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Brampton

Coordinates: 43°41′18″N 79°45′39″W / 43.68833°N 79.76083°W / 43.68833; -79.76083[2]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brampton
City of Brampton
The Brampton Dominion building
The Brampton Dominion building
Flag of Brampton
Official logo of Brampton
Nickname: 
Flower City (previously Flower Town)[1]
Brampton is located in Southern Ontario
Brampton
Brampton
Brampton is located in Regional Municipality of Peel
Brampton
Brampton
Coordinates: 43°41′18″N 79°45′39″W / 43.68833°N 79.76083°W / 43.68833; -79.76083[2]
CountryCanada
ProvinceOntario
RegionPeel
Incorporation1853 (village)
 1873 (town)
 1974 (city)
Government
 • MayorPatrick Brown
 • Governing BodyBrampton City Council
 • Federal
representation
List of MPs
 • Provincial
representation
Area
 • Land265.89 km2 (102.66 sq mi)
Elevation
218 m (715 ft)
Population
 • Total656,480 (9th)
 • Density2,469/km2 (6,390/sq mi)
DemonymBramptonian
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Forward sortation area
Area code(s)905, 289, 365, and 742
Websitewww.brampton.ca Edit this at Wikidata

Brampton is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is part of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and is a lower-tier municipality within the Peel Region. The city has a population of 656,480 as of the 2021 Census, making it the ninth most populous municipality in Canada and the third most populous city in the Greater Golden Horseshoe urban area, behind Toronto and Mississauga.

Named after the town of Brampton in Cumberland, England, Brampton was incorporated as a village in 1853 and as a town in 1873, and became a city in 1974.[4]

The city was once known as "The Flower Town of Canada", a title referring to its abundance of greenhouses and strong floriculture industry in the 1860s.[5][6] It maintains the term "Flower City" as its slogan.

History[edit]

John Haggert, Brampton's first mayor

Before the arrival of British settlers, the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation held 648,000 acres (262,000 ha) of land north of the head of the Lake Purchase lands and extending to the unceded territory of the Chippewa of Lakes Huron and Simcoe.[7] European settlers began to arrive in the area in the 1600s. In October 1818, the chief of the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation signed Treaty 19, also known as the Ajetance Purchase,[8] surrendering the area to the British Crown.[4][7][9][10]

Prior to the 1830s, most business in Chinguacousy Township took place at Martin Salisbury's tavern. One mile from the corner of Hurontario Street and the 5th Sideroad (now Main and Queen Streets in the centre of Brampton), William Buffy's tavern was the only significant building. At the time, the intersection was referred to as "Buffy's Corners". By 1834, John Elliott laid out the area in lots for sale, calling it "Brampton", which was soon adopted by others.[11]

In 1853, a small agricultural fair was set up by the newly initiated County Agricultural Society of the County of Peel and was held at the corner of Main and Queen streets.[citation needed] Grains, produce, roots, and dairy products were up for sale. Horses and cattle, along with other lesser livestock, were also sold at the market. This agricultural fair eventually became the modern Brampton Fall Fair.

In that same year, Brampton was incorporated as a village.[11] In 1866, the town became the county seat and the location of the Peel County Courthouse which was built in 1865–66; a three-storey County jail was added at the rear in 1867.

Edward Dale, an immigrant from Dorking, England, established a flower nursery in Brampton[12] shortly after his arrival in 1863.[13] Dale's Nursery became the town's largest[12] and most prominent employer, developed a flower grading system,[13] and established a global export market for its products.[12] The company chimney was a town landmark,[13] until Brampton Town Council allowed it to be torn down in 1977.[13] At its height, the company had 140 greenhouses,[14] and was the largest cut flower business in North America,[15] producing 20 million blooms and introducing numerous rose and orchid varietals and species to the market.[15] It also spurred the development of other nurseries in the town. Forty-eight hothouse flower nurseries once did business in the town.[13][15]

The Alderlea Estate, built c. 1867–1870 for businessman Kenneth Chisholm.

In January 1867, Peel County separated from the County of York, a union which had existed since 1851.[16] By 1869, Brampton had a population of 1,800.[17] It was incorporated as a town in 1873.[11]

A federal grant had enabled the village to found its first public library in 1887, which included 360 volumes from the Mechanic's Institute (established in 1858).[citation needed] In 1907, the library received a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, set up by United States steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, to build a new, expanded library; it serves several purposes, featuring the Brampton Library. The Carnegie libraries were built on the basis of communities coming up with matching funds and guaranteeing maintenance.[citation needed]

In 1902, Sir William J. Gage (owner of Gage Publishing, a publishing house specializing in school textbooks) purchased a 3.25-acre (1.32 ha) portion of the gardens and lawns of the Alder Lea estate (now called Alderlea) that had been built on Main Street by Kenneth Chisolm in 1867 to 1870. (Chisholm, a merchant and founding father of Brampton, had been the Town reeve, then warden of Peel County, then MPP for Brampton and eventually, Registrar of Peel County.)[18] Gage donated 1.7 acres (0.69 ha) of the property to the town, with a specific condition that it be made into a park. Citizens donated $1,054 and the town used the funds to purchase extra land to ensure a larger park.[19][20]

A group of regional farmers in Brampton had trouble getting insurance from city-based companies. After several meetings in Clairville Hall, they decided to found the County of Peel Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company.[citation needed] In 1955, when the company moved to its third and current location, 103 Queen Street West, it took the new name of Peel Mutual Insurance Company. It reigns as the longest-running company in modern Brampton. Harmsworth Decorating Centre was established in 1890, as Harmsworth and Son, operated out of the family's house on Queen Street West.[citation needed] The current location was purchased on September 1, 1904, after a fire destroyed their original store. Purchased for $1,400, the 24 Main Street South location is the longest-operating retail business in what is now Brampton.[citation needed]

In 1974, the two townships of Chinguacousy and Toronto Gore were incorporated into Brampton. The small pine added to the centre of the shield on the Brampton city flag represents Chinguacousy, honouring the Chippewa chief Shinguacose, "The Small Pine." After this merger, outlying communities such as Bramalea, Heart Lake and Professor's Lake, Snelgrove, Tullamore, and Marysfield, were incorporated into the City, and in some instances further developed.

In 1963, the town established The Flower Festival of Brampton, based on the Rose Festival of Portland, Oregon, in the United States. It began to market itself as the Flower Town of Canada.[13]

In a revival of this theme, on June 24, 2002, the City Council established the "Flower City Strategy",[21][22] to promote a connection to its flower-growing heritage.[23] The intention was to inspire design projects and community landscaping to beautify the city, adopt a sustainable environmental approach, and to protect its natural and cultural heritage.[23] The Rose Theatre was named in keeping with this vision and is to serve as a cultural institution in the city.[13] In addition, the city participates in the national Communities in Bloom competition as part of that strategy.

The Old Shoe Factory, located on 57 Mill Street North, once housed the Hewetson Shoe Company. It was listed as a historical property under the Ontario Heritage Act in 2008. Today it is occupied by various small businesses. The lobby and hallways retain details from 1907. Walls are decorated with pictures and artifacts of local Brampton history and old shoemaking equipment.[24]

A self-guided historical walking tour of downtown Brampton called "A Walk Through Time"[25] is available at Brampton City Hall and online at no cost.

Development of Bramalea[edit]

Bramalea Civic Centre building, the former home of the Chinguacousy Township offices, still houses several city services today.

Planned as an innovative "new town", Bramalea was developed in the 1960s immediately east of the Town of Brampton in Chinguacousy Township. It was Canada's first satellite community developed by one of the country's largest real estate developers, Bramalea Limited.[26] The name "Bramalea" was created by the farmer William Sheard, who combined "BRAM" from Brampton, "MAL" from Malton (then a neighbouring town which is now part of the city of Mississauga), and "LEA", an Old English word meaning meadow or grassland. He sold the land to Brampton Leasing (the former name of the developer) and built one of Bramalea's first houses on Dixie Road.[citation needed]

The community was developed according to its detailed master plan, which included provisions for a parkland trail system and a "downtown" to include essential services and a shopping centre.[citation needed] The downtown's centrepiece was the Civic Centre, built in 1972 to include the city hall and library. Directly across Team Canada Drive, a shopping centre named Bramalea City Centre was built. These developments were connected by a long tunnel, planned to provide protection from winter weather. The tunnel has long since been closed due to safety issues.[citation needed]

Region of Peel[edit]

The areas of adjacent municipalities (beige) amalgamated with the Town of Brampton (red) in 1974 to create the present city.

In 1974, the Ontario provincial government decided to update Peel County's structure. It amalgamated several towns and villages into the new City of Mississauga. In addition, it created the present City of Brampton from the town and the greater portion of the Townships of Chinguacousy and Toronto Gore, and the northern extremity of Mississauga south of Steeles Avenue,[27] including Bramalea and the other communities such as Churchville, Claireville, Ebenezer, Victoria, Springbrook, Coleraine, and Huttonville. While only Huttonville and Churchville still exist as identifiable communities, other names like Claireville are re-emerging as names of new developments.[citation needed]

The province converted Peel County into the Regional Municipality of Peel. Brampton retained its role as the administrative centre of Peel Region, which it already had as county seat. The regional council chamber, the Peel Regional Police force, the public health department, and the region's only major museum, the Peel Art Gallery, Museum and Archives, are all located in Brampton.[citation needed]

This change had its critics among those with a strong sense of local identities. Bramptonians feared urban sprawl would dissolve their town's personality. Bramalea residents took pride in the built-from-scratch and organised structure that had come with their new satellite city and did not want to give it up. Others in Bramalea accept they are part of Brampton, and they make up a "tri-city" area: the original Brampton, Heart Lake, Bramalea.[citation needed]

In 1972, Chinguacousy built a new civic centre in Bramalea. Two years later, when Brampton and Chinguacousy merged, the new city's council was moved from its modest downtown Brampton locale to the Bramalea building. The library systems of Brampton and Chinguacousy were merged, resulting in a system of four locations.[citation needed]

Some have questioned the future of Peel Region as encompassing all of Brampton, Mississauga, and Caledon. The Mississauga council, led by Mayor Hazel McCallion, voted to become a single-tier municipality and asked the provincial government to be separated from Peel Region. They argued the city has outgrown the need for a regional layer of government, and that Mississauga is being held back by supporting Brampton and Caledon with its municipal taxes.[citation needed]

Development as a city[edit]

Brampton City Hall
The corner of Main and Queen Streets downtown
Bramalea City Centre in Bramalea
Mount Pleasant Village Square
Springdale

In the early 1980s, Cineplex Odeon closed the Capitol Theatre in Brampton. The City bought the facility in 1981 under the leadership of councillor Diane Sutter. It adapted the former vaudeville venue and movie house as a performing arts theatre, to be used also as a live music venue. It was renamed the Heritage Theatre. Renovations and maintenance were expensive.[citation needed] In 1983, Toronto consultants Woods Gordon reported to the City that, rather than continue "pouring money" into the Heritage, they should construct a new 750-seat facility with up-to-date features.[citation needed] This recommendation was adopted, and the city designated the 2005–06 season as the Heritage Theatre's "grand finale" season. The city funded construction of the new Rose Theatre, which opened in September 2006.[citation needed]

Carabram was founded in 1982, the result of volunteers from different ethnic communities wanting to organize a festival celebrating diversity and cross-cultural friendship. The name was loosely related to Toronto's Caravan Festival of Cultures. Carabram's first event featured Italian, Scots, Ukrainian, and West Indian pavilions. By 2003, the fair had 18 pavilions attracting 45,000 visitors.[citation needed]

Brampton has grown to become one of the most diverse cities in Canada. In 1996, the city was 13% South Asian and 8.2% black.[28] By 2016, the South Asian community grew significantly to represent 44.3% of the city's population, while the black population grew to 14%.[29] Responding to a growing multi-cultural population, the Peel Board of Education introduced evening English as a Second Language (ESL) classes at high schools. Originally taught by volunteers, the classes eventually were scheduled as daytime courses taught by paid instructors. In the 1980s, the public and Catholic board expanded its language programs, offering night classes in 23 languages. These were introduced due to requests by parents, who wanted their children to learn their ancestral languages and heritage.

In the late 1980s, Mayor Ken Whillans gained approval and funding for the construction of a new city hall in Brampton's downtown. The facility was designed by local architects and built on the site of a former bus terminal.[30] Whillians did not get to see the opening of the new hall in June 1991 because of his death in August 1990.[31][32] Its completion brought the municipal government back to downtown Brampton. The facility expanded in 2014 with the addition of a nine-storey tower at 41 George Street and is connected to the original building by a glass walkway called Heritage Way.[33]

In 1991, development of another new town, Springdale, began. In 1999, development started to appear as far north as the city's border with Caledon along Mayfield Road. The Region designated this border as the line of demarcation for urban development until 2021, although development already began spilling north of Mayfield in the late 2010s.[citation needed] Part of the boundary between Brampton and Vaughan is also nearly completely urbanized.[citation needed]

Changes continue to reflect the growth of the city. In 1992 the City purchased the Brampton Fairgrounds, to be used for other development. The Agricultural Society relocated in 1997 outside the boundaries of the city to Heart Lake and Old School roads.[citation needed]

Brampton's 2003 Sesquicentennial celebrations boosted community spirit, reviving the tradition of a summer parade (with 100 floats), and creating other initiatives.[citation needed] To commemorate the town's history, the city under Mayor Fennell reintroduced floral projects to the community. These have included more plantings around town, the revival in 2005 of the city Parade, and participation in the Canada Communities in Bloom project.[citation needed]

Cityscape[edit]

Aerial view of Brampton in 2021

Geography[edit]

Brampton has a total land area of 265 square kilometres (102 sq mi). The City of Brampton is bordered by Highway 50 (Vaughan) to the East, Winston Churchill Boulevard (Halton Hills) to the West, Mayfield Road (Caledon) to the north (except for a small neighbourhood, Snelgrove, which is part of Brampton despite extending somewhat north of Mayfield Road) and the hydro corridor (Mississauga) to the south as far east as Torbram Road, where the border between the two cities follows the CN Halton Subdivision.

Climate[edit]

Brampton features a continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) which is typical of the rest of the Greater Toronto Area.

Data from Toronto Pearson International Airport, located 10.55 km (6.56 mi) east.

Climate data for Lester B. Pearson International Airport (Brampton and North Mississauga)
WMO ID: 71624; coordinates 43°40′38″N 79°37′50″W / 43.67722°N 79.63056°W / 43.67722; -79.63056 (Toronto Lester B. Pearson International Airport), elevation: 173.4 m (569 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1937–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 19.0 18.3 29.6 37.9 42.6 45.6 50.3 46.6 48.0 39.1 28.6 23.9 50.3
Record high °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
26.0
(78.8)
31.1
(88.0)
34.4
(93.9)
36.7
(98.1)
37.9
(100.2)
38.3
(100.9)
36.7
(98.1)
31.8
(89.2)
25.1
(77.2)
20.0
(68.0)
38.3
(100.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.0
(41.0)
12.0
(53.6)
19.2
(66.6)
24.5
(76.1)
27.4
(81.3)
26.3
(79.3)
22.3
(72.1)
14.6
(58.3)
7.9
(46.2)
1.9
(35.4)
13.3
(55.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5
(23)
−4.4
(24.1)
0.6
(33.1)
7.0
(44.6)
13.7
(56.7)
19.2
(66.6)
22.1
(71.8)
21.1
(70.0)
16.9
(62.4)
10.0
(50.0)
4.1
(39.4)
−1.6
(29.1)
8.6
(47.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −8.9
(16.0)
−8.5
(16.7)
−3.8
(25.2)
1.9
(35.4)
8.2
(46.8)
13.9
(57.0)
16.6
(61.9)
15.8
(60.4)
11.6
(52.9)
5.3
(41.5)
0.2
(32.4)
−5
(23)
3.9
(39.0)
Record low °C (°F) −31.3
(−24.3)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−17.2
(1.0)
−5.6
(21.9)
0.6
(33.1)
3.9
(39.0)
1.1
(34.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
−8.3
(17.1)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−31.3
(−24.3)
Record low wind chill −44.7 −38.9 −36.2 −25.4 −9.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 −8.0 −13.5 −25.4 −38.5 −44.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.6
(2.43)
50.2
(1.98)
50.5
(1.99)
76.7
(3.02)
77.6
(3.06)
80.7
(3.18)
74.0
(2.91)
68.5
(2.70)
69.4
(2.73)
67.2
(2.65)
71.8
(2.83)
58.6
(2.31)
806.8
(31.76)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 33.8
(1.33)
23.9
(0.94)
34.0
(1.34)
70.7
(2.78)
77.5
(3.05)
80.7
(3.18)
74.0
(2.91)
68.5
(2.70)
69.4
(2.73)
67.0
(2.64)
62.7
(2.47)
35.3
(1.39)
697.4
(27.46)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 31.5
(12.4)
27.7
(10.9)
17.2
(6.8)
4.5
(1.8)
0.1
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.1)
9.3
(3.7)
24.1
(9.5)
114.5
(45.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 16.2 12.0 12.3 12.5 12.7 10.8 10.3 9.8 10.2 12.8 12.6 14.9 147.3
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 6.2 4.6 7.2 11.7 12.7 10.8 10.3 9.8 10.2 12.8 10.4 7.5 114.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.7 9.7 6.8 2.2 0.12 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.24 3.6 9.2 44.7
Average relative humidity (%) (at 15:00) 69.7 65.7 58.5 53.4 53.6 54.4 52.9 55.2 57.3 61.6 66.7 70.5 60.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 79.7 112.2 159.4 204.4 228.2 249.7 294.4 274.5 215.7 163.7 94.2 86.2 2,161.4
Percent possible sunshine 27.6 38.0 43.2 50.8 50.1 54.1 63.0 63.4 57.4 47.8 32.0 30.9 46.5
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada[34][35][36]

Data is from Georgetown, located 10.93 km (6.79 mi) south southwest.

Climate data for Georgetown WWTP (Halton Hills)
Climate ID: 6152695; coordinates 43°28′34″N 79°52′45″W / 43.47611°N 79.87917°W / 43.47611; -79.87917 (Georgetown WWTP); elevation: 221 m (725 ft); 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
15.5
(59.9)
25.0
(77.0)
31.5
(88.7)
34.5
(94.1)
36.0
(96.8)
37.0
(98.6)
36.5
(97.7)
35.5
(95.9)
29.5
(85.1)
22.0
(71.6)
20.5
(68.9)
37.0
(98.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.6
(40.3)
12.1
(53.8)
19.1
(66.4)
24.4
(75.9)
26.9
(80.4)
25.8
(78.4)
21.4
(70.5)
14.3
(57.7)
7.3
(45.1)
1.1
(34.0)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.3
(20.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
−0.9
(30.4)
6.0
(42.8)
12.3
(54.1)
17.4
(63.3)
20.0
(68.0)
19.0
(66.2)
14.8
(58.6)
8.4
(47.1)
2.8
(37.0)
−2.9
(26.8)
7.1
(44.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −10.9
(12.4)
−10.2
(13.6)
−6.4
(20.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.3
(41.5)
10.4
(50.7)
13.0
(55.4)
12.1
(53.8)
8.1
(46.6)
2.4
(36.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
−6.9
(19.6)
1.3
(34.3)
Record low °C (°F) −33.0
(−27.4)
−31.5
(−24.7)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−13.0
(8.6)
−5.0
(23.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.0
(37.4)
0.0
(32.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−15.5
(4.1)
−29.5
(−21.1)
−33.0
(−27.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.8
(2.67)
60.0
(2.36)
57.2
(2.25)
76.5
(3.01)
79.3
(3.12)
74.8
(2.94)
73.5
(2.89)
79.3
(3.12)
86.2
(3.39)
68.3
(2.69)
88.5
(3.48)
65.9
(2.59)
877.4
(34.54)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 29.7
(1.17)
28.4
(1.12)
35.2
(1.39)
71.3
(2.81)
79.0
(3.11)
74.8
(2.94)
73.5
(2.89)
79.3
(3.12)
86.2
(3.39)
67.8
(2.67)
79.9
(3.15)
36.4
(1.43)
741.5
(29.19)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 38.1
(15.0)
31.7
(12.5)
22.1
(8.7)
5.2
(2.0)
0.3
(0.1)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.2)
8.6
(3.4)
29.5
(11.6)
135.9
(53.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.6 9.4 10.6 12.4 11.9 11.2 10.6 10.6 11.7 12.3 13.3 12.3 138.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.1 4.1 6.4 11.6 11.8 11.2 10.6 10.6 11.7 12.2 11.4 6.5 112.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 9.4 6.2 4.8 1.4 0.04 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.27 2.5 6.9 31.5
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada[37]

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
YearPop.±%
185850—    
18712,090+4080.0%
18812,920+39.7%
18913,252+11.4%
19012,748−15.5%
19113,412+24.2%
19214,527+32.7%
19315,532+22.2%
19415,975+8.0%
19518,389+40.4%
196118,467+120.1%
197141,211+123.2%
1981149,030+261.6%
1991234,445+57.3%
1996268,251+14.4%
2001325,428+21.3%
2006433,806+33.3%
2011523,906+20.8%
2016593,638+13.3%
2021656,480+10.6%
Brampton annexed Chinguacousy—which included the highly populated community of Bramalea—and Toronto Gore Townships in 1974.
The 2011 population count was revised in 2016.[38]

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Brampton had a population of 656,480 living in 182,472 of its 189,086 total private dwellings, a change of 10.6% from its 2016 population of 593,638. With a land area of 265.89 km2 (102.66 sq mi), it had a population density of 2,469.0/km2 (6,394.7/sq mi) in 2021.[39] At its growth rate of 10.6% since the 2016 census, Brampton was the fastest-growing of Canada's largest 25 municipalities.[40]

Ethnicity[edit]

In the 2021 Canadian census, people of South Asian origin were the largest ethnocultural group in Brampton - accounting for 52.4% of the population. Other groups included those of European (18.9%), Black (13.1%), Filipino (3.2%), Latin American (2.1%), Southeast Asian (1.4%), Chinese (1.1%), West Asian (1.1%), and Arab (1%) ancestry.[41]

Panethnic groups in the City of Brampton (1996−2021)
Panethnic
group
2021[42] 2016[43] 2011[44] 2006[45] 2001[46] 1996[28]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
South Asian 340,815 52.42% 261,705 44.29% 200,220 38.41% 136,750 31.69% 63,205 19.48% 34,720 13%
European[a] 123,060 18.93% 153,390 25.96% 171,655 32.93% 182,760 42.35% 192,395 59.31% 186,270 69.72%
Black 85,310 13.12% 82,175 13.91% 70,290 13.48% 53,340 12.36% 32,070 9.89% 21,810 8.16%
Southeast Asian[b] 30,155 4.64% 28,525 4.83% 26,535 5.09% 18,110 4.2% 9,970 3.07% 6,990 2.62%
Middle Eastern[c] 13,715 2.11% 11,320 1.92% 7,610 1.46% 5,475 1.27% 2,935 0.9% 1,995 0.75%
Latin American 13,490 2.07% 14,045 2.38% 11,405 2.19% 8,545 1.98% 5,225 1.61% 2,595 0.97%
East Asian[d] 8,000 1.23% 9,915 1.68% 9,235 1.77% 8,930 2.07% 6,595 2.03% 6,100 2.28%
Indigenous 3,255 0.5% 4,330 0.73% 3,430 0.66% 2,665 0.62% 1,720 0.53% 950 0.36%
Other/Multiracial[e] 32,370 4.98% 25,535 4.32% 20,940 4.02% 14,995 3.47% 10,290 3.17% 5,740 2.15%
Total responses 650,165 99.04% 590,950 99.55% 521,315 99.5% 431,575 99.49% 324,390 99.68% 267,170 99.6%
Total population 656,480 100% 593,638 100% 523,911 100% 433,806 100% 325,428 100% 268,251 100%
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses

Religion[edit]

In 2021, the most reported religion among the population was Christianity (35.7%), with Catholicism (17.3%) making up the largest denomination. This was followed by Sikhism (25.1%), Hinduism (18.1%), Islam (9.1%), and Buddhism (1.1%). 10.3% of the population did not identify with a particular religion.[47] Brampton has Canada's largest Sikh population and third largest Sikh proportion (behind Surrey and Abbotsford); the city also has Canada's second-largest Hindu population (behind Toronto) and largest Hindu proportion.[48][49][50] The Toronto Ontario Temple for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is located in Brampton.[51]

Language[edit]

The 2021 census found that English was the mother tongue of 42.9% of the population. The next most common mother tongues were Punjabi (21.7%), Gujarati (3.4%), Urdu (3.4%), Hindi (3%), and Tamil (2.2%). The most commonly known languages were English (95.1%), Punjabi (29.1%), Hindi (17.5%), Urdu (6%), Gujarati (4.7%), and French (4.6%).[52]

Mother tongue Population %
English 279,415 42.9
Punjabi 141,005 21.7
Gujarati 22,000 3.4
Urdu 21,945 3.4
Hindi 19,645 3
Tamil 14,030 2.2
Spanish 10,185 1.6
Tagalog (Filipino) 9,905 1.5
Portuguese 8,640 1.3
Italian 5,430 0.8
Vietnamese 4,230 0.6
Arabic 4,100 0.6
Malayalam 3,930 0.6
French 3,810 0.6
Polish 3,430 0.5
Bengali 3,060 0.5
Telugu 2,920 0.4
Yue (Cantonese) 2,775 0.4
Akan (Twi) 2,530 0.4
Dari 2,305 0.4
Mandarin 2,195 0.3
Nepali 1,945 0.3
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 1,940 0.3
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 1,555 0.2
Serbo-Croatian 1,385 0.2
Knowledge of language Population %
English 618,060 95.1
Punjabi 189,235 29.1
Hindi 113,515 17.5
Urdu 38,725 6
Gujarati 30,310 4.7
French 30,010 4.6
Tamil 21,475 3.3
Spanish 15,395 2.4
Tagalog (Filipino) 14,925 2.3
Portuguese 11,765 1.8
Italian 8,905 1.4
Arabic 8,475 1.3
Malayalam 6,090 0.9
Vietnamese 6,030 0.9
Telugu 5,540 0.9
Bengali 5,080 0.8
Akan (Twi) 4,555 0.7
Polish 4,150 0.6
Yue (Cantonese) 3,680 0.6
Mandarin 3,660 0.6
Dari 3,350 0.5
Marathi 3,185 0.5
Yoruba 3,050 0.5
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 2,540 0.4
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 2,440 0.4

Economy[edit]

Companies with headquarters in Brampton include MDA Space Missions, which will be building the CanadaArm 3. Loblaw Companies Ltd.,[53] Chrysler Canada Brampton Assembly Plant,[54] Gamma-Dynacare Medical Laboratories,[55] Mandarin Restaurant,[56] Brita, and Clorox.

Other major companies operating in Brampton include CN Rail Brampton Intermodal Terminal,[57] Best Buy,[58] Amazon which has four production facilities in the city,[59] Ford,[citation needed] Nestlé,[60] Hudson's Bay Company (HBC),[61] Frito Lay Canada, and Coca-Cola.[62]

Additional companies in Brampton include Canon, Canadian Tire which has three distribution facilities, Canadian Blood Services, Boston Scientific, Air Canada, Sleep Country Canada head office, Rogers Communications, Magna International.

Alstom has an assembly plant in Brampton to fulfil their contract with Metrolinx to build Alstom Citadis Spirit LRV cars for the TTC Finch West (ordered in 2017 with delivery beginning 2021 to be completed by 2023), Hurontario and Eglinton LRT lines. The Hurontario LRT maintenance facility is currently being built in Brampton.

William Osler Health System operates two health facilities in the city (Peel Memorial and Brampton Civic Hospital).

It is also the location of the Canadian Forces Army Reserve unit The Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Halton Regiment).[63]

Lululemon & Pet Valu have their main GTA distribution centres in the city. Wolseley Plumbing built a distribution Center and showroom in Brampton in 2024.

An automobile manufacturing facility was opened by American Motors (AMC) in 1960 as the Brampton Assembly Plant. In 1986, AMC developed a new, state-of-the-art operation at Bramalea. After AMC was acquired by Chrysler in 1987, AMC's Canadian division and its plants were absorbed; the older facility in Brampton closed in 1992. The newest factory was renamed Brampton Assembly; it is one of the city's largest employers, with almost 4,000 workers when running at capacity.[64]

Education[edit]

The Algoma University at Brampton School of Business & Economics offers courses at Market Square Business Centre, 24 Queen Street East.[65] The closest universities to Brampton (offering a wider range of programs) include York University in north Toronto and University of Toronto Mississauga.

Along with that, Sheridan College, Davis campus is another major public higher education institution serving Brampton which also has campuses in Oakville and Mississauga. In 2017, Davis added the Skilled Trades Centre, for training in skilled trades and apprenticeship programs, previously offered in Oakville.[66]

A plan by Ryerson University, in partnership with Sheridan College was to establish a new campus in Brampton with a goal of opening in 2022 with $90 million in funding offered by the provincial government in April 2018.[67][68] On 23 October 2018 however, the new Provincial government (elected in June) withdrew the funding for plans such as this, effectively cancelling the project.[69]

Brampton also has many private post-secondary institutions offering vocational training including Springfield College Brampton, CDI College, TriOS College, Academy of Learning, Evergreen College, Medix College, CIMT College, Torbram College, Bitts International Career College, Canadian College of Business, Science & Technology, Hanson College, Queenswood College B, H & T, Flair College of Management and Technology, Sunview College, and College Of Health Studies.

Two main school boards operate in Brampton: the Peel District School Board, which operates secular anglophone public schools, and Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board, which operates Catholic anglophone public schools. Under the Peel District School Board, the secondary schools are Bramalea, Brampton Centennial, Central Peel, Chinguacousy, Fletcher's Meadow, Harold M. Brathwaite, Heart Lake, Louise Arbour, Mayfield, North Park, Judith Nyman, Sandalwood Heights, Turner Fenton, David Suzuki, Castlebrooke Secondary School, and Jean Augustine, one of the newest. A total of 85 elementary and middle schools feed these high schools in the city.

Under the Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board, the secondary schools are Cardinal Leger, Holy Name of Mary, Notre Dame, St. Augustine, St. Edmund Campion, St. Roch, St. Marguerite d'Youville, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Cardinal Ambrozic. A total of 44 Catholic elementary and middle schools feed these high schools in the city.

The Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates secular Francophone schools serving the area. The Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir operates Catholic Francophone schools serving the area.

Culture[edit]

The Rose Theatre Fountain Stage
LCD video screen at Garden Square, downtown
A Peel Art Gallery, Museum, Archives building, formerly the Peel County Court House

Several cultural entities in the city operate under the umbrella of the Brampton Arts Council. Located in the city is the Peel Art Gallery, Museum and Archives (PAMA, formerly the Peel Heritage Complex), which is run by the Region of Peel.[70]

The Rose Theatre (originally the Brampton Performing Arts Centre), opened in September 2006. The city had expected the facility to generate $2.7 million in economic activity the first year, growing to $19.8 million by the fifth year.[citation needed] The Rose Theatre far surpassed projections, attracting more than 137,000 patrons in its inaugural year, which exceeded its five-year goal.[citation needed] The arrival of so many new patrons downtown has stimulated the development of numerous new businesses nearby. A new Fountain Stage was unveiled in June 2008 at the nearby Garden Square.

Brampton has six library locations to serve its half-million residents.

Festivals in the city include the annual Festival of Literary Diversity, a literary festival devoted to writers from underrepresented groups such as people of colour and LGBTQ writers.[71]

The Peel Art Gallery, Museum and Archives (PAMA) in Brampton includes a museum, art gallery, and archives. Since opening in 1968, the art gallery section (previously known as the Art Gallery of Peel) has exhibited local, national, and international artists, both contemporary and historical from their permanent collection.

The City of Brampton's long-standing heritage conservation program was recognised with the 2011 Lieutenant Governor's Ontario Heritage Award for Community Leadership. In 2010, the city received an 'honourable mention' under the same provincial awards program.[citation needed]

Sites of interest[edit]

Professor's Lake

Major shopping areas include Bramalea City Centre, Shoppers World, and "big box centre" Trinity Commons. The downtown area has some retail; the Centennial Mall and the Brampton Mall are also of note.

Media[edit]

Brampton was one of the first areas where Rogers Cable offered its service. The city started a community access channel in the 1970s, which still operates. While some programs on the channel are produced in its Brampton studios, most are based in its Mississauga location. Christian specialty channel Vertical TV is based in Brampton.

The Brampton Guardian is the community's only newspaper, starting as the Bramalea Guardian in 1964. The city's first newspaper, The Daily Times, stopped circulation in the early 1980s. For a little over a year, The Brampton Bulletin attempted to challenge the Guardian, but it was dismantled after a series of editor changes.

Brampton is the official city of license for two radio stations, CHLO and CFNY. Both stations address their programming toward the entire Greater Toronto Area rather than exclusively to Brampton. CFNY was located upstairs at 83 Kennedy Road until moving to Toronto in 1996.

Sports and recreation[edit]

Sports teams of Brampton
Team League Sport Venue Established Disestablished Championships

Brampton Honey Badgers

Canadian Elite Basketball League Basketball CAA Centre 2019* 1
Brampton A's National Basketball League of Canada Basketball Powerade Centre 2013 2015 0
Brampton Admirals Ontario Junior Hockey League Hockey Brampton Memorial Arena 2018 2021 0
Brampton Battalion OHL Hockey Powerade Centre 1998 2013 0
Brampton Beast ECHL Hockey CAA Centre 2013 2021 0
Bramalea Blues Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League Hockey Powerade Centre 1972 2010 1
Brampton Bombers Greater Ontario Junior Hockey League Hockey Brampton Memorial Arena 2012 2020 0
Brampton Thunder Canadian Women's Hockey League Hockey Powerade Centre 1999 2017 0
Brampton Capitals Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League Hockey Brampton Memorial Arena 1984 2012 4
Brampton Excelsiors Major Series Lacrosse Senior "A" Lacrosse League. Box Lacrosse CAA Centre 1912 30
Junior Excelsiors OLA Junior A Lacrosse League Box Lacrosse Brampton Memorial Arena 1971 4
Junior "b" Excelsiors OLA Junior B Lacrosse League Box Lacrosse Victoria Park Arena 2012 0
Bramalea Satellites Northern Football Conference Football 1974 1975
Brampton City United FC Canadian Soccer League, National Division Soccer Victoria Park Stadium 2002 1
Brampton Wolves Global T20 Canada Cricket CAA Centre 2019 1

Brampton Steelheads

Ontario Hockey League Ice Hockey CAA Centre 1996* 0
  • The Honey Badgers relocated from Hamilton for the 2023 season.
  • The Steelheads relocated from Mississauga for the 2024–25 season.

Brampton has been home minor professional sports franchises at the CAA Centre, formerly the Powerade Centre. From 2013 to 2015, the Brampton A's played in the National Basketball League of Canada, but relocated to Orangeville, Ontario, to decrease costs of operations of switching the arena floor from ice hockey to basketball. From 2013 to 2020, the Brampton Beast played in the Central Hockey League and ECHL, but ceased operations during the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2021 after having not been able to play since March 2020.

The numerous sporting venues and activities includes the outdoor ice path for skating through Gage Park. Chinguacousy Park includes a ski lift, a curling club, and Tennis Centre for multi-season activities. In the summer, amateur softball leagues abound. Crowds line the beaches at Professor's Lake for the annual outdoor "shagging" display.

Since 1967, the Brampton Canadettes have hosted the annual Brampton Canadettes Easter Tournament in hockey.[77]

Brampton is also the host for the following major sports events:


Infrastructure[edit]

Health and medicine[edit]

Courts[edit]

Grenville & William Davis Courthouse, Ontario Court of Justice, is located in Brampton at 7755 Hurontario Street (Hurontario Street at County Court).

Transportation[edit]

Public transit[edit]

Brampton Transit bus at the now-relocated Bramalea City Centre Terminal

Local transit is provided by Brampton Transit, with connections to other systems such as MiWay, York Region Transit, Go Transit, and Toronto Transit Commission. Brampton Transit also operates a bus rapid transit system, "Züm" (pronounced Zoom), along Main/Hurontario Streets, Steeles Avenue, Queen Street/Highway 7, Bovaird Drive–Airport Road, and Queen Street West–Mississauga Road, which form the backbone to its bus network.

There is GO Bus service to York University and subway stations at Yorkdale Mall and York Mills in Toronto. There are three GO Train stations in Brampton along the Kitchener line: Bramalea, Brampton and Mount Pleasant.

Rail[edit]

Both Canadian National Railway (CN) and the Orangeville-Brampton Railway short line (formerly part of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) line) run through the city. CN's Intermodal Yards are located east of Airport Road between Steeles and Queen Street East. The CN Track from Toronto's Union Station is used by the Kitchener GO Transit Rail Corridor providing commuter rail to and from Toronto with rail station stops at Bramalea, Downtown Brampton, and Mount Pleasant. Via Rail connects through Brampton as part of the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor.

Air[edit]

Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (CYYZ), is located near Brampton, in Mississauga.[81] For general aviation, the city is served by the privately owned Brampton Airport (CNC3), located to the north of the city in neighbouring Caledon.

Road[edit]

Brampton is served by several major transportation routes: Highway 401 from Toronto is a short distance south in Mississauga, and can be reached by Highway 410, which runs north–south through the middle of the city. Highway 407 runs along the southern portion of the city, just north of the boundary with Mississauga. Steeles Avenue, which runs north of the 407, is a thoroughfare continuing from Toronto. Queen Street is the city's main east–west street. Farther north, Bovaird Drive is another main artery. Sections of both Queen (eastern portion) and Bovaird (western portion) were part the former Highway 7, (now Regional Road 107), with Highway 410 being the route followed between the two streets. Main Street, part of the historic road, Hurontario Street (as well as Hurontario proper in the northern and southern parts of the city), and formerly Highway 10, is the city's main north–south artery. In the east end, Airport Road is a busy artery that is used as a route north to Wasaga Beach, a popular beach resort town.

Representation in other media[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Four people from Brampton have received the Order of Canada: Robert William Bradford, former Director of the National Aviation Museum; Michael F. Clarke, director at Evergreen, the Yonge Street Mission for street youth in Toronto; Howard Pawley, professor and former Premier of Manitoba; and William G. Davis, former Premier of Ontario.

Sports[edit]

Politics[edit]

Three Canadian premiers got their start in Brampton; Premiers Tobias Norris and Howard Pawley OC of Manitoba, and "Brampton Billy", Ontario premier William Grenville Davis CC. Other notable politicians include John Coyne, and Conservative opposition leader Gordon Graydon. Alberta politician and businessman Sir James A. Lougheed was born in Brampton, and served 30 years in Senate; Regina mayor David Lynch Scott was born here.

President of the Treasury Board Tony Clement spent time as a Brampton MPP. John McDermid held various cabinet positions under Brian Mulroney, Bal Gosal Minister of State-Sport, and former Mayor Linda Jeffrey held cabinet positions at the provincial level.

Ruby Dhalla represented the riding of Brampton—Springdale in the Canadian House of Commons from 2004 to 2011 as a member of the Liberal Party. Dhalla and British Columbia Conservative MP Nina Grewal were the first Sikh women to serve in the Canadian House of Commons. Parm Gill was elected as the member of parliament from the Conservative Party of Canada for the riding of Brampton-Springdale in 2011, who was also appointed as the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Veteran Affairs in 2013.

Jagmeet Singh began his political career in Brampton running in two elections in 2011, defeated in the federal election in May but elected Member of Provincial Parliament for Bramalea—Gore—Malton in October. In 2015 he became deputy leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party. In 2017 he became leader of the federal NDP, the first member of a visible minority to become permanent leader of a major federal party in Canada.

Arts[edit]

Authors born in or living in Brampton include Rohinton Mistry, Jesse Thistle, Edo Van Belkom and Rupi Kaur (poet).

Visual arts notables from Brampton include etcher Caroline Helena Armington,[84] Ronald Bloore, Member of the Order of Canada; Organiser and member of the "Regina Five",(1960)[85] watercolourist Jack Reid, and William Ronald, who was raised in town. Norman Mills Price. Animators David Feiss and Jay Stephens grew up here.

Music acts from Brampton include Punk band The Flatliners, Indie Rock band Moneen, R&B singer Keshia Chanté, country singer Johnny Reid, "Metal Queen" Lee Aaron and pop singer Alyssa Reid. Country singer and "World Champion Yodeller" Donn Reynolds lived here from 1969 to 1997.[86] Barry Stock, guitarist from Three Days Grace was raised in Brampton, and currently resides in Caledon. Singer Alessia Cara, hip-hop artist Roy Woods, and hip-hop artist Tory Lanez were also born in Brampton. Hip-hop record producer WondaGurl was also born in Brampton. Punjabi hip hop artist Sidhu Moose Wala launched his music career while living in Brampton.

Film, television and comedy[edit]

Two notable comedians hail from Brampton: Scott Thompson and Russell Peters.

Comedic actor Michael Cera was born and raised in Brampton. The twin actors Shawn Ashmore and Aaron Ashmore (Smallville) are Brampton-raised. The sibling actors Tyler Labine (Mad Love) and Kyle Labine were born in Brampton.

Other Brampton-born or affiliated actors include Paulo Costanzo, Jordan Gavaris, Gemini Award winner Kris Lemche, Lara Jean Chorostecki, Sabrina Grdevich, Nicole Lyn, actor and producer David J. Phillips, reality TV star and art dealer Billy Jamieson, performer George R. Robertson, and performer Sidhu Moose Wala.

Others include voice actor Brenna O'Brien, and on-air media personalities Cassie Campbell, Chris Connor, Chris Cuthbert and Scott McGillivray.

Sister cities[edit]

Brampton has two sister cities as well as active economic, historic, and cultural relationships with others.[87][88][89]

Sister cities:

Friendship relationships:[89]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • "Brampton (Code 3521010) Census Profile". 2011 census. Government of Canada - Statistics Canada. Retrieved February 8, 2012.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rayburn, Alan (2001). Naming Canada: Stories about Canadian Place Names. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-8020-8293-0. Archived from the original on December 6, 2012.
  2. ^ "Brampton". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  3. ^ a b "Data table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Brampton, City (CY) [Census subdivision], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022.
  4. ^ a b "Brampton | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  5. ^ "Why is Brampton Called the Flower City?". InSauga. April 21, 2017. Retrieved May 26, 2024.
  6. ^ "Brampton History". City of Brampton. Retrieved May 26, 2024.
  7. ^ a b "Ajetance Treaty, No. 19 (1818) - Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation". May 28, 2017. Archived from the original on June 7, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  8. ^ Canada, Government of Canada; Indigenous and Northern Affairs (June 4, 2013). "Treaty Texts - Upper Canada Land Surrenders". www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca. Retrieved June 3, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ "Provisional Agreement with the Mississagues of the River Credit, for the surrender of 648,000 Acres of Land". Library and Archives Canada. November 25, 2016. Archived from the original on June 5, 2021.
  10. ^ "Ajetance Treaty No. 19". Treaty Texts - Upper Canada Land Surrenders. June 4, 2013. Archived from the original on March 19, 2020.
  11. ^ a b c "Brampton's Beginning" in Bramptons's 100th Anniversary as an Incorporated Town: 1873–1973, Brampton: The Corporation of the Town of Brampton and the Brampton Centennial Committee, 1973, originally published in Ross Cumming, ed., Historical Atlas of Peel County, n.p.: Walker and Miles, 1877.
  12. ^ a b c "Discover Brampton's History". City of Brampton. Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Bost, John (December 30, 2007). "Without a trace". Book Review. Retrieved April 8, 2010. O'Hara tells the story of how the Dale Estate joined with the town to market the town as the "Flower Town of Canada" by instituting in 1963, The Flower Festival of Brampton, patterned after the great Rose Festival parade of Portland, Oregon.[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ O'Hara, Dale (September 2007). Acres of Glass: The Story of the Dale Estate and How Brampton Became "The Flower Town of Canada". Eastendbooks. ISBN 978-1-896973-39-5. Archived from the original on June 19, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  15. ^ a b c "Brampton's FlowerTown Heritage". Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  16. ^ "The creation of the County of Peel, 1851-1867". April 25, 2017. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  17. ^ The province of Ontario gazetteer and directory. H. McEvoy Editor and Compiler, Toronto : Robertson & Cook, Publishers, 1869
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  20. ^ Douglas, Pam (March 26, 2015). "Alderlea reborn: Brampton's heritage home now available for rent - BramptonGuardian.com". Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  21. ^ "Flower City Strategy". City of Brampton. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010. On June 24, 2002, Council received and approved the "Flower City Strategy", with the expressed purpose of recapturing of Brampton's Floral heritage.
  22. ^ "Heritage". City of Brampton. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  23. ^ a b "Environmental Responsibility". City of Brampton. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010. The City is taking steps to reclaim our "flower town" roots through the Flower City Strategy, a multifaceted approach that strives to beautify Brampton, preserve its natural and cultural heritage and protect the environment. An important part of this strategy is adopting a sustainable environmental approach that combines conservation with urban development and design, naturalisation and community landscaping.
  24. ^ Hewetson Shoe Factory. City of Brampton. "A Little Bit of History..." Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  25. ^ "A Walk Through Time" Archived May 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, City of Brampton, c.2010
  26. ^ "Brampton History". www.brampton.ca. Retrieved December 6, 2023.
  27. ^ "Brampton's historic Churchville village turns 200". Pam Douglas. Brampton Guardian. July 28, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  28. ^ a b "Electronic Area Profiles: Brampton". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. October 29, 1998. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  29. ^ Census Profile, 2016 Census Brampton, Ontario, and Peel, Regional Municipality, Ontario
  30. ^ "Brampton City Hall". Inzola Construction (Portfolio). Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  31. ^ "Celebrating Brampton's 50th Birthday: A Look Back in Time". Brampton.ca. Retrieved April 26, 2024.
  32. ^ Brampton Guardian (August 24, 2015). "Former Brampton mayor Ken Whillans remembered on 25th anniversary of drowning". Retrieved April 24, 2024.
  33. ^ "Southwest Quadrant Renewal Plan".
  34. ^ "Toronto Lester B. Pearson International Airport". 1991-2020 Canadian Climate Normals. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved June 11, 2024.
  35. ^ "Toronto Lester B. Pearson INT'L A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
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  38. ^ Statistics Canada: 2017
  39. ^ "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, census divisions and census subdivisions (municipalities), Ontario". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  40. ^ "Canada's fastest growing and decreasing municipalities from 2016 to 2021". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022.
  41. ^ "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Brampton, City (CY) [Census subdivision], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022.
  42. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  43. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 27, 2021). "Census Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  44. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (November 27, 2015). "NHS Profile". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  45. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (August 20, 2019). "2006 Community Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  46. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (July 2, 2019). "2001 Community Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  47. ^ "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Brampton, City (CY) [Census subdivision], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022.
  48. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Surrey, City (CY) British Columbia [Census subdivision] Total - Religion for the population in private households - 25% sample data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  49. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Abbotsford, City (CY) British Columbia [Census subdivision] Total - Religion for the population in private households - 25% sample data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  50. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Toronto, City (C) Ontario [Census subdivision] Total - Religion for the population in private households - 25% sample data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  51. ^ "Toronto Ontario Temple". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  52. ^ "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Brampton, City (CY) [Census subdivision], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022.
  53. ^ "Brampton's Top Employers". Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  54. ^ "Brampton Assembly Plant and Brampton Satellite Stamping Plant". Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. FCA US LLC. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  55. ^ "Dynacare - Head Office, Brampton". Toronto Central Healthline. Central West Local Health Integration Network. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  56. ^ "Contact Us". Mandarin. Mandarin Restaurant Franchise Corporation. December 19, 2018. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  57. ^ "Canadian National Railway". Canada's Top 100 Employers. Mediacorp Canada Inc. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
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  1. ^ Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  2. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  3. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  4. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  5. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.

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