  22. ^ Berliner Zeitung: Ab 1. Juli können gleichgeschlechtliche Paare heiraten wie Mann und Fra (german)
  23. ^ Protestant Church of Bremen Archived June 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Protestant Lutheran State Church of Brunswick Archived August 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Evangelisch.de: Hannoversche Landeskirche will gleichgeschlechtliche Paare segnen (German)
  26. ^ "EKHN:Segnung gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (german)". Archived from the original on 2016-04-10. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  27. ^ "Aus Segnung wird Trauung". Evangelische Sonntags-Zeitung (in German). May 28, 2018. Archived from the original on May 7, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  28. ^ Wiesbadener Tagblatt:Synode billigt Segnung homosexueller Paare (german)[dead link]
  29. ^ "Synode für öffentliche Segnung von Paaren in eingetragenen Lebenspartnerschaft". Osthessen News (in German). November 24, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  30. ^ "Traugesetz gilt in Kurhessen-Waldeck künftig auch für gleichgeschlechtliche Paare". Evangelische Kirche von Kurhessen-Waldeck (in German). April 27, 2018. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  31. ^ "Synode in Lippe, Lippische Kirche erwägt Segnung von Homo-Paaren". Unsere Kirche (in German). October 28, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  32. ^ "Segnungsgottesdienste Landessynode beschließt: Segnung für Menschen in eingetragener Lebenspartnerschaft in öffentlichem Gottesdienst möglich". Lippische Landskirche (in German). November 23, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  33. ^ "Gleichgeschlechtliche Paare können Verbindung segnen lassen". Mitteldeutsche Zeitung (in German). November 24, 2012. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  34. ^ "Churches". Evangelische.de (in German). Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  35. ^ "Homepage". Nordelbein-Kirche Zwischen den Meeren (in German). Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  36. ^ "Segnung gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare ist "Trauung"". Evangelische-Lutherische Kirche in Norddeutschland (in German). September 20, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  37. ^ Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ NDR.de: Oldenburgische Kirche beschließt Trauuung für alle (German)
  39. ^ Protestant Church of the Palatinate (German) Archived September 15, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ EKVW Archived May 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Spiegel.de: Synodenbeschluss: Evangelische Kirche im Rheinland will Homosexuelle trauen (german)
  42. ^ Zeit.de: Rheinische Landeskirche traut Homosexuelle (German)
  43. ^ Evlks.de:"Segnung von Paaren in Eingetragener Lebenspartnerschaft" in Sachsen möglich (German) Archived 2016-10-19 at the Wayback Machine, 18 October 2016
  44. ^ "EKvW von a bis Z: Gleichgeschlechtliche Lebenspartnerschaften". Archived from the original on May 10, 2007. Retrieved March 29, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  45. ^ Grafschafter Nachrichten:Die Kirche hat ein Zeichen gesetzt
  46. ^ "Reformiert.de: Trauung auch für homosexuelle Paare (German)". Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  47. ^ Bayrischer Rundfunk: Landessynode beschließt Segnung von homosexuellen Paaren (German)
  48. ^ Stuttgarter Nachrichten: Landessynode erlaubt Segnungsgottesdienste für homosexuelle Paare (German), March 23, 2019
  49. ^ NDR.de: Landeskirche Schaumburg-Lippe segnet nun homosexuelle Paare (German), November 21, 2020
  50. ^ Huk.org:Segnungs- und Traugottesdienste in den evangelischen Landeskirchen (German)
  51. ^ "Island: Parlament einstimmig für Ehe-Öffnung". queer.de. 11 June 2010.
  52. ^ Pritchard, Gemma (1 October 2007). "Church of Norway votes to allow gay pastors". pinknews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
  53. ^ "Registered partnerships". notes.evl.fi. Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Archived from the original on 2017-10-25. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
  54. ^ Duffy, Nick (2014-11-29). "Finland: Church head welcomes same-sex marriage vote". www.pinknews.co.uk. Pink News. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  55. ^ "Bishops divided over same-sex marriage". Yle Uutiset. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
  56. ^ "Tasa-arvoinen avioliitto - äänetys sai konservatiivit eroamaan kirkosta". Eroakirkosta.fi. 2014.
  57. ^ "Yli 56000 eronnut tänä vuonna — Homoillan jälkeen 30000 eroamista". Eroakirkosta.fi. 2010.
  58. ^ "Evankelis-luterilainen kirkko ei ala vihkiä samaa sukupuolta olevia pareja". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 2018-05-18. Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  59. ^ "Evangélicos, política y sexualidad". aacademica.org. Universidad de Buenos Aires. 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  60. ^ "IECLB publica carta pastoral sobre homossexualidade". www.ihu.unisinos.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  61. ^ For an example of a classic Missourian doctrinal text mentioning homosexuality, see Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 79ff. Archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2009-03-16. "The Law condemns every one who carnally knows himself, or a brute, or another person of the same sex, or a person of the other sex with whom he is not or, because of a prohibited degree of consanguinity or affinity, or because of an existing marriage of either party with a third person, cannot be joined in lawful wedlock, or who, without a sufficient cause, refuses to live with or to love and honor his lawful spouse, or who annuls a valid betrothal, or who, by any manner of lewdness or indecency in deed word, or desire, defiles his body or soul."
  62. ^ WELS Statement on homosexuality http://www.wels.net/what-we-believe/questions-answers/social-issues
  63. ^ Press Release: ELS Disagrees with ELCA on Homosexuality "Press Release: eLS Disagrees with ELCA on Homosexuality — eLS". Archived from the original on 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2009-09-16.
  64. ^ CLBA Statement on Sexuality http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Statement_on_Sexuality.pdf
  65. ^ Stanovisko Slezské církve evangelické a.v. k lidem s homosexuální orientací (2003); Stanovisko Slezské církve evangelické a.v. k otázce homosexuality (2006)
  66. ^ "Ist Homosexualität Sünde?". Evangelische-Lutherische Freikirche (in German). January 12, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  67. ^ "Homepage". IELA (in Spanish). Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  68. ^ "Homepage". Soy Luterano (in Spanish). Retrieved May 4, 2021.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hillerbrand, Hans Joachim (2007). The Division of Christendom. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 53.
  • Mullett, Michael A. (2015). Martin Luther. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. p. 281.
  • Wilson, Derek (2007). The life and legacy of Martin Luther. Random House. p. 282.