Europa Europa

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Europa Europa
Europa Europa french poster.jpg
French theatrical release poster
Directed byAgnieszka Holland
Screenplay byAgnieszka Holland
Paul Hengge
Based onI Was Hitler Youth Salomon
by Solomon Perel
Produced byArtur Brauner
Margaret Ménégoz
Music byZbigniew Preisner
Distributed byOrion Pictures (US)
Release date
14 November 1990 (France)[1]
Running time
112 minutes
Box office$5,575,738 (domestic)[4]

Europa Europa (German: Hitlerjunge Salomon, lit. "Hitler Youth Salomon") is a 1990 historical war drama film directed by Agnieszka Holland. It is based on the 1989 autobiography of Solomon Perel, a German Jewish boy who escaped the Holocaust by masquerading as a "Nazi" German. The film stars Marco Hofschneider as Perel; who appears briefly as himself in the finale. The film is an international co-production between the German company CCC Film and companies in France and Poland. The film should not be confused with the 1991 Lars von Trier film Europa, which was initially released as Zentropa in the United States to avoid confusion.


Nazi Germany[edit]

Solek (a Polish nickname for Solomon) and his family live in Nazi Germany. On the eve of Solek's bar mitzvah, Kristallnacht occurs. He escapes, naked, and hides in a barrel. At night, he asks an acquaintance to bring him clothes from his house. She refuses but throws him a leather jacket with a swastika armband. He returns home to his family, to find that his sister Bertha has been killed by the Nazis. His father, who was born in Łódź, Poland, decides to move his family back there.[5]


The Perel family (Solek, his parents, his two brothers, David and Isaak) decides to move to Łódź, central Poland, where the family believes it will be safe. Solly crashes his bike into a sheet of glass and the police are called. Living in Łódź, Solly meets Basia, a cashier working in a cinema. Thanks to her, Solly can go to the cinema without paying for tickets. Later, they establish a romantic relationship. Less than a year later, World War II begins with the German Invasion of Poland. Solly is happy that the criminal case will be forgotten, since the police will have more important matters to attend to. After learning from David, who was conscripted into the Polish Army but subsequently deserted, that the Polish have been defeated, Solek's family decides he and his brother should leave for Eastern Europe. Solek meets hysterically upset Basia but his brother separates them. Isaak and Solek flee towards the eastern border of Poland, only to find that the Soviets have invaded eastern Poland. The brothers are separated and Solek is placed in a Soviet orphanage in Grodno with other Polish refugee children.

Soviet Union[edit]

Solek lives in the orphanage for two years, where he joins the Komsomol and receives Communist education. Being a teenager, he has a romantic interest in Inna, a young and attractive instructor who defends him when the authorities at school discover that his class origin is bourgeois. He even climbs outside the building to watch her in her bedroom. Zenek, a Polish Catholic boy whose father was captured by the Soviets, antagonize Solek for being a Jew and accuses him of being a Stalinist. Solek receives a letter from his parents who have been imprisoned in the Łódź Ghetto.

Nazi-occupied Soviet Union[edit]

Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, begins. The orphanage is evacuated but Solek is left behind during the chaos and is captured by German soldiers. Solek finds himself in a group of Soviet prisoners as the Germans single out the Jews and commissars for execution. Solek gets rid of his identity papers and tells the Germans he is "Josef Peters", a Volksdeutscher (ethnic German) from a Baltic German family in Latvia. Although he does not respond to his made-up name, the soldiers deduce that he was in the orphanage because his parents were killed by the Soviets and promise him vengeance. When the unit captures Yakov Dzhugashvili, the son of Joseph Stalin (with Solly's help translating Russian), they declare "Jupp" to be their good-luck charm and adopt him as an auxiliary. Thanks to his fluent German and Russian, he becomes their interpreter. He accompanies the unit for several weeks and sees all the horrors of war, including murdered civilians, as the Germans seek to crush Soviet resistance. Solek runs into Zenek who threatens to reveal his identity as a Jew, Solek gets into a fight with Zenek and Zenek is killed by the Germans.

Solek remains in danger; he cannot let anyone see him bathing, because his circumcised penis would expose "Jupp" as a Jew. Robert, one of the soldiers and a homosexual, sneaks in on "Jupp" when he finally manages a private bath. Solek rejects Robert's advances but knowing that both of them have secrets the Nazis would kill them for, they become close friends. A bizarre combat incident occurs. Robert is killed and Solek, left alone, tries to get to the Soviet lines. As he crosses a bridge, the unit charges across behind him and the Soviet troops surrender; "Jupp" is hailed as a hero. The company commander decides that "such a fine young German" should be properly educated. He is childless, so he tells "Jupp" that he will adopt him and send him to the elite Hitler Youth Academy in Braunschweig to receive Nazi education, much to Solek's consternation. He is escorted for much of the trip by Rosemarie, a middle-aged female Nazi official. Rosemarie thinks "Jupp" resembles Hitler and observes that he even has the same birthday. On the train, they have sex, with her crying out "Mein Führer!" as she climaxes, without her noticing that he is circumcised.

Nazi Germany[edit]

At the school, "Peters" is introduced to the other boys as a heroic combat veteran. Solek tries to disguise his circumcision with string and rubber bands in various painful ways to simulate a foreskin. He evades a medical examination by pretending to have a toothache and then must endure having the dentist pull it without anaesthetic.

Girls from the Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls, the female equivalent of the Hitler Youth) serve meals at the Academy. Leni, one of these girls, becomes infatuated with "Jupp" but he dares not take advantage. Leni is a fervent Nazi and even speaks of wanting to kill Jews. Leni strongly hints that she would happily bear his child but after a particularly venomous anti-Jewish remark, he refuses any intimacy and slaps her. She calls him a Schlappschwanz (limp-dick) and they break off.

A less serious threat is the visit to the Academy of a Nazi "expert" in "racial science", who claims particular skill in detecting Jews. The Nazi selects "Jupp" as his subject for a demonstration and carefully measures his head and face. He then calculates "Jupp"'s anthropometric indices and pronounces him mixed but "pure Aryan stock", to Jupp's relieved surprise. Soon after, while working in a factory for the war effort, Jupp and his classmates learn that the German 6th Army has been defeated at the Battle of Stalingrad.

During his leave, Solek travels to Łódź to find his family, however, the ghetto is sealed off and guarded by the Feldgendarmerie. Solek rides a tram that travels through the ghetto towards the other side of town and peers through the window. He spots an elderly woman that resembles his mother, but other passengers on the tram prevent him from yelling out towards her. He rides the tram again and sees an elderly woman being beaten by a German policeman, Solek is unsure if the woman is his mother.

After several months without seeing Leni, Solek visits Leni's mother, who does not sympathize with the Nazis. She tells him Leni is pregnant and intends to "give the child to the Führer", in the Lebensborn program. Solek realizes that the child's father is his best friend and classmate Gerd. When Leni's mother presses Josef on his identity, he breaks down and confesses that he is Jewish; she tells him that she suspected that and promises not to betray him. Leni never finds out.

Solek's pretense is nearly exposed when the Gestapo investigates "Jupp"'s supposed parentage. He is summoned to Gestapo offices but cannot show a Certificate of Racial Purity, which he claims is in Grodno. The Gestapo official says he will send for it and then rants about how the war will be won by Hitler's Wunderwaffen (wonder weapons). As Solek leaves to meet with Gerd, the building is destroyed by Allied bombs; Solek's relief is tempered by Gerd's death in the bombing.

Soviet-occupied Nazi Germany[edit]

As Soviet troops close in on Berlin, the Hitler Youth at the school are sent to the front. Despite being fired upon by his squadmates, Solek manages to surrender. His captors refuse to believe that he is a Jew. "If you're a Jew, why don't you look like this? Look!" demands a Soviet officer as he shows Solek photos of murdered Jews from death camps they had liberated. Jupp had not been aware this was going on. They are about to have Solek shot by an elderly Communist political prisoner (wearing a red triangle on his camp uniform) when Solek's brother Isaak, just released from a concentration camp, recognises Solek and saves him. Isaak reveals to Solek that their parents were killed when the Łódź Ghetto was "liquidated". Before leaving the camp, Isaak tells Solek to never reveal his story to anyone, saying it would never be believed. He is released shortly thereafter and emigrates to the British Mandate of Palestine, the future state of Israel, where he embraces his Jewish heritage. The films ends with the real Solomon Perel, as an old man, singing a Jewish folk song taken from the Book of Psalms ("Hine Ma Tov," Psalm 133:1).

Box office[edit]

The film was released on 28 June 1991 and grossed $31,433 in its opening weekend in two theaters. Its final grossing in the US was $5,575,738.[4]


The film won the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, but lost the award to The Silence of the Lambs. It had been expected to be nominated for Best Foreign Language Film, but Germany did not submit it.


Actor Role
Marco Hofschneider Solomon Perel
Julie Delpy Leni
Hanns Zischler Hauptmann
René Hofschneider Isaak
Piotr Kozlowski David
André Wilms Soldier
Robert Kellerman
Ashley Wanninger Gerd
Halina Łabonarska Leni's Mother
Klaus Abramowsky Solomon's Dad
Michèle Gleizer Solomon's Mum
Marta Sandrowicz Bertha
Nathalie Schmidt Basia
Delphine Forest Inna
Martin Maria Blau Ulmayer
Andrzej Mastalerz Zenek
Solomon Perel Himself


  1. ^ a b "Hitlerjunge Salomon". (in German). Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  2. ^ "Europa Europa". British Film Institute. London: BFI Film & Television Database. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  3. ^ "Europa Europa". (in French). Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  4. ^ a b Europa Europa at Box Office Mojo
  5. ^ "Monthly Polish Film Screening:Europa, Europa-a film by Agnieszka Holland – Austin Polish Society". Retrieved 2019-05-14.

External links[edit]