Josslyn Hay, 22nd Earl of Erroll
|22nd Earl of Erroll|
|Tenure||1928 – 1941|
|Predecessor||Victor Hay, 21st Earl of Erroll|
|Successor||Diana Hay, 23rd Countess of Erroll|
|Other titles||Baron Kilmarnock|
|Known for||Fascist sympathizer; murder victim|
|Born||11 May 1901|
Mayfair, Westminster, UK
|Died||24 January 1941 (aged 39)|
Ngong, British Kenya
|Cause of death||Murder|
(m. 1923; div. 1930)
|Issue||Diana Hay, 23rd Countess of Erroll|
Josslyn Victor Hay, 22nd Earl of Erroll (11 May 1901 – 24 January 1941) was a British peer, known for the unsolved case surrounding his murder and the sensation it caused during wartime in Britain.
Hay was the eldest son of the diplomat Victor Hay, Lord Kilmarnock (later Earl of Erroll) and his wife Lucy, the only daughter of Sir Allan Mackenzie, 2nd Baronet. In 1911, he attended the coronation of George V and carried his grandfather's coronet. He began at Eton College in 1914 but was dismissed two years later.
Although possessing one of Scotland's most distinguished titles, the earls, by this time, had no wealth, and had to develop careers to earn their living. In 1920, Hay was appointed honorary attaché at Berlin under his father, who was earlier appointed chargé d'affaires there before the arrival of Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon. His father was soon appointed High Commissioner to the Rhineland, but Hay stayed in Berlin and served under Lord D'Abernon until 1922.
After passing the Foreign Office examinations, Hay was expected to follow his father into diplomacy, but instead became infatuated with Lady Idina Sackville, a daughter of Gilbert Sackville, 8th Earl De La Warr, divorced wife of the politician Euan Wallace and the wife of Charles Gordon. Lady Idina soon divorced her husband in 1923 and she and Hay were married on 22 September 1923.
After causing a society scandal due to their marriage – she was twice-divorced, notoriously unconventional in many ways, and eight years his senior – Hay and his wife moved to Kenya in 1924, financing the move with Idina's money. Their home was a bungalow on the slopes of the Aberdare Range which they called Slains, after the former Hay family seat of Slains Castle which was sold by Hay's grandfather, the 20th Earl, in 1916. The bungalow was sited alongside the high altitude farms which other white Kenyans were establishing at the time.
The Happy Valley set were a group of elite, colonial expatriates who became notorious for drug use, drinking, adultery and promiscuity, among other things. Hay soon became a part of this group and accumulated debts. Hay had inherited his father's titles in 1928 and his wife divorced him in 1930 because he was cheating her financially. Hay then married the divorced Edith Maude ("Molly") Ramsay-Hill on 8 February 1930. They lived in Oserian, a Moroccan-style house on the shores of Lake Naivasha, and his new wife became involved with the hedonistic lifestyle of Happy Valley.
On a visit to England in 1934, Lord Erroll joined Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists and on his return to Kenya a year later, became president of the Convention of Associations. He attended the coronation of George VI and Elizabeth in 1937 and was elected to the legislative council as member for Kiambu in 1939. On the outbreak of World War II that year, Lord Erroll became a captain in the Kenya Regiment and accepted the post of Military Secretary for East Africa in 1940.
On 13 October 1939, Lady Erroll died. In 1940, Lord Erroll met at the Muthaiga Country Club, and subsequently had an affair with, Diana, Lady Broughton, the wife of Sir Jock Delves Broughton, Bt. (and, ultimately, Baroness Delamere).
Delves Broughton learned of the affair and after spending a night with Lady Broughton, Lord Erroll was found shot dead in his Buick at a crossroads on the Nairobi-Ngong road on 24 January 1941. Sir Jock was accused of the murder, arrested on 10 March and stood trial from 26 May. There were no eyewitnesses to the killing; the evidence against him proffered in court was weak; and his barber was also foreman of the jury. Sir Jock was acquitted on 1 July. He died by suicide in England a year later.
Lord Erroll is buried in the graveyard of St Paul's Anglican Church in Kiambu, Kenya, next to his second wife, Molly. His earldom and lordship of Hay passed to his only child, Diana, by his first wife, while his barony of Kilmarnock passed to his brother, Gilbert, who changed his surname to Boyd in 1941.
- The BBC television drama The Happy Valley, first transmitted on 6 September 1987, told the story of Erroll's murder, as seen through the eyes of 15-year-old Juanita Carberry, daughter of John Carberry (10th Baron Carbery), to whom Broughton confessed his guilt even before he was arrested.
- The incident inspired James Fox's 1982 investigative book White Mischief, which was adapted into the 1988 film of the same title by Michael Radford. Erroll was portrayed by actor Charles Dance.
- The case featured in the documentary Altitude, Alcohol and Adultery, directed by Vanni Ocleppo, and first broadcast on BBC1 on 4 June 1993.
- The incident was also adapted into an episode of the series Julian Fellowes Investigates: A Most Mysterious Murder – The Case of the Earl of Erroll in 2005.
- Hay’s murder, and the subsequent trial of Sir Jock Delves Broughton, Bt., are referenced in Lucinda Riley’s novel The Sun Sister.
- British author Rhys Bowen used the murder of Erroll as inspiration for the murder committed in her 2019 novel Love and Death Among the Cheetahs.
|Ancestors of Josslyn Hay, 22nd Earl of Erroll|
- Cokayne et al., The Complete Peerage, volume I, p.1337
- London Gazette – 26 September 1911
- London Gazette – 23 January 1920
- London Gazette – 10 November 1936
- Woods, Judith. "Revealed: the White Mischief murderer". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- –"The question of the scent in the Buick was made much of, (in the trial) when it was probably no mystery at all. Joss reeked of the Truefitt & Hill scent CAR, as all his close friends knew," excerpt from The Life and Death of Lord Erroll, Errol Trzebinski, Fourth Estate, 2000.
- "Little church with buried Happy Valley-era ties". Business Daily. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Gilbert Alan (6th Baron Kilmarnock) Boyd (Previously Hay) b. 15 Jan 1903 d. 15 Mar 1975: The Douglas Archives". www.douglashistory.co.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Gilbert Allan Rowland Boyd, 6th Baron Kilmarnock - Person - National Portrait Gallery". www.npg.org.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Revealed: the White Mischief murderer". Daily Telegraph. 11 May 2007.
- Davenport-Hines, Richard – Hay, Josslyn Victor, twenty-second earl of Erroll (1901–1941), colonist in Kenya and philanderer – Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Genealogy website