Trzebnica - Wikipedia

Trzebnica

Trzebnica (Polish pronunciation: [tʂɛbˈɲit͡sa]; German: Trebnitz, Czech: Třebnice) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland. It is the seat of Trzebnica County, and of the smaller administrative district (gmina) called Gmina Trzebnica.

Trzebnica
Trzebnica town hall and market square
Trzebnica town hall and market square
Flag of Trzebnica
Flag
Coat of arms of Trzebnica
Coat of arms
Trzebnica is located in Poland
Trzebnica
Trzebnica
Trzebnica is located in Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Trzebnica
Trzebnica
Coordinates: 51°18′18″N 17°3′41″E / 51.30500°N 17.06139°E / 51.30500; 17.06139Coordinates: 51°18′18″N 17°3′41″E / 51.30500°N 17.06139°E / 51.30500; 17.06139
Country Poland
Voivodeship Lower Silesian
CountyTrzebnica
GminaTrzebnica
Town rights1250
Government
 • MayorMarek Długozima
Area
 • Total8.36 km2 (3.23 sq mi)
Highest elevation
210 m (690 ft)
Lowest elevation
160 m (520 ft)
Population
 (2019-06-30[1])
 • Total13,331
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
55-100
Car platesDTR
Websitehttps://trzebnica.pl

The town lies within the eastern Trzebnickie Hills in the historic Lower Silesia region, approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the regional capital Wrocław. As of 2019, it has a population of 13,331.

Trzebnica's Sanctuary of St. Jadwiga is one of the historical burial sites of Polish monarchs and consorts.

In 2017, the town was the co-host of the World Games (orienteering, middle distance).[2]

HistoryEdit

Middle AgesEdit

In the 12th century, the area was among the possessions of the Premonstratensian St. Vincent monastery at Wrocław. Trzebnica itself was first mentioned in an 1138 deed, then held by the Polish voivode Piotr Włostowic and later seized by the Silesian duke Władysław II the Exile. As a result of the fragmentation of Poland it was part of the Silesian province of Poland.

In 1202 Władysław's grandson Duke Henry I the Bearded and his wife Hedwig of Andechs founded a Cistercian convent, present-day Sanctuary of St. Jadwiga in Trzebnica, the first in Poland.[3] The couple signed the deed of donation on 23 June 1203 in the presence of Hedwig's brother Ekbert Bishop of Bamberg; the monastery was settled with German nuns descending from Bamberg in Franconia. In 1218 Hedwig's daughter Gertrude became abbess of Trzebnica, the first of many Piast princesses to hold this office. After Duke Henry died in 1238 and was buried in the church, his widow moved to the Cistercian convent which by now was led by her daughter. Hedwig died in October 1243 and was buried there also, while some of her relics are preserved at Andechs Abbey in Bavaria, she was canonized in 1267.

In 1250 Trzebnica received town privileges, it passed under the jurisdiction of the Lower Silesian Duchy of Oleśnica in 1323, a Bohemian fief from 1328. In 1480 Duke Konrad X the White granted the town to the Cistercian abbey. Town and monastery were devastated several times, by fires as well as by the plague, but also by Hussite troops in 1430.

Modern eraEdit

During the Thirty Years' War, the town was plundered by Swedish forces and the nuns had to flee across the border to nearby Poland. After the war the premises were rebuilt in its present Baroque style. In the 17th century Trzebnica belonged to the Polish-speaking area in Silesia.[4]

In 1742 Trzebnica (as Trebnitz) with most of Silesia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia and the monastery was finally securalized in 1810. Meanwhile, the town had become a centre of cloth manufacturing. In 1870 the Order of Saint John acquired the former abbey's estates to establish a hospital, cared for by the Sisters of Mercy of St. Borromeo up to today. Between 1871 and 1945 the town was part of Germany. It was heavily damaged during the Vistula–Oder Offensive of the Red Army in the last days of World War II.[5]

 
County Office

After Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the town once again became part of Poland. From April to June 1945, Trzebnica (instead of Wrocław) was the first post-war regional capital of the Lower Silesian (Wrocław) Voivodeship.[6]

 
Water park in Trzebnica

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

See twin towns of Gmina Trzebnica.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial divison in 2019. As of 30th June". stat.gov.pl. Statistics Poland. 2019-10-15. Retrieved 2020-02-14.
  2. ^ "The World Games 2017 w Trzebnicy". Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  3. ^ "Historia miejscowości". Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  4. ^ Dorota Borowicz, Mapy narodowościowe Górnego Śląska od połowy XIX wieku do II Wojny Światowej, Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2004, page 33, ISBN 83-229-2569-7.
  5. ^ "Historia". Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  6. ^ Trzebnica. Zarys rozwoju miasta na przestrzeni wieków, pod redakcją Leszka Wiatrowskiego, Wrocław-Trzebnica 1995, p. 208 (in Polish)

External linksEdit