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House of Ascania

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House of Ascania
CountryEdge Duchy of Saxony

(804–1036)
Edge Duchy of Saxony

(1036–1296)
Edge Russian Empire
Founded1036
FounderEsiko, Count of Ballenstedt
Current headEduard, Prince of Anhalt
Final rulerJoachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt
Titles
Deposition1918 (Duchy of Anhalt)

The House of Ascania (German: Askanier) was a dynasty of German rulers. It is also known as the House of Anhalt, which refers to its longest-held possession, Anhalt.[1]

The Ascanians are named after Ascania (or Ascaria) Castle, known as Schloss Askanien in German, which was located near and named after Aschersleben.[2][3] The castle was the seat of the County of Ascania, a title that was later subsumed into the titles of the princes of Anhalt.

History

The earliest known member of the house, Esiko, Count of Ballenstedt, first appears in a document of 1036. He is assumed to have been a grandson (through his mother) of Odo I, Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark. From Odo, the Ascanians inherited large properties in the Saxon Eastern March.

Esiko's grandson was Otto, Count of Ballenstedt, who died in 1123. By Otto's marriage to Eilika, daughter of Magnus, Duke of Saxony, the Ascanians became heirs to half of the property of the House of Billung, former dukes of Saxony.

Otto's son, Albert the Bear, became, with the help of his mother's inheritance, the first Ascanian duke of Saxony in 1139. However, he soon lost control of Saxony to the rival House of Guelph.

Albert inherited the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1157 from its last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, and he became the first Ascanian margrave. Albert, and his descendants of the House of Ascania, then made considerable progress in Christianizing and Germanizing the lands. As a borderland between German and Slavic cultures, the country was known as a march.

In 1237 and 1244, two towns, Cölln and Berlin, were founded during the rule of Otto and Johann, grandsons of Margrave Albert the Bear. Later, they were united into one city, Berlin. The emblem of the House of Ascania, a red eagle and bear, became the heraldic emblems of Berlin. In 1320, the Brandenburg Ascanian line came to an end.

After the Emperor had deposed the Guelph rulers of Saxony in 1180, Ascanians returned to rule the Duchy of Saxony, which had been reduced to its eastern half by the Emperor. However, even in eastern Saxony, the Ascanians could establish control only in limited areas, mostly near the River Elbe.

In the 13th century, the Principality of Anhalt was split off from the Duchy of Saxony. Later, the remaining state was split into Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg. The Ascanian dynasties in the two Saxon states became extinct in 1689 and in 1422, respectively, but Ascanians continued to rule in the smaller state of Anhalt and its various subdivisions until the monarchy was abolished in 1918.

Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia from 1762 to 1796, was a member of the House of Ascania, herself the daughter of Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst.

Rulers of the House of Ascania

House of Ascania

Partitions of the House of Ascania

      
County of Weimar-Orlamunde
(1113–1247)
County of Ballenstedt
(1030–1170)
Duchy of Saxony
(1180–1296)
Margraviate of Brandenburg
(1157-1266/67)
County of Anhalt
(1123–1212)
Raised to:
Principality of Anhalt
(1212–1252)
Weimar
(1247–1372)
Orlamunde
(from 1354 in Schauenforst and Droyssig)
(1247–1420)
Zerbst
(1st creation)
(1252–1396)
Bernburg
(1st creation)
(1252–1468)
Aschersleben
(1252–1315)
Stendal[4]
(1266–1318)
Salzwedel[5]
(1267–1317)
       Plassenburg
(1285–1340)
       Wittenberg
(1296–1356)
Raised to:
Electorate of Saxe-Wittenberg
(1356–1422)
Lauenburg
(1296–1303)
Lauenstein
(1319–1460)
Mölln
(1303–1401)
       Ratzeburg
(1303–15)
Margraviate of Brandenburg
(Stendal line)
(1318–20)
Bergdorf
(1303–15)
Renamed as
Ratzeburg
(1315–1401)
Annexed to the
House of Wittelsbach
Annexed to
Bishopric of Halberstadt
Annexed to the
House of Wettin
Lauenburg
(Ratzeburg line)
(1401–1689)
Köthen
(1st creation)
(1396–1562)
      
Annexed to the
House of Wettin
      
Dessau[6]
(1st creation)
(1396–1561)
Zerbst
(2nd creation)
(1544–62)
      
      
Principality of Anhalt
(Zerbst line)
(1562–1603)
Plötzkau
(1603–1665)
Köthen
(2nd creation)
(1603–1847)
Dessau
(2nd creation)
(1603–1863)
Zerbst
(3rd creation)
(1603–1793)
Bernburg
(2nd creation)
(1603–1863)
Annexed to the
House of Welf
      
      
      
Duchy of Anhalt
(Dessau line)
(1863–1918)

Table of rulers

Ruler Born Reign Ruling part Consort Death Notes
Adalbert I[7] c.970
?
c.1000–1036 County of Ballenstedt Hidda
four children
1036
aged 65–66
First documented member of the family.
Esico c.1000
Son of Adalbert I and Hidda
1036–1060 County of Ballenstedt Matilda of Swabia
1026
three children
1060
aged 59–60
Adalbert II c.1030
Ballenstedt
Son of Esico and Matilda of Swabia
1060–1080 County of Ballenstedt Adelaide of Weimar-Orlamünde
c.1070
two children
c.1080
Westdorf
aged c.49-50
Otto I the Rich c.1065
First son of Adalbert II and Adelaide of Weimar-Orlamünde
1080 – 9 February 1123 County of Ballenstedt Eilika of Saxony
c.1095
two children
9 February 1123
aged 57–58?
Children of Adalbert II, divided their inheritance.
Siegfried I c.1070
Second son of Adalbert II and Adelaide of Weimar-Orlamünde
1080 – 9 March 1113 County of Weimar-Orlamünde Gertrude of Northeim
1026
three children
9 March 1113
aged 42–43?
Regencies of Gertrude of Northeim (1113–1115) and Otto I, Count of Salm (1115–1121) Left no descendants. The county went to his brother.
Siegfried II 1107
First son of Siegfried I and Gertrude of Northeim
9 March 1113 – 19 March 1124 County of Weimar-Orlamünde Irmgard of Henneberg
no children
19 March 1124
aged 16–17
Albert I the Bear c.1100
Son of Otto I and Eilika of Saxony
9 February 1123 – 18 November 1170 County of Ballenstedt
(with Brandenburg from 1157)
Sophie of Winzenburg
1124
thirteen children
18 November 1170
Stendal (possibly)
aged 69–70
Besides count of Ballenstedt, he was also the first Margrave of Brandenburg (1157). Ruler of the Northern March from 1134, and the county of Weimar-Orlamünde since 1140.
Regency of Otto I, Count of Salm (1124-1126) Also ascended as a minor Left no descendants. The county went to his cousin, Albert the Bear, from Ballenstedt.
William 1112
Worms
Second son of Siegfried I and Gertrude of Northeim
19 March 1124 – 13 February 1140 County of Weimar-Orlamünde Adelaide
no children
13 February 1140
Cochem
aged 27–28
Weimar-Orlamünde briefly annexed to Ballenstedt (1140-70)
Otto I 1128
First son of Albert I and Sophie of Winzenburg
18 November 1170 – 8 July 1184 Margraviate of Brandenburg Judith of Poland
1148
two children

Ada of Holland
1175
one child
8 July 1184
aged 55–56
Children of Albert I, divided their inheritance. After Adalbert aand Dietrich's childless deaths, their possessions were inherited by the younger brother, Bernard.
Herman I 1130
Second son of Albert I and Sophie of Winzenburg
18 November 1170 – 19 October 1176 County of Weimar-Orlamünde Irmgard
two children
19 October 1176
aged 45–46
Adalbert (III) 1136
Fourth son of Albert I and Sophie of Winzenburg
18 November 1170 – 1171 County of Ballenstedt
(at Aschersleben)
Unmarried 1171
aged 34–35
Theodoric 1137
Fifth son of Albert I and Sophie of Winzenburg
18 November 1170 – 1183 County of Ballenstedt
(at Burgwerben)
1183
aged 45–46
Bernard (I)[8] 1140
Sixth son of Albert I and Sophie of Winzenburg
18 November 1170 – 2 February 1212 County of Anhalt
(with Ballenstedt and Saxony)
Brigitte of Denmark
one child

Judith of Greater Poland
c.1173
five children

Sophia of Thuringia
one child
2 February 1212
Bernburg
aged 71–72
Aschersleben and Burgwerben annexed to Anhalt
Siegfried III 1155
Son of Herman I and Irmgard
19 October 1176 – 1206 County of Weimar-Orlamünde Sophia of Denmark
c.1180
three children
1206
aged 50–51
Otto II the Generous c.1150
First son of Otto I and Judith of Poland
8 July 1184 – 4 July 1205 Margraviate of Brandenburg Unmarried 4 July 1205
aged 54–55
Elder children of Otto I, both left no descendants. The patrimony was inherited by their half-brother, Albert II.
Henry c.1150?
Second son of Otto I and Judith of Poland
8 July 1184 – 1192 Margraviate of Brandenburg
(at Gardelegen)
Unmarried 1192
aged 41–42?
Albert II 1177
Son of Otto I and Ada of Holland
4 July 1205 – 25 February 1220 Margraviate of Brandenburg Matilda of Lusatia
1205
four children
25 February 1220
aged 42–43
Albert II 1182
First son of Siegfried III and Sophia of Denmark
1206 – 22 October 1245 County of Weimar-Orlamünde
(at Nordhalben)
Unmarried 22 October 1245
aged 62–63
Children of Siegfried III, divided their inheritance, which was soon reunited by Herman II.
Herman II 1184
Second son of Siegfried III and Sophia of Denmark
1206 – 27 December 1247 County of Weimar-Orlamünde
(at Orlamünde)
Beatrix of Andechs-Merania
c.1230
six children
27 December 1247
aged 62–63
Otto II c.1185
Third son of Siegfried III and Sophia of Denmark
1206–1211 County of Weimar-Orlamünde
(at Weimar)
Unmarried 1211
aged 25–26
Nordhalben and Weimar rejoined Orlamünde
Henry I c.1173
First son of Bernard (I) and Judith of Greater Poland
2 February 1212 – 1252 County of Anhalt
(until 1218)

Principality of Anhalt
(from 1218)
Irmgard of Thuringia
1211
eleven children
1252
aged 78–79
Children of Bernard, divided their inheritance. In 1218 Henry becomes Prince of Anhalt, which after his death is divided by his sons.
Albert I c.1175
Second son of Bernard (I) and Judith of Greater Poland
2 February 1212 – 7 October 1260 Duchy of Saxony Agnes of Austria
1222
five children

Agnes of Thuringia
1238
three children

Helene of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1247
five children
7 October 1260
aged 84–85
Regencies of Henry I, Count of Anhalt (1220–1225), Albert I, Archbishop of Magdeburg (1220–1221) and Matilda of Lusatia (1221–1225) Children of Albert II, ruled jointly, but their children divided the margraviate.
John I 1213
First son of Albert II and Matilda of Lusatia
25 February 1220 – 4 April 1266 Margraviate of Brandenburg Sophie of Denmark
1230
six children

Judith of Saxony
1255
four children
4 April 1266
Stendal
aged 52–53
Otto III the Pious 1215
Second son of Albert II and Matilda of Lusatia
25 February 1220 – 9 October 1267 Beatrice of Bohemia
1243
six children
9 October 1267
Brandenburg an der Havel
aged 51–52
Herman III the Popular c.1230
Second son of Herman II and Beatrix of Andechs-Merania
27 December 1247 – 1283 County of Orlamünde Unknown
four children
1283
aged 52–23
Children of Herman II, divided their inheritance.
Otto III the Magnificent 1236
Third son of Herman II and Beatrix of Andechs-Merania
27 December 1247 – 13 May 1285 County of Weimar Agnes of Leiningen
(c. 1230/40-13 May 1285)
1266
four children
13 May 1285
aged 48–49
Albert III c.1240
Fourth son of Herman II and Beatrix of Andechs-Merania
27 December 1247 – 1283 County of Weimar Unmarried 1283
aged 42–43
Sophia c.1240
Daughter of Herman II and Beatrix of Andechs-Merania
27 December 1247 – 1270 County of Weimar-Orlamünde
(at Regnitzland)
Henry VIII Reuss, Lord of Weida
19 July 1258
three children
c.1270
aged 29–30
Henry II the Fat 1215
First son of Henry I and Irmgard of Thuringia
1252 – 12 June 1266 Principality of Aschersleben Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1245
two children
12 June 1266
aged 50–51
Children of Henry I, divided their inheritance.
Bernard I 1218
Second son of Henry I and Irmgard of Thuringia
1252–1287 Principality of Bernburg Sophia of Denmark
3 February 1258
Hamburg
six children
1287
aged 68–69
Siegfried I 1230
Seventh son of Henry I and Irmgard of Thuringia
1252 – 25 March 1298 Principality of Zerbst Catherine of Sweden
17 October 1259
ten children
25 March 1298
Köthen
aged 67–68
John I 1249
Wittenberg
First son of Albert I and Helene of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 October 1260 – 1282 Duchy of Saxony
(Since 1296 in Saxe-Wittenberg)
Ingeborg Birgersdotter of Sweden
1270
eight children
30 July 1285
Wittenberg
aged 35–36
Ruled jointly; and associated his nephews to the joint rulership after his brothers death. However, these three nephews divided the land with him. Albert II retained Saxe-Wittenberg, and became the head of the Elder Saxon Line; Albert III, Eric I and John II ruled together in Saxe-Lauenburg, becoming the founders of the Younger Saxon Line.
Albert II 1250
Wittenberg
Second son of Albert I and Helene of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 October 1260 – 25 August 1298 Agnes-Gertrude of Austria
1282
six children
25 August 1298
Aken
aged 35–36
In 1296 Albert II and his nephews (Albert III, Eric I, and John II) ended their joint rule and divided Saxony into the Lauenburg line, where Albert III, Eric I, and John II continued to rule jointly until 1303, and the Wittenberg line, where Albert II continued as sole ruler until 1298. Since the Duke of Saxony was considered one of the prince-electors electing a new Holy Roman Emperor, conflict arose between the lines of Lauenburg and Wittenberg over the issue of who should cast Saxony's vote. In 1314 both lines found themselves on different sides in a double election. Eventually, the Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg succeeded in 1356 after the promulgation of the Golden Bull. To distinguish him from other rulers bearing the title Duke of Saxony, he was commonly called Elector of Saxony.
Regency of Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1266–1270) Children of Henry II, ruled jointly, first under their mother, who was elected Abbess of Gernrode in 1275. In 1283, Henry renounced his rights in Otto's favor, and later became Archbishop of Magdeburg.
Otto I c.1245
First son of Henry II and Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
12 June 1266 – 25 June 1304 Principality of Aschersleben Hedwig of Wrocław
1283
three children
25 June 1304
aged 58–59
Henry III c.1245
Second son of Henry II and Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
12 June 1266 – 1283 Unmarried 9 November 1307
aged 61–62
John II 1237
First son of John I and Sophie of Denmark
9 October 1267 – 10 September 1281 Margraviate of Stendal
(at Krossen)
Hedwig of Werle
(1243–1287)
1249
two children
10 September 1281
aged 43–44
Children of John I. Despite co-rulership between them, they received different parts in the Margraviate to rule (alone or in co-rulership):
  • John II received seat at Krossen;
  • Otto IV received seat at Stendal;
  • Conrad received seat at Neumark, and associated his sons in 1291.
Otto IV of the Arrow 1238
Second son of John I and Sophie of Denmark
9 October 1267 – 27 November 1308 Margraviate of Stendal
(at Stendal)
Heilwig of Holstein-Kiel
(d.1305)
1279
no children

Judith of Henneberg-Schleusingen
(d.1315)
1308
no children
27 November 1308
aged 69–70
Conrad I 1240
Third son of John I and Sophie of Denmark
9 October 1267 – 1304 Margraviate of Stendal
(at Neumark)
Constance of Greater Poland
1260
Santok
three children
1304
Chorin
aged 63–64
Otto VII[9] c.1265
Second son of Conrad I and Constance of Greater Poland
1291–1297 Unmarried 1297
aged 31–32
John III of Prague 6 April 1244
Prague
First son of Otto III and Beatrice of Bohemia
9 October 1267 – 8 April 1268 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Salzwedel)
Unmarried 8 April 1268
Merseburg
aged 24
Children of Otto III. Despite co-rulership between them, they received different parts in the Margraviate to rule (alone or in co-rulership):
  • John III (and then Otto V with Otto VI) received the seat at Salzwedel, from which Otto VI abdicated in 1286;
  • Albert III received a seat in Stargard (which he ruled alone at least from 1284.
Otto V the Tall 1246
Prague
Second son of Otto III and Beatrice of Bohemia
9 October 1267 – July 1299 Judith of Henneberg-Coburg
22 October 1268
four children
July 1299
aged 52–53
Otto VI the Short 3/17 November 1264
Fourth son of Otto III and Beatrice of Bohemia
9 October 1267 – 1286 Hedwig of Austria
February 1279
Vienna
no children
6 July 1303
Lehnin
aged 38
Albert III c.1250
Third son of Otto III and Beatrice of Bohemia
9 October 1267 – 1300 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Stargard)
Matilda of Denmark
1268
four children
1300
aged 49–50
Conrad II 1261
Son of John II and Hedwig of Werle
10 September 1281 – 1308 Margraviate of Stendal
(at Krossen)
Unmarried 1308
aged 46–47
With his childless death his land reverted to Stendal.
Krossen re-annexed to Stendal
Henry I c. 1270
First son of Herman III
1283 – 26 March 1354 County of Orlamünde Irmgard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
26 July 1313
two children
26 March 1354
aged 83–84?
Children of Herman III, divided their inheritance.
Herman V[10] c. 1270
Second son of Herman III
1283–1312 Unmarried 1312
aged 41–42?
Elisabeth (I) the Elder 1265
Daughter of Herman III
1283–1327 County of Orlamünde
(at Nordhalben)
Hartmann XI, Count of Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk
one child

Albert II, Margrave of Meissen
1 October 1290
no children
1327
aged 56–57
Herman IV[10] c. 1270
First son of Otto III and Agnes of Leiningen
13 May 1285 – 1319 County of Weimar Matilda of Rabenswald
(d.1339)
24 November 1290
four children
1319
aged 48–49
Children of Otto III, divided their inheritance.
Otto IV the Younger 1279
Second son of Otto III and Agnes of Leiningen
13 May 1285 – 1318 County of Plassenburg Adelaide of Kafernburg
(d.c.1305)
14 December 1296
one child

Catherine of Hesse
(1286–1322)
1308
one child
1318
aged 38–39
John I 1258
First son of Bernard I and Sophia of Denmark
1287 – 5 June 1291 Principality of Bernburg Unmarried 5 June 1291
aged 32–33
Children of Bernard I, ruled jointly.
Bernard II 1260
Third son of Bernard I and Sophia of Denmark
1287 – 1323 Helena of Rügen
27 December 1302
three children
1323
aged 62–63
John II 1275
First son of John I and Ingeborg Birgersdotter of Sweden
20 September 1296 – 22 April 1322 Duchy of Mölln
(in co-rulership in Lauenburg until 1303)
Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1315
one child
22 April 1322
Mölln
aged 46–47
Children of John I, co-ruled first with their uncle Albert II since 1282 (since the death of their father), and in 1296 split the land with him. They retained Lauenburg, which they divided once more. Albert passed the land to his widow, and after her death, in 1315, the territory was realigned: Eric divided Bergdorf with his surviving brother and held all of his brother Albert's inheritance. However, he ended up abdicating to his son, and survived for most of his reign.
Eric I 1280
Second son of John I and Ingeborg Birgersdotter of Sweden
20 September 1296 – 1338 Duchy of Bergedorf
(in co-rulership in Lauenburg until 1303; in Bergedorf 1303-1315)

Duchy of Ratzeburg
(from 1315)
Elisabeth of Pomerania
1316 or 1318
four children
1360
Nienburg
aged 79–80
Albert III 1281
Third son of John I and Ingeborg Birgersdotter of Sweden
20 September 1296 – 1308 Duchy of Ratzeburg
(in co-rulership in Lauenburg until 1303)
Margaret of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1302
two children
1308
aged 26–27
Margaret of Brandenburg-Salzwedel 1270
Second daughter of Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel and Matilda of Denmark
1308 – 1 May 1315 Duchy of Ratzeburg Przemysł II, King of Poland
1302
two children

Albert III
1302
two children
1 May 1315
Ratzeburg
aged 44–45
In 1315, after the death of Margaret of Brandenburg, the remaining brothers Eric and John redesigned the political division in Saxe-Lauenburg; Eric retained all of Margaret's part, but had to give part of his original domains to his brother.
Albert I c.1260
Son of Siegfried I and Catherine of Sweden
25 March 1298 – 17 August 1316 Principality of Zerbst Liutgard of Holstein-Itzehoe
after 1277
two children

Agnes of Brandenburg-Stendal
1300
five children
17 August 1316
aged 55–56
Rudolph I
(Rudolf I)
1284
Wittenberg
Son of Albert II and Agnes-Gertrude of Austria
25 August 1298 – 10 January 1356

10 January 1356 – 12 March 1356
Duchy of Wittenberg
(until 1356)

Electorate of Saxony
(from 1356)
Judith of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1298
eight children

Kunigunde of Poland
28 August 1328
one child

Agnes of Lindow-Ruppin
1333
three children
12 March 1356
Wittenberg
aged 71–72
In January 1356 the Golden Bull confirmed Rudolf I as the legitimate Saxon Prince-Elector, thus the rulers of Saxe-Wittenberg are conceived as Electors of Saxony.
The Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the right to participate in the election of a Holy Roman Emperor to the Duke of Saxony in the Saxe-Wittenberg line.
Herman the Tall 1275
Son of Otto V and Judith of Henneberg-Coburg
July 1299 – 1 February 1308 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Salzwedel)
Anne of Austria
1295
Graz
four children
1 February 1308
Lübz
aged 32–33
Children of Otto V, divided the land. Beatrice's part was then annexed to the Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor.
Beatrice (I) 1270
Daughter of Otto V and Judith of Henneberg-Coburg
July 1299 – 1316 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Upper Lusatia)
Bolko I, Duke of Świdnica
4 October 1284
Berlin
ten children

Władysław, Duke of Bytom
21 September 1308
two children
1316
aged 45–46
Upper Lusatia annexed to the Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor
Beatrice (II) c. 1270
First daughter of Albert III and Matilda of Denmark
1300 – 22 September 1314 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Stargard)
Henry II, Lord of Mecklenburg
1292
Stargard Castle
four children
22 September 1314
aged 43–44
Daughter and heiress of Albert III. Her marriage transferred the Stargard region into the Duchy of Mecklenburg.
Stargard annexed to the Duchy of Mecklenburg
John IV 1261
First son of Conrad I and Constance of Greater Poland
1304–1305 Margraviate of Stendal
(at Neumark)
Unmarried 1305
aged 43–44
Co-ruler of his father since 1291. His childless death reverted his lands to his younger brother Valdemar.
Otto II c.1260
Son of Otto I and Hedwig of Wrocław
25 June 1304 – 24 July 1315 Principality of Aschersleben Elisabeth of Meissen
24 August 1309
two children
24 July 1315
aged 54–55
After his death in 1315 without male heirs opened a succession crisis in the Principality.
Henry I Lackland 21 March 1256
Son of John I and Judith of Saxony
27 November 1308 – 14 February 1318 Margraviate of Stendal
(at Delitzsch since 1297; at Stendal since 1308)
Agnes of Bavaria
1303
three children
14 February 1318
aged 61
Younger brother of John II, Otto IV and Conrad I. Started his co-rulership in 1297, receiving seat at Delitzsch; he ended up as successor of his childless elder brother Otto IV.
Regency of Valdemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal (1308–1316) Children of Herman, divided the land:
  • John V received the core of Salzwedel;
  • Matilda received a seat at Lower Lusatia;
  • Agnes received a seat at Altmark;
  • Jutta received a seat at Coburg.

John's and Agnes' childless deaths left the main core of Salzwedel and the important seat of the Altmark to be reunited in Brandenburg. The remaining possessions were annexed by the respective marriages.

John V the Illustrious August 1302
Son of Herman and Anne of Austria
1 February 1308 – 26 March 1317 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Salzwedel)
Unmarried 26 March 1317
Spandau
aged 14
Matilda 1296
First daughter of Herman and Anne of Austria
1 February 1308 – 31 March 1329 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Lower Lusatia)
Henry IV, Duke of Żagań
5 January 1310
four children
31 March 1329
aged 32–33
Agnes 1297
Second daughter of Herman and Anne of Austria
1 February 1308 – 27 November 1334 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Altmark)
Valdemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal
1309
no children

Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1319
no children
27 November 1334
Braunschweig
aged 36–37
Judith 1301
Third daughter of Herman and Anne of Austria
1 February 1308 – 1353 Margraviate of Salzwedel
(at Coburg)
Henry IX, Count of Henneberg-Schleusingen
1 January 1317 or 1 February 1319
five children
1353
aged 51–52
Salzwedel and Altmark reunited with Stendal; Coburg returned to the House of Henneberg, and Lower Lusatia was inherited by the Duchy of Żagań
Elisabeth of Meissen c.1280?
Daughter of Frederick of Meissen, Margrave of Dresden and Judith of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
24 July 1315 – 1332 Principality of Aschersleben
(in Aschersleben)
Otto II
24 August 1309
two children
1332
aged 51–52?
Succession crisis in Aschersleben: Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, supported Bernard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg as successor, but Bernard ended up giving his rights to Aschersleben to the Bishopric of Halberstadt. However, it is known that Otto II's widow inherited Aschersleben as a seat, and that she had to obtain consent of her daughters ("heiresses of the Allodial") and approval of Bernard II of Bernburg for making her donations. This may possibly imply that, at least between Otto II's death (1315) and the definite delivery of Aschersleben to Halberstadt (December 1316), both Otto's minor daughters may have inherited the principality, under regency of the Prince of Bernburg, with Elisabeth receiving its main town as a widow's seat.
Regency of Bernard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (1315-1316)
Catharina c.1310
First daughter of Otto II and Elisabeth of Meissen
24 July 1315 – December 1316 Principality of Aschersleben
(in the remaining principality)
Herman VI, Count of Weimar
1328
two children
1369
aged 58–59
Elisabeth c.1310
Second daughter of Otto II and Elisabeth of Meissen
Unmarried 1319
aged 8–9
The whole Principality was definitively annexed by the Bishopric of Halberstadt
Regency of Valdemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal (1316-1319) Albert III and Valdemar I ruled jointly, as sons of Albert II. In 1359 Albert II associated his eldest son, Albert III, but he predeceased him.
Albert II c.1305
First son of Albert I and Agnes of Brandenburg-Stendal
17 August 1316 – 17 July 1362 Principality of Zerbst Agnes of Rügen
2 September 1324
no children

Beatrice of Saxe-Wittenberg
c.1337
five children
17 July 1362
aged 56–57
Valdemar I c.1305
Second son of Albert I and Agnes of Brandenburg-Stendal
17 August 1316 – 7 January 1368 Elisabeth of Saxe-Wittenberg
22 June 1344
six children

Beatrice d'Este
1365
no children
7 January 1368
aged 62–63
Albert III c.1337
First son of Albert II and Beatrice of Saxe-Wittenberg
1359 – 1 August 1359 Unmarried 1 August 1359
aged 21–22
Valdemar the Great 1280
Third son of Conrad I and Constance of Greater Poland
1305 – 14 February 1318 Margraviate of Stendal
(at Neumark)
Agnes of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1309
no children
14 August 1319
Mieszkowice
aged 38–39
Son of Conrad, co-ruled with his uncles since 1308. Left no descendants, and the margraviate went to his underage cousin.
14 February 1318 – 14 August 1319 Margraviate of Brandenburg
Otto VI[11] 1297
Son of Otto IV and Adelaide of Kafernburg
1318 – 28 July 1340 County of Plassenburg Kunigunde of Leuchtenberg
1321
no children
28 July 1340
aged 42–43
Left no descendants. After his death his possessions were annexed by the House of Hohenzollern.
Plassenburg annexed to the House of Hohenzollern
Frederick I the Elder c.1290
First son of Herman IV and Matilda of Rabenswald
1319 – 25 July 1365 County of Weimar Elisabeth of Meissen
(d. 2 May 1347)
1322
three children
25 July 1365
aged 74–75
Children of Herman IV, divided their inheritance.
Otto V[11] c.1290
Third son of Herman IV and Matilda of Rabenswald
1319 – 12 March 1335 County of Lauenstein Helena of Nuremberg
1321
three children
12 March 1335
aged 44–45
Regency of Wartislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania (1319–1320) Children of Henry I, divided their inheritance. Henry died as a minor, and the Brandenburg Ascanians were extinct in the male line. Their lands came under the control of the Emperor Louis IV of the House of Wittelsbach, who granted Brandenburg to his eldest son, Louis V of Bavaria.

For Sophia, she inherited the Margraviate of Landsberg, which was inherited by her sons.

Henry II the Child 1302
Son of Henry I and Agnes of Bavaria
14 August 1319 – July 1320 Margraviate of Brandenburg Unmarried July 1320
Mieszkowice
aged 17–18
Sophia 1300
Daughter of Henry I and Agnes of Bavaria
14 August 1319 – 1356 Margraviate of Brandenburg
(at Landsberg)
Magnus I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1327
eight children
1356
aged 55–56
Brandenburg definitively annexed to the House of Wittelsbach; Landsberg definitely annexed to the House of Welf
Regency of Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg (1322–1330)
Albert IV 1315
Son of John II and Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1322–1343 Duchy of Mölln Beata of Schwerin
1334
three child

Sophia of Werle-Güstrow
1341
no children
1343
aged 27–28
Bernard III 1300
Son of Bernard II and Helena of Rügen
1323 – 20 August 1348 Principality of Bernburg Agnes of Saxe-Wittenberg
1328
five children

Matilda of Anhalt-Zerbst
1339
no children

Matilda of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1343
two children
20 August 1348
aged 47–48
Frederick II c.1321
Son of Otto V and Helena of Nuremberg
12 March 1335 – 14 October 1368 County of Lauenstein Sophia of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
(d.1392)
18 November 1357
two children
14 October 1368
aged 46–47
Eric II 1318
Ratzeburg
Son of Eric I and Elisabeth of Pomerania
1338–1368 Duchy of Ratzeburg Agnes of Holstein-Plön
between 1342 and 1349
four children
1368
Ratzeburg
aged 49–50
Regency of Sophia of Werle-Güstrow (1343-1349) Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother, Albert.
John III c.1335
First son of Albert IV and Beata of Schwerin
1343–1356 Duchy of Mölln Unmarried 1356
aged 20–21
Bernard IV c.1330
First son of Bernard III and Agnes of Saxe-Wittenberg
20 August 1348 – 28 June 1354 Principality of Bernburg Unmarried 28 June 1354
aged 23–24
Frederick III c.1320
First son of Henry I and Irmgard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
26 March 1354 – 1379 County of Orlamünde
(at Schauenforst)
Unknown
two children
1379
aged 58–59
Children of Henry I, ruled jointly. In 1354, Orlamunde was annexed to the House of Wettin, and the family changed seat to Schauenforst, while Frederick's brother Henry II ruled from Droyssig. After Henry's death, Frederick reunited Orlamunde.
Henry II c.1320
Second son of Henry I and Irmgard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
26 March 1354 – 1357 County of Orlamünde
(at Droyssig)
Richeza of Henneberg
(d.1379)
one child
1357
aged 36–37
Henry IV c.1330
Second son of Bernard III and Agnes of Saxe-Wittenberg
28 June 1354 – 7 July 1374 Principality of Bernburg Sophia of Stolberg
c.1345
three children
7 July 1374
aged 43–44
Unlike usual co-rulerships seen in the family, Henry was bypassed by his older brother Bernard, who ruled alone. He only assumed rule of the principality when Bernard died in 1354.
Albert V c.1335
Second son of Albert IV and Beata of Schwerin
1356–1370 Duchy of Mölln Catherine of Werle-Güstrow
25 January 1366
no children
1370
aged 34–35
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother, Eric.
Rudolph II the Blind
(Rudolf II. der Blinde)
1307
Wittenberg
Son of Rudolph I and Judith of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
12 March 1356 – 6 December 1370 Electorate of Saxony Elisabeth of Hesse
(d.1354)
1336
three children

Elisabeth of Lindow-Ruppin
c.1355?
no children
6 December 1370
Wittenberg
aged 62–63
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his half-brother.
Herman VI c.1290?
Second son of Herman IV and Matilda of Rabenswald
25 July 1365 – 1372 County of Weimar Catherine of Anhalt
(d. 15 April 1369)
1328
two children
1372
aged 81–82?
Uncle and nephew possibly ruled jointly. After Herman's death Weimar was annexed to the House of Wettin.
Frederick IV the Younger c.1325
Son of Frederick I and Elisabeth of Meissen
Irmgard
no children
1381
aged 55–56
Definitively annexed to the House of Wettin
Otto VII c.1360
Son of Frederick II and Sophia of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
14 October 1368 – 1405 County of Lauenstein Liutgard Reuss of Gera
(d.c.1410)
c.1390
six children
1405
Ludwigsstadt
aged 44–45
John II c.1340
Second son of Albert II and Beatrice of Saxe-Wittenberg
7 January 1368 – 11 April 1382 Principality of Zerbst Elisabeth of Henneberg-Schleusingen
1366
four children
11 April 1382
aged 41–42
Double cousins, ruled jointly.
Valdemar II c.1345
Son of Valdemar I and Elisabeth of Saxe-Wittenberg
7 January 1368 – 1371 Unmarried 1371
aged 25–26
Wenceslaus 1337
Wittenberg
Son of Rudolph I and Agnes of Lindow-Ruppin
6 December 1370 – 15 May 1388 Electorate of Saxony Cecilia da Carrara
23 January 1376
six children
15 May 1388
Celle
aged 50–51
Brother of his predecessor. In 1370, jointly with his nephew Albert, he managed to acquire the Principality of Lüneburg. This conquer was lost after his death.
Eric III c.1335
Third son of Albert IV and Beata of Schwerin
1370 – 25 May 1401 Duchy of Mölln Unmarried 25 May 1401
Ratzeburg
aged 65–66?
Determined to enter to clergy, has to resign to succeed his brothers. He also left no descendants, which allowed the Ratzeburg line to reunite the Duchy of Lauenburg.
Mölln was annexed to Ratzeburg; Reunion of Lauenburg
Otto III c.1345
Son of Bernard III and Matilda of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
7 July 1374 – 27 February 1404 Principality of Bernburg Unknown
two children

Lutrudis
before 1391
one child
27 February 1404
aged 58–59
Frederick V c.1360?
Son of Frederick III
1379–1405 County of Orlamünde
(at Droyssig)
Catherine of Gleichen
c.1380?
two children
c.1405
aged 44–45
Changed seat once more to Droyssig.
Sigismund I c.1370
First son of John II and Elisabeth of Henneberg-Schleusingen
11 April 1382 – 19 January 1405 Principality of Dessau
(in co-rulership in Zerbst until 1396)
Judith of Querfurt
1386
eleven children
19 January 1405
Coswig
aged 34–35
Sons of John II. Ruled jointly until 1396, when they divided their inheritance.
Albert IV c.1370
Second son of John II and Elisabeth of Henneberg-Schleusingen
11 April 1382 – 24 November 1423 Principality of Köthen
(in co-rulership in Zerbst until 1396)
Elisabeth of Mansfeld (I)
before 1398
six children

Elisabeth of Querfurt
before 4 January 1419
three children
24 November 1423
Coswig
aged 52–53
Valdemar III c.1370
Third son of John II and Elisabeth of Henneberg-Schleusingen
11 April 1382 – 1391 Principality of Zerbst Unmarried 1391
aged 20–21?
Zerbst divided between Kothen and Dessau
Rudolph III 1378
Wittenberg
First son of Wenceslaus and Cecilia da Carrara
15 May 1388 – 11 June 1419 Electorate of Saxony Anna of Meissen
1387/89
three children

Barbara of Legnica
March 1396
two children
11 June 1419
in Bohemia (Prague (?))
aged 40–41
Left no male descendants. he was succeeded by his brother, Albert.
Eric IV 1354
Ratzeburg
Son of Eric II and Agnes of Holstein-Plön
1368 – 25 May 1401 Duchy of Ratzeburg Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
8 April 1373
ten children
21 June 1412
Ratzeburg
aged 57–58
In 1401 reunited Saxe-Lauenburg.
25 May 1401 – 21 June 1412 Duchy of Lauenburg
In 1401 the Ratzeburg line inherited the duchy of Mölln and reunited the Duchy of Lauenburg.
Bernard V c.1350
Son of Henry IV and Sophia of Stolberg
27 February 1404 – 24 June 1420 Principality of Bernburg Elisabeth of Hohnstein-Kelbra
8 September 1396
one child
24 June 1420
aged 69–70?
Cousins, ruled jointly. As neither of them left male heirs, the land was inherited by his other cousin, Bernard.
Otto IV c.1380?
First son of Otto III
27 February 1404 – 1 May 1415 Unmarried 1 May 1415
aged 34–35?
Valdemar IV c.1386
First son of Sigismund I and Judith of Querfurt
19 January 1405 – 1417 Principality of Dessau Unmarried 1417
aged 30–31
Sons of Sigismund I, ruled jointly. In 1468 inherited Anhalt-Bernburg.
George I the Elder 1390
Second son of Sigismund I and Judith of Querfurt
19 January 1405 – 22 September 1474 Matilda of Anhalt-Bernburg I
after 1413
no children

Euphemia of Oleśnica
1432
six children

Sophia of Hohnstein
after 1442
three children

Anna of Lindow-Ruppin
7 September 1453
nine children
21 September 1474
Dessau
aged 83–84?
Sigismund II c.1390
Fourth son of Sigismund I and Judith of Querfurt
19 January 1405 – 1452 Matilda of Anhalt-Bernburg II
no children
1452
aged 61–62
Albert V c.1390
Fifth son of Sigismund I and Judith of Querfurt
19 January 1405 – 1469 Sophie of Hadmersleben
no children
1469
aged 78–79
William c.1395
First son of Otto VII and Liutgard Reuss of Gera
1405 – 3 March 1460 County of Lauenstein Catherine of Blankenhain
1427
two children
3 March 1460
aged 64–65?
Children of Otto VII, divided their inheritance, which was progressively annexed to the House of Wettin. Elisabeth's part of Lauenstein went to the House of Schwarzburg.
Elisabeth (II) c.1395
Daughter of Otto VII and Liutgard Reuss of Gera
1405–1450 Henry XVIII, Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
no children
c.1450
aged 54–55?
Otto VIII c.1395
Second son of Otto VII and Liutgard Reuss of Gera
1405 – 30 March 1460 County of Lauenstein
(at Grafenthal)
Agnes of Beichlingen
(d. 2 May 1347)
1322
three children
30 March 1460
aged 64–65?
Sigismund c.1395
Third son of Otto VII and Liutgard Reuss of Gera
1405 – 2 July 1447 County of Lauenstein
(at Lichtenberg)
Unmarried 2 July 1447
aged 51–52?
Definitively annexed to the House of Wettin
Henry III c.1390?
First son of Frederick V and Catherine of Gleichen
1405–1423 County of Orlamünde
(at Droyssig)
Unmarried 1423
aged 32–33?
Children of Frederick V, ruled jointly. After their childless deaths their possessions were annexed by the House of Wettin.
Martin c.1390?
Second son of Frederick V and Catherine of Gleichen
1405 1405
aged 14–15?
Definitively annexed to the House of Wettin
Eric V c.1375
Ratzeburg
First son of Eric IV and Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
21 June 1412 – 1436 Duchy of Lauenburg Elisabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1404
no children

Elisabeth of Weinsberg
before 1422
one child
1436
Ratzeburg
aged 60–61
Children of Eric IV, ruled jointly.
John IV[12] c.1375
Ratzeburg
Second son of Eric IV and Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
21 June 1412 – 1414 Unmarried 1414
Ratzeburg
aged 38–39
Albert III 1380
Wittenberg
Second son of Wenceslaus and Cecilia da Carrara
11 June 1419 – 1422 Electorate of Saxony Euphemia of Oleśnica
14 January 1420
no children
1422
Wittenberg
aged 41–42
Left no male descendants, which led the Ascanian Saxe-Wittenberg line to extinction.
The Ascanian Dynasty became extinct in Wittenberg in 1422. However, the dynasty's presence in Saxony continued, through the Duchy of Lauenburg, until 1689. After losing the Saxon Electorate to the Wittenberg line in 1356, and failing to obtain it again in 1422, the recognition of power of this Lauenburg line as Dukes of Saxony weakened. To follow the remnant House of Ascania in Saxe-Lauenburg, follow this table. For the following Electors of Saxony, see Rulers of Saxony.
Bernard VI c.1390?
Second son of Otto III
24 June 1420 – 2 February 1468 Principality of Bernburg Matilda of Querfurt-Burgscheidungen
21 October 1419
two children

Hedwig of Żagań
11 March 1434
no children
2 February 1468
aged 77–78?
His children predeceased him, which left him with no heirs at his death in 1468. Bernburg was inherited by the Dessau line.
Anhalt-Bernburg was annexed to Anhalt-Dessau
Adolph I c.1400
First son of Albert IV and Elisabeth of Mansfeld (I)
24 November 1423 – 28 August 1473 Principality of Köthen Cordula of Lindow-Ruppin
2 November 1442
Ruppin
seven children
28 August 1473
Zerbst
aged 72–73?
Ruled jointly. Adolph ruled with his brother Valdemar V until 1436 and then with Valdemar's son John. In 1436, shortly after his father's death, John III renounced his rights to the principality. In 1471, Adolph concluded a succession contract with George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, which would put the latter's youngest son in Köthen's throne as Valdemar VI.
Valdemar V c.1400
Second son of Albert IV and Elisabeth of Mansfeld (I)
24 November 1423 – 1436 Sophie of Hadmersleben
1420
no children
1436
aged 35–36?
John III c.1415?
Son of Valdemar V and Sophie of Hadmersleben
1436 Unmarried 1463
aged 47–48?
Bernard II[13] 1385
Ratzeburg
Third son of Eric IV and Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1436 – 16 July 1463 Duchy of Lauenburg Adelaide of Pomerania-Stolp
2 February 1429
two children
16 July 1463
Ratzeburg
aged 77–78
John V[14] 18 July 1439
Ratzeburg
Son of Bernard II and Adelaide of Pomerania-Stolp
16 July 1463 – 15 August 1507 Duchy of Lauenburg Dorothea of Brandenburg
12 February 1464
twelve children
15 August 1507
Ratzeburg
aged 68
Valdemar VI 1450
Son of George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau and Sophia of Hohnstein
28 August 1473 – 1 November 1508 Principality of Köthen Margaret of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt
24 January 1485
Köthen
four children
1 November 1508
Köthen
aged 57–58
After the contract established with Dessau, this line of princes dominated in Köthen. After the death of Adolph in 1473, George I of Dessau's sons, Valdemar VI and Albert VI, ascended to the principality. After Albert's death, Valdemar co-ruled with his nephews. In 1508, all his co-rulers abdicated to him.
Albert VI c.1420
Son of Albert IV and Elisabeth of Querfurt
28 August 1473 – 9 January 1475 Elisabeth of Mansfeld (II)
27 March 1454
Alsleben
seven children
9 January 1475
aged 54–55
Philip 31 May 1468
Son of Albert VI and Elisabeth of Mansfeld (II)
9 January 1475 – 13 November 1500 Unmarried 13 November 1500
aged 32
Magnus 1455
Third son of Adolph I and Cordula of Lindow-Ruppin
28 August 1473 – 1508 29 October 1524
aged 68–69
Adolph II 16 October 1458
Fifth son of Adolph I and Cordula of Lindow-Ruppin
24 March 1526
Merseburg
aged 67
Ernest I 1454
First son of George I and Anna of Lindow-Ruppin
21 September 1474 – 12 June 1516 Principality of Dessau Margaret of Münsterberg
20 January 1494
Cottbus
four children
12 June 1516
Dessau
aged 61–62
Sons of George I, co-ruled jointly with their father since 1471, and continued the joint rule after his death.
George II the Strong 1454Second son of George I and Anna of Lindow-Ruppin 1474 – 25 April 1509 Agnes of Pomerania-Barth
1478
no children
25 April 1509
aged 54–55
Sigismund III 1456
Third son of George I and Anna of Lindow-Ruppin
21 September 1474 – 27 November 1487 Unmarried 27 November 1487
Dessau
aged 30–31
Rudolph the Valiant[15] 1466
Fourth son of George I and Anna of Lindow-Ruppin
21 September 1474 – 7 September 1510 7 September 1510
aged 43–44
Magnus I 1 January 1470
Ratzeburg
Son of John V and Dorothea of Brandenburg
15 August 1507 – 1 August 1543 Duchy of Lauenburg Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
20 November 1509
Wolfenbüttel
six children
1 August 1543
Ratzeburg
aged 73
Wolfgang the Confessor 1 August 1492
Köthen
Son of Valdemar VI and Margaret of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt
1 November 1508 – 23 March 1566 Principality of Köthen
(at Coswig only, since 1562)
Unmarried 23 March 1566
Zerbst
aged 73
Sole ruler of Köthen. In 1562, without descendants, he abdicated of all his territories, with the sole exception of Coswig (which he kept until his death) to the recreated Principality of Zerbst.
Köthen (and later Coswig) annexed to Zerbst
Regency of Margaret of Münsterberg (1516–1524) Children of Ernest I, ruled jointly, firstly under their mother. In 1544, the brothers divided the land. Joachim mainteined Dessau to himself; John took Zerbst and refounded Anhalt-Zerbst; George took Plotzkau. After George and Joachim's deaths without descendants, their lands were inherited by their nephews, sons of John III.
John V[16] 4 September 1504
Dessau
Second son of Ernest I and Margaret of Münsterberg
12 June 1516 – 4 February 1551 Principality of Zerbst
(in co-rulership in Dessau until 1544))
Margaret of Brandenburg
15 February 1534
Dessau
six children
4 February 1551
Zerbst
aged 46
George III the God-Blessed 15 August 1507
Dessau
Third son of Ernest I and Margaret of Münsterberg
12 June 1516 – 17 October 1553 Principality of Dessau
(in co-rulership until 1544; at Plotzkau since 1544)
Unmarried 17 October 1553
Dessau
aged 46
Joachim I 7 August 1509
Dessau
Fourth son of Ernest I and Margaret of Münsterberg
12 June 1516 – 6 December 1561 Principality of Dessau
(in co-rulership until 1544)
6 December 1561
Dessau
aged 52
Dessau and Plotzkau annexed to Zerbst
Francis I 1510
Ratzeburg
Son of Magnus I and Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1 August 1543 – 1571

1573 – 19 March 1581
Duchy of Lauenburg Sibylle of Saxony
8 February 1540
Dresden
nine children
19 March 1581
Buxtehude
aged 70–71
In 1571 – highly indebted – Francis I resigned in favour of his eldest son Magnus II, who had promised to redeem the pawned ducal demesnes with funds he gained as Swedish military commander and by his marriage to a Swedish princess. However, after warring with his son and pushing him back, he regained the title.
Charles I 17 November 1534
Dessau
First son of John V and Margaret of Brandenburg
4 February 1551 – 4 May 1561 Principality of Zerbst
(in co-rulership)
Anna of Pomerania-Stettin
16 May 1557
Zerbst
no children
4 May 1561
Zerbst
aged 26
Children of John V, ruled jointly. In 1553 inherited Plotzkau from their uncle George III. In 1561 inherited Dessau and Bernburg from their uncle Joachim. In the next year inherited Kothen. From 1570 Joachim Ernest was the sole owner of all Anhalt.
Joachim Ernest 21 October 1536
Dessau
Second son of John V and Margaret of Brandenburg
4 February 1551 – 6 December 1586 Principality of Anhalt
(in co-rulership in Zerbst until 1562)
Agnes of Barby-Mühlingen
3 March 1560
Barby
six children

Eleonore of Württemberg
9 January 1571
Stuttgart
ten children
6 December 1586
Dessau
aged 50
Bernard VII 17 March 1540
Dessau
Third son of John V and Margaret of Brandenburg
4 February 1551 – 1 March 1570 Clara of Brunswick-Lüneburg
28 May 1565
Dessau
one child
1 March 1570
Dessau
aged 29
Magnus II 1543
Ratzeburg
Second son of Francis I and Sibylle of Saxony
1571–1573 Duchy of Lauenburg Sophia of Sweden
4 July 1568
Stockholm
one child
14 March 1603
Ratzeburg
aged 59–60
Eldest son of Francis I. He didn't pay the debts he promised to pay and led to war with his father and brothers. Two years later they deposed Magnus II and Francis I re-ascended. Magnus' violent and judicial attempts to regain the duchy failed. In 1588 he was imprisoned for the remainder of his life.
Francis II 10 August 1547
Ratzeburg
Third son of Francis I and Sibylle of Saxony
19 March 1581 – 2 July 1619 Duchy of Lauenburg Margaret of Pomerania-Wolgast
26 December 1574
Wolgast
four children

Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
10 November 1582
Wolfenbüttel
fourteen children
2 July 1619
Lauenburg
aged 71
Brothers of Magnus II, ruled jointly. Francis was vice-regent from 1578, and administrator from 1581.
Maurice 1551
Ratzeburg
Fifth son of Francis I and Sibylle of Saxony
19 March 1581 – 2 November 1612 Katharina von Spörck
1581
(annulled 1582)
no children
2 November 1612
Buxtehude
aged 60–61
John George I 9 May 1567
Harzgerode
First son of Joachim Ernest and Agnes of Barby-Mühlingen
6 December 1586 – 24 May 1618 Principality of Dessau
(in co-rulership in the whole Anhalt until 1603)
Dorothea of Mansfeld-Arnstein
22 February 1588
Hedersleben
five children

Dorothea of Palatinate-Simmern
21 February 1595
Heidelberg
eleven children
24 May 1618
Dessau
aged 51
Sons of Joachim Ernest, ruled jointly. In 1603 divided their inheritance.
Christian I 11 May 1568
Bernburg
Second son of Joachim Ernest and Agnes of Barby-Mühlingen
6 December 1586 – 17 April 1630 Principality of Bernburg
(in co-rulership in the whole Anhalt until 1603)
Anna of Bentheim-Tecklenburg
2 July 1595
Lorbach
sixteen children
17 April 1630
Bernburg
aged 61
Augustus 14 July 1575
Dessau
Second son of Joachim Ernest and Eleonore of Württemberg
6 December 1586 – 22 August 1653 Principality of Plötzkau
(in co-rulership in the whole Anhalt until 1603)
Sibylle of Solms-Laubach
25 January 1618
Ansbach
eight children
22 August 1653
Plötzkau
aged 78
Rudolph 28 October 1576
Harzgerode
Third son of Joachim Ernest and Eleonore of Württemberg
6 December 1586 – 30 July 1621 Principality of Zerbst
(in co-rulership in the whole Anhalt until 1603)
Dorothea Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
29 December 1605
Wolfenbüttel
four children

Magdalena of Oldenburg
31 August 1612
Oldenburg
two children
30 July 1621
Zerbst
aged 44
Louis I 17 June 1579
Dessau
Fifth son of Joachim Ernest and Eleonore of Württemberg
6 December 1586 – 7 January 1650 Principality of Köthen
(in co-rulership in the whole Anhalt until 1603)
Amöena Amalie of Bentheim-Tecklenburg
31 October 1606
Rheda
two children

Sophia of Lippe
12 September 1626
Detmold
two children
7 January 1650
Köthen
aged 70
John Casimir 17 December 1596
Dessau
Son of John George I and Dorothea of Palatinate-Simmern
24 May 1618 – 15 September 1660 Principality of Dessau Agnes of Hesse-Kassel
18 May 1623
Dessau
six children

Sophie Margaret of Anhalt-Bernburg
14 July 1651
Dessau
no children
15 September 1660
Dessau
aged 63
Augustus 17 February 1577
Ratzeburg
Son of Francis II and Margaret of Pomerania-Wolgast
2 July 1619 – 18 January 1656 Duchy of Lauenburg Elisabeth Sophie of Holstein-Gottorp
5 March 1621
Husum
six children

Catherina of Oldenburg
4 June 1633
no children
18 January 1656
Lauenburg
aged 78
Left no male descendants; he was succeeded by his half-brother Julius Henry.
Regency of Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau (1621–1642)
John VI[17] 24 March 1621
Zerbst
Son of Rudolph and Magdalena of Oldenburg
30 July 1621 – 4 July 1667 Principality of Zerbst Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp
16 September 1649
Gottorp
fourteen children
4 July 1667
Zerbst
aged 46
Christian II 11 August 1599
Amberg
Second son of Christian I and Anna of Bentheim-Tecklenburg
17 April 1630 – 22 September 1656 Principality of Bernburg Eleonore Sophie of Holstein-Sonderburg
28 February 1625
Ahrensbök
fifteen children
22 September 1656
Bernburg
aged 57
Children of Christian I, divided their inheritance.
Frederick 16 November 1613
Ensdorf
Fourth son of Christian I and Anna of Bentheim-Tecklenburg
17 April 1630 – 30 June 1670 Principality of Bernburg
(at Harzgerode)
Johanna Elisabeth of Nassau-Hadamar
10 August 1642
Bückeburg
three children

Anna Catharina of Lippe-Detmold
(31 July 1612 – 15 October 1659)
26 May 1657
Harzgerode
no children
30 June 1670
Plötzkau
aged 56
Regency of Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau, Lebrecht, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen and Emmanuel, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (1650–1653) After his death without descendants, his previous regents took over the principality for themselves.
William Louis 3 August 1638
Köthen
Son of Louis I and Sophia of Lippe
7 January 1650 – 13 April 1665 Principality of Köthen Elisabeth Charlotte of Anhalt-Harzgerode
25 August 1663
Köthen
no children
13 April 1665
Köthen
aged 26
Ernest Gottlieb 4 September 1620
Plötzkau
First son of Augustus and Sibylle of Solms-Laubach
22 August 1653 – 7 March 1654 Principality of Plötzkau Unmarried 7 March 1654
Plötzkau
aged 33
Lebrecht I 8 April 1622
Plötzkau
Second son of Augustus and Sibylle of Solms-Laubach
7 March 1654 – 13 April 1665 Principality of Plötzkau Sophie Eleonore of Stolberg-Wernigerode
18 January 1655
Plötzkau
no children
7 November 1669
Köthen
aged 47
Cousins of William Louis, and princes of Anhalt-Plötzkau, they served as regents for their cousin alongside their uncle, Augustus. After William Louis' death in 1665, they took the principality of Köthen for themselves, giving away their inheritance in Plötzkau to Anhalt-Bernburg.
13 April 1665 – 7 November 1669 Principality of Köthen
Emmanuel 6 October 1631
Plötzkau
Third son of Augustus and Sibylle of Solms-Laubach
7 March 1654 – 13 April 1665 Principality of Plötzkau Anna Eleonore of Stolberg-Wernigerode
23 March 1670
Ilsenburg
one child
8 November 1670
Köthen
aged 39
13 April 1665 – 8 November 1670 Principality of Köthen
Plotzkau definitively annexed to the Principality of Bernburg
Victor Amadeus 6 October 1634
Harzgerode
Son of Christian II and Eleonore Sophie of Holstein-Sonderburg
22 September 1656 – 14 February 1718 Principality of Bernburg Elisabeth of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
16 October 1667
Meisenheim
six children
14 February 1718
Bernburg
aged 83
Annexed Anhalt-Plötzkau in 1665.
Julius Henry 9 April 1586
Wolfenbüttel
Son of Francis II and Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
18 January 1656 – 20 November 1665 Duchy of Lauenburg Anna of East Frisia
17 March 1617
Grabow
no children

Elisabeth Sophia of Brandenburg
4 June 1633
Toužim
one son

Anna Magdalena of Lobkowicz
18 August 1632
Vienna
six children
20 November 1665
Prague
aged 79
John George II 17 November 1627
Dessau
Son of John Casimir and Agnes of Hesse-Kassel
15 September 1660 – 7 August 1693 Principality of Dessau Henriette Catherine of Orange-Nassau
9 September 1659
Groningen
five children
7 August 1693
Berlin
aged 65
Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, he also served as regent for his cousin, Emmanuel Lebrecht of Anhalt-Kothen, together with the prince's mother, Anna Eleonore of Stolberg-Wernigerode.
Francis Erdmann 25 February 1629
Toužim
Son of Julius Henry and Elisabeth Sophia of Brandenburg
20 November 1665 – 30 July 1666 Duchy of Lauenburg Sibylle Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg
1654
no children
30 July 1666
Schwarzenbek
aged 37
Left no descendants; He was succeeded by his brother Julius Francis.
Julius Francis 16 September 1641
Prague
Son of Julius Henry and Anna Magdalena of Lobkowicz
30 July 1666 – 30 September 1689 Duchy of Lauenburg Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach
9 April 1668
Sulzbach
two children
30 September 1689
Zákupy
aged 48
Definitively annexed to the House of Welf
Regency of Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp (1667–1674) Children of John VI, divided their inheritance.
Charles William 16 October 1652
Zerbst
Third son of John VI and Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp
4 July 1667 – 3 November 1718 Principality of Zerbst Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels
18 June 1676
Halle
three children
3 November 1718
Zerbst
aged 66
Anton Günther 11 November 1653
Zerbst
Fourth son of John VI and Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp
4 July 1667 – 1 November 1704 Principality of Zerbst
(at Mühlingen)
Auguste Antonie Marschall of Bieberstein
(3 March 1659 – 28 December 1736)
1 January 1705
Zerbst
(morganatic)
seven children
10 December 1714
Zerbst
aged 61
John Louis I 4 May 1656
Zerbst
Sixth son of John VI and Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp
4 July 1667 – 1 November 1704 Principality of Zerbst
(at Dornburg)
Christine Eleonore of Zeutsch
(5 June 1666 – 17 May 1699)
23 July 1687
Halle
(morganatic)
seven children
1 November 1704
Dornburg
aged 48
Mühlingen reannexed to Zerbst
William Louis 18 August 1643
Harzgerode
Son of Frederick and Johanna Elisabeth of Nassau-Hadamar
30 June 1670 – 14 October 1709 Principality of Bernburg
(at Harzgerode)
Elisabeth Juliana of Solms-Laubach
(6 March 1631 – 2 January 1693)
25 July 1671
Laubach
no children

Sophie Auguste of Nassau-Dillenburg
(28 April 1666 – 14 January 1733)
20 October 1695
Frederiksborg
no children
14 October 1709
Harzgerode
aged 66
After his death, Harzgerode merged again in Bernburg.
Harzgerode reannexed to Bernburg
Regencies of Anna Eleonore of Stolberg-Wernigerode (1670–1690) and John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1690–1692)
Emmanuel Lebrecht 20 May 1671
Köthen
Son of Emmanuel and Anna Eleonore of Stolberg-Wernigerode
20 May 1671 – 30 May 1704 Principality of Köthen Gisela Agnes of Rath
30 September 1692
Nienburg
(morganatic)
ten children
30 May 1704
Köthen
aged 33
Regency of Henriette Catherine of Orange-Nassau (1693–1698)
Leopold I 3 July 1676
Dessau
Son of John George II and Henriette Catherine of Orange-Nassau
7 August 1693 – 7 April 1747 Principality of Dessau Anna Louise Föhse
8 September 1698
Dessau
(morganatic)
ten children
7 April 1747
Dessau
aged 70
Regency of Gisela Agnes of Rath (1704–1715) With no male heirs, he was succeeded by his brother.
Leopold 29 November 1694
Köthen
Second son of Emmanuel Lebrecht and Gisela Agnes of Rath
30 May 1704 – 19 November 1728 Principality of Köthen Frederica Henriette of Anhalt-Bernburg
11 December 1721
Bernburg
one child

Charlotte Frederike of Nassau-Siegen
27 June 1725
Weimar
two children
19 November 1728
Köthen
aged 33
Charles Frederick 13 July 1668
Bernburg
First son of Victor Amadeus and Elisabeth of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
14 February 1718 – 22 April 1721 Principality of Bernburg Sophie Albertine of Solms-Sonnenwalde
25 June 1692
Bernburg
six children

Wilhelmine Charlotte Nüssler
1 May 1715
Bernburg
two children
22 April 1721
Bernburg
aged 52
Children of Victor Amadeus, divided their rule.
Lebrecht 28 June 1669
Second son of Victor Amadeus and Elisabeth of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
14 February 1718 – 17 May 1727 Principality of Bernburg
(in Zeitz and Hoym)
Charlotte of Nassau-Schaumburg
Schaumburg Castle
12 April 1692
five children

Eberhardine of Weede
27 June 1702
Grave
six children

Sophie Sibylla of Ingersleben
(18 March 1684 – 31 March 1726)
14 September 1725
(morganatic)
no children
17 May 1727
Bad Ems
aged 57
John Augustus 29 July 1677
Zerbst
Son of Charles William and Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels
3 November 1718 – 7 November 1742 Principality of Zerbst Frederica of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
25 May 1702
Zerbst
no children
7 November 1742
Zerbst
aged 65
Died without issue. Zerbst was inherited by his cousins from Dornburg.
Victor Frederick 20 September 1700
Bernburg
Son of Charles Frederick and Sophie Albertine of Solms-Sonnenwalde
22 April 1721 – 18 May 1765 Principality of Bernburg Louise of Anhalt-Dessau
25 November 1724
Dessau
one child

Sophie Albertine Fredericka of Brandenburg-Schwedt
22 May 1733
Potsdam
five children

Konstanze Fredericka Schmidt
13 November 1750
Bernburg
(morganatic)
one child
18 May 1765
Bernburg
aged 64
Victor I Amadeus 7 September 1693
Schaumburg
Son of Lebrecht and Charlotte of Nassau-Schaumburg
17 May 1727 – 15 April 1772 Principality of Bernburg
(in Zeitz, Hoym and Schaumburg)
Charlotte Louise of Isenburg-Birstein
22 November 1714
Birstein
six children

Hedwig Sophie Henckel of Donnersmarck
14 February 1740
Pölzig
six children
15 April 1772
Schaumburg
aged 78
Augustus Louis 9 June 1697
Köthen
Third son of Emmanuel Lebrecht and Gisela Agnes of Rath
19 November 1728 – 6 August 1755 Principality of Köthen
(at Güsten until 1737; at Köthen proper since 1737)
Agnes Wilhelmine von Wuthenau
23 January 1722
Dresden
(morganatic)
two children

Christine Johanna Emilie of Promnitz-Pless
14 January 1726
Sorau
five children

Anna Fredericka of Promnitz-Pless
21 November 1732
Sorau
two children
6 August 1755
Köthen
aged 58
Inheritors of Leopold, "fought" (legally) for the inheritance. Heiress of her father, Gisela Agnes claimed her allodial inheritance (possibly, while Augustus Louis, brother of the deceased Leopold, should keep the main principality. According to the Reichskammergericht final decision, she kept her father's collections, and eventually gave up her inheritance (which included the main capital, Köthen, and other estates) when she married (1737), being compensated by her uncle with great sums of money that highly indebted the principality.
Regency of Charlotte Frederike of Nassau-Siegen (1728-1734)
Gisela Agnes 21 September 1722
Köthen
Daughter of Leopold and Frederica Henriette of Anhalt-Bernburg
19 November 1728 – 25 May 1737 Principality of Köthen
(at Köthen, Prosigk and Klepzig)
Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau
25 May 1737
Bernburg
seven children
20 April 1751
Dessau
aged 22
The property of the Principality of Köthen was reunited in 1737
John Louis II 23 June 1688
Dornburg
First son of John Louis I and Christine Eleonore of Zeutsch
7 November 1742 – 5 November 1746 Principality of Zerbst
(in Dornburg 1704-1742; in Zerbst proper since 1742)
Unmarried 5 November 1746
Dornburg
aged 58
First cousins of John Augustus I, they were Princes of Dornburg, until its ending by joining it with the inherited Principality of Zerbst.
Christian August 29 November 1690
Dornburg
Third son of John Louis I and Christine Eleonore of Zeutsch
7 November 1742 – 16 March 1747 Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp
8 November 1727
Vechelde
five children
16 March 1747
Dornburg
aged 56
Dornburg reannexed to Zerbst
Leopold II Maximilian 25 December 1700
Dessau
Son of Leopold I and Anna Louise Föhse
7 April 1747 – 16 December 1751 Principality of Dessau Gisela Agnes of Anhalt-Köthen
25 May 1737
Bernburg
seven children
16 December 1751
Dessau
aged 50
Regency of Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp (1747–1752) Left no descendants; after his death, his property was annexed by his cousins from Dessau.
Frederick August 8 August 1734
Stettin
Son of Christian August and Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp
16 March 1747 – 3 March 1793 Principality of Zerbst Caroline Wilhelmina Sophia of Hesse-Kassel
17 November 1753
Zerbst
no children

Friederike Auguste Sophie of Anhalt-Bernburg
22 May 1764
Ballenstedt
no children
3 March 1793
Luxembourg
aged 58
Definitively annexed by the Principality of Anhalt-Dessau
Regency of Dietrich of Anhalt-Dessau (1751–1758) Initially under regency, Leopold III himself also served later as regent for his cousin, Louis Augustus Karl Frederick Emil from Anhalt-Kothen. After his death the regency in Anhalt-Kothen passed together with the principality of Anhalt-Dessau to his grandson.
Leopold III Frederick Franz 10 August 1740
Dessau
Son of Leopold II Maximilian and Gisela Agnes of Anhalt-Köthen
16 December 1751 – 9 August 1817 Principality of Dessau
(until 1807)

Duchy of Dessau
(from 1807)
Louise Henriette of Brandenburg-Schwedt
25 July 1767
Charlottenburg
two children
9 August 1817
Luisium Castle
aged 76
Charles George Lebrecht 15 August 1730
Köthen
Second son of Augustus Louis and Christine Johanna Emilie of Promnitz-Pless
6 August 1755 – 17 October 1789 Principality of Köthen Louise Charlotte of Holstein-Glücksburg
26 July 1763
Glücksburg
six children
17 October 1789
Zemun
aged 59
Children of Augustus Louis, divided their inheritance.
Frederick Erdmann 27 October 1731
Köthen
Third son of Augustus Louis and Christine Johanna Emilie of Promnitz-Pless
6 August 1755 – 12 December 1797 Principality of Köthen
(at Pless)
Louise Ferdinande of Stolberg-Wernigerode
13 June 1766
Wernigerode
nine children
12 December 1797
Pless
aged 66
Frederick Albert 15 August 1735
Bernburg
Son of Victor Frederick and Sophie Albertine Fredericka of Brandenburg-Schwedt
18 May 1765 – 9 April 1796 Principality of Bernburg Louise Albertine of Holstein-Plön
25 November 1724
Augustenburg
two children
9 April 1796
Ballenstedt
aged 60
Charles Louis 16 May 1723
Schaumburg
Third son of Victor I Amadeus and Charlotte Louise of Isenburg-Birstein
15 April 1772 – 20 August 1806 Principality of Bernburg
(in Schaumburg and Hoym)
Benjamine Gertrude Keiser
(1 January 1729 – 6 January 1787)
25 March 1748
Stevensweert
(morganatic)

Amalia Eleonora of Solms-Braunfels
12 December 1765
Braunfels
five children
20 August 1806
Schaumburg
aged 83
Augustus Christian Frederick 18 November 1769
Köthen
Son of Charles George Lebrecht and Louise Charlotte of Holstein-Glücksburg
17 October 1789 – 5 May 1812 Principality of Köthen
(until 1806)

Duchy of Köthen
(from 1806)
Frederica of Nassau-Usingen
9 February 1792
Frankfurt-am-Main
no children
5 May 1812
Geuz
aged 42
In 1806 became Duke of Anhalt-Köthen. Left no descendants, and was succeeded by his nephew.
Alexius Frederick Christian 12 June 1767
Ballenstedt
Son of Frederick Albert and Louise Albertine of Holstein-Plön
9 April 1796 – 24 March 1834 Principality of Bernburg
(until 1803)

Duchy of Bernburg
(from 1803)
Marie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel
29 November 1794
Kassel
(annulled 1817)
four children

Dorothea Fredericka of Sonnenberg
11 January 1818
Ballenstedt
(morganatic)
no children

Ernestine Charlotte of Sonnenberg
2 May 1819
Bernburg
(morganatic)
no children
24 March 1834
Ballenstedt
aged 66
In 1803 became Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg.
Victor II Charles 2 November 1767
Schaumburg
Son of Charles Louis and Amalia Eleonora of Solms-Braunfels
20 August 1806 – 22 April 1812 Principality of Bernburg
(in Schaumburg and Hoym)
Amelia of Nassau-Weilburg
29 October 1793
Weilburg
four children
22 April 1812
Schaumburg
aged 44
Frederick 29 November 1741
Schaumburg
Fifth son of Victor I Amadeus and Charlotte Louise of Isenburg-Birstein
22 April – 24 December 1812 Principality of Bernburg
(in Schaumburg and Hoym)
Unmarried 24 December 1812 After his childless death, Hoym and Holzappel were inherited by his niece Hermine (daughter of Victor II), while Hoym merged in Bernburg again.
Hoym reannexed to Bernburg
Regencies of Leopold III, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (1812–1817) and Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt (1817–1818) Nephew of Augustus Christian Frederick. Died as a minor, never ruled by his own.
Louis Augustus Karl 20 September 1802
Köthen
Son of Louis of Anhalt-Köthen and Louise Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt
5 May 1812 – 18 December 1818 Duchy of Köthen Louise Charlotte of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
26 July 1763
Glücksburg
six children
18 December 1818
Leipzig
aged 16
Hermine 2 December 1797
Hoym
Daughter of Victor II Charles and Amelia of Nassau-Weilburg
24 December 1812 – 14 September 1817 Principality of Bernburg
(in Schaumburg and Holzappel)
Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
30 August 1815
Schaumburg Castle
two children
14 September 1817
Budapest
aged 19
After her death her lands probably merged again in Bernburg.
Schaumburg and Holzappel reannexed to Bernburg
Frederick Ferdinand 25 June 1769
Pless
Second son of Frederick Erdmann and Louise Ferdinande of Stolberg-Wernigerode
18 December 1818 – 23 August 1830 Duchy of Köthen
(in Pless 1797-1818; in Köthen proper since 1818)
Maria Dorothea of Holstein-Beck
26 July 1763
Lindenau bei Heiligenbeil
no children

Julie of Brandenburg
20 May 1816
Berlin
no children
23 August 1830
Köthen
aged 61
From the Anhalt-Pless line, cousin of his predecessor. Attempted, with no success, to reinstall Catholicism in his duchy. Left no descendants; he was succeeded by his brother.
Henry 30 July 1778
Pless
Fourth son of Frederick Erdmann and Louise Ferdinande of Stolberg-Wernigerode
23 August 1830 – 23 November 1847 Duchy of Köthen Augusta Reuss of Middle Köstritz
18 May 1819
Trebschen
no children
23 November 1847
Köthen
aged 69
Left no descendants. His lands were inherited by Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau.
Definitively annexed to the Principality of Anhalt-Dessau
Alexander Charles 2 March 1805
Ballenstedt
Son of Alexius Frederick Christian and Marie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel
24 March 1834 – 19 August 1863 Duchy of Bernburg Frederica of Holstein-Glücksburg
30 October 1834
Gottorp
no children
19 August 1863
Hoym
aged 58
Left no male descendants. Bernburg reverted to Anhalt-Dessau.
Definitively annexed to the Principality of Anhalt-Dessau
Leopold IV Frederick 1 October 1794
Dessau
Son of Frederick of Anhalt-Dessau and Amalie of Hesse-Homburg
9 August 1817 – 22 May 1871 Duchy of Dessau
(until 1863)

Duchy of Anhalt
(from 1863)
Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia
18 April 1818
Berlin
six children
22 May 1871
Dessau
aged 76
Grandson of Leopold III. Ended the regency in Kothen after his cousin's death (1818). In 1863 he reunited Anhalt under his rule, and becomes its first duke.
Frederick I 29 April 1831
Dessau
Son of Leopold IV Frederick and Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia
22 May 1871 – 24 January 1904 Duchy of Anhalt Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg
22 April 1854
Altenburg
six children
24 January 1904
Ballenstedt
aged 72
Frederick II 19 August 1856
Dessau
First son of Frederick I and Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg
24 January 1904 – 21 April 1918 Duchy of Anhalt Marie of Baden
2 July 1889
Karlsruhe
no children
21 April 1918
Ballenstedt
aged 61
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Edward 18 April 1861
Dessau
Second son of Frederick I and Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg
21 April – 13 September 1918 Duchy of Anhalt Louise Charlotte of Saxe-Altenburg
6 February 1895
Altenburg
(annulled 26 January 1918)
six children
13 September 1918
Berchtesgaden
aged 57
Joachim Ernest 11 January 1901
Dessau
Son of Edward and Louise Charlotte of Saxe-Altenburg
13 September – 12 November 1918 Duchy of Anhalt Elisabeth Strickrodt
3 March 1927
Ballenstedt
(morganatic, annulled 1929)
no children

Edda-Charlotte von Stephani-Marwitz
15 October 1929
Ballenstedt
(morganatic)
five children
18 February 1947
Weimar
aged 46
Monarchy abolished in that year.

Heads of the House of Ascania since 1918

  • Duke Joachim Ernest II 1918–1947
  • Prince Frederick 1947–1963
  • Prince Edward 1963–present

Family trees

(genealogical list of the dynasty in German)

Lines of the House of Anhalt
Lines of the House of Anhalt
Overall Family Tree of the House of Anhalt
Overall Family Tree of the House of Anhalt

Armorial

The original arms of the house of Ascania, from their ancestors the Saxon counts of Ballenstedt, were "Barry of ten sable and or".

The Ascanian margrave Albert the Bear was invested with the Saxon ducal title in 1138; when he succeeded the Welf's Henry the Lion, who was deposed by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. In 1180, Albert's son Bernhard, Count of Anhalt received the remaining Saxon territories around Wittenberg and Lauenburg, and the ducal title. Legend, so unlikely to be true, goes that when he rode in front of the emperor, at the occasion of his investiture, he carried a shield with his escutcheon of the Ballenstedt coat of arms (barry sable and or). Barbarossa took the rue wreath he wore against the heat of the sun from his head, hanging it over Bernhard's shield and thus creating the Saxonian crancelin vert ("Barry of ten sable and or, a crancelin vert"). A more likely explanation is that it probably symbolized the waiver of the Lauenburg lands.[18]

From about 1260, the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg emerged under the Ascanian duke Albert II, who adopted the tradition of the Saxon stem duchy and was granted the Saxon electoral dignity, against the fierce protest of his Ascanian Saxe-Lauenburg cousins. This was confirmed by the Golden Bull of 1356. As the Ascanian Electors of Saxony also held the High office of an Arch-Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire, they added the ensign Per fess sable and argent two swords in saltire gules (the swords later featuring as the trademark of the Meissen china factory) to their coat of arms. When the line became extinct in 1422, the arms and electoral dignity were adopted by the Wettin by margrave Frederick IV of Meissen as it had become synonymous with the Saxon ducal title.

When upon German reunification the Free State of Saxony was re-established, the coat of arms was formally confirmed in 1991. [19]

The chivalric order was the House Order of Albert the Bear (German: Hausorden Albrechts des Bären or Der Herzoglich Anhaltische Hausorden Albrechts des Bären) which was founded in 1836 as a joint House Order by three dukes of Anhalt from separate branches of the family: Henry, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen, Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, and Alexander Karl, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg.

The namesake of the order, Albert the Bear, was the first Margrave of Brandenburg from the House of Ascania. The origin of his nickname "the Bear" is unknown.

List of states ruled by the House of Ascania

References

  1. ^ Hiebl, Manfred (2006). "Das Haus Askanien-Anhalt, dessen Zweige und ihre Bedeutung". www.manfred-hiebl.de. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  2. ^ "Ascania 1". genealogy.euweb.cz. 2003-08-01. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  3. ^ hrsg. von Werner Paravicini. Bearb. von Jan Hirschbiegel. "Askanier". Höfe und Residenzen im spätmittelalterlichen Reich Bd. 1. Ein dynastisch-topographisches Handbuch Teilbd. 2. Residenzen. Ostfildern. ISBN 978-3-7995-4515-0. OCLC 723003848.
  4. ^ From Stendal split off:
    • Krossen (1266–1308)
    • Neumark (1266–1318)
  5. ^ Stargard split off from Salzwedel (1267-1316) and was then annexed to the Duchy of Mecklenburg.
  6. ^ The color chosen for Dessau was the same as the Principality of Anhalt as a whole, because, when united, the principality had this town as capital.
  7. ^ Even his name is uncertain; sources name him Adalbert assuming that his grandson, Count Adalbert (II) (d.1080) was named after him.
  8. ^ Numbered Bernard III as Duke of Saxony, but, as an ancestor of the Anhalt branch, he is not counted in Anhalt, as the next prince Bernard, reigning in Bernburg, is usually styled Bernard I. This is probably derived of a different status between this Bernard, a count in Anhalt, and the following Bernards, who were already princes.
  9. ^ Otto VII is listed before Otto V and VI here, as his rule, as it was never independent (unlike his brother John IV, who survived their father), is considered within the rule of his father, which began in 1267.
  10. ^ a b Herman V was possibly younger than his cousin Herman IV, but he ascended two years earlier then him.
  11. ^ a b Otto VI was possibly younger than his cousin Otto V, but he ascended one year earlier then him.
  12. ^ The numberings here lead to some confusion, as not all genealogists of the House of Ascania count John IV in the list of Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg, numbering John V (John IV's nephew) as John IV.
  13. ^ Numbered after Bernard, Count of Anhalt, who was also Duke of Saxony.
  14. ^ Sometimes numbered John IV. He is sometimes confused with his uncle, John IV (Eric V and Bernard IV's brother) and a son of his own (John IV, Bishop of Hildesheim).
  15. ^ Sometimes numbered Rudolph IV.
  16. ^ Despite being the fourth ruler in Dessau/Zerbst named John, sources count John, canon of Merseburg (d.1455), a brother of George I of Dessau who never ruled, as John IV. This compromises the countings of John V and John VI, the fourth and fifth rulers of Anhalt of this name.
  17. ^ Actually the fifth ruler named John. See note for John V of Zerbst.
  18. ^ Freistaat Sachsen official website Archived 2013-01-22 at the Wayback Machine (in German) Accessed 2009-05-19.
  19. ^ Flag Legislation (Saxony, Germany) Archived 2008-11-22 at the Wayback Machine :

    The Landtag of Saxony state parliament has passed on 25 October 1991 the following law:

    § 1 (1) The lesser coat-of-arms of the Free State of Saxony shows an escutcheon bendy of nine pieces black and gold, a green rue-crown bendwise. (2) A greater coat-of-arms of the Free State of Saxony can be determined by a special law.

    § 2 For the rendering of the coat-of-arms the patterns, which are attached to this law as appendix, are authoritative. The coloured patterns are deposited in the Main Public Record Office of Saxony.

    § 3 The regulations necessary for the implementation of this law are issued by the State Government. It can pass on this authority.

    § 4 This law comes into force the day after its proclamation.

    The preceding law is executed herewith and is to be proclaimed.

    — Prof. Dr. Kurt Biedenkopf (Minister President), Steffen Heitmann (State Minister of Justice), Law relating to the coat-of-arms of the Free State of Saxony of 18 November 1991, (Saxon Law and Official Gazette 1991, p. 383-385), Dresden, 18 November 1991.