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Gaykhatu Khan was the fifth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran. He reigned from 1291 to 1295. His Buddhist baghshi gave him the Tibetan name Rinchindorj which appeared on his paper money.

It was written by taking the page Geykhatu from the Wikipedia page.

Life[]

He was born to Abaqa and Nukdan Khatun, a Tatar lady in c.1259. He was living in Jazira during Tekuder's reign and had to flee to Arghun in Khorasan after Qonqurtai's execution in 1284. He was given as hostage to Tekuder by Arghun as a condition of truce in June 1284 and put in orda of Todai Khatun, his step-mother. After Arghun's enthronement, he was confirmed as governor of Anatolia together with his uncle Hulachu.

He was stationed in Erzinjan and learnt to speak Persian and to some degree Turkish during his stay in Anatolia. Gaykhatu ruled Anatolia solely after recall of Hulachu to Iran in 1286. It was then he was married to Padishah Khatun, a princess of Qutlugh-Khanids. He aided Masud II on his campaigns against Turkmen principalities, most importantly Germiyanids. Using this opportunity, Karamanids invaded Mongol allies of Cilician Armenia during his campaign. Gaykhatu was sent in turn by Arghun to help Leo II against Güneri of Karaman in 1286, who had captured Tarsus from Cilician Kingdom. Gaykhatu invaded and burned his capital Karaman on 16 January 1287, forcing Güneri to retreat to mountains. Gaykhatu's viceroyalty was briefly interrupted by appointment of Samagar from 1289 to 1290. He resumed his activities when Samagar was arrested on 15 October 1290 in Tokat on charges of corruption and was sent back to Iran. Gaykhatu visited Konya on 3 January 1291, confirming appointment of his new tax officer Khwaja Nasir ud-Din and conduction of a new general census.

GeykhatuMarufotajonov.jpg

Gaykhatu heard of Arghun's death in his wintering pastures near Antalya from Lagzi Küregen (son of Arghun Aqa and in-law of Hulagu Khan). The main contenders for the throne were his nephew Ghazan and cousin Baydu. Baydu was nominated for the throne by an influential Mongol commander, Ta'achar, who had sent an envoy to Gaykhatu falsely announcing that Baydu had already taken the throne. Suspicious, Gaykhatu headed to the qurultai.

While nobles like Taghachar, Qoncuqbal, Toghan and Tuqal supported Baydu, historians suggest Baydu simply refused the throne stating it belonged to the brother or a son according to yassa. Another source, Mahmud Aqsarai said that Baydu didn't appear at the quriltai at all. The other contender to the throne, Ghazan, was engaged in a rebellion with Nawrūz (another son of Arghun Aqa), and couldn't attend the qurultai either, thus losing a bid to throne. As a consequence, Gaykhatu was elected il-khan on 23 July 1291, Ahlat. Gaikhatu's main supporter was his new wife Uruk Khatun - widow of Arghun and mother of Öljaitü.

His first orders upon taking throne was to punish several emirs including Taghachar and Tuqal. Taghachar's (or in some sources, Qoncuqbal's) 10.000 army was given to Shiktur Noyan of Jalairs, while Tuqal's army was given to an amir named Narin Ahmad. Another Baydu supporter, Toghan was arrested on his way to escape to Khorasan. Meanwhile a rebellion by Turkmen emirs started in Anatolia, Gaykhatu had to move into his former domains, appointing Shiktur Noyan as regent of the state while confirming Anbarchi (son of Möngke Temür) as viceroy of East stationed in Ray.

Hazaraspid ruler Afrasiab I took the opportunity to extend his rule to Isfahan upon hearing of Arghun's death in 1291. Gaykhatu's retribution was brutal, sending a commander of his personal keshig Tuladai to pillage Lorestan who obtained Afrasiab's submission. Gaykhatu's wives Padshah and Uruk interceded on behalf of Afrasiab, asking for forgiveness. As a consequence, while Afrasiab was reinstated as ruler of Lorestan, his brother Ahmad was held at Ilkhanid court as hostage.

Gaykhatu left for Anatolia in pursuit of the Karamanids who were besieging Konya on 31 August 1291 with 20.000 men. Despite Konya was enforced by a brother of Masud II and Sahib Ataids, the Karamanids didn't leave until Gaykhatu's arrival at Kayseri. Gaykhatu divided his army into two, sending a part to Menteshe, while he himself raided the Karamanid capital Ereğli. His next target was Eshrefid beylik to the west, from whom he captured 7000 women and children, sending them to Konya.

After returning to Kayseri, he sent Goktai and Girai noyans to punish former supporters of Kilij Arslan IV in northern Anatolia accompanied by Seljuk armies. Using this opportunity, the Karamanids and Eshrefids again besieged Konya, but withdrew their armies when Henry II of Cyprus besieged Alaiye with 15 ships. Gaykhatu continued on to capture Denizli and looted the city for 3 days. Masud also went on to fight against Kilij Arslan who was supported by Masud's brothers Faramurz and Kayumars in addition to the Chobanids. Gaykhatu sent an additional 3000 men with commanders Goktai, Girai and Anit. It was Girai and Temür Yaman Jandar who rescued Masud II from Turkmen captivity. Temür Yaman Jandar was granted the former Chobanid city of Kastamonu by Gaykhatu as an iqta due to this service.

Gaykhatu insulted Baydu telling one of his servants to hit Baydu while being drunk. This grew a resentment in Baydu towards him. Baydu left hastily towards to his appanage near Baghdad leaving his son Qipchak as a hostage in Gaykhatu's court. He was supported by Oirat emir Chichak (son of Sulaimish b. Tengiz Güregen), Lagzi Küregen (son of Arghun Aqa), El-Temur (son of Hinduqur Noyan) and Todachu Yarquchi, who followed him to Baghdad. He was also aided by his vizier Jamal ud-Din Dastgerdani. According to Hamdullah Qazwini, Baydu's main motivation on moving against Gaykhatu was his sexual advances against Qipchak. When son-in-law Ghurbatai Güregen brought him news of treachery, Gaykhatu ordered arrest of several amirs including his personal keshig Tuladai, Qoncuqbal, Tukal, Bughdai, including Kipchak and put into jail in Tabriz. While his followers Hasan and Taiju demanded their executions, Taghachar advised against it. Baydu on his side, moved to kill Muhammad Sugurchi, governor of Baghdad and arrested governor Baybuqa of Diyar Bakr. Gaykhatu sent his father-in-law Aq Buqa and Taghachar against Baydu on 17 March 1295, himself arriving at Tabriz 4 days later. Little he knew that Taghachar already shifted allegiance to Baydu who left for his encampment at night. While he wanted to flee to Anatolia, his councillors advised to fight against Baydu. Nevertheless, Gaykhatu fled to Mughan. Arriving in Tabriz, Taghachar set Qoncuqbal and Tuladai free, while Gaykhatu desperately begged for mercy. Despite his appeal, he was strangled by a bowstring so as to avoid bloodshed on 21 March 1295. However, some sources put this event on 5 March or 25 April. An alternative story of Gaykhatu's death claims Baydu made war on him because of his introduction of paper money and subsequently killed him in battle.

In the Establishment:Osman[]

The role of Geyhatu Han was played by the famous Uzbek actor Maruf Otajonov in the TV series "Establishment: Osman".

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