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Landtag of Bavaria

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Landtag of Bavaria

Bayerischer Landtag
Coat of arms of Bavaria.svg
Ilse Aigner, CSU
since 5 November 2018
Bavarian Landtag 2018.svg
Political groups
Government (112) [1]
  •      CSU (85)
  •      FW (27)

Opposition (93)

Last election
14 October 2018
Next election
Meeting place
Maximilianeum, Munich
Presentation medal of the Bavarian Parliament (Bayerische Standeversammlung) 1819 to their King Maximilian I Joseph, on the first anniversary of the constitution of 1818, obverse. Medal Bavarian Constitution 1819, obv.jpg
Presentation medal of the Bavarian Parliament (Bayerische Ständeversammlung) 1819 to their King Maximilian I Joseph, on the first anniversary of the constitution of 1818, obverse.
Bavaria Thaler 1834, Diet of the Kingdom (Landtag), uniface Pb-Strike. Bavaria Thaler 1834, Diet of the Kingdom (Landtag), uniface Pb-Strike.jpg
Bavaria Thaler 1834, Diet of the Kingdom (Landtag), uniface Pb-Strike.
Landtag of Bavaria Plenarsaal im Bayerischen Landtag.jpg
Landtag of Bavaria

The Landtag of Bavaria (State Diet of Bavaria) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany. The parliament meets in the Maximilianeum in Munich.

Landtag representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state

A Landtag is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land). Landtage assemblies are the legislative bodies for the individual states of Germany and states of Austria, and have authority to legislate in non-federal matters for the regional area.

States of Germany First-level administrative subdivisions of the Federal Republic of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states. Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer.

Bavaria State in Germany

Bavaria, officially the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich and Nuremberg.


Elections to the Landtag are held every five years [2] and have to be conducted on a Sunday or public holiday. [3] The following elections have to be held no earlier than 59 months and no later than 62 months after the previous one, [4] unless the Landtag is dissolved.

The most recent elections to the Bavarian Landtag were held on 14 October 2018.


The Landtag of Bavaria was founded in 1818, in the Kingdom of Bavaria. Originally it was called the Ständeversammlung and was divided into an upper house, the Kammer der Reichsräte (chamber of imperial counsellors), and a lower house, the Kammer der Abgeordneten . In 1834 the Ständeversammlung was renamed the Landtag (state diet).

Kingdom of Bavaria kingdom in Central Europe between 1806–1918, from January 1871 part of the German Empire

The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federal state of the new Empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1918, Bavaria became a republic, and the kingdom was thus succeeded by the current Free State of Bavaria.

In the Weimar Republic, from 1919 on, under the Bamberg Constitution, the upper house of the Landtag was abolished and its lower house became a unicameral democratic elected assembly. In 1933, in Nazi Germany, the Landtag suffered Gleichschaltung like all German state parliaments. It was dissolved on 30 January 1934.

Weimar Republic Germany state in the years 1918/1919–1933

The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

<i>Gleichschaltung</i> Process of Nazification

Gleichschaltung, or in English co-ordination, was in Nazi terminology the process of Nazification by which Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society, "from the economy and trade associations to the media, culture and education".

After the Second World War, the new Constitution of Bavaria was enacted and the first new Landtag elections took place on 1 December 1946. Between 1946 and 1999 there was again an upper house, the Senate of Bavaria.

Constitution of Bavaria Bavarian legal text

The Constitution of the Free State of Bavaria was enacted on 8 December 1946. It is the fourth constitutional document in Bavarian history after the Constitution of 1808, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1818 and the Bamberg Constitution of 1919.

Results of the 2018 election

Summary of the 14 October 2018 election results [5] for the Landtag of Bavaria

Bavarian Landtag 2018.svg
PartyIdeologyVotesVotes % (change)Seats (change)Seats %
Christian Social Union (CSU) Christian democracy 5,047,00637.2%−10.4pp85−1641.5%
Alliance '90/The Greens (Grünen) Green politics 2,377,76617.6%+9.0pp38+2018.5%
Free Voters (FW) Regionalism 1,571,28811.6%+2.6pp27+813.2%
Alternative for Germany (AfD) German nationalism 1,383,86610.2%+10.2pp22+2210.7%
Social Democratic Party (SPD) Social democracy 1,317,9429.7%−10.9pp22−2010.7%
Free Democratic Party (FDP)Liberalism687,8425.1%+1.8pp11+115.4%
The Left (Die Linke) Democratic socialism 435,9493.2%+1.1pp0±00%
Bavaria Party (BP) Bavarian nationalism 231,9301.7%−0.4pp0±00%
Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP) Green conservatism 211,7841.6%−0.5pp0±00%
Pirate Party (Piraten) Pirate politics 60,0870.4%−1.5pp0±00%
Party for Franconia (Die Franken) Regionalism 31,5470.2%−0.5pp0±00%

Composition of the Landtag

Coat of arms of Bavaria.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

The Bavarian Landtag is elected through personalized proportional representation with 90 Constituencies, but unlike the Bundestag, the seven Administrative Districts are serving as "Electoral Regions" with a fixed number of seats allocated, flexible regional lists are used and both votes count equally regarding the proportional results so that even the "lost" Constituency votes count. Also, Constituency candidates are usually also List candidates of their Party and thus able to gain enough votes to have a chance of entering the Landtag through their list even though they could not win their Constituency.

The state government is formed by the CSU. Markus Söder has been Minister-President of Bavaria since March 2018, when he succeeded Horst Seehofer. The CSU has dominated the Bavarian Landtag for nearly the entire post-war period.

The CSU's 2003 election victory was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany that any party had won a two-thirds majority of seats in an assembly at any level. [6]

Five years later in 2008, the CSU saw a stunning reversal of fortunes, and failed to win a majority of seats in Bavaria for the first time in 46 years. In the aftermath of this result, the SPD floated the idea that the four other parties should all unite to form a government excluding the CSU, as it had "lost its mandate to lead": however, the FDP were not interested.

Election results 1946–2018

1998 52.928.
2003 60.719.
2008 43.418.
2013 47.720.
2018 37.29.717.65.11.711.61.610.2

Source: "Wahlergebnisse seit 1946" (PDF). Bavarian Landtag. Retrieved 6 June 2008.[ dead link ]


See also

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  2. Landtag A-Z – Legislaturperiode [ permanent dead link ] (in German) Landtag website. Retrieved 6 June 2008
  3. Tag der Abstimmung – Election date (in German) Landeswahlgesetz. Retrieved 6 June 2008
  4. Bavarian constitution – Article 16 Legislative terms, new elections Archived 21 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Landtag website. Retrieved 7 June 2008
  5. Stoiber – Dominant But Not Omnipotent Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine American Institute for contemporary German studies, author: Prof. Clayton Clemens. Retrieved 7 June 2008

Coordinates: 48°08′11″N11°35′40″E / 48.13639°N 11.59444°E / 48.13639; 11.59444