List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe | Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki | Fandom
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Position of Europe on the world globe

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty sovereign states are listed with territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations, six states with limited or no recognition and eight areas that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political status.

Definition of Europe

Main article: Europe

The division between Asia and Europe is debated but under the commonly used definition, the border stretches along the Ural Mountains,[1] Ural River, and Caspian Sea in the east,[2] the Caucasus Mountains[3] and the Black Sea, with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles, in the south.[4][5][5] Based on that division, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory both in Europe and Asia.

The island of Cyprus in Southwest Asia is approximate to Anatolia (or Asia Minor) and is on the Anatolian Plate [6] but is often considered part of Europe as a current member of the European Union. Armenia is entirely in Southwest Asia but is a member of certain European organisations.[7]

Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Sicily and Malta are located on the African continental plate.[8] The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.[9]

Some territories geographically outside Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland has sociopolitical connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but is grouped with the continent of North America.[10]

Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located in other continents, such as the French overseas departments,[11] the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa,[12] and the Dutch Caribbean territories of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.[13]

Sovereign states

A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.[14] According to the Montevideo convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[15]

Recognised sovereign states

There are 50 internationally recognised sovereign states with territory located in common definitions Europe and/or membership in international European organisations, of which 44 have their capital city within Europe. All except the Vatican City are members of the United Nations,[16] and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe.[17] Since 2007, 27 of these countries are also member states of the European Union, which means they are highly integrated with each other and share their sovereignty with EU institutions.

Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.

* = Member of the European Union[18]
Flag Map English short and formal names
Domestic short and formal names[19][20] Capital
Population[n 1][23] Area
[n 1][24]
Flag of Albania
Map showing Albania in Europe

Republic of Albania
Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë
2,986,952 28,748 km² (11,100 sq mi


Flag of Andorra
Map showing Andorra in Europe

Principality of Andorra
Catalan: Andorra — Principat d'Andorra Andorra la Vella

Catalan: Andora la Vella
84,525 468 km² (181 sq mi


Flag of Armenia
Map showing Armenia in Europe
Armenia[n 2]

Republic of Armenia
Armenian: Հայաստան — Հայաստանի Հանրապետությու (Hayastan — Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun) Yerevan

Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
2,966,802 29,743 km² (11,484 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Austria
Map showing Austria in Europe

Republic of Austria
German: Österreich — Republik Österreich Vienna

German: Wien
8,214,160 83,871 km² (32,383 sq mi


Flag of Azerbaijan
Map showing Azerbaijan in Europe
Azerbaijan[n 2]

Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan — Azǝrbaycan Respublikası Baku

Azerbaijani: Bakı
8,303,512 86,600 km² (33,436 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Belarus
Map showing Belarus in Europe

Republic of Belarus
Belarusian: Беларусь — Рэспубліка Беларусь

Russian: Беларусь — Республика Беларусь (Bielarus' — Respublika Belaruś)

Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)
9,612,632 207,600 km² (80,155 sq mi


Flag of Belgium
Map showing Belgium in Europe

Kingdom of Belgium
German: Belgien — Königreich Belgien

French: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique

Dutch: België — Koninkrijk België

German: Brüssel
French: Bruxelles
Dutch: Brussel
10,423,493 30,528 km² (11,787 sq mi


Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map showing Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Bosna i Hercegovina
Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Босна и Херцеговина

Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Sarajevo
Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Сарајево
4,612,598 51,197 km² (19,767 sq mi


Flag of Bulgaria
Map showing Bulgaria in Europe

Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgarian: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija) Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
7,148,785 110,879 km² (42,811 sq mi


Flag of Croatia
Map showing Croatia in Europe

Republic of Croatia
Croatian: Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb
4,486,881 56,594 km² (21,851 sq mi


Flag of Cyprus
Map showing Cyprus in Europe
Cyprus*[n 3]

Republic of Cyprus
Greek: Κύπρος — Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros — Kypriakí Dimokratí)

Turkish: Kıbrıs — Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti

Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia)
Turkish: Lefkoşa
1,102,677 9,251 km² (3,572 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of the Czech Republic
Map showing the Czech Republic in Europe
Czech Republic*

Czech Republic
Czech: Česko — Česká republika Prague

Czech: Praha
10,201,777 78,867 km² (30,451 sq mi


Flag of Denmark
Map showing Denmark in Europe
Denmark*[n 4]

Kingdom of Denmark
Danish: Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen

Danish: København
5,515,575 43,094 km² (16,639 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Estonia
Map showing Estonia in Europe

Republic of Estonia
Estonian: Eesti — Eesti Vabariik Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn
1,291,170 45,228 km² (17,463 sq mi


Flag of Finland
Map showing Finland in Europe

Republic of Finland
Finnish: Suomi — Suomen tasavalta

Swedish: Finland — Republiken Finland

Finnish: Helsinki
Swedish: Helsingfors
5,255,068 338,145 km² (130,559 sq mi


Flag of France
Map showing France in Europe

French Republic
French: France — République française Paris

French: Paris
62,768,389 643,427 km² (248,429 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Georgia
Map showing Georgia in Europe
Georgia[n 2] Georgian: საქართველო (Sak'art'velo) T'bilisi

Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
4,600,825 69,700 km² (26,911 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Germany
Map showing Germany in Europe

Federal Republic of Germany
German: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

German: Berlin
82,282,988 357,022 km² (137,847 sq mi


Flag of Greece
Map showing Greece in Europe

Hellenic Republic
Greek: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Elliniki Dimokratia) Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
11,749,983 131,957 km² (50,949 sq mi


Flag of Hungary
Map showing Hungary in Europe

Republic of Hungary
Hungarian: Magyarország — Magyar Köztársaság Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest
9,992,339 93,028 km² (35,918 sq mi


Flag of Iceland
Map showing Iceland in Europe

Republic of Iceland
Icelandic: Ísland — Lýðveldið Ísland Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík
308,910 103,000 km² (39,769 sq mi


Flag of Ireland
Map showing Ireland in Europe
Ireland*[n 5][25] English: Ireland

Irish: Éire

English: Dublin
Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
4,622,917 70,273 km² (27,133 sq mi


Flag of Italy
Map showing Italy in Europe

Italian Republic
Italian: Italia — Repubblica Italiana Rome

Italian: Roma
58,090,681 301,340 km² (116,348 sq mi


Flag of Kazakhstan
Map showing Kazakhstan in Europe
Kazakhstan[n 6]

Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakh: Қазақстан — Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan — Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)

Russian: Казахстан — Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan — Respublika Kazahstan)

Kazakh: Астана
Russian: Астана (Astana)
15,460,484 2,724,900 km² (1,052,090 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Latvia
Map showing Latvia in Europe

Republic of Latvia
Latvian: Latvija — Latvijas Republika Riga

Latvian: Rīga
2,217,969 64,589 km² (24,938 sq mi


Flag of Liechtenstein
Map showing Liechtenstein in Europe

Principality of Liechtenstein
German: Liechtenstein — Fürstentum Liechtenstein Vaduz

German: Vaduz
35,002 160 km² (62 sq mi


Flag of Lithuania
Map showing Lithuania in Europe

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuanian: Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius
3,545,319 65,300 km² (25,212 sq mi


Flag of Luxembourg
Map showing Luxembourg in Europe

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
German: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg

German: Luxemburg
French: Luxembourg
Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg
497,538 2,586 km² (998 sq mi


Flag of Macedonia
Map showing Macedonia in Europe

Republic of Macedonia
Macedonian: Македонија — Република Македонија (Makedonija — Republika Makedonija) Skopje

Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
2,072,086 25,713 km² (9,928 sq mi


Flag of Malta
Map showing Malta in Europe

Republic of Malta
English: Malta — Republic of Malta

Maltese: Malta — Repubblika ta' Malta

English: Valletta
Maltese: Valletta
413,000 316 km² (122 sq mi


Flag of Moldova
Map showing Moldova in Europe

Republic of Moldova
Romanian: Moldova — Republica Moldova Chişinău

Romanian: Chişinău
4,317,483 33,851 km² (13,070 sq mi


Flag of Monaco
Map showing Monaco in Europe

Principality of Monaco
French: Monaco — Principauté de Monaco Monaco

French: Monaco
30,586 2 km² (0.8 sq mi


Flag of Montenegro
Map showing Montenegro in Europe
Montenegro Serbian: Црна Гора (Crna Gora) Podgorica

Serbian: Подгорица (Podgorica)
666,750 13,812 km² (5,333 sq mi


Flag of the Netherlands
Map showing the Netherlands in Europe
Netherlands*[n 4][n 7][13]

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch: Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Amsterdam (capital)
The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: Amsterdam
Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag
16,783,092 41,543 km² (16,040 sq mi


Flag of Norway
Map showing Norway in Europe

Kingdom of Norway
Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg

Bokmål: Oslo
4,676,305 323,802 km² (125,021 sq mi


Flag of Poland
Map showing Poland in Europe

Republic of Poland
Polish: Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa
38,463,689 312,685 km² (120,728 sq mi


Flag of Portugal
Map showing Portugal in Europe

Portuguese Republic
Portuguese: Portugal — República Portuguesa Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa
10,735,765 92,090 km² (35,556 sq mi


Flag of Romania
Map showing Romania in Europe
Romania* Romanian: România Bucharest

Romanian: Bucureşti
21,959,278 238,391 km² (92,043 sq mi


Flag of Russia
Map showing Russia in Europe
Russia[n 6]

Russian Federation
Russian: Росси́я — Российская Федерация (Rossija — Rossijskaja Federacija) Moscow

Russian: Москва (Moskva)
139,391,205 17,098,242 km² (6,601,668 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of San Marino
Map showing San Marino in Europe
San Marino

Republic of San Marino
Italian: San Marino — Repubblica di San Marino San Marino

Italian: San Marino
31,477 61 km² (24 sq mi


Flag of Serbia
Map showing Serbia in Europe

Republic of Serbia
Serbian: Србија — Република Србија (Srbija — Republika Srbija) Belgrade

Serbian: Београд (Beograd)
7,344,847 88,361 km² (34,116 sq mi


Flag of Slovakia
Map showing Slovakia in Europe

Slovak Republic
Slovak: Slovensko — Slovenská republika Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava
5,470,306 49,035 km² (18,933 sq mi


Flag of Slovenia
Map showing Slovenia in Europe

Republic of Slovenia
Slovene: Slovenija — Republika Slovenija Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana
2,003,136 20,273 km² (7,827 sq mi


Flag of Spain
Map showing Spain in Europe

Kingdom of Spain
Spanish: España — Reino de España Madrid

Spanish: Madrid
46,505,963 505,370 km² (195,124 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Sweden
Map showing Sweden in Europe

Kingdom of Sweden
Swedish: Sverige — Konungariket Sverige Stockholm

Swedish: Stockholm
9,074,055 450,295 km² (173,860 sq mi


Flag of Switzerland
Map showing Switzerland in Europe

Swiss Confederation
German: Schweiz — Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft

French: Suisse — Confédération Suisse

Italian: Svizzera — Confederazione Svizzera

Romansh: Svizra — Confederaziun svizra
Bern / Berne

German: Bern
French: Berne
Italian: Berna
7,673,438 41,277 km² (15,937 sq mi


Flag of Turkey
Map showing Turkey in Europe
Turkey[n 6]

Republic of Turkey
Turkish: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

Turkish: Ankara
77,804,122 783,562 km² (302,535 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of Ukraine
Map showing Ukraine in Europe
Ukraine Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraina) Kiev

Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
45,515,916 603,550 km² (233,032 sq mi


Flag of the United Kingdom
Map showing the UK in Europe
United Kingdom (UK)*[n 8]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
English: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland London

English: London
62,348,487 243,610 km² (94,058 sq mi


Flag of the Vatican City
Map showing Vatican City in Europe
Vatican City
Holy See

State of the Vatican City
The Holy See
Italian: Città del Vaticano — Stato della Città del Vaticano

Latin: Santa Sede — Status Civitatis Vaticanæ[26]
Vatican City

Italian: Città del Vaticano
829 0.44 km² (0.17 sq mi


Partially recognised sovereign states

The following four entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more United Nations member states, and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood. None are members of the United Nations, Council of Europe or European Union.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area[n 1]
Flag of Abkhazia
Map showing Abkhazia in Europe
Abkhazia[n 2]

Republic of Abkhazia
Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by four UN states. Abkhaz: Аҧсны (Apsny)

Russian: Абха́зия (Abhazia)

Abkhaz: Аҟəа (Akwa)
Russian: Сухуми
250,000 [27] 8,660 km² (3,344 sq mi


[28][n 1]

Flag of Kosovo
Map showing Kosovo in Europe

Republic of Kosovo[19]
Claimed as an autonomous province of Serbia. Recognised by 77 UN states. Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë — Republika e Kosovës

Serbian: Косово — Република Косово (Kosovo — Republika Kosovo)

Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë
Serbian: Приштина (Priština)
1,815,048[23] 10,887 km² (4,203 sq mi



Flag of Northern Cyprus
Map showing Northern Cyprus in Europe
Northern Cyprus[n 3]

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey. Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs — Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Nicosia

Turkish: Lefkoşa
285,356[29] 3,355 km² (1,295 sq mi


[24][n 1]

Flag of South Ossetia
Map showing South Ossetia in Europe
South Ossetia[n 2]

Republic of South Ossetia
Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by four UN states. Ossetic: Хуссар Ирыстон — Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston — Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)

Russian: Южная Осетия — Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya — Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)

Ossetic: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
70,000[30] 3,900 km² (1,506 sq mi



Unrecognised sovereign states

The following two geo-political entities in Europe have no diplomatic recognition by a United Nations member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood. Neither is a member of the United Nations, Council of Europe or European Union.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area
Flag of Nagorno-Karabakh
Map showing Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan
Nagorno-Karabakh[n 2]

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. Recognised only by 3 non-UN states. Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ — Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ Հանրապետություն (Lernayin Gharabaghi — Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut’yun)[32] Stepanakert

Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Khankendi)
141,400[33] 7,000 km² (2,703 sq mi


[34][n 1]

Flag of Transnistria
Map showing Transnistria in Moldova
Transnistria / Trans-Dniester

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. Recognised only by 3 non-UN states. Moldovan: Нистрянэ — Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ (Transnistria — Republica Moldovenească Nistreană)

Russian: Приднестрóвье — Приднестрóвская Молдáвская Респýблика (Pridnestrov'ye — Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)

Ukrainian: Придністрóв'я — Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrov'ya — Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika)

Moldovan: Тираспол
Russian: Тирáсполь
Ukrainian: Тирáсполь
530,000[35] 3,500 km² (1,351 sq mi



Dependent territories

The following six European entities are dependent territories.[37]

* = Part of the European Union, although there may be special arrangements.
Flag Map English short and formal names[19] Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital[21] Population[23] Area
[n 1][24]
Flag of the United Kingdom, as used in Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Map showing Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Cyprus
Akrotiri and Dhekelia [n 3]

Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British overseas territory English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia — Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment

English: Episkopi Cantonment
15,700 254 km² (98 sq mi


[n 1]

Flag of the Faroe Islands
Map showing the Faroe Islands in Europe
Faroe Islands
Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark Faroese: Føroyar

Danish: Færøerne

Faroese: Tórshavn
Danish: Thorshavn
49,057 1,393 km² (538 sq mi


Flag of Gibraltar
Map showing Gibraltar in Europe
Gibraltar*[38] British overseas territory English: Gibraltar Gibraltar

English: Gibraltar
28,877 6.5 km² (2.5 sq mi


Flag of Guernsey
Map showing Guernsey in relation to the United Kingdom
Guernsey[n 8]

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom English: Guernsey — Bailiwick of Guernsey

French: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey

Guernésiais: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey
Saint Peter Port

English: Saint Peter Port
French: Saint Pierre Port
Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
64,775 78 km² (30 sq mi


Flag of the Isle of Man
Map showing the Isle of Man in Europe
Isle of Man[n 8] Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom English: Isle of Man

Manx: Mannin — Ellan Vannin

English: Douglas
Manx: Doolish
83,859 572 km² (221 sq mi


Flag of Jersey
Map showing Jersey in Europe
Jersey[n 8]

Bailiwick of Jersey
Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom English: Jersey — Bailiwick of Jersey

French: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri

Jèrriais: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
Saint Helier

English: Saint Helier
French: Saint-Hélier
Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
93,363 116 km² (45 sq mi


Special areas of internal sovereignty

The following places are considered integral parts of their controlling state, but have a political arrangement which was decided through an international agreement.

* = Part of the European Union, although there may be special arrangements.
Flag Map English short and formal names Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area
Flag of Åland
Map showing Åland in Europe

Åland Islands
Self-governing area of Finland, determined by the result of the Åland crisis[40] Swedish: Åland — Landskapet Åland Mariehamn

Swedish: Mariehamn
27,500[41] 6,787 km² (2,620 sq mi



Flag of Norway, as used in Svalbard
Map showing Svalbard in Europe
Svalbard[19] Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty[42] Bokmål: Svalbard Longyearbyen[21]

Bokmål: Longyearbyen
2,067[23] 62,045 km² (23,956 sq mi



See also

  • Lists of European countries:
    • by date of achieving sovereignty
    • by GDP
      • by GDP per capita
      • by GDP PPP
    • by geographic area
  • International organisations in Europe
  • List of former sovereign states in Europe
  • Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe
  • Timeline of European nations


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Part of Transcaucasian Region, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Asian Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and Netherlands are often used as short forms of their respective kingdoms as a whole.
  5. The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are not official long names and are used only as a legal description meant to differentiate the state from the island.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
  7. The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this is the improper name of the whole country as it refers only to a small region inside the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 The United Kingdom (UK) consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. The mainlands of England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.


  1. Charles T. Evans (2009-07-01). "Ural Mountains". Retrieved on 2011-02-17.
  2. "The Ural River". (2008-03-30). Retrieved on 2011-02-17.
  3. Charles T. Evans (2009-07-01). "Caucasus Mountains". Retrieved on 2011-02-17.
  4. Charles T. Evans (2009-07-01). "Black Sea". Retrieved on 2011-02-17.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopaedia 2007. "Europe", Europe, Retrieved on . 
  6. Shimon Wdowinski; Zvi Ben-Avraham; Ronald Arvidsson; Goran Ekström (2006), "Seismotectonics of the Cyprian Arc", Geophysics Journal International (164): 176–181. Bibcode2006GeoJI.164..176W. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02737.x , Retrieved on . 
  7. "Council of Europe in Brief". Retrieved on 2011-02-17.
  8. "Geological Development of the Sicilian-Tunisian Platform held in Italy (University of Urbino) on November 4, 5, 6, 1992". (1992-11-06). Retrieved on 2011-02-17.
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