House of Nassau

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House of Nassau
Armorial of the House of Nassau
Azure billetty or, a lion rampant of the last armed and langued gules
CountryGermany, Netherlands, Belgium, France, England, Scotland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Nassau, Orange
Founded1093; 930 years ago (1093)
FounderDudo of Laurenburg
Current headHenri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (in cognatic line)
Titles
Estate(s)Nassau Castle
Dissolution1985 (in agnatic line)
Cadet branchesHouse of Nassau-Weilburg
House of Orange-Nassau
House of Nassau-Corroy

The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe. It is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. With the fall of the Hohenstaufen in the first half of the 13th century royal power within Franconia evaporated and the former stem duchy fragmented into separate independent states. Nassau emerged as one of those independent states as part of the Holy Roman Empire. The lords of Nassau were originally titled "Count of Nassau", subject only to the Emperor, and then elevated to the princely class as "Princely Counts". Early on they divided into two main branches: the elder (Walramian) branch, that gave rise to the German king Adolf, and the younger (Ottonian) branch, that gave rise to the Princes of Orange and the monarchs of the Netherlands.

At the end of the Holy Roman Empire and the Napoleonic Wars, the Walramian branch had inherited or acquired all the Nassau ancestral lands and proclaimed themselves, with the permission of the Congress of Vienna, the "Dukes of Nassau", forming the independent state of Nassau with its capital at Wiesbaden; this territory today mainly lies in the German Federal State of Hesse, and partially in the neighbouring State of Rhineland-Palatinate. The Duchy was annexed in 1866 after the Austrian-Prussian War as an ally of Austria by Prussia. It was subsequently incorporated into the newly created Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau.

Today, the term Nassau is used in Germany as a name for a geographical, historical and cultural region, but no longer has any political meaning. All Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchs since 1815 have been senior members of the House of Nassau. However, in 1890 in the Netherlands and in 1912 in Luxembourg, the male lines of heirs to the two thrones became extinct, so that since then, they have descended in the female line from the House of Nassau.

According to German tradition, the family name is passed on only in the male line of succession. The House would therefore, from this German perspective, have been extinct since 1985.[1][2] However, both Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchial traditions, constitutional rules and legislation in that matter differ from the German tradition, and thus neither country considers the House extinct. The Grand Duke of Luxembourg uses "Duke of Nassau" as his secondary title and a title of pretense to the dignity of Chief of the House of Nassau (being the most senior member of the eldest branch of the House), but not to lay any territorial claims to the former Duchy of Nassau which is now part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Origins[edit]

The area that came to be the county of Nassau was part of the Duchy of Franconia. When Franconia fragmented in the early 13th century with the fall of the Hohenstaufen, Nassau emerged as an independent state as part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Count Dudo-Henry of Laurenburg (c. 1060 – c. 1123) (German: Dudo von Laurenburg; Latin: Tuto de Lurinburg) is considered the founder of the House of Nassau.[3][4] Dudo was a son of Rupert (German: Ruprecht), the Archbishop of Mainz's Vogt in Siegerland.[5] Dudo was himself lord or Vogt of Lipporn and Miehlen and owned large parts of the lands of Lipporn/Laurenburg. There are more persons known who, as owners of the lands of Lipporn/Laurenburg (and thus the predecessors of Dudo), probably also were his ancestors. The first is a certain Drutwin mentioned in 881 as a landowner in Prüm, and who is the oldest known possible ancestor of the House of Nassau.[3]

Dudo is mentioned as Tuto de Lurinburg between 1093 and 1117. Dudo built the castle of Laurenburg on the Lahn a few kilometers upriver from Nassau around 1090 as the seat of his lordship.[6] He is first mentioned in a document in the purported founding-charter of Maria Laach Abbey in 1093 (although many historians consider the document to be fabricated). In 1159, Nassau Castle became the ruling seat, and the house is now named after this castle. In a charter dated 1134 (after his death) he is mentioned as Count of Laurenburg.[3]

Laurenburg Castle

In 1117, Dudo donated land to Schaffhausen Abbey for construction of a monastery in Lipporn. Around 1117, Dudo, Count of Laurenburg founded at Lipporn a Benedictine priory dedicated and named for Saint Florin of Koblenz, and dependent on the Benedictine All Saints Abbey in Schaffhausen. About 1126, his son, Rupert I, Count of Laurenburg, the Vogt of Lipporn, established it as a separate and independent abbey.[7] The Romanesque buildings were constructed between 1126 and 1145, presumably with a three-nave basilica. The abbey included both a monastery for monks and a small, separate one for nuns.[8]

In 1122, Dudo received the castle of Idstein in the Taunus as a fief under the Archbishopric of Mainz. This was part of the inheritance of Count Udalrich of Idstein-Eppstein. He also received the Vogtship of the richly endowed Benedictine Bleidenstadt Abbey (in present-day Taunusstein).[9]

Nassau Castle became the seat of dynasty in 1159.

The Counts of Laurenburg and Nassau expanded their authority under the brothers Robert (Ruprecht) I (1123–1154) and Arnold I of Laurenburg (1123–1148). Robert was the first person to call himself Count of Nassau, but the title was not confirmed until 1159, five years after Robert's death. Robert's son Walram I (1154–1198) was the first person to be legally titled Count of Nassau.

The chronology of the Counts of Laurenburg is not certain and the link between Robert I and Walram I is especially controversial. Also, some sources consider Gerhard, listed as co-Count of Laurenburg in 1148, to be the son of Robert I's brother, Arnold I.[10] However, Erich Brandenburg in his Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen states that it is most likely that Gerhard was Robert I's son, because Gerard was the name of Beatrix of Limburg's maternal grandfather.[11]

Geography[edit]

As noted above, the county of Nassau was part of the stem Duchy of Franconia. It branched off northeast from the Rhine River and followed the course of the Lahn and Sieg rivers. Northeast and southeast of it was the lands of the House of Hesse. With the fall of the Hohenstaufen in the first half of the 13th century royal power within Franconia evaporated and the former stem duchy fragmented into separate independent states. Nassau emerged as one of those independent states as part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Nassau, originally a county, but part of the duchy of Franconia, developed on the lower Lahn river in what is known today as Rhineland-Palatinate. The town of Nassau was founded in 915.[12] As noted above, Dudo of Laurenburg held Nassau as a fiefdom as granted by the Bishopric of Worms. His son, Rupert, built the Nassau Castle there around 1125, declaring himself "Count of Nassau". This title was not officially acknowledged by the Bishop of Worms until 1159 under the rule of Rupert's son, Walram. By 1159, the County of Nassau effectively claimed rights of taxation, toll collection, and justice, at which point it can be considered to become a state.[12]

The Nassauers held the territory between the Taunus and the Westerwald at the lower and middle Lahn. By 1128, they acquired the bailiwick of the Bishopric of Worms, which had numerous rights in the area, and thus created a link between their heritage at the lower Lahn and their possessions near Siegen. In the middle of the 12th century, this relationship was strengthened by the acquisition of parts of the Hesse-Thüringen feudal kingdom, namely the Herborner Mark, the Kalenberger Zent and the Court of Heimau (Löhnberg). Closely linked to this was the "Lordship of Westerwald", also in Nassau's possession at the time. At the end of the 12th century, the House acquired the Reichshof Wiesbaden, an important base in the southwest.

In 1255, after the Counts of Nassau acquired the estates of Weilburg, the sons of Count Henry II divided Nassau for the first time. Walram II received the county of Nassau-Weilburg. From 1328 on, his younger brother, Otto I, held the estates north of the Lahn river, namely the County of Nassau-Siegen and Nassau-Dillenburg. The boundary line was essentially the Lahn, with Otto receiving the northern part of the county with the cities of Siegen, Dillenburg, Herborn and Haiger and Walram retaining the section south of the river, including the cities of Weilburg and Idstein.

Nassau (light yellow) within the Holy Roman Empire during the rule of the Staufers
Course of the Lahn River through Nassau and Hesse.
County of Nassau (grey) within the Holy Roman Empire in 1400 A.D.

List of Rulers[edit]

Counts of Laurenburg (ca. 1093–1159) and Nassau (1159–1255)[edit]

In 1255, Henry II's sons, Walram II and Otto I, split the Nassau possessions. The descendants of Walram became known as the Walram Line, which became important in the Countship of Nassau and Luxembourg. The descendants of Otto became known as the Ottonian Line, which would inherit parts of Nassau, France and the Netherlands. Both lines would often themselves be divided over the next few centuries. In 1783, the heads of various branches of the House of Nassau sealed the Nassau Family Pact (Erbverein) to regulate future succession in their states, and to establish a dynastic hierarchy whereby the Prince of Orange-Nassau-Dietz was recognised as President of the House of Nassau.[13]

The Walramian Line (1255–1985)[edit]

Walram Nassau wapen
Arms with crest and motto
Walramian Nassau arms with crowned lion
Walramian Nassau arms with crowned lion
Crowned Lion arms and crest of the Walram line now seen in the coat of arms of Luxembourg: "d'azur, semé de billettes d'or, au lion couronné du second, armé, lampassé de gueules.'"[14]

The Walramian Line concentrated their efforts primarily on their German lands. The exception was Adolf, King of the Romans (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) who was the count of Nassau from about 1276 and the elected king of Germany from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298. He was never crowned by the pope, which would have secured him the imperial title. He was the first physically and mentally healthy ruler of the Holy Roman Empire ever to be deposed without a papal excommunication. Adolf died shortly afterwards in the Battle of Göllheim fighting against his successor Albert of Habsburg. He was the second in the succession of so-called count-kings of several rivalling comital houses striving after the Roman-German royal dignity after the expiration the Hohenstaufen. The Nassaus, however, were not on the imperial throne long enough to establish themselves in larger landholdings to increase their hereditary power such as the Luxemburgers did in Bohemia or the Habsburgs did in Austria.

After Gerlach's death, the possessions of the Walram line were divided into Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein.

Nassau-Weilburg (1344–1816)[edit]

Flag of Nassau-Weilburg

Count Walram II began the Countship of Nassau in Weilburg (Nassau-Weilburg), which existed to 1816. The Walram line also received the lordship of Merenberg in 1328 and Saarbrücken (by marriage) in 1353. The sovereigns of this house afterwards ruled the Duchy of Nassau from its establishment in 1806 as part of the Confederation of the Rhine (jointly with Nassau-Usingen until 1816). The last reigning Duke, Adolph, became Duke of Nassau in August 1839, following the death of his father William. The Duchy was annexed to Prussia in 1866 after Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War.

From 1815 to 1839, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was ruled by the kings of the Netherlands as a province of the Netherlands. Following the Treaty of London (1839), the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg became independent but remained in personal union with the Netherlands. Following the death of his sons, the Dutch king William III had no male heirs to succeed him. In the Netherlands, females were allowed to succeed to the throne. Luxembourg, however, followed Salic law which barred females from succession. Thus, upon King William III's death, the crown of the Netherlands passed to his only daughter, Wilhelmina, while that of Luxembourg passed to Adolph in accordance with the Nassau Family Pact. Adolph died in 1905 and was succeeded by his son, William IV.

and from 1890 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The branch of Nassau-Weilburg ultimately became rulers of Luxembourg.

Counts of Nassau-Weilburg (1344–1688), Princely counts of Nassau-Weilburg (1688–1816) and Dukes of Nassau (1816–1866)[edit]
Duchy of Nassau in 1812 as part of the Confederation of the Rhine.
Duchy of Nassau in 1848.
Grand Dukes of Luxembourg (from the House of Nassau-Weilburg) – 1890–1912 and succession through a female onwards[edit]
Religious Lines in the Duchy of Nassau
Duchy of Nassau after 1815
Counts of Merenberg[edit]

Count of Merenberg (German: Graf von Merenberg) is a hereditary title of nobility that was bestowed in 1868 by the reigning Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont, George Victor, upon the morganatic wife and male-line descendants of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau (1832–1905), younger brother of Adolf, last Duke of Nassau/Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Nicholas married Natalia Alexandrovna Pushkina (1836–1913), former wife of Russian general Mikhail Leontievich von Dubelt.

In 1907 Grand Duke Adolph declared the family non-dynastic/morganatic. Had they not been excluded from the succession, they would have inherited the headship of the house in 1912. Georg Nickolaus would have thus become the reigning Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

In 1907, William IV, obtained passage of a law in Luxembourg confirming the exclusion of the Merenbergs from succession to the grand ducal throne. Georg Nikolaus's protests against the Luxembourg Diet's confirmation of the succession rights of William IV's daughter, Princess Marie-Adélaïde, were expected to be taken up by the Netherlands and by the Great Powers which had guaranteed Luxembourg's neutrality in 1867.[15] Nonetheless, Marie-Adélaïde did succeed her father, to become Luxembourg's first female monarch, in 1912. She, in turn, abdicated in favour of her sister Charlotte, whose descendants have reigned over Luxembourg since then. Georg Nikolaus died in 1948. His son Georg Michael Alexander was the last legitimate descendant of the House of Nassau. He died in 1965

Counts of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein (1344–1728)[edit]

From the documentary mention in 1102 until 1721, Idstein was, with interruptions, residence of the Counts of Nassau-Idstein and other Nassau lines. One of the Counts was, as said above, Adolf of Germany, the Holy Roman Emperor from 1292 to 1298.

The Nassau Counts' holdings were subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. This yielded an older Nassau-Idstein line from 1480 to 1509, later merging once again with Nassau-Wiesbaden and Nassau-Weilburg and, from 1629 to 1721, a newer Nassau-Idstein line.

In 1721, Idstein passed to Nassau-Ottweiler, and in 1728 to Nassau-Usingen, thereby losing its status as a residence town, although it became the seat of the Nassau Archives and of an Oberamt.

In the 1170s, the Count of Nassau, Walram I, received the area around Wiesbaden as a fiefdom. In 1232, Wiesbaden became a Reichsstadt, an imperial city, of the Holy Roman Empire. Wiesbaden returned to the control of the House of Nassau in 1270 under Count Walram II, Count of Nassau. However, Wiesbaden and the castle at Sonnenberg were again destroyed in 1283 in conflict with Eppstein.

Walram's son and successor Adolf was, as said above, king of Germany from 1292 until 1298. In 1329, under Adolf's son Gerlach I of Nassau-Weilburg the House of Nassau and thereby, Wiesbaden, received the right of coinage from Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Bavarian.

In 1355, the County of Nassau-Weilburg was divided among the sons of Gerlach. The County of Nassau's holdings would be subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. Wiesbaden became the seat of the County of Nassau-Wiesbaden under Count Adolf I (1307–1370), eldest son of Gerlach. It eventually fell back to Nassau-Weilburg in 1605.

Counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken (1429–1797)[edit]

Philipp I ruled both Nassau-Saarbrücken and Nassau-Weilburg and in 1393 inherited through his wife Johanna of Hohenlohe the lordships Kirchheimbolanden and Stauf. He also received half of Nassau-Ottweiler in 1393 and other territories later during his reign. After his death in 1429 the territories around Saarbrücken and along the Lahn were kept united until 1442, when they were again divided among his sons into the lines Nassau-Saarbrücken (west of the Rhine) and Nassau-Weilburg (east of the Rhine), the so-called Younger line of Nassau-Weilburg.

In 1507, Count John Ludwig I significantly enlarged his territory. After his death in 1544 the county was split into three parts, the three lines (Ottweiler, Saarbrücken proper and Kirchheim) were all extinct in 1574 and all of Nassau-Saarbrücken was united with Nassau-Weilburg until 1629. This new division, however, was not executed until the Thirty Years' War was over and in 1651 three counties were established: Nassau-Idstein, Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Saarbrücken.

The county of Saarbrücken in the Rheinland in light yellow.

Only eight years later, Nassau-Saarbrücken was again divided into:

In 1735, Nassau-Usingen was divided again into Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1797 Nassau-Usingen finally inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken, it was (re-)unified with Nassau-Weilburg and raised to the Duchy of Nassau in 1806. The first Duke of Nassau was Frederick August of Nassau-Usingen who died in 1816. Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg inherits the Duchy of Nassau. But, territories of Nassau Saarbrücken was occupied by France in 1793 and was annexed as Sarre department in 1797. Finally County of Nassau-Saarbrücken was part of Prussia in 1814.

After Henry Louis's death, Nassau-Saarbrücken fell to Charles William, Prince of Nassau-Usingen until Adolph came of age in 1805.

Princes of Nassau-Usingen (1659–1816)[edit]

The origin of the county lies in the medieval county of Weilnau that was acquired by the counts of Nassau-Weilburg in 1602. That county was divided in 1629 into the lines of Nassau-Weilburg, Nassau-Idstein and Nassau-Saarbrücken that was divided only 30 years later in 1659. The emerging counties were Nassau-Saarbrücken, Nassau-Ottweiler and Nassau-Usingen. At the beginning of the 18th century, three of the Nassau lines died out and Nassau-Usingen became their successor (1721 Nassau-Idstein, 1723 Nassau-Ottweiler und 1728 Nassau-Saarbrücken). In 1735 Nassau-Usingen was divided again into Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1797 Nassau-Usingen inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1816, Nassau-Usingen merged with Nassau-Weilburg to form the Duchy of Nassau. See "Dukes of Nassau" above.

Following Frederick Augustus' death, the princely title was adopted (in pretense) by his half brother through an unequal marriage, Karl Philip. As head of the House in 1907, Wilhelm IV declared the Count of Merenberg non-dynastic; by extension, this would indicate that (according to Luxembourgish laws regarding the House of Nassau) this branch would assume the Salic headship of the house in 1965, following the death of the last male Count of Merenberg.[16]

The Ottonian Line[edit]

Ottonian Nassau wapen
Arms with crest
Ottonian Nassau Arms
Ottonian Nassau Arms
Arms and crest of the Ottonian line (since the 13th century) now part of the coat of arms of the Netherlands: "d'azur semé de billettes d'or, au lion du même, armé et lampassé de gueules, brochant sur le tout".[14]
the County of Nassau (green) in 1547
Electoral Hesse and the Nassau lands in the earl 19th century showing the multiple divisions based on family lines.

The partition of the county of Nassau between Otto, and his older brother Walram (above), resulted in a permanent division between the 2 branches of the family. The Walramian branch tended to concentrate on their German lands, while the Ottonians, as we will see below, established themselves in the Netherlands and became great magnates, leaders of the Dutch Revolt, the stadtholders of the Dutch Republican government, and eventual kings of the Netherlands. This, however, was not before many divisions and reunitings. The first was between sons of Otto, with the main power base being centered around the caste of Dillenburg:

  • 1255–1290: Otto I, Count of Nassau in Siegen, Dillenburg, Beilstein, and Ginsberg
  • 1290–1303: Joint rule by Henry, John and Emicho I, sons of Otto I

In 1303, Otto's sons divided the possessions of the Ottonian line. Henry received Nassau-Siegen, John received Nassau-Dillenburg and Emicho I received Nassau-Hadamar. After John's death. Nassau-Dillenburg fell to Henry.

Counts of Nassau-Dillenburg[edit]

The Ottonian portion of the county of Nassau was divided and sub-divided, as shown in the genealogical charts below, several times, so that each son of the previous count would have a portion. Eventually, these lines would all die out in favor of the main branch of the family, which had established themselves in The Netherlands.

Counts of Nassau-Beilstein[edit]

The counts of Nassau in Beilstein were involved mostly in local/regional German affairs in their area of the Rhine.

In 1343, Nassau-Beilstein was split off from Nassau-Dillenburg. After John III's death, Nassau-Beilstein fell back to Nassau-Dillenburg. It was split off again in 1607 (see below) for George, who inherited the rest of Nassau-Dillenburg in 1620.

Beilstein Castle

First Counts and Princes of Nassau-Hadamar[edit]

First House of Nassau-Siegen[edit]

The branch of Nassau-Siegen was a collateral line of the House of Nassau, and ruled in Siegen. The first Count of Nassau-Siegen was Henry I, Count of Nassau-Siegen (d. 1343), the elder son of Otto I, Count of Nassau. His son Otto II, Count of Nassau-Siegen ruled also in Dillenburg. In 1328, John, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg died unmarried and childless, and Dillenburg fell to Henry I of Nassau-Siegen. For counts of Nassau-Siegen in between 1343 and 1606, see "Counts of Nassau-Dillenburg" above.

Netherland Nassaus/Orange-Nassau[edit]

Breda Castle in the 1550s

The House of Orange-Nassau stems from the elder branch of the Ottonian Line. The connection was via Engelbert I, who offered his services to the Duke of Burgundy, married in 1403 Johanna van Polanen, the heiress of the barony of Breda, the lordship of den Lek and other lands in the duchy of Brabant at the mouth of the Rhine delta and the Scheldt river. As the Scheldt was the main trade artery in the Burgundian/Habsburg Netherlands during the time, the Netherand Nassaus benefitted from the commerce. These lands formed the core of the Nassau's Dutch possessions.

Vianden Castle, Luxembourg, fortress of the Counts of Vianden
William I. "the Silent" (1544–1584), founder of the Netherlands, statue at Wiesbaden

The importance of the Nassaus grew throughout the 15th and 16th century. Henry III of Nassau-Breda was appointed stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht by Emperor Charles V in the beginning of the 16th century. Henry married Claudia of Châlon-Orange from French Burgundy in 1515. Their son René of Chalon inherited in 1530 the independent and sovereign Principality of Orange from his mother's brother, Philibert of Châlon. As the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used "Orange-Nassau" as his new family name. However, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of the name Châlon-Orange. At René's death in 1544, he left all his lands to his cousin William of Nassau-Dillenburg, including the sovereign principality of Orange. This "William I of Orange", in English better known as William the Silent, became the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau and the leader of the Dutch Revolt that lead to the formation of the Dutch Republic as a separate sovereign nation.[17]: 10 

Within the government of the Dutch Republic, The Prince of Orange was also not just another noble among equals in the Netherlands. First, he was the traditional leader of the nation in war and in rebellion against Spain. He was uniquely able to transcend the local issues of the cities, towns and provinces. He was also a sovereign ruler in his own right (see Prince of Orange article). This gave him a great deal of prestige, even in a republic. He was the center of a real court like the Stuarts and Bourbons, French speaking, and extravagant to a scale. It was natural for foreign ambassadors and dignitaries to present themselves to him and consult with him as well as to the States General to which they were officially credited. The marriage policy of the princes, allying themselves twice with the Royal Stuarts, also gave them acceptance into the royal caste of rulers.[18]: 76–77, 80 

The house of Orange-Nassau was relatively unlucky in establishing a hereditary dynasty in an age that favoured hereditary rule. The Stuarts and the Bourbons came to power at the same time as the Oranges, the Vasas and Oldenburgs were able to establish a hereditary kingship in Sweden and Denmark, and the Hohenzollerns were able to set themselves on a course to the rule of Germany. The House of Orange was no less gifted than those houses, in fact, some might argue more so, as their ranks included some the foremost statesmen and captains of the time. Although the institutions of the United Provinces became more republican and entrenched as time went on, William the Silent had been offered the countship of Holland and Zealand, and only his assassination prevented his accession to those offices. This fact did not go unforgotten by his successors.[17]: 28–31, 64, 71, 93, 139–141 

Painting by Willem van Honthorst (1662), showing four generations of Princes of Orange: William I, Maurice and Frederick Henry, William II, and William III.

Besides showing the relationships among the family, the tree above then also points out an extraordinary run of bad luck. In the 211 years from the death of William the Silent to the conquest by France, there was only one time that a son directly succeeded his father as Prince of Orange, Stadholder and Captain-General without a minority (William II). When the Oranges were in power, they also tended to settle for the actualities of power, rather than the appearances, which increasingly tended to upset the ruling regents of the towns and cities. On being offered the dukedom of Gelderland by the States of that province, William III let the offer lapse as liable to raise too much opposition in the other provinces.[18]: 75–83 

The main house of Orange-Nassau also spawned several illegitimate branches. These branches contributed to the political and economic history of England and the Netherlands. Justinus van Nassau was the only extramarital child of William of Orange. He was a Dutch army commander known for unsuccessfully defending Breda against the Spanish, and the depiction of his surrender on the famous picture by Diego Velázquez, The Surrender of Breda. Louis of Nassau, Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd was a younger illegitimate son of Prince Maurice and Margaretha van Mechelen. His descendants were later created Counts of Nassau-LaLecq. One of his sons was the famous general Henry de Nassau, Lord of Overkirk, King William III's Master of the Horse, and one of the most trusted generals of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. His descendants became the Earls of Grantham in England. Frederick van Nassau, Lord of Zuylestein, an illegitimate son of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, gave rise to the Earls of Rochford in England. The 4th earl of Rochford was a famous English diplomat and a statesman.

Prins Maurice with his two brothers, their nephew, Frederik V of the Palatine and King of Bohemia, and various members of the House of Nassau on parade. In the first row, from left to right: Prince Maurice, Stadholder of Holland and Captain-General, his nephew Frederik V (1596–1632), Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia, Prince Philip William, then the reigning prince of Orange, and Prince Frederick Henry. in the 2nd row, among others: William Louis, count of Nassau-Dillenburg and Stadholder of Friesland, Ernst Casimir (1573–1632), count of Nassau-Dietz and Louis Gunther, count of Nassau. The painting was entitled 'de Nassausche helden'.

With the death of William III, the legitimate direct male line of William the Silent became extinct and thereby the first House of Orange-Nassau. John William Friso, the senior agnatic descendant of William the Silent's brother and a cognatic descendant of Frederick Henry, grandfather of William III, inherited the princely title and all the possessions in the low countries and Germany, but not the Principality of Orange itself. Orange had been invaded and captured by King Louis XIV in 1672 during the Franco-Dutch War, and again in August 1682, but William did not concede his claim to rule, and recovered the principality via the peace treaties. Louis again invaded and captured the principality in 1702. He enfeoffed François Louis, Prince of Conti, a Bourbon relative of the Châlon dynasty, with the Principality of Orange, so that there were three claimants to the title. The Principality was finally ceded to France under the Treaty of Utrecht that ended the wars with King Louis XIV. Frederick I of Prussia ceded the Principality to France (without surrendering the princely title), though John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz, the other claimant to the principality, did not concur. Only with the treaty of partition in 1732 did John William Friso's successor William IV, Prince of Orange, renounce all his claims to the territory, but again (like Frederick I) he did not renounce his claim to the title. In the same treaty an agreement was made between both claimants, stipulating that both houses be allowed to use the title.[19] John William Friso, who also was the Prince of Nassau-Dietz, founded thereby the second House of Orange-Nassau (the suffix name "Dietz" was dropped of the combined name Orange-Nassau-Dietz).

The Revolutionary and Napoleonic era was a tumultuous episode of the history of both the Ottonian and Walramian branches of the House of Nassau. France's dominance of the international order severely strained the House of Nassau's traditional strategy of international conflict resolution, which was to maintain links with all serious power-brokers through a dynastic network in the hope of playing one off against the other. Despite that both branches of the House of Nassau reinvigorated the dynastic network in the years of liberation, 1812–1814, the post-Napoleonic European order saw both branches set on different historical paths.[20]

After the post-Napoleonic reorganization of Europe, the head of House of Orange-Nassau became "King/Queen of the Netherlands".

Princes of Orange[edit]
House of Orange-Nassau[edit]
  • 1544–1584: William I, also Count of Katzenelnbogen, Vianden, Dietz, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc. Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc.
  • 1584–1618: Philip William, also Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc.
  • 1618–1625: Maurice, also Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc. Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc., Captain-General of the Armies of the Dutch Republic.
  • 1625–1647: Frederick Henry, also Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc. Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc., Captain-General of the Armies of the Dutch Republic.
  • 1647–1650: William II, also Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc., Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc., Captain-General of the Armies of the Dutch Republic.
  • 1650–1702: William III, also Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam, Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc., Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc., Captain-General of the Armies of the Dutch Republic, and (from 1689) King of England, Scotland, and Ireland

In 1702, the Orange-Nassau line ended with King William III. He named his cousin John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz as his heir in The Netherlands and the principality of Orange, passing over the claims of the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg/Prussia.

Second House of Orange-Nassau(-Dietz)[edit]
  • 1702–1711: John William Friso, also Prince of Nassau-Dietz, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc. Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc., Captain-General of the Armies of the Dutch Republic.
  • 1711–1751: William IV, also Prince of Nassau-Dietz, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc. Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc., Captain-General of the Armies of the Dutch Republic.
  • 1751–1806: William V, also Prince of Nassau-Dietz, Count of Vianden, Buren and Leerdam and Lord of IJsselstein, Baron of Breda, etc. Stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrect, etc., Captain-General of the Armies of the Dutch Republic.
  • 1806–1815: William VI, also Prince of Fulda and Count of Corvey, Weingarten and Dortmund; in 1815 became King William I of the Netherlands
Royal coat of arms of the Netherlands
Kings and Queens of the Netherlands (from the House of Orange-Nassau-Dietz)[edit]
  • 1815–1840: William I, also Duke and Grand Duke of Luxemburg and Duke of Limburg
  • 1840–1849: William II, also Grand Duke of Luxemburg and Duke of Limburg
  • 1849–1890: William III, also Grand Duke of Luxemburg and Duke of Limburg
  • 1890–1948: Wilhelmina

Following defunct German laws that no longer have relevance due to the end of German nobility, the House of Orange-Nassau(-Dietz) has been extinct since the death of Wilhelmina (1962). Dutch laws and the Dutch nation do not consider it extinct.

Younger Lines of the Ottonian House of Nassau, 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries[edit]

Lands of Nassau in 1789
Lands of Nassau in 1796

When William the Silent inherited the lands of the Netherland Nassaus and the Principality of Orange, the German lands in the county of Nassau went to his younger brother, Jan VI, as shown below, and were subdivided amongst his surviving sons in 1606. A good many of these maintained ties with the Dutch Republic and served as stadholders and officers in the Dutch States Army.

Counts of Nassau-Dillenburg, continuation[edit]

The counts of Nassau in Dillenburg were the continuation of the main line of the Ottonian counts of Nassau, although only the 2nd oldest after The Netherlands Nassaus/house of Orange-Nassau. John VI is called the "elder", but this is not in relation to his older brother William the Silent, but in relation to his son, John VII "the Middle" and his grandson, John VIII "the younger". In the male line, the kings of The Netherlands spring from John VI until Queen Wilhelmina abdicated in 1948. John VI played a leading role during the Dutch Revolt: he was the principal author of the Union of Utrecht, which was the constitution of the Dutch Republic. He also served as stadholder of Utrect and Gelderland when they were reconquered from the Spanish. His eldest son, William Louis "Us Heit" (West Frisian for "our father") was Stadholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe, a General in the Dutch States Army and the chief lieutenant of his cousin Prince Maurice of Nassau, in their innovations in military strategy and organization, victories in the field, and governing of the Dutch Republic.

Second House of Nassau-Dietz[edit]

The counts (later princes in 1650) of Nassau-Dietz continued their service to the Dutch Republic. After the death of William Louis (see Second House of Nassau-Dillenburg) they were usually elected Stadholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe. They also served as senior Generals in the Dutch States Army.

Princes of the House of Nassau-Dietz from the Stadhouderlijk Hof of Paleis in Leeuwaarden, H.Prince of Nassau, Henry Casimir, Prince of Nassau, George, Prince of Nassau, and Willem Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz

In his will, William III appointed John William Friso as his heir in The Netherlands (his lordships being his property to dispose of by law) as well as his heir to the principality of Orange, the principality being a sovereign state, and so his right to appoint his successor. This was contested by the House of Hohenzollern, kings of Prussia, and not finally settled until the mid 18th century. In any case, the succession was in the title only, as Louis XIV of France had conquered the actual territory.

Second House of Nassau-Hadamar[edit]
Hadamar Castle

In 1620, the younger line of Nassau-Hadamar was split off from Nassau-Dillenburg, as shown below. John Louis, the first count, was a diplomat, who tried to protect his county from the ravages of the Thirty Years War. In 1647, for his efforts in bringing about peace between Spain and the Netherlands, King Philip IV of Spain appointed him a knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece. In addition, as a special thanks for his role in establishing the Peace of Westphalia, he was elevated to the rank of prince in 1650 by Emperor Ferdinand III. He did convert to Catholicism, so that Hadamar was Catholic after that.

Second House of Nassau-Siegen[edit]

In 1606, the younger line of Nassau-Siegen was split off from the House of Nassau-Dillenburg for John VII "the Middle". As Dillenburg eventually was inherited by a younger son of John VI (see below), the line of Nassau-Siegen became the elder line of the Ottonian House of Nassau. After John VII of Nassau-Siegen died in 1628, the land was divided:

  • His eldest son, John VIII "the Younger", had converted to Catholicism and joined the Spanish Army. This caused a rivalry between him and his brother John Maurice below. The result was that Siegen was split. John VIII received the part of the county south of the river Sieg and the original castle in Siegen (which after 1695 was called the "Upper Castle"). John VIII was the founder of the Catholic line of Nassau-Siegen.
Sieg River through Nassau
  • John Maurice, who remained Protestant, was a soldier. He received the part of the county north of the Sieg. He was the founder of the Protestant line of Nassau-Siegen and he converted the former Franciscan monastery into a new residence, called the "Lower Castle", which was reconstructed after having burnt down at large parts in 1695. John Maurice spent most of his time away from Siegen, since he was governor of Dutch Brazil and later of the Prussian province of Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg. In 1668, he was appointed first field-marshal of the Dutch States Army, and in 1673, he was charged by the Stadtholder William III to command the forces in Friesland and Groningen, and to defend the eastern frontier of the provinces, again against Van Galen. In 1675, his health compelled him to give up active military service, and he spent his last years in his beloved Cleves, where he died in December 1679. Between 1638 and 1674, his brother George Frederick ruled the Protestant part of the country.
John Maurice of Nassau

In 1652, John Francis Desideratus of the Catholic line was elevated to Imperial Prince. Count Henry of the Protestant line married Mary Magdalene of Limburg-Stirum, who brought the Lordship of Wisch in the County of Zutphen into the marriage. In 1652, John Maurice of the Protestant line was also elevated to Imperial Prince.

In 1734, the Protestant line died out with the death of Frederick William II. Protestant Nassau-Siegen was annexed by Christian of Nassau-Dillenburg and William IV of Nassau-Diez. When William Hyacinth, the last ruler of the Catholic line, died in 1743, Nassau-Siegen had died out in the male line, and the territory fell to Prince William IV of the Orange-Nassau-Dietz line, who thereby reunited all the lands of the Ottonian line of the House of Nassau.

Siegen, Upper Castle
Gozdzki – de Nassau Palace in Warsaw that belonged to wealthy Karolina Gozdzka (1747–1807) and her husband Charles Henry de Nassau-Siegen (1745–1808).[21]
House of Nassau in(zu) Siegen
Elder (Catholic) Line Younger (Protestant) Line Dates
John VII 1606–1623
John VIII 1623–1638
William 1624–1642
John Maurice 1632–1636
John Francis Desideratus 1638–1699
John Maurice 1642–1679
William Maurice 1679–1691
Frederick William Adolf 1691–1722
William Hyacinth 1699–1743
Frederick William II 1722–1734
annexed by Nassau-Dillenburg and Orange-Nassau(-Dietz) 1734
inherited by Orange-Nassau(-Dietz) 1743

Overview of Nassau coats of arms[edit]

Background and Origins[edit]

The ancestral coat of arms of the Ottonian line of the house of Nassau is shown below. Their distant cousins of the Walramian line added a red coronet to distinguish them. There is no documentation on how and why these arms came to be. As a symbol of nobility, the lion was always a popular in western culture going all the way back to Hercules. Using the heraldic insignia of a dominant power was a way, and still is a way, to show loyalty to that power. Not using that insignia is a way to show independence. The Netherlands, as territories bordering on the Holy Roman Empire with its Roman eagle and France with its Fleur-de-lis, had many examples of this. The lion was so heavily used in the Netherlands for various provinces and families (see Leo Belgicus) that it became the national arms of the Dutch Republic, its successor states the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Blue, because of its nearness to purple, which in the northern climes tended to fade (red was the other choice), was also a popular color for those with royal aspirations. The billets could have been anything from blocks of wood to abstractions of the reinforcements holding the shield together. The fact that these were arms were very similar to those of the counts of Burgundy (Franche-Comté) did not seem to cause too much confusion. It also held with one of the basic tenants of heraldry, that arms could not be repeated within a kingdom, but Nassau was considered to be in the Kingdom of Germany, while Franche-Comté was in the kingdom of Burgundy (see also Scrope v Grosvenor).[22][23]

Coats of arms of sovereignty also show the territories that the dynasty claims to rule over. The principle ones are depicted below, i.e.

Then,

And in Germany,

Finally, in the Netherlands, the real base of their wealth and power:

In most of the estates in the more populous provinces of Holland and Zealand, the land itself was secondary to the profit on the commerce that flowed through it.

Arms of dynastic founders
Ottonian (Younger) Line Walramian (Elder) Line
Arms of the dominions of the Princes of Orange
Prince of Orange Lords of Chalons and Arlay Counts of Geneva
Counts of Katzenelnbogen County of Dietz Counts of Vianden
Marquis of Vlissingen (Flushing) and KampenVeere Count of Buren Count of Meurs

Arms of Branches[edit]

Arms of the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg
Arms of Adolf of Nassau, King of Germany/King of the Romans (1292–1298) Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1890–1898)[24] Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1898–2000)[24] Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (2000–present).[25][26] Personal Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (2000–present).[27][26]
Arms of the Princes of Orange
Arms of René of Chalon and Nassau as Prince of Orange, 1530–1544[28] Arms of the Prince of Orange 1544–1582, 1584–1618[29][30] Arms of the Prince of Orange, 1582–1584, 1625–1702[31][29][32] Alternate arms of the Prince of Orange[31][33] Arms of William III as King of England, Scotland and Ireland, 1688–1702[34]
Arms of the Kings of the Netherlands
Arms of the King of the Netherlands, 1815–1907[35] Arms of the Queens and King of the Netherlands, 1907–present[36] Arms of the Prince of Orange/Crown Prince of the Netherlands, 1980–2013[37][38] Arms of the Princess of Orange/Crown Princess of the Netherlands, 2013–present[39][40]

Family tree[edit]

Family tree of the House of Nassau

The following family tree is compiled from Wikipedia and the reference cited in the note[41]

Dudo of Laurenburg
(c. 1060c. 1123)
Count of Laurenburg
r.1093

Rupert (Ruprecht) I
of Nassau
(c. 1090c. 1154)
co-Count of Laurenburg
r.1123
1st Count of Nassau

Arnold I
Count of Laurenburg
(d.c. 1148)

Rupert (Ruprecht) II
Count of Laurenburg
(1154–1158)(d.c. 1159)

Walram I
(French: Valéran)
(c. 1146–1198)
was the first
(legally titled)
Count of Nassau
(1154–1198)

Henry (Heinrich) I
co-Count of Nassau
(1160 – August 1167)

Rupert (Ruprecht) III
the Bellicose
(d.1191)
co-Count of Nassau
(1160–1191)

Henry (Heinrich) II
the Rich
Count of Nassau
(1180–1251)

Rupert (Ruprecht) IV
Count of Nassau
(1198–1230)
Teutonic Knight
(1230–1240)

Herrmann
(d.aft. 3 December 1240)
Canon of Mainz Cathedral
Walram II
of Nassau
(c. 1220 – 1276)
WALRAMIAN Branch
Present-day rulers of Luxembourg

Rupert (Ruprecht) V
d.before 1247
Teutonic Knight
(1230–1240)

Otto I of Nassau
(reigned c. 1247 – 1290)
OTTONIAN branch
Present-day rulers of the Netherlands

John
(c. 1230 – 1309)
Bishop-Elect of Utrecht
(1267–1290)
Adolf
(c. 1255–1298)
King of Germany
(1292–1298)

Henry I
(d.1343)
Count of Nassau-Siegen

Emicho I
(d.7 June 1334)
Count of Nassau-Hadamar
extinct 1394

John
(d.1328)
Count Nassau-Dillenburg

Ruprecht
(d.1304)

Gerlach I
Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden
(bef.1288–1361)

Walram III
Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden

Otto II
(c. 1305–1350/1351)
Count of Nassau-Siegen

Henry I
(1307–1388)
Count of Nassau-Beilstein
ext. 1561

Adolph
(1307–1370)
Count of Nassau in
Wiesbaden-Idstein
ext 1605

John I
(1309–1371)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg

Rupert
the Bellicose
(c. 1340–1390)
Count of Nassau-Sonnenberg

John I
(c. 1339–1416)
Count of Nassau-Siegen

Philip I
(1368–1429)
Count of Nassau in Weilburg, Saarbrücken, etc.

Adolf I
(1362–1420)
Count of Nassau-Siegen

John II
"The Elder"
(d. 1443)

Engelbert I
(c. 1370/80–1442)
Count of Nassau-Siegen, Baron of Breda
founder of the Netherlands Nassaus

John III
"The Younger"
d. 1430
Count of Nassau-Siegen

Philip II
(1418–1492)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg

John II
(1423–1472)
Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
ext. 1574

John IV
(1410–1475)
Count of Nassau-Siegen

Henry II
(1414–1451)
Count of Nassau-Siegen

John III
(1441–1480)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg

Philip
(1443–1471)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Engelbert II
the Valorious
(1451–1504)
Count of Nassau and Vianden, Baron of Breda(fr), Lek, Diest, Roosendaal en Nispen and Wouw

John V
(1455–1516)
Count of Nassau-Siegen

House of Nassau-Weilburg and the Grand Ducal Family of LuxembourgHouse of Orange-Nassau

House of Orange and Nassau[edit]

A summary family tree of the House of Orange-Nassau[42]

From the joining of the house of Nassau-Breda/Dillenburg and the House of Châlon-Arlay-Orange to the end of the Dutch Republic is shown below. The family spawned many famous statesmen and generals, including two of the acknowledged "first captains of their age", Maurice of Nassau and the Marshal de Turenne.

John V
Count of Nassau-Siegen
1455–1516
Stadholder of Gelderland

John IV
Prince of Orange, 1475–1502

William
the Rich
Count of Nassau-Siegen 1487- 1559

Henry III
Count of Nassau-Breda
1483–1538

Claudia
of Châlon
1498–1521
Philibert
of Châlon
of Châlon
Prince of Orange
1502–1530

William I
"the Silent"
1533–1584
Prince of Orange 1544
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht

Louis
1538–1574
Adolf
1540–1568
Henry
1550–1574
John VI
"the Elder"
1536–1606
Stadholder of Gelderland
René
of Châlon
1519–1544
Prince of Orange
r.1521

Philip William
1554–1618
Prince of Orange
r.1584

Maurice
1567–1625
Prince of Orange
r.1618
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, etc.

Frederick Henry
1584–1647
Prince of Orange
r.1625
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, & etc.

Louise Juliana
1576–1644
married Frederick IV Elector Palatine from whom the British royal family descends
Elisabeth
1577–1642
married Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne
Duke of Bouillon
(illeg.)
Justinus van Nassau
1559–1631
Admiral & General
Governor of Breda 1601–1625
William Louis
"Us Heit"
Count of Nassau-Dillenburg
1560–1620
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe
Ernst Casimir
Count of Nassau-Dietz
1573–1632
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe
John VII
"the Middle"
Count of Nassau-Siegen
r.1561–1623
(illeg.)
William
of Nassau
1601–1627
Lord of de Lek
(illeg.)
Louis of Nassau
Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd
1602–1665
Charles I
King of England
1630-1685
Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia
(1596–1662)
Frederick V
Elector Palatine
r.1610
King of Bohemia
r.1619–1621
Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne
Vicomte de Turenne & Marshal-General of France
1611–1675
James II
King of England

Mary
Princess Royal

William II
1626–1650
Prince of Orange & Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc, r.1647

Louise Henriette
1627–1667
married Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
(illeg.)
Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein
1608–1672
general of the army
Albertine Agnes
1634–1696)
William Frederick
1613–1664
Count —later Prince— of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
Henry Casimir I
Count of Nassau-Dietz
1612–1640
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
John Maurice
"the Brazilian"
Prince of Nassau-Siegen
1604–1679
Governor of Dutch Brazil
Field Marshal of the Dutch Army
Mary II
Queen of England

William III
1650–1702
Prince of Orange 1650
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc, 1672
King of England, 1689

ceded claims to the lands of Orange to France in 1713 but kept right to use the title in its German form.
Kings of Prussia and later German Emperors
currently Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, "Prinz von Oranien"
Earls of Rochford in EnglandHenry Casimir II
Prince of Nassau-Dietz
1657–1696
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
John William Friso
1687–1711
appointed heir by William III
Prince of Orange
r.1702
Stadholder of Frieslandr.1696

Anne
Princess Royal of England
William IV
1711–1751
Prince of Orange
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc. 1747

Wilhelmina of PrussiaWilliam V
1748–1806
Prince of Orange
r.1751
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc.
r.1751–1795

Carolina
1743–1787
Charles Christian
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
r.1735–1788
Princess Louise
of Orange-Nassau
1770–1819
married Karl, Hereditary Prince of Braunschweig(-Wolfenbuttel)
Prince Frederick
of Orange-Nassau
1774–1799
William VI
Fürst of Nassau-Orange-Fulda
1803–1806
Fürst of Nassau-Orange
Prince of Orange
r.1806
later
William I
King of the Netherlands
r.1815

Frederick William
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
1768–1816
Royal Family of the NetherlandsWilliam
Duke of Nassau
1792–1839
Adolphe
1817–1905
Duke of Nassau
r.1839–1866
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
r.1890–1905
Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg

Illegitimate Lines[edit]

Family tree Nassau-den Lek[edit]
Family tree of the House of Nassau-den Lek
William I
"the Silent"
(1533–1584)
Prince of Orange 1544, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht

Margaretha van Mechelen
(c. 1580 – 1662)
Maurice
of Nassau
Prince of Orange
(1567–1625)
Prince of Orange
1618, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, etc.

William of Nassau
(1601–1627)
"Chevalier de Nassau"
Lord of de Lek
Louis of Nassau
(1602– 1665)
Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd
Isabella van Hornes
Willem Jonker van Nassau
(1620–1679)
Maurits Lodewijk van Nassau
(1631–1683)
Lord of den Lecq
William Adrian of Nassau
(1632–1705)
Lord of Odijk
Elisabeth of Nassau
(1633–1718)
married Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington
Emilia
(1635–1688)
married Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory
Wilhelmina
(c. 1638 – 1688)
married Aelbert van Ruytenburgh
Henry of Nassau
(1640– 1708)
Lord of Ouwerkerk
Count of Nassau, 1679
Master of the Horse to William III of England
William of Nassau
(1654-)
Barbara of Nassau
(1659-)
Alida of Nassau
(1661-)
John of Nassau
(1663-)
Maurits Lodewijk of Nassau
(1670–1740)
Lord of den Lek
Lodewijk Adriaan of Nassau
(1670–1742)
Lord of Odijk
Elisabeth Wilhelmina of Nassau
(1671–1729)
married her cousin Maurits Lodewijk II van Nassau-LaLecq
Charlotte of Nassau
(1677–1715)
married her cousin Willem Maurits van Nassau-Ouwerkerk
Isabella of Nassau
(1668–1692)
married Charles Granville, Earl of Bath
Lodewijk van Nassau
(1669–1687)
Lucia van Nassau
(1671–1673)
Henry of Nassau
(1673–1754)
Earl of Grantham
Cornelis van Nassau
(1675–1712)
Lord of Woudenberg
Willem Maurits van Nassau
(1679–1753)
Lord of Ouwerkerk
married his cousin Charlotte of Nassau
Frans van Nassau
(1682–1710)
Lucia Anna van Nassau
(1684–1744)
married Nanfan Coote, Earl of Bellomont
Willem Hendrik van Nassau
(1693–1762)
Lord of Ouderkerk
Anna Isabella van Nassau
1695–1765)
married Mattheus Hoeufft Jr.
Hendrik Carel van Nassau
(1696–1781)
Lord of Beverweerd and Odijk
Lodewijk Theodoor van Nassau
1701–1748)
Jan Nicolaas Floris van Nassau
(1709–1782)
Lord of Ouderkerk
Alida Cornelia van Nassau
(1705-170?)
Willem Adriaan II van Nassau
(1704–1759)
Graaf van Nassau, Lord of Odijk, vrijheer van Bergen (1708)
Henry of Nassau
(1697–1718)
Viscount Boston
1698
Thomas of Nassau
(1700–1730)
Viscount Boston
1718
Frances of Nassau
(1711–1772)
married Captain (later Lieutenant-Colonel) William Elliot of Wells
Emilia Mary of Nassau
(1702–1712)
Henrietta de Nassau
(1712–1747)
married William Clavering-Cowper, Earl Cowper
William Henry
(1710–1735)
Elisabeth
(1712-)
Francoise Henriette
(1711-)
Catherina Elisabeth Wilhelmina van Nassau
(1736–1777)
Lodewijk Theodoor II van Nassau
(1741–1795)
Lord of de Lek, Lord of Ouderkerk (1762–1773)
Jan Floris van Nassau
(1751–1814)
Lord of de Lek, Lord of Ouderkerk
Louise Suzanna van Nassau
(1726–1803)
married Frederik Christoffel, Graaf van Degenfeld-Schönburg (1721–1781)
Willem Lodewijk van Nassau
(1727–1792)
Vrijheer van Bergen
Wigbold Adriaan van Nassau
(1729–1797)
Lord of Odijk, etc. and Vrijheer van Bergen
Jan Floris Hendrik Carel van Nassau
(1782–1824)
Count of Nassau-la Lecq


Family Tree Nassau-Zuylestein[edit]
Family tree of the House of Nassau-Zuylestein
William I
"the Silent"
(1533–1584)
Prince of Orange 1544
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht

Margaretha Catharina Bruyns
(1595–1625)
Frederick Henry
(1584–1647)
Prince of Orange, 1625,
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, & etc.

Mary Killigrew
(1627-)
daughter of Sir William Killigrew
Frederick of Nassau
(1624–1672)
Lord of Zuylestein
Hendrik van Nassau
(c. 1650–?1673)
Heer van Leersum
William van Nassau
(1649–1708)
Earl of Rochford
Anna Nassau de Zuylestein
(c. 1681–?1701)
William Nassau de Zuylestein
(1682–1710)
Earl of Rochford
Frederik Nassau de Zuylestein
(1684–1738)
heer van Zuylestein, Leersum en Waayenstein 1709–1738,
Earl of Rochford,1710
Maurits van Nassau-Zuylestein
(1685–1720)
Colonel, English Army
Maria van Nassau-Zuylestein
(1687–1765)
married baron Godard Adriaan van Reede (16xx–?1730)
heer van Herreveld and Earl of Athlone, son of Godard van Reede heer van Ginckel (1644–1703)
Elizabeth van Nassau-Zuylestein
(1688–?c. 1720)
Henriette
(1688–1759)
married Frederik Christiaan van Reede, baron van Reede, Earl of Athlone
Frederik Hendrik (Henry) van Nassau-Zuylestein
(1692?–?1740)
William Nassau de Zuylestein
(1717–1781)
Earl of Rochford
British courtier, diplomat and statesman
illeg. desc.
Richard Savage Nassau de Zuylestein
(1723–1780)
Member of Parliament, 1747–1754, 1774–1780
Mary[43][44]
(1762/3-1850)
Frederick Nassau[43][44]
(1771–1857)
Master of St. Osyth Priory
Ann[43][44]
(1773/4-1848)
William Henry Nassau
(1754–1830)
Earl of Rochford
George Richard Savage Nassau
(1758–1823)
bibliophile
Lucy Nassau
(1752–1830)
William Frederick Nassau[43][44]
(1798–1857)
Master of St. Osyth Priory
Ann Nassau[43][44]
(1800–1868)
John Augustus Nassau[43][44]
(1806–?)
Elizabeth Catherina Nassau[43][44]
(1827–1926)
Mistress of St. Osyth Priory
married John Roberts Kirby
Eliza Nassau[43][44]
(1833–1912)
Rochford Augustus Nassau[43][44]
(1853–1902)
Letta Mary Nassau[43][44]
(1884–+young)
Frederik "Frank" Rochford Nassau[43][44]
(1889–1959)
Herbert Arthur Nassau[43][44]
(1892–1932)
Harold Charles Nassau[43][44]
(1894–1895)
Nellie Nassau[43][44]
(?-+young)
Ethel Violet Nassau[43][44]
(1896–?)
married Frederick Savage
Doris Elsie Nassau[43][44]
(1915–1952)
married Stanley Philip Painter
Frederik (Freddie) Herbert Nassau[43][44]
(1919–1990)
one daughter
Herbert John Nassau[43][44]
(1920–1969)
2 daughters
Family Tree Nassau-Grimhuizen[edit]
Family tree of the House of Nassau-Grimhuizen
William I "the Silent"
(1533–1584), Prince of Orange 1544, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht

Eva Elincx
Justinus van Nassau
(1559–1631)
Admiral & General, Governor of Breda 1601–1625

Anne, Baronesse de Mérode
(1567–1634)
William
(1603–1638)
jonker van Nassau, heer van Grimhuizen
Louise Henriëtte van Nassau
(1604 – bet 1637/45)
married Henry Philip Herbert lt. col. in Dutch Army,
1 son, Philips Henry Herbert (1634–1657)
Philips van Nassau
(1605 – between 1672/1676)
jonker van Nassau, heer van Grimhuizen, Hoekelom en Wijchen
Justinus II van Nassau
(1633–1658)
Jonker van Nassau heer van Grimhuizen
Justina van Nassau
(1635–1721)
married George van Cats (1632 – na 1676) heer van Cats, Coulster en Schagen
Anna Justina van Nassau
(1638–1721)
married Willem Adriaan II van Horne graaf van Horne, baron van Kessel en heer van Batenburg
Philips van Nassau
died young
Anna Margaretha van Nassau
(1634–1676)
married (1) Diederik Schenk van Nydeggen heer van Blijenbeek, Afferden en Grubbenvorst
married (2) Johan Gerard van Oostrum heer van Moersbergen, Cattenbroek en Zeist, col in Dutch Army, 2 daughters.

House of Nassau-Dillenburg[edit]

Family tree of the House of Nassau-Dillenburg

Compiled from Wikipedia and:[45][46]

Johann VI "the Old/de Oude"
(1536–1606)
Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, 1559,
Stadholder of Gelderland
r.1578–1581

Willem Lodewijk of Nassau "Us Heit"
(1560–1620)
Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, 1606
stadholder of Friesland and Groningen(1584–1620)
married his cousin Anna van Nassau(1563–1588) d. of William the Silent
John VII
"the Middle/de Middelste" of Nassau-Siegen
(1561–1623)
Count of Nassau-(in) Siegen
r.1606
George
"the Old/de Oude" of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1562–1623)
Count of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
r.1606
Philip of Nassau
(1566–1595)
Dutch States Army officer
Ernest Casimir I
(1573–1632)
Count of Nassau-(in) Dietz
r.1606
stadholder of Friesland
(1620–1632)
Louis Gunther of Nassau
(1575–1604)
Dutch States Army officer
John Louis of Nassau-Hadamar
(1590–1653)
Count later Prince (1650) of Nassau-(in) Hadamar
r.1606
Anne Joanne
(1594–1654)
married John Wolfert van Brederode, Field marshal Dutch States Army
John Ernst of Nassau
(1582–1617)
Venetian General
John VIII or II
"the Younger/de Jongste" of Nassau-Siegen
(1583–1638)
Count of Nassau-(in)(South) Siegen
r.1623–1632, 1638 South (catholic) Siegen
Adolf
(1586–1608)
Dutch States Army officer
William of Nassau
(1592–1642)
Count of Nassau-(in)Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen
(1604–1679)
de facto Count and later Prince (1664) of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
r.1632 (all Siegen), 1638 North (protestant) Siegen
Field marshal Dutch States Army commander 1664–1668
Governor of Dutch Brazil
George Frederick of Nassau-Siegen
(1606–1674)
married Mauritia Eleonora of Portugal, daughter of Emilia of Nassau, daughter of William the Silent and daughter-in-law of António, Prior of Crato
Dutch States Army officer
William Otto
(1607–1641)
Sophie Margarete of Nassau
(1610–1665)
married 1656 Count Georg Ernst of Limburg Stirum
Henry of Nassau-Siegen
(1611–1652)
Dutch States Army officer
Christian
(1616–1644)
John Ernest
(1618–1639)
John Philip of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1590–1607)
George II
"the Younger/de Jonge" of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1591–1616)
Louis Henry of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1594–1662)
Count later Prince (1654) of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg jointly with Albert from 1623–1626, alone from 1626
Albert of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1596–1626)
ruled Nassau-Dillenburg with Louis Henry,1623–1626
Maurice Henry of Nassau-Hadamar
(1626–1679)
Prince of Nassau-(in) Hadamar
John Francis Desideratus of Nassau-Siegen
(1627–1699)
Count and Prince (1652) of Nassau-(in)(South) Siegen
r.1638
Spanish General and Stadholder
Maurice Frederick of Nassau-Siegen
(1621–1638)
Dutch States Army officer
killed in battle of Kallo
William Maurice of Nassau-Siegen
(1649–1691)
Count and later Prince (1664) of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
r.1679
Dutch States Army officer
Frederick Henry of Nassau-Siegen of Nassau-Siegen
(1651–1676)
Dutch States Army officer
George Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1618–1656)
Hereditary Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg
Adolph of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1629–1676)
Prince of Nassau-(in) Schaumburg
r.1662
Francis Alexander of Nassau-Hadamar
(1674–1711)
Francis Fortunatus of Nassau
(1666–1672)
William Hyacinth of Nassau-Siegen
(1667–1743)
Prince of Nassau-(in)(South) Siegen
r.1699
claimed Principality of Orange
principality inherited by Nassau-Deitz (William IV, Prince of Orange), who reunited all of Ottonian Nassau
Hermann
(1667–1672)
twin with William Hyacinth
(Morganatic?)
Alexis Anton Christian Ferdinand of Nassau-Siegen
(1673–1734)
titulair aartsbisschop van Trapezopolis
(Morganatic?)
Francis Hugo Ferdinand Gereon of Nassau-Siegen
(1678–1735)
Vice-Regent of Nassau-Siegen (1727)
(Morganatic?)
Emmanuel Ignatius of Nassau-Siegen
(1688–1735)
Baron de Renaix (1699), Prince-Regent of Nassau-Siegen, (1727), Fieldmarshal of the Spanish Army, Knight of the Order of Malta (1697), Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (1715), Knight of the Order of St. Hubertus (1720)
Frederick William Adolf of Nassau-Siegen
(1680–1722)
Prince of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
r.1691
Dutch States Army officer
Charles Louis Henry of Nassau-Siegen
(1682–1694)
Henry of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1641–1701)
Prince of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
r.1662
inherited Nassau part of Shaumburg
Francis Joseph
(1689–1703)
(?)
Maximilian William Adolph of Nassau-Siegen
(1722–1728)
Frederick William II of Nassau-Siegen
(1706–1734)
Prince of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
r.1722
no heirs, principality inherited by William Hyacinth, Prince of Nassau-Siegen
William II of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1670–1724)
Prince of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
r.1701
inherited part of Hadamar 1711
Christian of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1688–1739)
Prince of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
r.1724
married Isabella of Nassau-Dietz, d of Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz
Dillenburg divided between William IV, Prince of Orange (Nassau-Dietz) and William Hyacinth of Nassau-Siegen
Charles Henry of Nassau-Siegen
(1743–1808)
Russian Admiral
Henry Augustus William of Nassau-Dillenburg
(1700–1718)


House of Nassau-Weilburg[edit]

Family tree of the House of Nassau-Weilburg

Compiled from Wikipedia and these references.[47][48]

For ancestors of the House of Nassau-Weilburg, see House of Nassau#Family Tree

John III
(1441–1480)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg

Louis I
(1473–1523)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Philip III
(1504–1559)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Albert
(1537–1593)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Philip IV
(1542–1602)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Saarbrucken

Louis II
(1565–1627)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Ottweiler
William
(1570–1597)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Weilburg
John Casimir
(1577–1602)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Gleiberg
William Louis
(1590–1640)
Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken

John
(1603–1677)
Count of Nassau-Idstein

Counts of Nassau-Idstein
ext.1721
Ernest Casimir
(1607–1655)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
John Louis
(1625–1690)
Count of Nassau-Ottweiler

ext. 1728
Gustav Adolph
(1632–1677)
Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken

ext. 1723
Walrad
(1635–1702)
Count & Prince of Nassau-Usingen

ext. 1816
Frederick
(1640–1675)
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
John Ernst
(1664–1719)
Count & Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Charles August
(1685–1753)
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Charles Ernst
(1689–1709)
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau
(1743–1787)
Charles Christian
(1735–1788)
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Frederick William
(1768–1816)
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
William
(1792–1839)
Duke of Nassau

Adolphe
(1817–1905)
Duke of Nassau 1839–1866
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
1890–1905

Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg

The Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg[edit]

Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg
Adolphe
(1817–1905)
Duke of Nassau r.1839–1866
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
r.1890–1905

Adelheid-Marie
Princess of Anhalt-Dessau
William IV
(1852–1912)
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
r.1905–1912
Marie Anne
Infanta of Portugal
Marie-Adélaïde
(1894–1924)
Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
r.1912–1919
Charlotte
(1896–1985)
Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
r.1919–1964
Felix
Prince of Bourbon-Parma
Jean
(1921–2019)
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
r.1964–2000

Joséphine-Charlotte
Princess of Belgium
Charles
Prince of Luxembourg
Marie-Astrid
Archduchess of Austria
Henri
(1955–present)
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
r.2000–present

Maria Teresa MestreJean
Prince of Luxembourg
Margaretha
Princess of Liechtenstein
Guillaume
Prince of Luxembourg
Guillaume
Hereditary
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Félix
Prince of Luxembourg
Louis
Prince of Luxembourg
Alexandra
Princess of Luxembourg
Sébastien
Prince of Luxembourg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grand Duchess Charlotte abdicated in 1964, but she died in 1985
  2. ^ Clotilde Countess of Nassau-Merenberg is the last patrilineal descendant of the House of Nassau though she descends from a family considered to be non-dynastic
  3. ^ a b c Hesselfelt (1965).
  4. ^ Van de Venne & Stols (1937).
  5. ^ Lück (1981), p. 16–17.
  6. ^ Dek (1970).
  7. ^ Elisabeth of Schönau: The Complete Works, (Anne L. Clark, trans.) Paulist Press, 2000, p. 287, n.162ISBN 9780809139590
  8. ^ Steele, F.M., "St. Elizabeth von Schönau and her Visions", American Catholic Quarterly Review, (James Andrew Corcoran, Patrick John Ryan, Edmond Francis Prendergast, eds.) Hardy and Mahony., 1911, p. 393Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ Reuling.
  10. ^ Family tree of the early House of Nassau, retrieved on 2009-01-22.
  11. ^ Table 11, Page 23 and note on page 151, quoted at Genealogy of the Middle Ages, retrieved on 2009-01-23
  12. ^ a b Abramson, Scott F. (2017-01-01). "The Economic Origins of the Territorial State". International Organization. 71 (1): 97–130. doi:10.1017/S0020818316000308. ISSN 0020-8183.
  13. ^ "The House of Nassau between France and Independence, 1795–1814: Lesser Powers, Strategies of Conflict Resolution, Dynastic Networks".
  14. ^ a b Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). G.B. van Goor (ed.). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe : précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. p. 297. ISBN 9780806304427. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  15. ^ New York Times. Count Merenberg Protests: Would Not Have a Woman Reign in Luxembourg. 16 June 1907.
  16. ^ Pütter, Johann Stephan. Primae lineae juris privati Principum speciatim Germanicae. Göttingen, 1789 (3rd ed.).
  17. ^ a b Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press.
  18. ^ a b Haley, K(enneth) H(arold) D(obson) (1972). The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century. Thames and Hudson. pp. 75–83. ISBN 0-15-518473-3.
  19. ^ "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732". Heraldica.org (in French). Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  20. ^ "The House of Nassau between France and Independence, 1795–1814: Lesser Powers, Strategies of Conflict Resolution, Dynastic Networks".
  21. ^ "Pałac Gozdzkich – de Nassau". www.warszawa1939.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-03-23.
  22. ^ D. Endean Ivall, Cornish Heraldry and Symbolism, 1988. ISBN 1-85022-043-3 (Source: Misc. Rolls of Chanc. Nos 311 and 312.)
  23. ^ Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1909). A COMPLETE GUIDE TO HERALDRY. 16 HENRIETTA STREET, W.C., LONDON AND EDINBURGH: T. C. & E. C. JACK. p. 22.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  24. ^ a b La Cour grand-ducale (ed.). "Armoiries". Cour de Grand-Ducale de Luxembourg (in French). Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Retrieved 24 April 2019.:

    Armoiries valables du Grand-Duc Adolphe au Grand-Duc Jean

    Grandes armes Parti de trois coupé de trois, qui font seize quartiers, les quatre quartiers du centre formant écu sur le tout, écartelé de Nassau et de Luxembourg :

    au I de Sarrebruck qui est d'azur semé de croisettes recroisettées au pied fiché d'argent, au lion du même couronné d'or, brochant, au II de Merenberg qui est de sinople au sautoir d'or cantonné de douze croisettes du même, au III de Weilnau qui est d'or à deux léopards de gueules, lampassés d'azur, au IV de Moers, qui est d'or à la fasce de sable, au V de Katzenelnbogen qui est d'or au léopard lionné de gueules, armé et lampassé d'azur, au VI de Nassau qui est d'azur semé de billettes d'or, au lion même, armé et lampassé de gueules, couronné d'or brochant (formant premier quartier du surtout), au VII de Luxembourg qui est burelé d'argent et d'azur, au lion de gueules, armé, lampassé et couronné d'or, la queue fourchue et passée en sautoir, brochant (deuxième quartier surtout), au VIII de Saarwerden, qui est de sable à l'aigle éployée d'argent, armée d'or, lampassée de gueules, au IX de Dietz qui est de gueules à deux léopards d'or, armés et lampassés d'azur, l'un sur l'autre, au X de Luxembourg (voir VII), formant le quartier III du surtout, au XI de Nassau (voir VI), formant le quartier IV du surtout, au XII de Lahr qui est d'or à la fasce de gueules, au XIII de Vianden qui est de gueules à la fasce d'argent, au XIV de Kirchberg, qui est d'argent à trois pals de sable, au XV de Sayn, qui est de gueules à léopard lionné d'or, armé et lampassé d'azur, la queue fourchue (et passé en sautoir), au XVI de Mahlberg qui est d'or au lion de sable, armé, lampassé et couronné de gueules. L'écu est surmonté de six casques, le premier et le sixième couronnés.

    Cimiers :

    Une tête et col de lévrier contourné d'or, lampassé de gueules, colleté de sable, bordé et bouclé d'argent. Lambrequins d'or et de sable (Moers). Un vol coupé d'argent et de sable. L. d'argent et de sable (Sarrebruck). Un lion assis d'or, lampassé et couronné de gueules, entre deux proboscides d'azur semées de billettes d'or (Nassau). Lambrequins d'or et d'azur. Un vol de sable (pour Luxembourg). Lambrequins d'argent et d'azur. Un vol de sable chargé d'un disque de gueules à deux léopards d'or. L. d'or et de gueules (Diez). Un chapeau pyramidal d'or, la pointe recourbée. L. d'or et de gueules (Sayn). Support : deux lions couronnés d'or, lampassés de gueules, la tête contournée.

    L'écu et les supports posés sur quatre rinceaux entrelacés d'or.

    Manteau de pourpre, frangé et lié d'or, doublé d'hermines, sommé de la couronne royale.

    Théoriquement, les trois ordres : Lion d'Or de Nassau, Couronne de Chêne et Ordre d'Adolphe de Nassau devraient être appendus en bas de l'écu, mais cela ne fut jamais réalisé.

    Moyennes armes L'écartelé de Nassau-Luxembourg (formant surtout dans les grandes armes), sommé d'une couronne royale, supporté par les deux lions, le tout sous le manteau de pourpre couronné de la couronne royale.

    Petites Armes

    L'écartelé Nassau-Luxembourg sommé de la couronne royale (sans supports ni manteau).

  25. ^ "Other versions of Grand Ducal Arms".
  26. ^ a b La Cour grand-ducale (ed.). "Armoiries". Cour de Grand-Ducale de Luxembourg (in French). Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Retrieved 24 April 2019.:

    Armoiries fixées par S.A.R. le Grand-Duc Henri

    Petites armoiries Ecartelé, aux I et IV de Luxembourg qui est un burelé d'argent et d'azur, au lion de gueules, la queue fourchue et passée en sautoir, armé, lampassé et couronné d'or, aux II et III de Nassau qui est d'azur semé de billettes d'or, au lion couronné d'or, armé et lampassé de gueules.

    L'écu est timbré d'une couronne royale.

    Armoiries moyennes Les petites armoiries augmentées de supports, à dextre un lion couronné d'or, la tête contournée, la queue fourchue et passée en sautoir, armé et lampassé de gueules, à senestre un lion couronné d'or, la tête contournée, armé et lampassé de gueules.

    Grandes armoiries Ecartelé, aux I et IV de Luxembourg qui est burelé d'argent et d'azur, au lion de gueules, la queue fourchue et passée en sautoir, armé, lampassé et couronné d'or, aux II et III Nassau qui est d'azur semé de billettes d'or, au lion couronné du même, armé et lampassé de gueules, sur le tout en cœur de Bourbon de Parme qui est d'azur à trois (deux, une) fleurs de lys d'or à la bordure de gueules chargée de huit coquilles d'argent posées en orle.

    L'écu est timbré d'une couronne royale et entouré du ruban et de la croix de l'Ordre de la Couronne de Chêne.

    Les supports sont à dextre un lion couronné d'or, la tête contournée, la queue fourchue passée en sautoir, armé et lampassé de gueules, à senestre un lion couronné d'or, la tête contournée, armé et lampassé de gueules, chaque lion tenant un drapeau luxembourgeois frangé d'or.

    Le tout est posé sur un manteau de pourpre, double d'hermine, bordé, frangé et lié d'or et sommé d'une couronne royale, les drapeaux dépassant le manteau.

  27. ^ "Other versions of Grand Ducal Arms".
  28. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. Vol. 2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9. Retrieved 26 May 2015.:

    Arms of Rene of Chalons:Ecartelé: I et IV de Châlon-Orange; II et III contre-écartelé d'hermine et d'argent au lion de gueules armé et lampassé d'azur; sur-le-tout écartelé de Nassau et Vianden.

  29. ^ a b Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. Vol. 2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9. Retrieved 26 May 2015.:

    Arms of William the Silent: Ecartelé: au 1. d'azur, semé de billettes d'or au lion d'or, armé et lampassé de gueules, brochant sur le tout (Maison de Nassau); II, d'or, au léopard lionné de gueules, arméc ouronné et lampassé d'azur (Katzenelnbogen); III, de gueules à la fasce d'argent (Vianden); IV, de gueules à deux lions passant l'un sur l'autre; sur-le-tout écartelé, aux I et IV de gueules, à la bande d'or (Châlon), et aux II et III d'or, au cor de chasse d'azur, virolé et lié de gueules (Orange); sur-le-tout-du-tout de cinq points d'or équipolés à quatre d'azur (Genève); un écusson de sable à la fasce d'argent brochant en chef (Marquis de Flessingue et Veere); un écusson de gueules à la fasce bretessée et contre-bretessée d'argent brochant en pointe (Buren). Trois cq. cour. C.:1. un demi-vol cont., coupé d'or sur gu. (Châlon); 2. une ramure de cerf d'or (Orange); 3. un demi-vol de sa., ch. d'un bisque aux armes de Dietz. Supporters: deus lions d'or, arm. et lampasse de gules. D.: JE MAINTIENDRAI

  30. ^ Herald of Nassau-Vianden (1485–1495). Wapenboek Nassau-Vianden (in Dutch). Duchy of Brabant, Breda?.
  31. ^ a b Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974), The Royal Heraldry of England, Heraldry Today, Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press, pp. 191–192, ISBN 0-900455-25-X
  32. ^ Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8063-4811-7. LCCN 65021472.:

    He used these arms until 1582 when he purchased the marquisate of Veere and Vlissingen. It had been the property of Philip II since 1567, but had fallen into arrears to the province. In 1580 the Court of Holland ordered it sold. William bought it as it gave him two more votes in the States of Zeeland. He owned the government of the two towns, and so could appoint their magistrates. He already had one as First Noble for Philip William, who had inherited Maartensdijk. This made William the predominant member of the States of Zeeland. It was a smaller version of the countship of Zeeland (& Holland) promised to William, and was a potent political base for his descendants. William then added the shield of Veere and Buren to his arms.

  33. ^ see Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, death procession
  34. ^ Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999). Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. London: Little, Brown & Co. pp. 29–30. ISBN 1-85605-469-1.
  35. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. Vol. 2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9. Retrieved 26 May 2015.:

    Arms of the Kings/Kingdom of the Netherlands: D'azur, semé de billettes, au lion coiffé d'une couronne fermée, le tout d'or, armé et lampassé de gueules, tenant dans sa patte dextre un faisceau de sept flèches d'argent, pointées et empennées d'or, et dans sa patte sénestre, une épée d'argent, garnie d'or, brochant sur le tout

  36. ^ Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD) (ed.). "Wapens van leden van het Koninklijk Huis". Coats of Arms of the Dutch Royal Family, Website of the Dutch Monarchy, the Hague (in Dutch). the Hague, the Netherlands. Retrieved 30 April 2012. Het wapen van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (Rijkswapen) en dat van de Koningen der Nederlanden (Koninklijk wapen) is vanaf de oprichting van het Koninkrijk in 1815 identiek. Het Wapen werd in 1907 gewijzigd en laatstelijk vastgesteld bij Koninklijk Besluit van 23 april 1980, nr. 3 (stb. 206) bij de troonsaanvaarding van Koningin Beatrix. De beschrijving van het wapenschild in het eerste artikel is dwingend voorgeschreven, de in het tweede en derde artikel beschreven uitwendige versierselen zijn facultatief. In de praktijk wordt de basisuitvoering van het wapen wel het Klein Rijkswapen genoemd. Het Koninklijk Wapen wordt sinds 1907 gekenmerkt door een gouden klimmende leeuw met gravenkroon. De blauwe achtergrond (het veld) is bezaaid met verticale gouden blokjes. De term bezaaid geeft in de heraldiek aan dat het aantal niet vaststaat, waardoor er ook een aantal niet compleet zijn afgebeeld. Het wapenschild wordt gehouden door twee leeuwen die in profiel zijn afgebeeld. Op het wapenschild is een Koningskroon geplaatst. Op een lint dat onder het wapenschild bevestigd is, staat de spreuk 'Je Maintiendrai'. Bij Koninklijk Besluit van 10 juli 1907 (Stb. 181) werd het Koninklijk Wapen, tevens Rijkswapen, aangepast. De leeuw in het schild en de schildhoudende leeuwen droegen vóór die tijd alle drie de Koninklijke kroon, maar raakten deze kwijt nu de toegevoegde purperen hermelijn gevoerde mantel, gedekt door een purperen baldakijn, een Koningskroon ging dragen. De schildhouders waren vóór 1907 bovendien aanziend in plaats van en profiel.
  37. ^ Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD), ed. (8 January 2015). "Wapens van leden van het Koninklijk Huis". Coats of Arms of the Dutch Royal Family, Website of the Dutch Monarchy, the Hague (in Dutch). the Hague, the Netherlands. Retrieved 11 April 2019. In de wapens van de leden van het Koninklijk Huis zijn steeds in het eerste en vierde kwartier het Rijkswapen en in het tweede en derde kwartier de jachthoorn van het Huis van Oranje opgenomen en in het hartschild is het eigen oorspronkelijke familiewapen geplaatst, ... Het wapen van Prins Constantijn en zijn broers bevat in het eerste en vierde kwartier het Rijkswapen en in het tweede en derde kwartier de jachthoorn van het Huis Oranje. In het hartschild staat het familiewapen Van Amsberg, een gekanteelde witte burcht. Koning Willem-Alexander voerde dit wapen tot zijn troonsbestijging.
  38. ^ Schimmelpenninck van der Oije, Coen O.A.; Wolleswinkel, Egbert; van den Borne, Jos; Gietman, Conrad (2014), Wapenregister van de Nederlandse adel Hoge Raad van Adel 1814 – 2014 (in Dutch), Uitgave: WBooks, p. 140
  39. ^ Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD), ed. (8 January 2015). "Wapens van leden van het Koninklijk Huis". Coats of Arms of the Dutch Royal Family, Website of the Dutch Monarchy, the Hague (in Dutch). the Hague, the Netherlands. Retrieved 11 April 2019. Het wapen van Koningin Máxima bevat in het eerste en vierde kwartier het Rijkswapen en in het tweede en derde kwartier de jachthoorn van het Huis Oranje. In het hartschild staat het familiewapen Zorreguieta, een burcht met deur en drie kantelen. Als getrouwde vrouw voert zij het wapen in ovale schildvorm...Het wapen van de Prinses van Oranje en haar zusjes bevat in het eerste en vierde kwartier het Rijkswapen en in het tweede en derde kwartier de jachthoorn van het Huis Oranje. In het hartschild staat het familiewapen Zorreguieta, een burcht met deur en drie kantelen
  40. ^ Schimmelpenninck van der Oije, Coen O.A.; Wolleswinkel, Egbert; van den Borne, Jos; Gietman, Conrad (2014), Wapenregister van de Nederlandse adel Hoge Raad van Adel 1814 – 2014 (in Dutch), Uitgave: WBooks
  41. ^ Louda, Jiri; Maclagan, Michael (December 12, 1988), "Netherlands and Luxembourg, Table 33", Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (1st (U.S.) ed.), Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.
  42. ^ "Official Website of the Dutch Royal House". Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD), The Hague, the Netherlands. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r MAREK, Miroslav (2012). "GENEALOGY.EU, The House of Nassau". GENEALOGY.EU. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Ancestry.com". ANCESTRY.COM. 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  45. ^ Hay, Mark Edward (1 June 2016). "TheHouse of Nassau between France and Independence, 1795–1814: Lesser Powers, Strategies of Conflict Resolution, Dynastic Networks". The International History Review. 38 (3): 482–504. doi:10.1080/07075332.2015.1046387. S2CID 155502574.
  46. ^ Louda, Jiri; Maclagan, Michael (December 12, 1988), "Netherlands and Luxembourg, Table 33", Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (1st (U.S.) ed.), Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.
  47. ^ Louda, Jiri; Maclagan, Michael (December 12, 1988), "Netherlands and Luxembourg, Table 33", Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (1st (U.S.) ed.), Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.
  48. ^ Hay, Mark Edward (1 June 2016). "The House of Nassau between France and Independence, 1795–1814: Lesser Powers, Strategies of Conflict Resolution, Dynastic Networks". The International History Review. 38 (3): 482–504. doi:10.1080/07075332.2015.1046387. S2CID 155502574.

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