Landtag of Bavaria
|Government (112) |
|14 October 2018|
A Landtag is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land). Landtage assemblies are the legislative bodies for the individual states of Germany and states of Austria, and have authority to legislate in non-federal matters for the regional area.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states. Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer.
Bavaria, officially the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich and Nuremberg.
Elections to the Landtag are held every five years and have to be conducted on a Sunday or public holiday. The following elections have to be held no earlier than 59 months and no later than 62 months after the previous one, unless the Landtag is dissolved.
The most recent elections to the Bavarian Landtag were held on 14 October 2018.
The Landtag of Bavaria was founded in 1818, in the Kingdom of Bavaria. Originally it was called the Ständeversammlung and was divided into an upper house, the Kammer der Reichsräte (chamber of imperial counsellors), and a lower house, the Kammer der Abgeordneten . In 1834 the Ständeversammlung was renamed the Landtag (state diet).
The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federal state of the new Empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1918, Bavaria became a republic, and the kingdom was thus succeeded by the current Free State of Bavaria.
In the Weimar Republic, from 1919 on, under the Bamberg Constitution, the upper house of the Landtag was abolished and its lower house became a unicameral democratic elected assembly. In 1933, in Nazi Germany, the Landtag suffered Gleichschaltung like all German state parliaments. It was dissolved on 30 January 1934.
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.
Gleichschaltung, or in English co-ordination, was in Nazi terminology the process of Nazification by which Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society, "from the economy and trade associations to the media, culture and education".
After the Second World War, the new Constitution of Bavaria was enacted and the first new Landtag elections took place on 1 December 1946. Between 1946 and 1999 there was again an upper house, the Senate of Bavaria.
The Constitution of the Free State of Bavaria was enacted on 8 December 1946. It is the fourth constitutional document in Bavarian history after the Constitution of 1808, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1818 and the Bamberg Constitution of 1919.
|Party||Ideology||Votes||Votes % (change)||Seats (change)||Seats %|
|Christian Social Union (CSU)||Christian democracy||5,047,006||37.2%||−10.4pp||85||−16||41.5%|
|Alliance '90/The Greens (Grünen)||Green politics||2,377,766||17.6%||+9.0pp||38||+20||18.5%|
|Free Voters (FW)||Regionalism||1,571,288||11.6%||+2.6pp||27||+8||13.2%|
|Alternative for Germany (AfD)||German nationalism||1,383,866||10.2%||+10.2pp||22||+22||10.7%|
|Social Democratic Party (SPD)||Social democracy||1,317,942||9.7%||−10.9pp||22||−20||10.7%|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||Liberalism||687,842||5.1%||+1.8pp||11||+11||5.4%|
|The Left (Die Linke)||Democratic socialism||435,949||3.2%||+1.1pp||0||±0||0%|
|Bavaria Party (BP)||Bavarian nationalism||231,930||1.7%||−0.4pp||0||±0||0%|
|Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP)||Green conservatism||211,784||1.6%||−0.5pp||0||±0||0%|
|Pirate Party (Piraten)||Pirate politics||60,087||0.4%||−1.5pp||0||±0||0%|
|Party for Franconia (Die Franken)||Regionalism||31,547||0.2%||−0.5pp||0||±0||0%|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Bavarian Landtag is elected through personalized proportional representation with 90 Constituencies, but unlike the Bundestag, the seven Administrative Districts are serving as "Electoral Regions" with a fixed number of seats allocated, flexible regional lists are used and both votes count equally regarding the proportional results so that even the "lost" Constituency votes count. Also, Constituency candidates are usually also List candidates of their Party and thus able to gain enough votes to have a chance of entering the Landtag through their list even though they could not win their Constituency.
The state government is formed by the CSU. Markus Söder has been Minister-President of Bavaria since March 2018, when he succeeded Horst Seehofer. The CSU has dominated the Bavarian Landtag for nearly the entire post-war period.
The CSU's 2003 election victory was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany that any party had won a two-thirds majority of seats in an assembly at any level.
Five years later in 2008, the CSU saw a stunning reversal of fortunes, and failed to win a majority of seats in Bavaria for the first time in 46 years. In the aftermath of this result, the SPD floated the idea that the four other parties should all unite to form a government excluding the CSU, as it had "lost its mandate to lead": however, the FDP were not interested.
|Year||CSU||SPD||B'90/Grüne||KPD||FDP||BP||BHE DG||GB BHE||NPD||WAV||REP||FW||ÖDP||AfD|
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany. The CSU operates only in Bavaria while its larger counterpart, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), operates in the other fifteen states of Germany. It differs from the CDU by being somewhat more conservative in social matters. The CSU is considered an effective successor of the Weimar-era Catholic Bavarian People's Party (BVP).
The Free Democratic Party is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany. The FDP is led by Christian Lindner.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian-democratic, liberal-conservative political party in Germany. It is the major catch-all party of the centre-right in German politics. The CDU forms the CDU/CSU grouping, also known as the Union, in the Bundestag with its Bavarian counterpart the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU). Founded in 1945 as an interdenominational Christian party, the CDU effectively replaced the pre-war Catholic Centre Party, but also included politicians of other, liberal and conservative backgrounds. The party therefore claims to represent "Christian-social, liberal and conservative" elements.
The Bavaria Party is an autonomist and regionalist political party in the state of Bavaria. It was founded in 1946 and describes itself as patriotic Bavarian, advocating Bavarian independence within the European Union. Together with the Christian Social Union (CSU), it can be seen as an heir to the Bavarian People's Party (BVP) which existed prior to the Nazi takeover. The party is a member of the European Free Alliance.
This article aims to give a historical outline of liberalism in Germany. The liberal parties dealt with in the timeline below are, largely, those which received sufficient support at one time or another to have been represented in parliament. Not all parties so included, however, necessarily labeled themselves "liberal". The sign ⇒ denotes another party in that scheme.
Federal elections took place on 27 September 2009 to elect the members of the 17th Bundestag (parliament) of Germany. Preliminary results showed that the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Free Democratic Party (FDP) won the election, and the three parties announced their intention to form a new centre-right government with Angela Merkel as Chancellor. Their main opponent, Frank-Walter Steinmeier's Social Democratic Party (SPD), conceded defeat. The Christian Democrats previously governed in coalition with the FDP in most of the 1949–1966 governments of Konrad Adenauer and Ludwig Erhard and the 1982–1998 governments of Helmut Kohl.
CDU/CSU, unofficially the Union parties or the Union, is the centre-right Christian democratic political alliance of two political parties in Germany, namely the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) and Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU).
Heidi Lück née Pfeifer is a German social-democratic politician and member of the Bavarian state parliament in the Sonthofen-Lindau electoral constituency.
The 2008 Bavarian state election was held on 28 September 2008. Voters of the German state of Bavaria elected members to the Bavarian Landtag.
The Politics of Bavaria takes place within a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Federal Government of Germany exercises sovereign rights with certain powers reserved to the states of Germany including Bavaria. The state has a multi-party system where the two main parties are the rightist Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU) and the leftist Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Thorsten Schäfer-Gümbel is a German politician of the SPD.
The 2013 Bavarian state election was held on 15 September 2013 to elect the 180 members of the 17th Landtag of Bavaria. It was held one week before the 2013 German federal election. The CSU won an absolute majority, while the FDP, a coalition party in the outgoing Bavarian government, did not receive enough votes to enter the new parliament.
Joachim Herrmann is a German politician. He is a member of the CSU party. Herrmann is a MP in the Landtag, the parliament of Bavaria since 1994. Since 16 October 2007 he has been Minister of the Interior of the state of Bavaria.
A state election was held on 15 October 2017 to elect the 18th Landtag of Lower Saxony.
The 2018 Bavarian state election took place on 14 October 2018 to elect the 180 members of the 18th Landtag of Bavaria.
The Free Voters of Bavaria is a political party in Bavaria. It has served as part of the Bavarian governing coalition since the 2018 state election under the leading Christian Social Union. The term "Free Voters" is also applied to the various independent voter groups common in Bavarian municipal and district elections. The name Free Voters of Bavaria applies to both the Bavarian State Association of Free and Independent Voters, an umbrella organization of Free Voter groups, as well as the Bavarian state chapter of the nationwide party Free Voters. The two groups exist simultaneously under the same name due to Bavarian Election law not allowing umbrella organizations to run for office, thus the state party Free Voters of Bavaria was founded in 1997 in order to participate in the Bavarian state elections.
Natascha Kohnen is a German politician of the SPD. Since 2008 she is a member of the Landtag of Bavaria. She is also the current Chairwoman of the SPD Bavaria and in December 2017 was elected one of the national party deputy leaders.
The SPD Bavaria is the Bavarian State Association of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. In February 2018, it was the second largest state association of a party in Bavaria with 62,122 members.