List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2
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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  States entirely within conventional Europe   Transcontinental territory most often considered to be within Europe   Transcontinental territory most often considered to be outside Europe   Geographically Asian states (including Armenia and Cyprus)
  States entirely within conventional Europe
  Transcontinental territory most often considered to be within Europe
  Transcontinental territory most often considered to be outside Europe
  Geographically Asian states (including Armenia and Cyprus)

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty generally recognised sovereign states, Kosovo with limited, but substantial, international recognition, and five largely unrecognised de facto states with limited to no recognition, are listed with territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations. There are eight areas that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political status.

Geographical boundaries of Europe

Under the commonly used geographic definition, the boundary between the continents of Asia and Europe stretches along the Ural Mountains,[1] Ural River, and Caspian Sea in the east,[2] the Greater Caucasus range[3] and the Black Sea, with its outlets, the Bosphorus and Dardanelles, in the south.[4][5][5] Based on that division, transcontinental states Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey have territory both in Europe and Asia.

The island of Cyprus in Western Asia is proximate to Anatolia (or Asia Minor), but often considered part of Europe and is a current member of the European Union (EU). Armenia is also entirely in Western Asia but is a member of certain European organisations.[6]

Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Malta, Sicily, Pantelleria and the Pelagian Islands are located on the African continental plate.[7] The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.[8]

Some territories geographically outside Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland has socio-political connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but closer to the continent of North America and usually grouped with it.[9] Sometimes Israel is considered as part of geopolitical Europe as well.[citation needed]

Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located in other continents, such as the French overseas departments,[10] the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa,[11] and the Dutch Caribbean territories of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.[12]

Sovereign states

Political map of Europe and the surrounding region
Political map of Europe and the surrounding region

A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.[13] According to the Montevideo convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[14]

Near universally recognised

There are 50 sovereign states with territory located within the common definition of Europe and/or membership in international European organisations that are near universally recognised internationally. All are either member or observer states of the United Nations (UN),[15] and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe.[16] 44 have their capital city within Europe and 28 of these countries have also been member states of the EU since 2013, which means they are highly integrated with each other and share their sovereignty with EU institutions.

Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.

* = Member of the EU[17]
Flag Map English common and formal names
Domestic common and formal names
Flag of Albania

Republic of Albania
Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë
2,887,000 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi)
Flag of Andorra

Principality of Andorra
Catalan: Andorra — Principat d'Andorra Andorra la Vella

Catalan: Andorra la Vella
78,000 468 km2 (181 sq mi)
Flag of Armenia

Republic of Armenia
Armenian: Հայաստան — Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Hayastan — Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun) Yerevan

Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
2,925,000 29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi)
Flag of Austria

Republic of Austria
German: Österreich — Republik Österreich Vienna

German: Wien
8,857,960 83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi)
Flag of Azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan — Azǝrbaycan Respublikası Baku

Azerbaijani: Bakı
9,898,085 86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi)
Flag of Belarus

Republic of Belarus
Belarusian: Беларусь — Рэспубліка Беларусь (Bielaruś — Respublika Bielaruś)

Russian: Беларусь — Республика Беларусь (Belarus' — Respublika Belarus')

Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)
9,491,800 207,600 km2 (80,155 sq mi)
Flag of Belgium

Kingdom of Belgium
Dutch: België — Koninkrijk België

French: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique

German: Belgien — Königreich Belgien

Dutch: Brussel

French: Bruxelles

German: Brüssel
11,502,204 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi)
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (Latin): Bosna i Hercegovina

Bosnian, Serbian (Cyrillic): Босна и Херцеговина

Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (Latin): Sarajevo

Bosnian, Serbian (Cyrillic): Сарајево
3,511,372 51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi)
Flag of Bulgaria

Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgarian: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija) Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
7,050,034 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi)
Flag of Croatia

Republic of Croatia
Croatian: Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb
4,105,493 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi)
Flag of Cyprus

Republic of Cyprus
Greek: Κύπρος — Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros — Kypriakí Dimokratía)

Turkish: Kıbrıs — Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti

Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosía)

Turkish: Lefkoşa
1,172,458 9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi)
Flag of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic*[j] Czech: Česko — Česká republika Prague

Czech: Praha
10,625,449 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi)
Flag of Denmark

Kingdom of Denmark
Danish: Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen

Danish: København
5,806,015 2,210,000 km2 (853,286 sq mi)
Flag of Estonia

Republic of Estonia
Estonian: Eesti — Eesti Vabariik Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn
1,315,000 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi)
Flag of Finland

Republic of Finland
Finnish: Suomi — Suomen tasavalta

Swedish: Finland — Republiken Finland

Finnish: Helsinki

Swedish: Helsingfors
5,519,463 338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi)
Flag of France

French Republic
French: France — République française Paris

French: Paris
67,348,000 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi)
Flag of Georgia
Georgia[b] Georgian: საქართველო (Sak'art'velo) Tbilisi / T'bilisi

Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
3,729,600 69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi)
Flag of Germany

Federal Republic of Germany
German: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

German: Berlin
82,800,000 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi)
Flag of Greece

Hellenic Republic
Greek: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Ellinikí Dimokratía) Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
10,816,286 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)
Flag of Hungary
Hungary* Hungarian: Magyarország Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest
9,771,000 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi)
Flag of Iceland
Iceland Icelandic: Ísland Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík
350,710 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi)
Flag of Ireland
Ireland*[d][25] Irish: Éire

English: Ireland

Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
4,857,000 70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi)
Flag of Italy

Italian Republic
Italian: Italia — Repubblica Italiana Rome

Italian: Roma
60,494,118 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi)
Flag of Kazakhstan

Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakh: Қазақстан — Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan — Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy)

Russian: Казахстан — Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan — Respublika Kazahstan)

Kazakh: Нұр-Сұлтан

Russian: Нур-Султан (Nur-Sultan)
18,311,700 2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi)
Flag of Latvia

Republic of Latvia
Latvian: Latvija — Latvijas Republika Riga

Latvian: Rīga
1,934,379 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi)
Flag of Liechtenstein

Principality of Liechtenstein
German: Liechtenstein — Fürstentum Liechtenstein Vaduz

German: Vaduz
38,111 160 km2 (62 sq mi)
Flag of Lithuania

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuanian: Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius
2,797,000 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi)
Flag of Luxembourg

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg

French: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg

French: Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg
602,000 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi)
Flag of Malta

Republic of Malta
English: Malta — Republic of Malta

Maltese: Malta — Repubblika ta' Malta

Maltese: Valletta
475,700 316 km2 (122 sq mi)
Flag of Moldova

Republic of Moldova
Romanian: Moldova — Republica Moldova Chișinău

Romanian: Chișinău
3,350,900 33,851 km2 (13,070 sq mi)
Flag of Monaco

Principality of Monaco
French: Monaco — Principauté de Monaco Monaco

French: Monaco
37,000 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi)
Flag of Montenegro
Montenegro[i] Montenegrin: Црна Гора, Crna Gora Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица, Podgorica
642,550 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi)
Flag of the Netherlands

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch: Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

West Frisian: Nederlân — Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen

Papiamento: Hulandu — Reino di Hulanda
Amsterdam (capital)

Dutch: Amsterdam

West Frisian: Amsterdam

Papiamento: Amsterdam

The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag

West Frisian: De Haach

Papiamento: Den Haag
17,272,990 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi)
Flag of North Macedonia
North Macedonia[i]

Republic of North Macedonia
Macedonian: Северна Македонија — Република Северна Македонија (Severna Makedonija — Republika Severna Makedonija) Skopje

Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
2,075,301 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi)
Flag of Norway

Kingdom of Norway
Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg

Northern Sami: Norga — Norgga gonagasriika

Norwegian: Oslo
5,323,933 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi)
Flag of Poland

Republic of Poland
Polish: Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa
38,433,600 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi)
Flag of Portugal

Portuguese Republic
Portuguese: Portugal — República Portuguesa Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa
10,291,196 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi)
Flag of Romania
Romania* Romanian: România Bucharest

Romanian: București
19,622,000 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi)
Flag of Russia

Russian Federation
Russian: Росси́я — Российская Федерация (Rossija — Rossijskaja Federacija) Moscow

Russian: Москва (Moskva)
144,526,636 17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi)
Flag of San Marino
San Marino

Republic of San Marino
Italian: San Marino — Repubblica di San Marino San Marino

Italian: San Marino
32,742 61 km2 (24 sq mi)
Flag of Serbia

Republic of Serbia
Serbian: Србија — Република Србија, Srbija — Republika Srbija Belgrade

Serbian: Београд, Beograd
7,001,444 88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi)
Flag of Slovakia

Slovak Republic
Slovak: Slovensko — Slovenská republika Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava
5,445,087 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi)
Flag of Slovenia

Republic of Slovenia
Slovene: Slovenija — Republika Slovenija Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana
2,070,050 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi)
Flag of Spain

Kingdom of Spain
Spanish: España — Reino de España Madrid

Spanish: Madrid
47,720,291 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi)
Flag of Sweden

Kingdom of Sweden
Swedish: Sverige — Konungariket Sverige Stockholm

Swedish: Stockholm
10,221,988 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi)
Flag of Switzerland

Swiss Confederation
German: Schweiz — Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft

French: Suisse — Confédération suisse

Italian: Svizzera — Confederazione Svizzera

Romansh: Svizra — Confederaziun svizra
Bern / Berne

German: Bern

French: Berne

Italian: Berna
8,544,034 41,277 km2 (15,937 sq mi)
Flag of Turkey

Republic of Turkey
Turkish: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

Turkish: Ankara
80,810,525[26] 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)
Flag of Ukraine
Ukraine Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraina) Kiev

Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
44,291,413 603,550 km2 (233,032 sq mi)
Flag of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom*[h]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
English: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Welsh: Deyrnas Unedig — Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
London 66,040,229 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi)
Flag of the Vatican City
Vatican City

Vatican City State

Holy See
Italian: Città del Vaticano — Stato della Città del Vaticano

Latin: Sancta Sedes[27]
Vatican City

Italian: Città del Vaticano
842 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi)

Substantial, but limited, recognition

Kosovo, although not a member or observer at the UN, has, since declaring independence, achieved a considerable degree of diplomatic recognition. In addition, it has been accepted for membership in several international organisations, including two UN agencies, and is currently seeking EU membership.

As of 27 July 2019, 101 out of 193 (52%) United Nations (UN) member states, 23 out of 28 (82%) European Union (EU) member states, 25 out of 29 (86%) NATO member states, and 34 out of 57 (60%) Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states have recognised Kosovo. The government of Serbia does not recognise Kosovo as a sovereign state, but has begun to normalise relations with the government of Kosovo in accordance with the Brussels Agreement.

Flag Map English common and formal names Status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a]
Flag of Kosovo

Republic of Kosovo[18]
Recognised by 113 UN member states;[28] Serbia does not recognise the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, and considers it an autonomous province. Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë — Republika e Kosovës

Serbian: Косово — Република Косово, Kosovo – Republika Kosovo

Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë

Serbian: Приштина, Priština
1,836,529[23] 10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi)[24]

Little or no international recognition

The following five entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states (and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood) or have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised by one or more non-UN member states due to disputes of their sovereignties. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.

Flag Map English common and formal names Status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a]
Flag of Abkhazia

Republic of Abkhazia
Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by five UN states.[29] Abkhazian: Аҧсны (Apsny)

Russian: Абха́зия (Abhazia)

Abkhazian: Аҟəа (Akwa)

Russian: Сухум
250,000[30] 8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi)[31]

Republic of Artsakh
Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. De facto independent state,[32] recognised by 3 non-UN states. Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն (Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun)[33] Stepanakert

Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Khankendi)
141,400[34] 7,000 km2 (2,703 sq mi)[35]
Flag of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus[c]

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised by Turkey.[36] Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs — Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti North Nicosia

Turkish: Lefkoşa
294,906[37] 3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi)[24]
Flag of South Ossetia
South Ossetia[b]

Republic of South Ossetia
Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by five UN states.[29] Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон — Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston — Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)

Russian: Южная Осетия — Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya — Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)

Ossetian: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
70,000[38] 3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)[39]
Flag of Transnistria
Transnistria / Trans-Dniester

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. De facto independent state,[32] recognised by 3 non-UN states. Romanian: Nistreană — Republica Moldovenească Nistreană (Nistreană — Republica Moldovenească Nistreană)

Russian: Приднестровье — Приднестровская Молдавская Республика (Pridnestrov'ye — Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)

Ukrainian: Придністров'я — Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrov'ya — Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika)

Romanian: Tiraspol

Russian: Тира́споль

Ukrainian: Тирасполь
530,000[40] 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi)[41]

Dependent territories

The following six European entities are dependentterritories.[42]

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English common and formal names[18][20] Legal status Domestic common and formal names Capital[21] Population[23] Area[24]
Flag of the United Kingdom, as used in Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia[c]

Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Overseas Territory English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia — Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment

English: Episkopi Cantonment
15,700 254 km2 (98 sq mi)
Flag of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark Faroese: Føroyar

Danish: Færøerne

Faroese: Tórshavn

Danish: Thorshavn
49,947 1,393 km2 (538 sq mi)
Flag of Gibraltar
Gibraltar*[43] British Overseas Territory English: Gibraltar Gibraltar

English: Gibraltar
29,185 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)
Flag of Guernsey

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Crown dependency in right of Guernsey[44][45][46] English: Guernsey — Bailiwick of Guernsey

French: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey

Guernésiais: Guernési — Bailliage de Guernési
Saint Peter Port

English: Saint Peter Port

French: Saint Pierre Port

Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
65,849 78 km2 (30 sq mi)
Flag of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man[h] Crown dependency in right of Man[46][47][48] English: Isle of Man

Manx: Mannin — Ellan Vannin

English: Douglas

Manx: Doolish
86,866 572 km2 (221 sq mi)
Flag of Jersey

Bailiwick of Jersey
Crown dependency in right of Jersey[44][45][46] English: Jersey — Bailiwick of Jersey

French: Jersey — Bailliage de Jersey

Jèrriais: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
Saint Helier

English: Saint Helier

French: Saint-Hélier

Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
96,513 118 km2 (46 sq mi)

Special areas of internal sovereignty

The following places are considered integral parts of their controlling state, but have a political arrangement which was decided through an international agreement.

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English common and formal names Legal status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population Area
Flag of Åland

Åland Islands[20]
Self-governing area of Finland, significant autonomy as the result of the Åland crisis[50] Swedish: Åland — Landskapet Åland Mariehamn[20]

Swedish: Mariehamn
27,500[51] 6,787 km2 (2,620 sq mi)[51]
Flag of the United Kingdom, as used in Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Northern Ireland* Part of the United Kingdom, devolved government determined by the Good Friday Agreement[52] Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann

Scots: Norlin Airlann
Belfast[53] 1,810,863[54] 14,130 km2 (5,456 sq mi)[53]
Flag of Norway, as used in Svalbard
Svalbard[18] Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty[55] Norwegian: Svalbard Longyearbyen[20][21]

Norwegian: Longyearbyen
2,019[23] 62,045 km2 (23,956 sq mi)[24]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f
    Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
  2. ^ a b c d e f
    Part of the Transcaucasian Region, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
  3. ^ a b c
    The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
  4. ^
    The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are not official long names and are used only as a legal description meant to differentiate the state from the island.
  5. ^ a b c
    Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
  6. ^ a b
    Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and the Netherlands are often used as short names for their respective kingdoms as a whole.
  7. ^
    The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this name properly refers only to a region of the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
  8. ^ a b c d
    The United Kingdom consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.
  9. ^ a b c d e f
  10. ^
    A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic.


  1. ^ Charles T. Evans (1 July 2009). "Ural Mountains". Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  2. ^ "The Ural River". 30 March 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  3. ^ Charles T. Evans (1 July 2009). "Caucasus Mountains". Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  4. ^ Charles T. Evans (1 July 2009). "Black Sea". Retrieved 17 February 2011.
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