List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty generally recognised sovereign states, Kosovo with limited, but substantial, international recognition, and five largely unrecognised de facto states with limited to no recognition have territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations. There are eight entities that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political arrangements.
Boundary of Europe
Under the commonly used geographic definition, the boundary between the continents of Asia and Europe stretches along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, and the Caspian Sea in the east, the Greater Caucasus range, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, in the south. Based on such a commonly used division of the continents, the transcontinental states of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey have territory in both Europe and Asia.
The island of Cyprus in Western Asia is close to Anatolia (or Asia Minor) but is often considered to be a part of Europe and is a current member of the European Union. Like Cyprus, Armenia is also entirely in Western Asia but is a member of several European organisations.
Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Malta, Sicily, and Pantelleria are actually located on the African continental plate. The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.
Some territories which are geographically outside of Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland, for example, has socio-political connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark but is located closer to the continent of North America and is usually grouped with that continent.
Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located in other continents, such as the French overseas regions, the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa, and the Dutch Caribbean islands of Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius.
The political boundaries of Europe vary with the definition of Europe that is used by different political organizations. For instance, the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights include 47 countries in their definition of Europe. The European Higher Education Area includes 48 countries, and the European Cultural Convention and the European Olympic Committees include 50 countries in their definitions.
A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest. According to the Montevideo convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.
United Nations members and observers
There are 50 sovereign states with territory located within the common definition of Europe and/or membership in international European organisations that are almost universally recognized internationally. All are either member states or observer states of the United Nations, and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe. 44 countries have their capital city located within Europe, and (as of 2020) 27 of those countries are member states of the European Union, which means that they are highly integrated with one another and share their sovereignty through EU institutions.
Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents other states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.
|*||= Member of the EU|
|Flag||Map||English common and formal names
|Domestic common and formal names
Republic of Albania
|Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërisë||Tirana
|2,876,276||28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi)|
Principality of Andorra
|Catalan: Andorra – Principat d'Andorra||Andorra la Vella
Catalan: Andorra la Vella
|78,000||468 km2 (181 sq mi)|
Republic of Armenia
|Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Hayastan – Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun)||Yerevan
Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
|2,925,000||29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi)|
Republic of Austria
|German: Österreich – Republik Österreich||Vienna
|8,857,960||83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi)|
Republic of Azerbaijan
|Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan – Azǝrbaycan Respublikası||Baku
|10,184,096||86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi)|
Republic of Belarus
|Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка Беларусь (Bielaruś – Respublika Bielaruś)
Russian: Беларусь – Республика Беларусь (Belarus' — Respublika Belarus')
Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)
|9,491,800||207,600 km2 (80,155 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Belgium
|Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België
French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique
German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
|11,614,238||30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnian: Bosna i Hercegovina
Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina
Serbian: Босна и Херцеговина
|3,511,372||51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi)|
Republic of Bulgaria
|Bulgarian: България – Република България (Bulgaria – Republika Bulgaria)||Sofia
Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
|6,923,374||110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi)|
Republic of Croatia
|Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska||Zagreb
|4,093,108||56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi)|
Republic of Cyprus
|Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros – Kypriakí Dimokratía)
Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosía)
|1,172,458||9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi)|
|Czech Republic*[k]||Czech: Česko – Česká republika||Prague
|10,625,449||78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Denmark
|Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark||Copenhagen
|5,806,015||2,210,000 km2 (853,286 sq mi)|
Republic of Estonia
|Estonian: Eesti – Eesti Vabariik||Tallinn
|1,326,968||45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi)|
Republic of Finland
|Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta
Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
|5,544,903||338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi)|
|French: France – République française||Paris
|65,343,775||643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi)|
|Georgia[b]||Georgian: საქართველო (Sakartvelo)||Tbilisi / T'bilisi
Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
|4,085,565||69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi)|
Federal Republic of Germany
|German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland||Berlin
|83,914,472||357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi)|
|Greek: Ελλάς – Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás – Ellinikí Dimokratía)||Athens
Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
|10,398,551||131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)|
|9,648,503||93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi)|
Republic of Iceland
|Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland||Reykjavík
|350,710||103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi)|
Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
|4,857,000||70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi)|
|Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana||Rome
|60,494,118||301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi)|
Republic of Kazakhstan
|Kazakh: Қазақстан – Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan – Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)
Russian: Казахстан – Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan – Respublika Kazahstan)
Russian: Нур-Султан (Nur-Sultan)
|18,311,700||2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi)|
Republic of Latvia
|Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika||Riga
|1,934,379||64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi)|
Principality of Liechtenstein
|German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein||Vaduz
|38,111||160 km2 (62 sq mi)|
Republic of Lithuania
|Lithuanian: Lietuva – Lietuvos Respublika||Vilnius
|2,797,000||65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi)|
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
|German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg
French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg
|602,000||2,586 km2 (998 sq mi)|
Republic of Malta
|English: Malta – Republic of Malta
Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
|475,700||316 km2 (122 sq mi)|
Republic of Moldova
|Romanian: Moldova – Republica Moldova||Chișinău
|3,350,900||33,851 km2 (13,070 sq mi)|
Principality of Monaco
|French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco||Monaco
|37,000||2 km2 (0.8 sq mi)|
|Montenegro[j]||Montenegrin: Црна Гора, Crna Gora||Podgorica
Montenegrin: Подгорица, Podgorica
|642,550||13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi)|
Kingdom of the Netherlands
|Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden||Amsterdam (capital)
The Hague (seat of government)
Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag
|17,272,990||41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi)|
Republic of North Macedonia
|Macedonian: Северна Македонија – Република Северна Македонија (Severna Makedonija – Republika Severna Makedonija)||Skopje
Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
|2,075,301||25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Norway
|Bokmål: Norge – Kongeriket Norge
Nynorsk: Noreg – Kongeriket Noreg
|5,323,933||323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi)|
Republic of Poland
|Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska||Warsaw
|38,433,600||312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi)|
|Portuguese: Portugal – República Portuguesa||Lisbon
|10,291,196||92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi)|
|19,622,000||238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi)|
|Russian: Россия – Российская Федерация (Rossija – Rossijskaja Federacija)||Moscow
Russian: Москва (Moskva)
|144,526,636||17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi)|
Republic of San Marino
|Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino||San Marino
Italian: San Marino
|32,742||61 km2 (24 sq mi)|
Republic of Serbia
|Serbian: Србија – Република Србија, Srbija – Republika Srbija||Belgrade
Serbian: Београд, Beograd
|8,720,394||88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi)|
|Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika||Bratislava
|5,445,087||49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi)|
Republic of Slovenia
|Slovene: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija||Ljubljana
|2,070,050||20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Spain
|Spanish: España – Reino de España||Madrid
|47,720,291||505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi)|
Kingdom of Sweden
|Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige||Stockholm
|10,221,988||450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi)|
|German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
French: Suisse – Confédération suisse
Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera
Romansh: Svizra – Confederaziun svizra
|Bern / Berne
Italian and Romansh: Berna
|8,685,688||41,277 km2 (15,937 sq mi)|
Republic of Turkey
|Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti||Ankara
|84,786,000||783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)|
|Ukraine||Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraina)
Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
|44,291,413||603,550 km2 (233,032 sq mi)|
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
|English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||London||68,060,502||243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi)|
Vatican City State
|Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano
Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae
Italian: Città del Vaticano
|842||0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi)|
The following six entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states (and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood) or have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.
|Flag||Map||English common and formal names||Status||Domestic common and formal names||Capital||Population[a]||Area[a]|
Republic of Abkhazia
|Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by five UN member states.||Abkhazian: Аҧсны (Apsny)
Russian: Абхазия (Abhaziya)
Abkhazian: Аҟəа (Akwa)
|250,000||8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi)|
Republic of Artsakh
|Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. De facto independent state, recognised by 3 non-UN states.||Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն (Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun)||Stepanakert
Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Khankendi)
|141,400||7,000 km2 (2,703 sq mi)|
Republic of Kosovo
|Claimed by Serbia. Has been recognized as sovereign by 112 UN member states (including states that subsequently withdrew recognition).||Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë – Republika e Kosovës
Serbian: Косово – Република Косово, Kosovo – Republika Kosovo
Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë
Serbian: Приштина, Priština
|1,836,529||10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi)|
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
|Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised by Turkey.||Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti||North Nicosia
|294,906||3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi)|
Republic of South Ossetia
|Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by five UN member states.||Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston – Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)
Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya – Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)
Ossetian: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
|70,000||3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)|
|Transnistria / Trans-Dniester
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
|Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. De facto independent state, recognised by 3 non-UN states.||Romanian: Transnistria – Republica Moldovenească Nistreană
Russian: Приднестровье – Приднестровская Молдавская Республика (Pridnestrov'ye – Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)
Ukrainian: Придністров'я – Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrovia – Pridnistrovska Moldavska Respublika)
Russian: Тираcполь – Tiraspol'
Ukrainian: Тирасполь – Tyraspol
|475,373||3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi)|
|*||= Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements|
|Flag||Map||English common and formal names||Legal status||Domestic common and formal names||Capital||Population||Area|
|Akrotiri and Dhekelia[c]
Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
|British Overseas Territory||English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia – Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia||Episkopi Cantonment
English: Episkopi Cantonment
|15,700||254 km2 (98 sq mi)|
|Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands||Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark||Faroese: Føroyar
|49,947||1,393 km2 (538 sq mi)|
|Gibraltar||British Overseas Territory||English: Gibraltar||Gibraltar
|29,185||6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)|
Bailiwick of Guernsey
|Crown dependency in right of Guernsey||English: Guernsey – Bailiwick of Guernsey
French: Guernesey – Bailliage de Guernesey
Guernésiais: Guernési – Bailliage de Guernési
|Saint Peter Port
English: Saint Peter Port
French: Saint Pierre Port
Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
|65,849||78 km2 (30 sq mi)|
|Isle of Man[i]||Crown dependency in right of Man||English: Isle of Man
Manx: Mannin – Ellan Vannin
|86,866||572 km2 (221 sq mi)|
Bailiwick of Jersey
|Crown dependency in right of Jersey||English: Jersey – Bailiwick of Jersey
French: Jersey – Bailliage de Jersey
Jèrriais: Jèrri – Bailliage de Jèrri
English: Saint Helier
Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
|96,513||118 km2 (46 sq mi)|
Special areas of internal sovereignty
The following places are considered integral parts of their controlling state, but have a political arrangement that was decided through an international agreement.
|*||= Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements|
|Flag||Map||English common and formal names||Legal status||Domestic common and formal names||Capital||Population||Area|
|Self-governing area of Finland, significant autonomy as the result of the Åland crisis||Swedish: Åland – Landskapet Åland||Mariehamn
|27,500||6,787 km2 (2,620 sq mi)|
|Northern Ireland||Part of the United Kingdom, devolved government determined by the Good Friday Agreement||English: Northern Ireland
Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann
Scots: Norlin Airlann
|Belfast||1,810,863||14,130 km2 (5,456 sq mi)|
|Svalbard||Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty||Norwegian: Svalbard||Longyearbyen
|2,019||62,045 km2 (23,956 sq mi)|
- International organisations in Europe
- Lists of European countries:
- List of former sovereign states in Europe
- Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe
- Regions of Europe
- Timeline of European nations
- Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
- The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are official descriptions but are not official names.
- Kazakhstan and Turkey both have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
- Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and the Netherlands are often used as short names for their respective kingdoms as a whole.
- The United Kingdom consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.
- A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic.
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...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognised by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland..
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