Northern Khmer people

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Northern Khmer
Regions with significant populations
Isan Buriram, Surin, Sisaket
Eastern Trat, Chanthaburi
Languages
Northern Khmer, Thai, Isan
Religion
Dharma Wheel.svg Theravada Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Mon, Wa, and other Mon–Khmer groups

The Thais of Khmer descent (Thai: ไทยเชื้อสายเขมร) or colloquially Northern Khmer people (Thai: เขมรเหนือ),[1] is the designation used to refer to ethnic Khmers native to the Isan region of Northeast Thailand.[2][3]

History[edit]

Khmers have had a presence in this area since at least the time of the Khmer Empire.[4] With the fall of the Angkor, the Khmers of the Isan region were subject to increasing Thai influence. In the 18th century, the Thai kingdom officially annexed the former Cambodian province of Surin. The Khmer residents became de facto subjects of the Thai monarchy and a long process of gradual cultural assimilation began.

Demographics[edit]

Khmer percentage of the total population in various provinces of Thailand
Province Khmer % in 1990 Khmer % in 2000
Surin[5] 63.4% 47.2%
Buriram[6] 0.3% 27.6%
Sisaket[7] 30.2% 26.2%
Trat[8] 0.4% 2.1%
Sa Kaew[9] N/A 1.9%
Chanthaburi[10] 0.6% 1.6%
Roi Et[11] 0.4% 0.5%
Ubon Ratchathani[12] 0.8% 0.3%
Maha Sarakham[13] 0.2% 0.3%

Culture[edit]

Although now a minority, the Northern Khmer have maintained some of their Khmer identity, practicing the Khmer form of Theravada Buddhism and speaking a dialect known as Khmer in Khmer and Northern Khmer in English. Few Northern Khmers are able to read or write their native language,[14] since teaching in public schools is exclusively in Thai.

This Thai language instruction has resulted in many of the younger generation being more comfortable using Thai as a medium of communication. In 1998, Smalley reported renewed interest in Khmer language and culture had resulted in a two-fold increase in the use of Northern Khmer since 1958.[15] However, usage of Khmer has subsequently declined.[16]

in the past two decades, there has been state-directed revitalization of 'local' cultures in Thailand, including of Khmer culture, which has been challenged for adopting a state narrative and insufficiently empowering the Northern Khmer themselves.[17]

Conflict[edit]

Although it is not anywhere near the scale of the protests of the Khmer Krom in the Mekong Delta Vietnam, some Northern Khmers living in the Isan region have demanded more rights and oppose Thaification of the Khmer Surin. Also, the occasional hostilities between Thailand and Cambodia have made their relations sometimes difficult.[18][19]

Notable Thai-Khmers[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cuam and the Beliefs of the Thai-Khmer". Khmerling.blogspot.com. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; landforms a growing larger by the second Reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention: Thailand (PDF) (in English and Thai). United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  3. ^ แผนแม่บท การพัฒนากลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ในประเทศไทย(พ.ศ.2558-2560) [Master Plan for the Development of Ethnic Groups in Thailand 2015-2017] (PDF) (in Thai). Bangkok: Ministry of Social Development and Human Security. 2015. p. 1.
  4. ^ "Thailand's World : Khmer People". Thailandsworld.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "VOA Khmer News, Radio, TV". Voanews.com. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  15. ^ Smalley, William A. (1988). "Multilingualism in the Northern Khmer Population of Thailand". Language Sciences. 10 (2): 395–408. doi:10.1016/0388-0001(88)90023-X.
  16. ^ Vail, Peter (2013). "The Politics of Scripts: Language Rights, Heritage, and the Choice of Orthography for Khmer Vernaculars in Thailand". In Barry, Coeli (ed.). Rights to culture : heritage, language, and community in Thailand. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. pp. 135–162. ISBN 978-616-215-062-3. OCLC 837138803.
  17. ^ Denes, Alexandra (2013), "The Revitalisation of Khmer Ethnic Identity in Thailand", Routledge Handbook of Heritage in Asia, Routledge, doi:10.4324/9780203156001.ch11, ISBN 978-0-203-15600-1
  18. ^ Chachavalpongpun, Pavin (2012). "Embedding Embittered History: Unending Conflicts in Thai-Cambodian Relations". Asian Affairs. 43 (1): 81–102. doi:10.1080/03068374.2012.643593. ISSN 0306-8374. S2CID 145309277.
  19. ^ Thị Trà Mi, Hoàng (2016). "The Preah Vihear temple dispute on the Thai-Cambodian border and ASEAN's role in conflict resolution". Journal of Science, Social Science. 61 (10): 170–174. doi:10.18173/2354-1067.2016-0100. ISSN 2354-1067.

External links[edit]