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World Music World Music A Global Journey Third edition Terry E. Miller Kent State University and Andrew Shahriari Kent State University Senior Acquisitions Editor: Constance Ditzel Development Editors: Felisa Salvago-Keyes Senior Editorial Assistant: Denny Tek Production Manager: Mhairi Bennett Marketing Managers: Chris Bowers and Joon Won Moon Text Design: Karl Hunt, Keystroke Copy Editor: Janice Baiton Proofreader: Jane Canvin Cover Designer: Mark Lerner Companion Website Designer: Marie Mansfield Routledge New York & London Third edition published 2012 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2012 Taylor & Francis The right of Terry E. Miller and Andrew Shahriari to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Miller, Terry E. World music : a global journey / Terry E. Miller, Andrew Shahriari. — 3rd ed. p. cm. 1. World music—History and criticism. I. Shahriari, Andrew C. II. Title. ML3545.M54 2012 780.9—dc23 2011025812 ISBN: 978-0-415-88713-7 (hbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-88714-4 (pbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-80823-1 (pback pack) ISBN: 978-0-203-15298-0 (ebk) Typeset in Melior by Keystroke, Station Road, Codsall, Wolverhampton Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd. Contents Preface xiii Scope xiii Organization xiv The Third Edition xv Listening Guides xvi Structure of Each Listening Guide xvii How Instructors Can Expand Course Coverage xviii Website xix Our Own Journey (Thus Far) xix Terry E. Miller xx Andrew Shahriari xxi Acknowledgments xxiv 1 Before the Trip Begins: Fundamental Issues 1 What is Music? 2 Music: Universal Language or Culturally Specific Activity? 3 Beware of Labels 4 An Inside Look: Gerhard Kubik 7 Knowing the World’s Musics 8 The Life of an Ethnomusicologist 11 Representation: What Musics Does One Study? 12 Resources for the Study of the World’s Musics 12 Reference Works 12 Video 13 Audio Recordings 13 Journals 13 Questions to Consider 14 On Your Own Time 14 2 Aural Analysis: Listening to the World’s Musics 16 How to Listen to World Music 17 “Talking” about Music 18 v C O N T E N T S Timbre and Medium 18 Vocal Timbre 19 Instrumental Timbre 19 Aerophones: Flutes, Reeds, and Trumpets 19 Chordophones: Lutes and Zithers 21 Idiophones: Plucked, Struck, and Shaken 22 Membranophones 24 Summary 25 Pitch 25 Tuning System 25 Scale 27 Interval 27 Range 27 Melody 28 Melodic Contour 28 Ornamentation 28 Text Setting 29 Rhythm 29 Beat and Tempo 29 Accent and Meter 29 Rhythmic Density 30 Phonic Structure 30 Dynamics 31 Form 32 An Inside Look: Bruno Nettl 32 Need to Know: Fundamentals of Music 33 Questions to Consider 33 On Your Own Time 34 3 Cultural Considerations: Beyond the Sounds Themselves 35 Cultural Knowledge 36 An Inside Look: Judith Becker 38 Value Systems and Hierarchies 40 Music and Identity 40 Use versus Function 42 Music and Spirituality 42 Music and Ethics 43 Music and the Environment 43 New Theoretical Perspectives 45 Music Technologies and Media 45 Music and the Arts 46 Transmission and Pedagogy 48 Notation Systems and the Creation of Music 48 Exchange and Adaptation 49 Cultural Intersections 50 A Case Study of Istanbul, Turkey: A Lesson in Geography, History, Religions, and Musical Exchange 51 vi C O N T E N T S Questions to Consider 59 On Your Own Time 59 4 Oceania: Australia, Papua New Guinea, Hawaii, Kiribati 61 Background Preparation 62 Planning the Itinerary 63 Arrival: Australia 63 Site 1: Australian Aboriginal Song with Didjeridu 64 Arrival: Papua New Guinea 69 Site 2: Susap (lamellophone) from Papua New Guinea 70 Explore More: Singsings of Papua New Guinea 73 Arrival: Hawaii 74 An Inside Look: Amy Ku’uleialoha Stillman 75 Explore More: Hawaiian Steel Guitar and Ukulele 76 Site 3: Hawaiian Drum-Dance Chant 77 Arrival: Kiribati 80 Site 4: Group Song for bino (sitting dance) from Kiribati 81 Questions to Consider 85 On Your Own Time 86 5 South Asia: India, Pakistan 89 Background Preparation 90 An Inside Look: Shanti Raghavan 94 An Inside Look: Aashish Khan 95 Planning the Itinerary 96 Arrival: North India 97 Site 1: Hindustani (Instrumental) Raga 97 Need to Know: Fundamentals of Indian Classical (Hindustani) Music 107 Arrival: South India 108 Site 2: Carnatic Classical (Vocal) Kriti 108 Explore More: Kathakali 115 Site 3: Hindu Bhajan Devotional Song 116 Explore More: Indian Filmi Git (Film Song) 121 Arrival: Pakistan 122 Site 4: Qawwali (Sufi Devotional Song) 123 Explore More: Bhangra 127 Questions to Consider 128 On Your Own Time 128 6 Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Northeast Thailand, Indonesia (Java and Bali) 131 Background Preparation 132 Planning the Itinerary 134 An Inside Look: Priwan Nanongkham 135 Arrival: Vietnam 137 Site 1: Vietnamese Central Highlands Bronze Gong Ensemble 138 vii C O N T E N T S Site 2: Nhac Tai Tu Amateur Chamber Music 141 Arrival: Thailand 145 Site 3: Classical Piphat Music 146 Arrival: Laos and Northeast Thailand 152 Explore More: The Ramayana 153 Site 4: Lam Klawn Repartee Singing 155 Site 5: Luk Thung popular song 159 Arrival: Indonesia (Java and Bali) 164 Site 6: Javanese Court Gamelan 166 Site 7: Balinese Gamelan Gong Kebyar 171 Explore More: Kecak—The Balinese “Monkey Chant” 177 Questions to Consider 178 On Your Own Time 178 7 East Asia: China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Tibet 181 Background Preparation 182 An Inside Look: Luo Qin 185 An Inside Look: Masayo Ishigure 186 Planning the Itinerary 187 Arrival: China 189 Site 1: The Guqin (Seven-String “Ancient” Zither) 192 Site 2: Jiangnan Sizhu (“Silk and Bamboo”) Ensemble from Shanghai 195 Site 3: Beijing Opera (Jingju) 203 Site 4: Revolutionary Beijing Opera (Yangbanxi) 208 Explore More: Popular Music in East Asia 212 Arrival: Mongolia 213 Site 5: Mongolian Urtïn Duu (Long Song) and with Khöömei (Overtone or “Throat” Singing) 214 Arrival: Korea 217 Site 6: P’ansori Narrative 218 Arrival: Japan 223 Site 7: Sankyoku Instrumental Chamber Music 224 Explore More: Komuso 227 Site 8: Kabuki Theater 228 Explore More: Taiko 232 Arrival: Tibet 233 Site 9: Tibetan Buddhist Ritual 234 Questions to Consider 238 On Your Own Time 239 8 The Middle East: Islam and the Arab World, Iran, Egypt, Sufism, Judaism 243 Background Preparation 244 An Inside Look: George Dimitri Sawa 246 Planning the Itinerary 247 Arrival: Islam and the Arabic World 247 Site 1: Islamic Adhan, “Call to Prayer” 248 viii C O N T E N T S Site 2: Arabic Taqasim for Ud and Buzuq 253 Arrival: Iran 257 Site 3: Dastgah for Santur and Voice 258 Arrival: Egypt 262 Site 4: Takht Instrumental Ensemble 263 Arrival: Sufism 268 Site 5: Sufi Dhikr Ceremony 269 Arrival: Judaism 272 Site 6: Jewish Shofar and Liturgical Cantillation 274 Questions to Consider 278 On Your Own Time 278 9 Europe: Greece, Spain, Russia, Scotland, Ireland, Hungary, Bulgaria 281 Background Preparation 282 “Classical” versus “Folk” 285 Planning the Itinerary 287 Arrival: Greece 287 Site 1: Greek Orthodox (Byzantine) Chant 288 Arrival: Spain 291 Site 2: Flamenco 292 Arrival: Russia 297 Site 3: Balalaika Ensemble 298 Arrival: Scotland 301 An Inside Look: Morag MacLeod 302 Site 4: Highland Bagpipes 303 Arrival: Ireland 308 Site 5: Uilleann Bagpipes 309 Arrival: Hungary 314 Site 6: Tekerölant (Hurdy Gurdy) 314 Arrival: Bulgaria 318 Site 7: Bulgarian Women’s Chorus 319 Questions to Consider 322 On Your Own Time 323 10 Sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana, Nigeria, Central Africa, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Senegal, The Republic of South Africa 327 Background Preparation 328 An Inside Look: Adesanya Adeyeye 331 An Inside Look: Habib Iddrisu 332 Planning the Itinerary 334 Arrival: Ghana 334 Site 1: Polyrhythmic Instrumental Ensemble 335 Site 2: “Talking Drums” 340 Arrival: Nigeria 345 Site 3: Jùjú Popular Music 345 Arrival: Central Africa 349 ix C O N T E N T S Site 4: Mbuti Pygmy Music from the Democratic Republic of the Congo 350 Arrival: Zimbabwe 353 Site 5: Mbira Dza Vadzimu 354 Arrival: Uganda 358 Site 6: Akadinda 359 Arrival: Senegal–Gambia 362 Site 7: Jali with Kora 362 Arrival: The Republic of South Africa 366 Site 8: Mbube 369 Explore More: Ladysmith Black Mambazo 371 Questions to Consider 372 On Your Own Time 373 11 The Caribbean: Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, The Bahamas, Cuba, The Dominican Republic 377 Background Preparation 378 Planning the Itinerary 379 Arrival: Haiti 379 Site 1: Vodou Ritual from Haiti 380 Arrival: Jamaica 385 Site 2: Reggae 385 Arrival: Trinidad and Tobago 390 Site 3: Calypso 391 Explore More: Soca 397 An Inside Look: Olivia Ahyoung 398 An Inside Look: Ellie Mannette 399 Site 4: Steel Band (Pan) 400 Arrival: The Bahamas 404 Site 5: Rhyming Spiritual 404 Arrival: Cuba 407 Site 6: Cuban Son 408 Arrival: The Dominican Republic 414 Site 7: Merengue 414 Questions to Consider 418 On Your Own Time 418 12 South America and Mexico: The Amazon Rainforest, Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico 423 Background Preparation 424 Planning the Itinerary 426 An Inside Look: Martin Pereira Algarita 426 Arrival: The Amazon Rainforest 427 Site 1: Amazonian Chant 428 Arrival: Peru 430 Site 2: Sikuri (Panpipe) Ensemble 431 Arrival: Argentina 434 x C O N T E N T S Site 3: Tango 435 Arrival: Brazil 439 Site 4: Samba 440 Explore More: Carnival 444 Site 5: Capoeira Music 444 Arrival: Mexico 449 Site 6: Mariachi 449 Questions to Consider 454 On Your Own Time 455 13 Canada and the United States 459 Background Preparation 460 Planning the Itinerary 461 An Inside Look: Buddy MacMaster 463 Arrival: Canada 464 Site 1: Cape Breton Fiddling 464 Arrival: The United States of America 467 Site 2: Ballad-Singing 468 Site 3: Old Regular Baptist Lined Hymn 471 An Inside Look: Hugh McGraw 476 Site 4: Singing School Shape-Note Music 476 Site 5: Bluegrass 482 Site 6: African-American Spiritual 488 Site 7: African-American Gospel Choir 491 Site 8: Country Blues 495 Site 9: “Nuyorican” Salsa 499 Site 10: Cajun Music 505 Arrival: Native American Reservations 508 Site 11: Plains Indian Dance Song 510 Site 12: Native American Flute 514 Explore More: Inuit Throat-Singing 517 Questions to Consider 518 On Your Own Time 518 14 Discovering Yourself Through Music 525 Music and Self-Identity 526 Researching Your Musical Roots 527 Observation and Participant-Observation 527 Audio Recording 527 Video Recording 528 Still Photography 528 An Inside Look: Nguyen Thuyet Phong 529 Interviewing 530 Collecting and Archiving 530 Disseminating Your Findings 531 Teaching 531 xi C O N T E N T S Performance 531 Publishing 532 Where to Go from Here 532 Glossary 534 Resources for Further Study 563 Index 572 Recorded Examples 583 xii Preface This textbook is inspired by a class we have taught at Kent State University for many years, “Music as a World Phenomenon.” In the mid-1990s, when the university established a requirement to incorporate cultural diversity, the class was a natural fit and enrollment exploded overnight. Fifty students a semester turned into over 500 within a few years. Dissatisfied with the introductory world music textbooks offered at the time, we set out to write our own that would serve this greater number of students, few of whom had formal music training. Its success has encouraged the class to grow to nearly 1500 students per semester and is one of the most popular courses on campus. Other universities have expe- rienced similar growth in their world music surveys. The online version of the class at Kent State, which accommodates nearly 300 students, remains full, and the textbook with its accompanying interactive website has proven an invaluable resource, especially for those students. We hope this third edition of World Music: A Global Journey will encourage the same enthusiasm in both instructors and students for teaching and learning about the world and its music, as it has for us at Kent State. Scope Anyone who attempts a book such as this should first address a few questions: • Breadth or depth? You cannot have both, unless you want a tome that could hold down your loose papers through a hurricane. We have chosen breadth. While we recognize the impossibility of doing justice to all the world’s notable and interesting musics, we also feel that doing what you can is better than doing nothing. The second major question is: • Geographical or topical organization? As ethnomusicologists we are tempted to organize our studies topically, in order to explore such issues as identity, gender, representation, meaning, globalization, and so on, but we have found that this approach leaves most students in a state of geographical disorientation. While such a plan would make it easier to discuss many of the issues at stake in “cultural diversity” courses, it would make it difficult to communicate a coherent view of the music of a given area. Thus, we have chosen a geographical organization. A third question is: • Should the concentration be on music as sound or music as culture? The study of world music is the focus of a discipline known as ethnomusicology, which seeks to understand xiii P R E F A C E both music and its cultural associations. This field of scholarly research has long had a fascination with the anthropological aspects of the music studied—what we used to call “the context”—but some of our field’s critics have noted a growing reluctance to discuss musical sound at all, complaining that ethnomusicologists do “everything but the music.” Others scoff at ethnomusicology as eth-NO-MUSIC-ology. We have striven for a balanced approach, choosing first to emphasize music as sound because we suspect that many of the instructors using this book are situated in music departments and are naturally inclined to focus on music. However, we also include important cultural aspects, allowing teachers using this book to choose which to emphasize. Organization Travel is the central metaphor of the book, in part because that is often how we experienced the music we present. After three introductory chapters in which we discuss the elements of music, we present ten chapters on specific geographical areas, be they a continent (e.g., Europe) or a subcontinent (e.g., South Asia). As with any major trip, preparation is necessary before a specific area can be considered in depth. “Background Preparation” provides the big picture giving the general lay of the land, some of an area’s history, and raising certain issues related to music-making in the region. We then give an overview of music the region has to offer before landing in a particular country or area. Here we review the background information pertinent to this particular place and give the reader some feel for the locale’s history and culture. After this, we begin visiting our individual “Sites.” These are the audio tracks and discussions we have chosen to represent the area—though you should always bear in mind that we have omitted many others of equal significance. As with travel, so with music: we simply cannot visit everything. Hopefully, you can return to some areas later and experience more on your own. Each Site is explored in three steps. 1. “First Impressions”—In this section we attempt to convey the impressions and asso- ciations the music might inspire in a first-time listener. These are necessarily subjective and intended to encourage readers to consider their own first impressions in comparison to ours. 2. “Aural Analysis”—Here we focus on the site in terms of musical sound, discussing what- ever is most relevant. This could include the medium (instruments and/or voices) and any of the prominent musical elements that define an example. 3. “Cultural Considerations”—The final section is where relevant cultural matters are raised. These are the “contexts” and “issues” that have differentiated ethnomusicology from most other music disciplines. This process can serve as a framework for exploring an infinite array of world music traditions. Instructors may wish to bring in some examples, based on their own focus, as a supplement to the materials provided here. xiv P R E F A C E The Third Edition Following the release of the first edition in late 2005, we were gratified so many of our colleagues in schools of all sizes and missions adopted World Music: A Global Journey and found it useful. Although we feel fortunate that so many chose this book over the increasing number of other choices, we continually think about how we can improve it. Hopefully, the third edition offers many of the improvements suggested by users along with those originating with the authors. • Updated Content: Numerous sites have been updated, revised, or added (replacing old sites that are moved to the textbook website). These include Hawaii, Kiribati, South India, Pakistan, Thailand, Indonesia (Java), China, Mongolia, Japan, Islam, Egypt, Judaism, Scotland, Ireland, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Jamaica, Trinidad, Cuba, and the United States. • Popular Music: We recognize that some faculty users would prefer a more abundant mix of popular styles and have made some additions. But largely we remain faithful to our original intention: to focus on what many consider to be “traditional music”. In order to incorporate more discussions of popular music, however, we have changed some sites and added several feature boxes (see below) to include a good number of types that cross into popular culture, such as Reggae, Luk Thung, Jùjú, Calypso, Merengue, Tango, Bhangra, Mariachi, Samba, and African-American Gospel. • New “Explore More” boxes: One consideration in not including more popular music is the challenge of licensing commercially viable music. The payment required for royal- ties would force the publisher to raise the price of this book substantially. To expand our coverage of the world’s music, we have added several “Explore More” feature boxes with links to iTunes tracks (which require payment) and YouTube video (which is free) available on the textbook website www.routledge.com/cw/miller. In cases where we have substituted new tracks, we recognize that some users might prefer to continue using the old ones, which we have moved to the textbook’s website. • Updated “Inside Look” features: The scholars and musicians highlighted in the “Inside Look” boxes have been updated along with a few new featured artists, such as Judith Becker and Masayo Ishigure. • New photos: Approximately 25% of the photographs are new. We have drawn more extensively from professional stock footage archives, but with an eye for fieldwork- oriented images that complement our original list of figures. • 3-CDs: We have expanded the accompanying recordings from the original two CDs to three. This allows us to offer more complete examples of the sites, averaging three minutes per track rather than two, which often required us to edit the longer examples. The Listening Guides for new and extended tracks have been updated accord- ingly. • “On Your Own Time” suggested resources: When traveling with a group, informed guides take you directly to the places of greatest interest for the majority of the tour. However, there is usually additional time when you are encouraged to explore a locale on your own. While you can wander off alone in any direction and probably encounter something of interest, it might be more profitable to have a few pointers to make the time more productive. At the end of each chapter we have added a short section called xv P R E F A C E “On Your Own Time” to suggest some possible routes of exploration, understanding that this is virtual exploration by necessity. • Instructors’ Resources: These have been revisited to include new presentations, exam questions, class time activities, and a more integrated website that can be used to expand course coverage. • Interactive Listening Guides: Some of these have been incorporated on the website so that students can listen to streamed music at specific prompts. Listening Guides The purpose of the Listening Guides is to encourage active listening, rather than passive listening. Many students find they lack experience in listening actively to music. The music washes over them as a complete sound without much thought toward the details. Most everyone does this on a daily basis, such as listening to the car radio, walking through a mall, waiting in a doctor’s office, or even while attending a concert. They passively “absorb” the sound without really thinking about it. Active listening requires more than just your ears. You must focus on individual elements in the music in order to understand a variety of features, such as its organization or its rhythmic/melodic elements, its correlation to movement in dance/theatre, the sound as a manifestation of emotional/spiritual expression, etc. Such intentional listening promotes a greater appreciation of the music, which will hopefully make it more appealing, if only from an intellectual perspective. Each listening guide focuses on key features of the example that help you identify the timbre of different instruments, important melodic and/or rhythmic elements, as well as aspects of form and variations in dynamics, if applicable. Every guide begins with an introduction to the specific example, that is, track title, chapter and site number, etc., followed by a description of the sound elements (vocal and instrumental) heard. The time outline indicates the minutes/seconds (0’00”) of each “Listening Focus” item described. (These time codes may vary slightly according to the device you are using to play the example.) The guide concludes with the source for the example and an “Ethno-Challenge,” (short for Ethnomusicology Challenge). The Listening Guides will help you with the “Aural Analysis” section of the readings. Our recommendation is: 1. Listen first through the entire example without the guide, just to get a “First Impression” without concern over the details of the music. Compare your first impressions with those we have offered. 2. Read the “Aural Analysis” for the example. 3. Listen again with the guide and take note of each “Listening Focus” description. You may have to start/stop and rewind the example several times to hear each item. That’s a good thing! It means you are actively listening to the music. If you get through the entire example without stopping once, this probably means you have returned to passive listening. 4. Listen through the entire example again after you feel confident that you have heard and understood all of the “Listening Focus” items. You will find you are hearing the music with a keener sense of its details. That gong sound missed before will now “jump xvi P R E F A C E out” at you, or you may find yourself humming the basic melody or tapping out the fun- damental rhythm. To test your new perspective on the music, try playing the example for someone else and see if he or she notices the same details before you point them out. We also hope that the Listening Guides will assist instructors in highlighting these key elements during lectures. To know the difference between the sound of a tabla and a tambura, for example, the instructor may have to highlight the distinction in the classroom. The time code references will help expedite searching for such “Listening Focus” items during class time. Each guide ends with a feature called the “Ethno-Challenge”. Some of these are quite simple, while others may be quite difficult. As ethnomusicologists ourselves, we tried to imagine an activity that would have benefited us in researching each music genre. This may involve library research, such as hunting down a video of Beijing Opera; learning a performance technique, such as circular breathing; or even making a musical instrument, such as a mouth harp, etc. Instructors may have their own ideas for such challenges, but the end-goal remains to encourage more active participation and understanding of the music. The challenges are also meant to be fun projects for your own enjoyment or even to present to the rest of the class. Finally, we encourage you to add your own “Listening Focus” points to these guides. We may have overlooked or intentionally omitted features due to their repetition within the example or other factors, such as space considerations for the page layouts. You will better develop your active listening skills by adding to these guides, which will ultimately make any music you hear a more meaningful experience. Structure of Each Listening Guide L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 0.0 (0’00”) Chapter 00: Site 00 Country: Example Title Instruments: Trumpet (aerophone), Guitar (chordophone), etc. Voices: Male/Female TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Example begins… Source: World Music: A Global Journey ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 0.0): Listen to each track on your textbook CDs at least three times. xvii P R E F A C E How Instructors Can Expand Course Coverage “Teaching a textbook” is a widely and often effectively used method but also one that raises thorny issues. The problem with any world survey is that the authors must of necessity choose a certain set of examples and ideas based on their own thinking and experience— but course instructors may have a different view. We suggest therefore that teachers consider the following ideas when using this book: Be selective. If you find that seventy music examples are too many for your class, then select those that suit your needs. We have attempted to provide reasonably good surveys of each area—considering the limitations of space—but for some instructors this will be too much and for others too little. Use our plan as a model. Just as you can exclude specific sites, you can also add your own. These additions can be accomplished by either the professor or student. An excellent assignment would be for students to write about a music track not selected by us, using the three approaches employed in this book: first impressions, aural analysis, and cultural con- siderations. Such exercises could become class papers or presentations as well. Research further on your own. Just as easily as additional sites can be researched and written about, those presented herein can be developed by students into class presentations that include audio examples, video/DVD clips, and even performances on substitute instru- ments or the real ones. Students and teachers may locate living representatives of a culture— or even musicians from the tradition under study—who can come to class to discuss the culture or perform the music live. Consider utilizing additional resources in the neighborhood or university community. We have intentionally focused on pathways available via the Internet, but you might also consider some other areas of investigation, such as libraries and museums. • Libraries. Most libraries, both public and those associated with colleges and universities, have collections of recordings and video materials. Anyone wishing to venture beyond this book might do so in places as diverse as one’s local public library to world-class collections in places such as Indiana University’s Archives of Traditional Music in Bloomington, Indiana, to the Library of Congress’s American Folklife Center in Washington, DC. Similar collections can be found in Canada and Europe. • Museums. Many large cities have excellent museums devoted to local history, culture, or general anthropology of the world. These often include displays of musical instru- ments, dioramas that include musical activity, and sometimes sound resources. A few have major collections of musical instruments, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, The National Music Museum in Vermillion, South Dakota, and the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix, Arizona. • Internet. The Internet offers virtually unlimited possibilities for exploration. Two sites relative to this book dominate: YouTube and iTunes. iTunes (and other similar sites) offer many kinds of music for paid download. These sites can be searched by genre, title, or artist; what kinds of music are offered will change constantly. YouTube similarly offers a nearly bottomless series of free video clips of most forms of music, dance, and theater known in the world. Searches of the Internet will also turn up many other kinds of information and resources. One of them is Wikipedia, a free, online encyclopedia. While many of the articles discovered (in numerous languages, too) are quite fine, users xviii P R E F A C E must remember that these entries are not peer-reviewed, and their reliability varies widely since anyone (including you) can write and post entries. Website The website is vital to World Music: A Global Journey. At Kent State, the book is used for an online course, so the website has been crafted to be adaptable for all kinds of teaching situations, with audio and visual elements and numerous teaching and learning tools: For the student • Flashcards of vocabulary words • Samples of the audio tracks from the accompanying CDs • Practice quizzes • Links to online videos • Links to other suggested resources e.g., books, DVDs, websites, etc. • E-Book version of the texbook For the instructor • Downloadable classroom presentations • Test banks • Additional articles and Sites from previous editions of the textbook • Suggested classroom activities and additional projects • Author/Instructor Interactive Portal • E-Package materials for online course development www.routledge.com/cw/miller Our Own Journey (Thus Far) Neither author, of course, has been everywhere or heard every kind of music the world has to offer. Writing this book has been a humbling experience—only fools think they can cover the world’s musics in a single volume. Regardless of our qualms, however, world music courses have become a normal part of the academic environment, and the need for such introductory courses will not go away because of philosophical reservations. If anything, the demand for them will grow. We have attempted to play to our strengths while recognizing our limitations. In the following pages of this preface we engage in a kind of “truth in adver- tising,” by revealing some of our own personal histories with regard to the musics of the world. Perhaps after having read of our experiences, which we present separately, you will better understand why we wrote what we wrote. xix P R E F A C E Terry E. Miller My first experience hearing non-Western music came during my undergraduate years at the College of Wooster (Ohio), where I was majoring in organ performance. Ravi Shankar, now India’s most famous sitar player, came to the campus as part of the Community Music Series in 1964, several years before he became famous in his own right and as the teacher of George Harrison (member of the Beatles). After his performance, the music majors met with Shankar, but our attempts to understand the concept of raga were mostly unsuccessful. We simply had no conceptual categories with which to understand modal improvisation. Further, we had never seen a musician perform seated on the floor, or encountered incense at a music event, and we also failed to understand the significance of the tambura lute player and tabla drummer. In those days there were virtually no world music courses anywhere, and record- ings other than those on the Folkways label were rare. My next encounter with an “exotic” music did not come until after I had been drafted into the U.S. Army in 1968 and sent to the Republic of Vietnam in 1969 to help fight the war from a swivel chair in front of a Remington typewriter. As a “chairborne” soldier working at a huge base about twenty miles from Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City), I could have ignored Vietnam entirely. Instead, I decided to explore Vietnamese music. Doing so, however, required trips to Saigon. Having no official business there and no authorization, I had to go illegally on weekends. In Saigon, I attended theatrical performances, bought instruments and recordings, and visited the Saigon Conservatory of Music, where my language abilities were too limited for effective communication. A one-week leave to Bangkok, Thailand, in January 1970 brought me into contact with Thai music. During my visit, I purchased a long, bamboo mouth-organ instrument called the khaen, simply because its sound resembled a pipe organ. I did not know how significant this instrument would become for my later life. After returning to the United States, I enrolled in a Western historical musicology grad- uate degree program at Indiana University. In spite of the program I was in, I decided to write my master’s thesis on an Ohio shape-note teacher and my doctoral dissertation on the music of northeast Thailand. With a generous grant in hand, I went with my family to northeast Thailand in late 1972, for a fourteen-month stay during which I researched that region’s music. The resulting dissertation completed my Ph.D. and luckily I stumbled into a teaching position at Kent State University just as they were starting a graduate program in ethnomusicology. I taught at Kent State until my retirement in January 2005. Since that time I have remained actively engaged in research and writing, and I spend about two months a year in Thailand (wisely, during the American winter). To make a long story short, I kept up my interest in Thailand during my tenure at Kent, but my interests also expanded in other directions. With the help of a succession of “native musician” graduate students, I started two ensembles, one to play traditional Thai music, the other to play Chinese music, and I played in both from 1979 and 1987 respectively until the ensembles were disbanded in May 2005. In 1998 the Thai Ensemble toured Thailand, performing in six cities and on most television channels. The musics of mainland Southeast Asia—Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma, and Malaysia—remain my core interest, with the greatest emphasis being on Thailand and Laos. I also developed a now long-standing interest in orally transmitted hymnody in the West, which has led to extensive and con- tinuing fieldwork in the United States, Scotland, Jamaica, Trinidad, and St. Vincent, the latter three being part of the English-speaking Caribbean. My third area of interest has been xx P R E F A C E Chinese music, and I have done fieldwork in Co-author Terry China itself but much more in the overseas Miller (on right) with fellow soldier Chinese community of Thailand. while serving in Lastly, I have collected material and expe- the United States rienced live music when possible in each Army in Vietnam country I’ve visited. In addition to Vietnam, (1969) Thailand, and China, these include the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Greece, Israel, Nepal, Japan, Korea, Burma, Malaysia, Laos, and South Africa. All of these experiences have contributed to my bank of knowledge. Even so, they have exposed me to only a small percen- tage of the world’s musics. The rest have thus far been experienced, if at all, only vicariously through audio and video recordings or at con- certs given by resident or touring musicians. Naturally, knowledge gained through first-hand experience goes deeper than that gained from books and CDs, but even an introductory book like this and carefully listened-to recordings can shed some light on a corner of the world that would otherwise remain totally unfamiliar. Andrew Shahriari My first recollection of an interest in “world music” is actually associated with a music that I knew quite well. As an undergraduate, I was fortunate to study abroad and to visit Russia on a two-week tour of Moscow and Leningrad (now St. Petersburg—again) in 1990, during the last days of the Soviet Union. My first revelation was that what I had previously believed about Russians was completely untrue: I had been misled all my life into thinking they were evil, American-hating Communists who would sooner spit on me than shake my hand. To the contrary, I found the people I met in Russia to be the most friendly, helpful people in Europe, with a great respect for Americans. My misconceptions were based on ignorance and on the stereotyping of people I did not know. Sadly, the negative propagandizing of other cultures by the media remains a problem today. My second revelation came in a Moscow jazz club, where I realized that music can cross cultural barriers as effectively as speech. While music is not a “universal language,” it nonetheless generally draws more on emotion than intellect. Music has the uncanny power to enable those who speak the same musical language to “connect” on a different level than is possible with the spoken word. Though conversations I had with Russians fluent in English were friendly, they were mostly superficial exchanges. In contrast, the twenty-minute “jam” my American friends and I played with the jazz club’s Russian house band resulted in genuine laughter, bear hugs, and toasts in our honor for the rest of the night—without our ever even learning the names of our comrades. All of us knew we would never meet again, but for that night we were the best of friends because we spoke through music. xxi P R E F A C E My Russian encounter inspired my interest in ethnomusicology and continues to moti- vate my core concerns as a scholar, educator, and musician. Cultural ignorance is the source of many stereotypes about other peoples. A primary goal of my own study and certainly of my teaching, as well as of this textbook, is to encourage an awareness of our cultural biases. You cannot learn about the world from only the nightly news and cable television. While the United States has “free” media, the stories that are presented are highly selective and strongly biased toward American interests. To think otherwise is naïve. This is true in other cultures as well. Politics and business influence the content of newspapers, books, television, movies, radio, even the Internet, all of which then shape our attitudes about others and our- selves. We cannot avoid being culturally biased, but an awareness of this reality is important to keeping an open mind, which encourages understanding of other perspectives and fosters communication rather than conflict. After college, I spent a couple of years pursuing a career in the music business, but quickly realized that the “business” of making music greatly overwhelmed the actual cre- ation of it. Thankfully, a professor suggested I study ethnomusicology as a graduate student due to my interest in blues and jazz. I came to Kent State in 1992 and have never looked back. I explored my diverse interests in music and discovered many new and intriguing sounds that have spurred me to travel to many new countries, experience an array of new cultures, and to meet wonderful people from all over the world. Like Terry, I became fas- cinated with the music and culture of Thailand and focused my studies on the northern region (Lanna), an area that no one had yet to explore in depth. I have since pursued other interests in music and spirituality, popular world music, and music therapy and traveled to numerous locales, including Mexico, China, Germany, Austria, France, Scotland, England, and throughout the United States. Co-author Andrew Shahriari (seated at piano) and friends perform in a jazz club with local university students in Moscow, Russia (1989) xxii P R E F A C E But my exploration of world music is certainly not limited to only the places I have visited. Being part of a university culture allows for a great many opportunities to learn about world music on a first-hand basis by attending concerts, meeting international musicians and local residents, as well as learning from my many students who share their world music and culture experiences with me. By studying world music, I learn about people’s passions. I learn what they value, and I learn how they think. Music can reveal the deepest emotions of a people, their philosophies of life, their conceptions of death, their hopes and fears, anger and affections, desires and dreams. Music says what cannot be put into words and often adds to words what cannot be merely spoken. I hope that each person who reads this textbook will approach each site visited with an open mind and appreciate each tradition on its own terms. Remember that appreciation is not necessarily the same thing as enjoyment. Some music is like sugar, sweet to taste and easy to take from the start. Other music is an acquired taste, and may only ever be appreciated at an intellectual level. I myself do not find all music aurally appealing, yet I strive to keep an open mind and accept that all musics (or musical sounds) are worthwhile because they are significant to someone—otherwise they would not exist. If you have read this far, I am certain you will do the same. Terry E. Miller Andrew Shahriari June 2011 xxiii Acknowledgments None of us acquire knowledge in isolation, and all of us are indebted to the many people we have encountered during our lives. Certainly we are indebted to our own formal teachers at all levels, but our knowledge of the world’s musics is only possible thanks to innumerable individuals, some known first-hand, others known through performances, some only known through the Internet, who have—wittingly or unwittingly—taught us what we know. But we, not they, are responsible for that which remains unknown or misunderstood. In particular we are indebted to the many individuals who have made it possible to offer an unprecedented seventy tracks of music, especially those who did so without payment. Similarly, we are indebted to those who appear in our photographs and to the photographers who allowed us to use their photographs. Their names are to be found in the credits for each track and each photo. We are also indebted to our many students, who over the years have made us increas- ingly aware of the challenges of teaching world musics. While some of our students have been music majors, the vast majority are “non-music majors” satisfying requirements for their Liberal Education Core and for Diversity courses. As such, few have had a special interest in the world’s musics, so inspiring enthusiasm in the subject matter has been an exhilarating challenge. The insights brought from teaching students with a variety of majors and levels of interest in studying the world’s musics and cultures have been our greatest resource. It is these students who inspired much of our writing throughout the book. Another motivating factor was our desire to create a book for non-specialist teachers. Based on our experience with the membership of the College Music Society, we are grateful to the many non-ethnomusicologist teachers who have been pressed into service to teach a world music survey, and shared with us their concerns and wishes. Before this book was completed, a great number of individuals kindly offered feedback in response to four sample chapters. We found in these a remarkable amount of helpful criticism, even from those who have many “issues” with what we have done. The second edition took advantage of two years of experience in using the book. Although the audio examples remained unchanged, we then added detailed Listening Guides for each track. In preparation of the third edition we have benefitted from comments and suggestions offered by users over these past few years and by the targeted reviews made available to us by our publisher, Routledge. Although we are unable to satisfy all the suggestions we have received, we have responded to the greatest extent possible. We believe this edition is much improved thanks to these comments. xxiv A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S A great number of individuals offered special help, by recording tracks, offering detailed information on those tracks, supplying photos, and offering extensive corrections. For this third edition we are especially appreciative of the following: Paul Austerlitz, Mr. Balusubramaniam, Praphai Boomsermsuwong, Eliot Grasso, Kathleen Joyce-Grendahl, Roderic Knight, Mary Lawson Burke, Scott Marcus, Priwan and Siriphon Nanongkham, Phong Nguyen, Dale Olsen, Anne Prescott, K.S. Resmi, N. Scott Robinson, Ted and M. Tyler Rounds, Daniel Sheehy, and Amy Unruh. If we have omitted your name—and you will know who you are—we apologize for our oversight. Last but not least, we must thank our families for their forbearance and their tolerance of our long periods sitting before the computer writing and revising this book. Preceding that were many long and often demanding research trips to the field, usually with our spouses or with them left behind to “hold the fort” at home. In addition, Terry would like to acknowledge the good humor shown by his children, Sonia and Esther, who, dragged along on numerous field trips, at least contributed their charms on his “research subjects.” Esther in particular thought her family’s trip to Trinidad in 1990 was to visit beaches but soon discovered that they were spending up to eight hours on Sunday in Spiritual Baptist churches. Andrew apologizes in advance, expecting that his son, Cyrus, will have similar experiences in the future; but he promises to try to visit the beach at least once per field trip for the sake of his wife’s sanity. Finally, both of us would like to thank the professionals we have worked with at Routledge. These are especially Constance Ditzel, our Managing Editor, who has given special attention to this project, offered many excellent suggestions, and been especially supportive of our ideas by being flexible. Chris Bowers, our Marketing Manager, who has tirelessly promoted the book and offered great support in its dissemination throughout the globe. Denny Tek, working as a technical editor, has been consistently helpful, though while keeping a low profile behind the scenes. We are especially indebted to Karl Hunt in the UK who created the page layouts for this edition, an endless task in our opinion. It has been a pleasure working with everyone at Routledge since the inception of this book in 2002. xxv Map of the World 1 Before the Trip Begins: Fundamental Issues 1 What is Music? 2 Resources for the Study of the Co-author (TM) World’s Musics 12 playing yang qin Music: Universal Language or dulcimer (right) Culturally Specific Activity? 3 Reference Works 12 with an unknown Beware of Labels 4 Video 13 musician playing yeh hu fiddle (left), An Inside Look: Gerhard Kubik 7 Audio Recordings 13 Shantou, China Knowing the World’s Musics 8 Journals 13 (Sara Stone Miller) The Life of an Ethnomusicologist 11 Questions to Consider 14 Representation: What Musics Does On Your Own Time 14 One Study? 12 1 1 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y What is Music? Although virtually everyone listens to it and most libraries include books on it, music is notoriously difficult to define, describe, and discuss. While in a literal sense music is only a kind of sound vibration, it must be distinguished from other kinds of sound vibration such as speech or noise. This distinction is based not on observable acoustical differences but on the meanings we assign the sounds that become, in our minds, music. Music is thus a conceptual phenomenon that exists only in the mind; at least that is where the distinctions between “noise” and “music” occur. Graphic representations of music—notations of any sort—are only that, representations. A score is not “the music” because music is a series of sonic vibrations transmitted through the ears to the brain, where we begin the process of making sense of and finding meaning and order in these sounds. We are normally surrounded by sounds—the sounds of nature, the sounds of man’s inventions, of our own voices—but for most of us most of the time distinguishing “music” from the totality of ambient sounds around us comes “naturally.” We recognize “noise” when we hear it; we recognize “music” when we hear it. Our sense of the difference between the two derives from a lifetime of conditioning. This conditioning is cultural in origin. Our own concept of what distinguishes music from noise is more or less the same as that of our overall “culture,” as we were raised in an environment that conveyed to us general notions about the distinctions between the two. Therefore, definitions of “music” are of necessity culturally determined. For example, many people make a distinction between music and singing; for them, the word music refers only to instrumental sounds. Some years ago we wrote to a Primitive Baptist elder (a church leader) in North Carolina regarding that denomination’s orally transmitted hymn singing. We asked—naïvely—“when you sing, do you use music?” The answer was totally logical within the elder’s own world: “We don’t have any music in our church. All we do is sing.” By music we meant notation, but for the elder music meant instruments. In this book, however, we use the term music more broadly to encompass both instrumental and vocal phenomena. Within the vocal realm, one of the most intriguing distinctions is that between speech and song. At what point on the speech–song continuum does speech become song? The answers to this question vary widely from place to place. Listeners from one culture may easily misjudge sounds from another culture by assuming, based on their own experience, that this or that performance is “song,” when the people performing consider it other than “song.” A general term for such “in-between” phenomena is “heightened speech”; for example, chant. One is most likely to have trouble differentiating “speech” and “song” when experiencing the heightened speech of religious and ritual performances, especially those associated with religions that discourage or even ban the performance of “song.” In the Buddhist tradition of Thailand, for example, ordained monks are not permitted to perform song. But if you were to attend a “reading” of the great tale of Prince Wetsandawn (the Buddha’s pre-final incarnation preceding nirvana), during which a robed monk intones a long poem describing the prince’s life, you might, like most Westerners, describe the performance as “singing.” After all, the monk performing the story clearly requires consid- erable vocal talents to negotiate such elaborate strings of pitches. From a Western perspective this performance sounds convincingly like song. From the monk’s perspective, however— indeed, from that of most Thai—what he is performing cannot be song because monks are 2 B E F O R E T H E T R I P B E G I N S : F U N D A M E N T A L I S S U E S 1 Thai Buddhist monks chant the afternoon service at Wat [temple] Burapha, Roi-et, Thailand prohibited from singing. The monk’s performance is described by the verb thet, which means “to preach.” Why is this performance not considered song? Because there is consensus among Thai that it is not song but rather it is preaching. Thus, this chanted poetry is simul- taneously “music” from our perspective and definitely “not music” from the perspective of the performer and his primary audience. Neither perspective is right or wrong in a universal sense; rather, each is “correct” according to respective cultural norms. Music: Universal Language or Culturally Specific Activity? It is frequently asserted that “music is a universal [or international] language,” a “meta- language” that expresses universal human emotions and transcends the barriers of language and culture. The problems with this metaphor are many. First, music is not a language, at least not in the sense of conveying specific meanings through specific symbols, in standard patterns analogous to syntax, and governed by rules of structure analogous to grammar. While attempts have been made to analyze music in linguistic terms, these ultimately failed because music is of a totally different realm. Second, it is questionable whether music really can transcend linguistic barriers and culturally determined behaviors, though some forms of emotional communication, such as crying, are so fundamentally human that virtually all perceive it the same way. What we see with music does not support the notion that music is a universal language, unfortunately, and we do not believe such a concept to be useful in examining the world’s musics. 3 1 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y SEMIOTICS As will become increasingly clear as you begin your exploration of the world’s vast array The study of signs of musics, musical expression is both culturally determined and culturally encoded with and systems of meaning. The field of semiotics, which deals with signs—systems of symbols and their signs, including in meanings—offers an explanation of how music works. Although semiotics was not created music. specifically for music, it has been adapted by Canadian scholar Jean-Jacques Nattiez and others for this purpose. A semiotic view of music asserts that the musical sound itself is a “neutral” symbol that has no inherent meaning. Music is thus thought of as a “text” or “trace” that has to be interpreted. In a process called the poietic, the creator of the music encodes meanings and emotions into the “neutral” composition or performance, which is then interpreted by anyone listening to the music, a process called the esthesic. Each individual listener’s interpretation is entirely the result of cultural conditioning and life experience. When a group of people sharing similar backgrounds encounters a work or performance of music, there is the possibility that all (or most) will interpret what they hear similarly—but it is also possible that there will be as many variant interpretations as there are listeners. In short, meaning is not passed from the creator through the music to the listener. Instead, the listener applies an interpretation that is independent of the creator. However, when both creator and listener share similar backgrounds, there is a greater likelihood that the listener’s inter- pretation will be consistent with the creator’s intended meaning. When the creator and listener are from completely different backgrounds, miscommu- nication is almost inevitable. When, for example, an Indian musician performs what is called a raga, he or she is aware, by virtue of life experience and training, of certain emotional feelings or meanings associated with that raga. An audience of outsiders with little know- ledge of Indian music or culture must necessarily interpret the music according to their own experience and by the norms of their society’s music. They are unlikely to hear things as an Indian audience would, being unaware of culturally determined associations between, say, specific ragas and particular times of the day. Such miscommunication inevitably contributes ETHNOCENTRISM to the problem of ethnocentrism: the assumption that one’s own cultural patterns and under- The unconscious standings are normative and that those that differ are “strange,” “exotic,” or “abnormal.” assumption that Whenever we encounter something new, we subconsciously compare it to all our one’s own cultural previous experiences. We are strongly inclined to associate each new experience with the background is most similar thing we have encountered previously. People with a narrow range of life “normal,” while that of others is experience have less data in their memory bank, and when something is truly new, none of “strange” or us has any direct way to compare it to a known experience. Misunderstandings easily occur “exotic.” at this point. We attempt to rationalize the unfamiliar in terms of our own experience and often “assume” the unknown is consistent with what we already know. Even if a newly encountered music sounds like something we recognize, we cannot be sure it is similar in any way. Perhaps a war song from another culture might sound like a lullaby in our culture. Knowing about this potential pitfall is the first step in avoiding the trapdoor of ethnocentrism. Beware of Labels The German philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) famously warned, “labels terminate thinking.” But because world music is such a vast subject, it must be broken down 4 B E F O R E T H E T R I P B E G I N S : F U N D A M E N T A L I S S U E S 1 into manageable subcategories, which are labeled for the purpose of identification. While such labels are useful, they can also mislead. In teaching the musics of the world it is often tempting to use labels as shorthand. Unfortunately, not everyone understands their meanings and limitations; furthermore, these labels are employed in a variety of ways depending on the user’s background. Thus, while we prefer not to employ such labels here, we recognize that they are difficult to avoid. When we do use them, we will attempt to limit them to particular circumstances. Anyone who aspires to write a music survey, especially one covering the entire planet, cannot avoid using some labels. On the one hand, we recognize the problems with labels, especially the danger of stereotyping and over-generalized statements. On the other hand, a “phenomenological” perspective allowing no possibility for generalizations—emphasizing as it does the individuality of each experience—has no limitations. We recognize the dangers of labels and generalizations but find some of them unavoidable. Terms that can cause trouble when studying the musics of the world include folk, traditional, classical, art, popular, and neotraditional. For example, the term folk (from the German volk) carries with it a set of meanings and attitudes derived from the Romantic movement in literature, which flourished in Europe during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. During this period German scholars began exploring their own culture’s roots in opposition to the dominant “classical” culture imported from France and Italy. Romanticism championed the common people over the elite, and in the early nine- teenth century, writers such as the Grimm brothers and the pair Arnim von Achim and Clemens Brentano began collecting stories and song texts from the “peasants,” whose wisdom was seen as equal to that of learned scholars. As a result of its origin, then, the term folk music carries with it a lot of nineteenth-century European baggage, which can clutter our thinking when it is applied to non-European musics. Folk, classical, and popular are the trio of words most commonly used to categorize and distinguish among various types of music. Defining them individually is one issue; taken together they are problematic because they suggest a hierarchical value system in which classical is typically considered highest, folk of a much lower value, and popular at the lowest level. We would much prefer to have value-neutral terms with universally applicable definitions, but this is a difficult, if not impossible, goal within any single language. When we use terms such as folk, classical, and popular in this text, we mean to represent points on a continuum rather than distinct categories. We do not intend any hierarchical associ- ation, rather the terms are used merely as descriptors. The term classical has several meanings and thus carries with it the potential for confusion. It may suggest connection with or influence from the styles of ancient Greece and Rome, though this usage is rarely associated with music. It also denotes a revered model or the epitome of a style or type. Thus we describe a 1956 Thunderbird as a “classic” car or certain films as “classics.” In a sense many of the so-called classical musics of the world, be they European, Arabic, or Asian, conform to this second definition. A third definition, however, suggests value: it identifies classical as the highest form, that is, the best. Such a usage, particularly with reference to European “classical music,” implies a problematic belief in a canon of “great works” created by a pantheon of “great composers”—a belief that has led to charges of cultural domination by “dead, white, European males.” Finally, for com- mercial purposes and in the minds of many non-musicians, the word classical is used to refer to anything orchestral, even soundtracks and Broadway shows. 5 1 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y American Drum and Bugle Corps. Is it folk, popular, or classical? Perhaps the words folk, classical, and popular would be more useful if defined in economic terms. Classical, in that case, would denote music created in contexts where there is enough surplus wealth to release musicians from the necessity of providing their own food and shelter, so that they may spend their lives practicing their art and thinking up increasingly complex and technically challenging ways of creating and performing music. Competent performances of classical music produced under these conditions generally require specialized training and years of practice. Folk might denote music created and performed by people of modest means whose main occupation leaves limited time for practice and whose limited income leaves little money for expensive instruments. Such music is usually simpler in process and technically less demanding because its practitioners cannot devote the time and energy to it that classical musicians devote to their type of music. As such, folk music usually requires less rehearsal to be performed proficiently and is usually learned through observation, recordings, and informal instruction. Finally, put these words—these labels—to the test. Take as an example Drum and Bugle Corps, an offshoot of military brass bands originally created in the United States but now found world wide. Does “drum corps” exemplify folk, popular, or classical? The musicians are non-professionals and originally locally based but they perform as a large, complex ensemble after highly disciplined rehearsals playing carefully planned compositional routines. Stylistically their music is more likely to be popular in nature, though some corps play music from the Western classical tradition too. Can you realistically classify such groups under a single label? 6 B E F O R E T H E T R I P B E G I N S : F U N D A M E N T A L I S S U E S 1 Gerhard Kubik A N I N S I D E L O O K I became a scientist at age nine. My first exercise in data gathering was the documentation of the allied air raids on Vienna in World War II. I began to write my war diary when I was exactly eight and three-quarters years old, on August 13, 1943, under the impression of the devastating air raid on Wiener Neustadt, a small town south of Vienna. I completed my little book on April 15, 1945, just after the Russian Army had occupied the city. In 1947, when I was thirteen, I took the next step: I wrote a novel called Im Schloss (In the Castle) exploring my adventures with a youth gang. A year later I embarked on writing my second novel, with its plot set in China. Those original manuscripts are preserved. Music did not yet play a significant role in my life. But when it began to Gerhard Kubik do so, it was jazz. By 1948 I was addicted to Lionel Hampton, Woody Herman’s Anthropology (Ethnology). My dissertation was on the “Four Brothers,” Cab Calloway, Glenn Miller, and then, in Mukanda boys’ initiation schools I had studied in eastern 1952, I fell in love with Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Stan Angola in 1965. In 1972 I was back to jazz, playing kwela, a Getz, Gerry Mulligan, “Bop” and “Cool.” Around 1951 I South African jazz derivative in the band of Daniel and Donald began to take lessons on the clarinet. Intellectually, I was Kachamoa of Malawi. During the 1970s we toured no less attracted to Sigmund Freud, Ludwig Klages, the poetry of than thirty-three countries of the world with our music: in Arthur Rimbaud (in French) and, somewhat later, Stefan Africa, Europe, and South America. Zweig, Arthur Schopenhauer, and George Orwell. After My first visit to the United States was in 1977, thanks to an completing high school in 1953, I became a professional jazz invitation by blues researcher David Evans to speak on his musician. My band won the First Prize at the 1959 Jazz panel at the Musicology Congress in Berkeley, California. Festival in Vienna. But then it dissolved and I set out on my Ever since the 1960s I have spent about half a year’s time first long trip to Africa, walking and hitchhiking from Europe. on fieldwork in Africa or elsewhere, and the other half in It took one year from October 1959 to October 1960, and I Europe, writing up my notes and teaching. I have written passed through twelve African countries. Studying the court many books on anthropological, ethnomusicological, and music in the Kingdom of Buganda, East Africa, I made some ethnopsychological topics, and published extensively in discoveries in the field of audiopsychology; for example, scholarly magazines. My recent works include Africa and the the perceptual phenomenon I termed “inherent patterns” Blues (University of Mississippi Press, 1999) and Theory of or I.P. effect. That is how I became known in the field African Music in two volumes (University of Chicago Press, of ethnomusicology. After many other long field trips, I 2010). You might also like to study my video, African Guitar completed university studies in 1971 with a Ph.D. in Cultural (Stefan Grossman’s Guitar Workshop, NJ, 1995). 7 1 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Gypsy musicians entertain diners at an outdoor restaurant in Bugac, Hungary, a village near Kecskemet on the Great Plain (Puszta). From left to right: violin, cimbalom hammered dulcimer, string bass, viola Popular, a term that also means many things to different people, would, in economic terms, denote music that is widely disseminated by various types of media and supported by a broad base of relatively casual consumers, whose purchases make possible productions that may reach spectacular proportions. Popular music, therefore, needs to appeal to a broad spectrum of the population to achieve financial success. Critics of popular music may see it as merely reflecting current fashions in music, but we should remember that popular music, like all music, has the potential to be politically challenging when the sentiments expressed oppose the status quo, or unifying when the words express widely held feelings. Our discussion has to this point avoided the term traditional. Music that is spoken of as “traditional” is often contrasted with the individually innovative music of European classicism. It is also frequently contrasted with popular music or modernized music and is therefore considered synonymous with “folk.” Traditional music is assumed to change little over time and to thereby preserve values long held by the community. Although the implication is that a special characteristic of “traditional” music is its emphasis on continuity over innovation, a great deal of music otherwise labeled as “classical” or “popular” is equally conservative or continuous in style. However, while we admit there are numerous problems with the term traditional, we doubt that any text on world musics can avoid its use entirely. At the very least, it can be said to be a more descriptive and less value-laden term than folk. ETHNO- MUSICOLOGY The scholarly study Knowing the World’s Musics of any music within its contemporary What can we know about the world’s musics and how do we obtain this knowledge? These cultural context. are basic questions in the field of ethnomusicology, but there is rarely a single answer to any 8 B E F O R E T H E T R I P B E G I N S : F U N D A M E N T A L I S S U E S 1 question. If music is a part of the culture that produces it, and both the makers and the listeners of the music share similar lifetimes of experience that give the music meaning, then how can we as outsiders experience this music? Obviously, upon first encounter with new sounds, our own personal life experience is all we have to draw on, and the ethnocentrism we referred to earlier may intrude. The sound quality of a singer may sound unpleasantly nasal compared to vocalists trained in a Western conservatory, while the performance of a Western orchestral symphony may sound bom- bastic and hideous to a rural farmer from Mongolia. One of the assumptions of those who study the musics of the world is that, with additional knowledge, we can gradually overcome our ethnocentrism and accept each music on its own terms. This is each individual student’s challenge. While several fields of scholarship have included music as part of their purview, such as anthropology, sociology, and folklore, the main field devoted to world musics is FOLKLORE ethnomusicology. In its earlier days, at the end of the nineteenth century, the field was called The study of orally comparative musicology, or in German, Vergleichende Musikwissenschaft. At the time, transmitted folk knowledge and many European colonial powers sent researchers to their growing empires to gather materials culture. for what became the great ethnographic museums of Europe. Early ethnomusicologists worked in these museums and in archives, using as their primary source materials, record- COMPARATIVE ings and other artifacts brought back from the “field” by collectors. Sometimes, however, MUSICOLOGY scholars were able to work directly with foreign musicians on tour, such as when Germans An early term Carl Stumpf and Erich Moritz von Hornbostel recorded Siamese (Thai) musicians in Berlin for the field in 1900 for the Phonogrammarchiv, the first international archive of recordings. that became ethnomusicology, Early ethnomusicologists focused on description and classification, using the rapidly when research accumulating materials found in European museums. Germans Curt Sachs and the afore- emphasized mentioned E. M. von Hornbostel, for example, drew from earlier models to evolve a comparisons of folk comprehensive system for classifying musical instruments based on what vibrates to make and non-Western musical sound. (This system is discussed in Chapter 2.) Scholars throughout Europe music with Western transcribed recorded music into notation and attempted classifications based on genre, scale, practices. and other observable characteristics. This was the era of the “armchair” scholar who prac- ticed the “science” (Wissenschaft) of music. Over time, scholars began doing their own fieldwork, during which they recorded music FIELDWORK in the field on cylinder, disc, wire, and later magnetic acetate tape. Many of these scholars The first-hand study thought of themselves as ethnographers or anthropologists. Among the greatest of these of music in its original context, a was an American woman, Frances Densmore (1867–1957), who, working directly with Native technique derived American singers and instrumentalists, wrote fifteen books and numerous articles, and released from anthropology. seven commercial recordings, mostly through the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. American ethnomusicology began changing dramatically in the 1960s, especially because of five men and the academic programs they influenced. Alan Merriam (1923–1980)—of Indiana University’s Department of Anthropology—published in 1964 The Anthropology of Music, one of the most influential books ever written on the subject, in which he defined ethnomusicology as “the study of music in culture.” Unlike the older school of Europeans who viewed music as sounds to be analyzed apart from their cultural context, Merriam saw music as a human behavior. Similarly, British anthropologist John Blacking (1928–1990) has defined music as “humanly organized sound.” Ki Mantle Hood (1918–2005), originally a composer, provided a musicological alter- native at the University of California, Los Angeles’s Institute of Ethnomusicology, by 9 1 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Frances Densmore emphasizing what he called bi-musicality. In recording a Piegan this approach researchers combine learning to Indian c.1916 play the music under study with field observation. (Library of David Park McAllester (1916–2006) and others at Congress) Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, created a program in “world musics” that empha- sized performance and composition taught by masters of musical traditions from around the world, especially India, Africa, and Indonesia. Finally, Bruno Nettl (b. 1930), a specialist in both Native American and Persian musics, has influ- enced the course of ethnomusicology over the last fifty years, both through his teaching at the University of Illinois and his numerous pub- lications, and continues to help guide the field through a period of increasing diversification. For many, Nettl’s work represents both common sense and the mainstream of the profession. Thus, ethnomusicology has long been pulled in two directions: the anthropological and the musicological, the first centering on the study of human behavior and cultural context, the second emphasizing the sonic artifacts of human music-making. Regardless of orientation, however, most ethnomusicology programs are found in college and university departments of music. Typical programs include courses for non-majors, especially world music surveys, and more specialized courses on both broad and specific areas of the world as well as courses in research methodology. Many schools offer opportunities to play in world music performance ensembles. Ethnomusicology today, however, has been much influenced by new ways of thinking generally subsumed under the heading postmodernism. A reaction against modernism or positivism, in which the establishment of “truth” is based on verifiable “facts,” postmod- ernism de-emphasizes description and the search for absolute truth in favor of interpretation and the acceptance of the relativity of truth. A great variety of intellectual approaches, mostly borrowed from other disciplines, offer ethnomusicologists new ways to interpret the meaning of music. These include gender studies and feminist theories; Marxist interpretations; semiotic approaches; cognitive studies; performance studies; attention to such issues as identity, post-colonialism, and the political ramifications of music; and, especially, popular music studies. The latter has risen rapidly since about 1980 under the influence of the “Manchester School” in England, and is associated with the term cultural studies, which denotes several postmodern theoretical approaches used to interpret popular culture. The study of popular music, however, has recently led to an apparent decrease of interest in fieldwork among ethnomusicologists and a parallel de-emphasis of the techniques appro- priate to the study of “traditional” music, because popular musics are more easily studied through the media than are traditional musics. 10 B E F O R E T H E T R I P B E G I N S : F U N D A M E N T A L I S S U E S 1 The Life of an Ethnomusicologist What do ethnomusicologists actually do? How do they learn about the world’s musics? We PHASES OF view the process as having four basic phases: (1) preparation; (2) fieldwork; (3) analysis; ETHNO- and (4) dissemination. Before going to the field, whether it be a faraway nation in Central MUSICOLOGICAL Asia, a region of Indonesia, or a nearby town in their own country, ethnomusicologists must RESEARCH (1) preparation prepare themselves by learning as much as they can about the area, the kinds of music they (2) fieldwork will encounter, and the conditions under which they will do their study. This is best accom- (3) analysis plished through the use of library, media, and Internet resources and through interaction (4) dissemination with others who know the area, especially people who grew up there or perhaps still live there. In many cases researchers must spend years studying the language of their area, which often is one that is rarely taught. Well-prepared field researchers will need not only a good deal of expensive recording equipment but also the wits and maturity to deal with all sorts of unexpected situations, both technical and social. Besides doing research in the field, ethnomusicologists must also live and eat, and these necessities may present great challenges when unfamiliar food is on the menu or living conditions are radically different. In the course of their research, scholars may seek to acquire first-hand experience through participation in various rituals, festivals, and other events, and may need to create professional documents through still photography, videography, audio recording, and interviews. A detailed journal is important, not to mention the logs that retain the details of recordings and photographs. The fieldwork phase can last anywhere from a few days to several years. Based on our experience, we can say that the longer one stays in the field, the more one will know but the less one will understand. This apparent irony stems from the increasing perception of complexity that accompanies prolonged exposure to any culture: the more you experience it, the more you realize how much more there is to learn. First-hand experience teaches us that all cultures are deep and complex and that understanding a music is far more demanding than simply collecting it. What do ethnomusicologists do with the material and knowledge they acquire? It is a standing joke among ethnomusicologists that we spend thousands of dollars and months of our lives, braving tough weather and unfamiliar foods, to bring back a few videos that we look at only once. The material collected in the field is considered “raw.” After it is collected, ethnomusicologists must find ways to analyze, interpret, and disseminate what they have collected. This is done primarily through teach- ing, writing and reading “papers” at professional meetings, writing chap- ters, journal articles, and books and, perhaps, compiling CDs or DVDs for commercial release. As researchers acquire expertise in an area, they may be called upon to referee articles Co-author (AS) submitted to journals, write reviews blessed by a spirit of books and CDs, or serve on state- dancer in northern or national-level panels that award Thailand (Christina grants to individuals and arts organ- Shahriari) 11 1 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y izations. Most ethnomusicologists work as professors in colleges and universities, though some hold positions in publicly funded agencies such as the National Endowment for the Arts, while others work for museums, community programs, and art centers. A few work as freelance scholars and musicians. Few can afford to be just ethnomusicologists—that is, researchers—full time. Most must spend the majority of their time doing other kinds of work. Representation: What Musics Does One Study? A survey course on the musics of the world poses a challenge far different from that presented by a course covering the classical musics of Europe. In the latter case there is a rough consensus on who the “great composers” are and what the “great works” are. These make up what is called a canon—that is, a foundational list of core composers and works that every music student is expected to know. World music courses have no such canon, and certainly no list of great composers. The world is too large and there are too many choices for much consensus to form. Therefore, one must consider not only how to organize such a course but what to include. What should every world music student know? If the organ- ization is geographical, what genres and particular examples should “represent” a country or culture? Our choices reveal our biases and assumptions about what constitutes the music of a given place. Some might choose to emphasize contemporary culture by including a greater proportion of urban-based popular musics than “traditional” ones. Others would argue that the essence of a culture is in its traditional music. There is no way to resolve these questions except by agreeing that any world music course is only the beginning, the first few steps of a learning journey that can last a lifetime. In a way, it does not matter how one begins as much as it matters that one actually begins. Resources for the Study of the World’s Musics Today’s students are fortunate to live in a time when resources for the study of world musics are growing exponentially. The proliferation of publications, both print and recorded, has been astounding. We suggest the following as likely the most comprehensive and readily available resources for further study. Reference Works Two major reference works that introduce world music include the ten-volume Garland Encyclopedia of World Music and The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The “Garland,” as ethnomusicologists label the former, includes nine volumes which cover geographically defined areas of the world, with the tenth volume being a compilation of resources. Each volume is between 1,000 and 1,500 pages and includes both general and specific articles, hundreds of photos and musical examples, a CD, and an extensive list of bibliographic and recorded resources. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, in twenty-nine volumes offers extensive coverage of the world’s musics, primarily through articles on specific countries. While the series emphasizes Western art 12 B E F O R E T H E T R I P B E G I N S : F U N D A M E N T A L I S S U E S 1 music, there are numerous entries devoted to world music. The “Grove” is also available in an online form, but this will likely have to be accessed at a subscribing library. Also worth consulting is the two-volume edition of World Music: The Rough Guide, now in its third edition, which includes articles on musics throughout the world, often with emphasis on popular styles. Video The variety of world musics on video is growing rapidly. Two collections deserve special mention. First is the JVC Anthology of the World’s Music and Dance, a series of video clips with accompanying booklets. One drawback of this collection is that it was compiled in large part from pre-existing footage, and as a result in some areas the coverage is uneven or unrepresentative. Also worth mentioning is the Beats of the Heart documentary series, produced by Jeremy Marre for the world music label Shanachie, which includes narrated documentaries on such varied topics as Indian filmi songs, Jamaican reggae, and music in Thailand. The Internet is now also a valuable and easily accessed place for video of an unimaginable array of world musics. While the footage found on sites such as YouTube is generally of amateur quality, it allows free access to a vast arena of world music and culture that was barely imaginable even just a decade ago. Audio Recordings A great variety of companies in the United States, Europe, and Japan produce commercial world music CDs that are available internationally. Unfortunately, the majority of them are produced by non-specialists, and therefore the information provided in liner notes must be approached with caution. What is perhaps the most significant series of recordings was originally released on Moses Asch’s Folkways label, and is now being reissued on CD in expanded form by Smithsonian-Folkways in Washington, DC, along with new releases. Other important series have been produced by Lyrichord, Nonesuch, World Music Library, Pan, Rounder, Multicultural Media, and many other record companies around the globe. A vast amount of world music can be found online today as well. Music access applications, such as iTunes, are increasingly popular around the world and provide an ever-increasing stream of music access to our global soundscape. Journals Most journals are produced by scholarly societies, and therefore the articles in them tend to be specialized, and at times obscure. Serious students, however, can gain much from such material. The most significant journals to consider include Ethnomusicology, Yearbook for Traditional Music, American Music, Asian Music, Journal of African Music, Ethnomusicology Forum, The World of Music, The Journal of Popular Culture, and a variety of other journals dedicated to specific areas of the world, such as Chime (focused on China). 13 1 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Questions to Consider 1. What do ethnomusicologists mean when they say, “Music is universal, but it is not a universal language”? 2. What are the potential problems in classifying music as “classical,” “folk,” or “popular”? 3. How might an ethnomusicologist approach the study of Western classical music differently from a musicologist? 4. What is “fieldwork”? What is its importance to the study of world music? 5. In what ways does world music study require an interdisciplinary approach? 6. What is ethnocentrism? Have you ever experienced it? w ww On Your Own Time Visit the textbook website to find these resources for further exploration on your own. Book: Kubik, Gerhard. Theory of African Music, Vols. 1 & 2. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/T/bo8648201.html Book: Kubik, Gerhard. Africa and the Blues. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1999. http://www.upress.state.ms.us/books/11 Book: Merriam, Alan. The Anthropology of Music. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1964. http://www.nupress.northwestern.edu/Title/tabid/68/ISBN/0-8101-0607-8/Default.aspx Book: Blacking, John. How Musical Is Man? Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973. http://www.washington.edu/uwpress/search/books/BLAHOC.html Book: Nettl, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology: Thirty-one Issues and Concepts. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2005. http://www.press.uillinois.edu/books/catalog/56txy8mr9780252030338.html Website: The Herb Alpert School of Music, Department of Ethnomusicology at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) http://www.ethnomusic.ucla.edu/ Website: Ethnomusicology Institute, Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology at Indiana University http://www.indiana.edu/~folklore/ethno.shtml Website: School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London http://www.soas.ac.uk/ Website: Guide to Programs, Society for Ethnomusicology http://webdb.iu.edu/sem/scripts/guidetoprograms/guidelist.cfm Website: International Council for Traditional Music http://www.ictmusic.org/ Website: Musical Instrument Museum (Phoenix, Arizona, USA) http://www.themim.org/ 14 B E F O R E T H E T R I P B E G I N S : F U N D A M E N T A L I S S U E S 1 Website: National Music Museum at the University of South Dakota (Vermillion, South Dakota USA) http://orgs.usd.edu/nmm/index.html Website: Grove Music Online http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/public/book/omo_gmo Website: Garland Encyclopedia of World Music http://glnd.alexanderstreet.com/ http://www.routledge.com/books/search/keywords/garland_encyclopedia_of_world_music/page_1/ published/ Video: JVC/Smithsonian Folkways Video Anthology of World Music http://lyrichord.com/jvcvideoanthologyofworldmusicanddance.aspx Journal: The Society for Ethnomusicology http://webdb.iu.edu/sem/scripts/publications/journal/journal.cfm Journal: Journal of the Society for Asian Music http://asianmusic.skidmore.edu/ Journal: Journal of African Music and Popular Culture http://www.uni-hildesheim.de/ntama/ 15 1 Aural Analysis: Listening to the World’s Musics 2 How to Listen to World Music 17 Range 27 Detail of four khawng mon “Talking” about Music 18 Melody 28 (bossed gong Timbre and Medium 18 Melodic Contour 28 circles) from Thailand Vocal Timbre 19 Ornamentation 28 Instrumental Timbre 19 Text Setting 29 Aerophones: Flutes, Reeds, Rhythm 29 and Trumpets 19 Beat and Tempo 29 Chordophones: Lutes and Accent and Meter 29 Zithers 21 Rhythmic Density 30 Idiophones: Plucked, Struck, and Shaken 22 Phonic Structure 30 Membranophones 24 Dynamics 31 Summary 25 Form 32 Pitch 25 An Inside Look: Bruno Nettl 32 Tuning System 25 Need to Know: Fundamentals of Music 33 Scale 27 Questions to Consider 33 Interval 27 On Your Own Time 34 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 How to Listen to World Music The primary objective of this book is to expose you, the reader, to a generous variety of musical traditions from cultures around the globe. Learning something about the music of other people is like gaining a window into their world and is a chance to explore the creative power of humanity. The ability to recognize various musical traditions and express some knowledge about them is a good start toward crossing the cultural boundaries that often divide us. This book is not only about world music; it is about people, cultures, geography, and history as well. Some music traditions are easy to recognize, whereas others require you to develop a systematic method for identifying what you hear. Each person’s method will undoubtedly be different, but here are some initial suggestions on how to listen to unfamiliar world music. Begin by listening to the music examples included with this text before reading any of the material. Remember your initial gut feeling. Often your first impression of a musical sound helps you remember that sound in the future. Does the music sound familiar or completely alien? Do you like it, or does it make you want to skip to the next track? Does the music seem busy, cold, happy, relaxing, heavy? Does it sound like rain, whale calls, a screeching owl, a music box? Any image you can use later to help you recognize the music could be helpful. Make the music samples part of your daily life, even if you don’t like every example. Many new musical sounds require you to develop a taste for them before they can be appre- ciated. Listen in your car, before you go to bed, or while exercising, walking the dog, cooking, and so on. Use the book to help you better understand the form and intent of each example. It is necessary to read each chapter to connect what you hear with what you know. If you don’t know anything about the type of music you’re listening to, what you hear won’t mean much. You may enjoy the music, but you can’t fully appreciate it unless you understand what is happening and why. You will know you are “familiar” with a particular musical example when you can recognize it after just a few seconds of listening, and answer “yes” to the following questions: • Do you know which country the example comes from? • Can you visualize the instruments, imitate the sound of the music, and anticipate changes in rhythm? • Are you knowledgeable of the example’s cultural associations? Immediately knowing in what contexts the music is performed, or with which religion it is associated, are also indicators that you are becoming familiar with the tradition it represents. Don’t limit yourself to the musical examples provided with this text. Find other recordings of the same types of music and compare them with the given ones. Identify the common- alities in musical sound so that you’re able to recognize the tradition, not just the specific recordings from the book. Remember, music is universal, but it is not a universal language. Understanding world music requires an open mind and a willingness to acknowledge that other perspectives, ideas, and attitudes are equally as valid as your own. Our world is “smaller” than it has ever been in history. You will likely have opportunities to meet people from many of the places 17 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y discussed in this book. Knowing something about their music can help you communicate with them and may lead to cultural experiences you would never have anticipated. So, listen with both your mind and your emotions, as well as your ears. “Talking” about Music Every discipline, be it physics, economics, or art, has its own jargon, a vocabulary that must be learned. Music is no exception. Because music is conceptual, its components require names in order for discussion to occur. Music terms such as melody and rhythm are familiar to most readers, musician and non-musician alike. Other terms, such as heterophony, idiophone, or rhythmic density usually require some explanation. This chapter seeks to put all readers on an equal footing by explaining basic music concepts, as well as introducing certain terms peculiar to the discipline of ethnomusicology. A musical sound has four basic components: timbre, pitch, rhythm and dynamics. TIMBRE Timbre, or the quality of a musical sound, is inherently linked to a medium—that is, to the The tone quality or object or person producing the sound. Pitch is synonymously referred to in musical terms color of a musical as tone. It is most often expressed with a letter name equating to a frequency; for example, sound. the standard Western concert pitch of A = 440 Hertz (Hz). Rhythm depends on durations of sounds, which are often organized into regular patterns. Finally, dynamics denotes the PITCH A tone’s specific volume, or relative loudness or softness, of a sound, and can be measured in decibels (dBs). frequency level, measured in Hertz (Hz). Timbre and Medium RHYTHM The easiest way to learn to recognize a world music tradition is to become familiar with its The lengths, or media—that is, the sounds of its typical instruments and vocal qualities. In order to identify durations, of sounds as patterns in time. a specific medium, we must first become familiar with its characteristic timbre or “color.” Most terms used to describe timbre are based on analogies between musical sound and DYNAMICS everyday physical and sensory experience. Terms such as nasal, dark, mellow, strained, The volume of a rough, soothing, grating, and so on, are highly subjective when applied to music but are musical sound. nevertheless helpful in describing “aural color.” Just as we distinguish visually among red, blue, and green, so too we distinguish between aural “colors”—that is, among the characteristic qualities that define the sounds of, say, the trumpet, the violin, or the flute. (Compare Tibetan Buddhist Ritual—CD 2.5; Cape Breton fiddling—CD 3.17; Native American flute—CD 3.28.) In the case of “visual color,” determining the differences among red, yellow, and green is fairly easy. In order to differentiate among evergreen, lime, and emerald, however, one must possess a sharper and more experienced eye. Similarly, while it may be easy to hear the difference between a violin and a trumpet, learning to distinguish the similar sounds of a banjo, koto, and sitar from one another may take some time even for an attentive listener. (Compare Hindustani Raga (sarod/ tambura)—CD 1.5; Gu qin—CD 1.16; Jali with kora—CD 3.1.) Fortunately, in addition to timbre there are other elements that can help you identify what you are hearing, such as pitch, rhythm, dynamics, style, and various extra-musical factors. When listening to an example of an unfamiliar music tradition for the first time, you must determine whether you hear voices, instruments, or a combination. (Compare Steel 18 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 band—CD 3.7; Lined Hymn—CD 3.19; Gospel Choir—CD 3.23.) The next step is to identify how many voices or instruments you hear. Either you hear a soloist or a group, also called an ensemble. (Compare Gu qin—CD 1.16; Jiangnan sizhu—CD 1.17.) If what you hear is an ensemble, determine whether it is a small group, such as an instrumental trio or vocal duet, or a large ensemble, such as an orchestra or choir. (Compare Mbira dza vadzimu—CD 2.23; Polyrhythmic ensemble—CD 2.19.) The larger the ensemble, the more difficult it will be to distinguish specific media. However, this very difficulty may help you hear the ensemble as a whole rather than as individual performers leading you to a recognition of the tradition. In the instances where the ensemble is small enough that you can determine roughly how many performers there are, the next step is to try to identify each medium (instruments and/or voices) specifically. Vocal Timbre In the case of voices, you should be able to distinguish between male and female voices fairly easily, primarily based on their ranges. (Compare Bulgarian Women’s Choir—CD 2.18; Amazonian Indian chant—CD 3.11.) While range is a concept related to pitch, voices can also have timbral qualities that will help you to identify what you hear. Certain traditions— such as bluegrass and European opera—feature vocal timbres so distinctive that you can easily distinguish them. Instrumental Timbre In the case of instruments, timbre is closely related to instrument construction. The study ORGANOLOGY of musical instruments is known as organology. Essential to organological study is the The study classification of instruments. In the European art music tradition, instruments are typically of musical indentified using five basic categories: strings, winds, brass, percussion, and keyboards. instruments. This system, however, does not work well when applied to the rest of the world’s musical instruments. SACHS–HORNBOS- In the field of ethnomusicology, the Sachs–Hornbostel system, created by German TEL SYSTEM musicologists Curt Sachs and Eric M. von Hornbostel early in the twentieth century, is the Standard predominant system used to describe and classify instruments. The four primary categories classication system are aerophones, chordophones, idiophones, and membranophones; electrophones have for musical become a fifth category. An instrument is classified according to what part of it vibrates to instruments created produce the sound. Each of these primary categories has several subcategories. Knowledge by Curt Sachs and of only the more common subcategories is usually enough to help you perceive the timbre Erik M. von of a musical instrument and identify it. The more specifically you can subcategorize an Hornbostel. instrument’s construction, however, the more accurately you will understand how the AEROPHONE construction affects the unique timbre of the instrument. Instruments that require air to produce Aerophones: Flutes, Reeds, and Trumpets sound—namely, flutes, reeds, Aerophones are defined as instruments producing sound through the direct vibration of air, trumpets, and rather than through the vibration of air by another medium, such as a string or membrane. bellows-driven Aerophones are typically subdivided into three categories: flutes, reeds, and trumpets. Flutes instruments. 19 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y (top left) are defined as instruments in which a column of air is set in vibration when the air is split A Japanese noh on an edge. (Listen to Native American flute—CD 3.28.) Reed instruments have one or more kan horizontal flute small pieces of material, such as cane, bamboo, or metal, that vibrate(s) when air is blown over or through them and into a tube. (Listen to Uilleann bagpipes—CD 2.16.) Trumpets (top right) require the performer to vibrate the lips rather than a reed, as they blow air into the Double-reed aerophone (pi) instrument. (Listen to Australian Aborigine song with didjeridu—CD 1.1.) Recognition of from Thailand the characteristic timbres of flutes, reeds, and trumpets is an important first step toward becoming a discriminating listener. Keep in mind, however, that these terms refer to general categories, not specific instruments such as the European (“silver”) flute or brass trumpet. The ntahera ivory horn ensemble of the Asantehene, Kumase, Ghana (Joseph S. Kaminski) 20 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 Chordophones: Lutes and Zithers Chordophones are defined as having one or more strings stretched between two points. CHORDOPHONE Sound is produced when a string vibrates. There are many chordophones in the world of Four types music, but two basic types, lutes and zithers, comprise the majority. The shape of the of stringed instruments: lutes, instrument is the key feature that distinguishes a lute from a zither. The strings of a zither zithers, harps, lyres. are stretched parallel to the entire sounding board, as with a piano. Thus nearly the whole instrument acts as a resonator. (Listen to Dastgah for santur and voice—CD 2.8.) In addition to a resonating body, a lute has a neck, which allows a performer to vary the acoustical length of a string to produce different pitches, as with a guitar. Because its neck does not act as a resonator, a lute generally has less resonance than a zither of the same size, and its sound dissipates more quickly. (Listen to Country Blues—CD 3.24.) The most common zithers are either hammered, as with the piano, or plucked, as with the Japanese koto, while lutes are generally either plucked, as with a guitar, or bowed, as with a violin. A hammered zither tends to have a more reverberant sound timbre than other types of chordophones. The resonance of a plucked lute will die away almost immediately as the vibration amplification of each note diminishes. (Listen to Arabic Taqasim (buzuq and ud)—CD 2.7.) The sounds of a plucked lute or zither are further distinguishable by whether a plectrum or a finger plucks the string. The string vibration of a bowed lute is FRET continuous for as long as the bow hairs are pulled across the string; thus, the sound does A bar or ridge found on chordophones not immediately fade until the bowing stops. (Listen to Cape Breton fiddling—CD 3.17.) In that enables addition to being plucked or bowed, lutes are either fretted or fretless. A fret is a straight bar performers to of wood, bamboo, or metal placed on the neck of a lute perpendicular to the direction of the produce different strings, as seen on a guitar. This enables an exact pitch to be played each time the performer melodic pitches presses the string against the fret. A fretless lute allows the performer to slide the finger with consistent between pitches, potentially sounding all of the frequencies between two distinct tones. frequency levels. (above) The Turkish tanbur lute (left) The Finnish kantele zither 21 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y (Left to right) (Listen to Hindustani Raga (sarod)—CD 1.5.) Fretted lutes are more likely to be plucked than Fretless lute fretless lutes, which are more frequently bowed. This is due to the fact that plucked lutes (sarod) and fretted sound tones of short duration, while bowed lutes can sustain longer tones. lute (sitar) from Based on their construction, other major chordophones fall into the lyre and harp India categories. The strings of lyres and harps are suspended by an open frame and are most often West African spike plucked. The string plane of a harp, in particular, runs perpendicular to the resonating body, harp (bolon) with rather than parallel to it as with lutes and zithers. The timbre of lyres and harps is generally strings attached to difficult to distinguish from that of lutes and zithers, though visually the construction is a string holder quite distinct. Ethiopian lyre Idiophones: Plucked, Struck, and Shaken IDIOPHONE Idiophones are defined as instruments that produce sound through the instrument itself Instruments that vibrating (idio meaning “itself”). A strong sound can be easily produced on most idiophones. themselves vibrate Practically anything can be considered an idiophone, from bottles to slamming doors, to to produce sound, change in your pocket. Bells, rattles, and a variety of other percussion instruments are such as rattles, common idiophones in a musical context. Most idiophones fall into one of three categories: bells, and various other kinds of plucked, struck, or shaken. percussion. Small, plucked idiophones are often a type of lamellophone, meaning that they have a lamella (tongue or prong) that is flexed, and then released, causing a brief sound before the vibration of the lamella ceases. (Listen to Mbira dza vadzimu—CD 2.23.) A music box, with its comb-like metal prongs, is probably the most familiar example of a lamellophone, but 22 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 Gourd rattle (shekere) from sub-Saharan Africa Three lamellophones from sub-Saharan Africa 23 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y the next most commonly encountered is the single, plucked lamella amplified by the mouth cavity, used for surrogate speech as much as for melody. Such instruments are known by many terms, such as “mouth harp,” “jaw harp,” and “jews harp,” the latter term probably a corruption of the French term jeu meaning “to play.” (Note also that this type of lamel- lophone is not a harp, that is, chordophone, despite the colloquial references.) Struck idiophones comprise the most varied category and include gongs, bells, wood blocks, and just about anything else that can be struck. (Listen to Vietnamese bronze gong ensemble—CD 1.9.) The great many timbres associated with such instruments are not easily generalized, though the sharp initial attack of the sound is a typical feature. Shaken idio- phones are most often rattles. (Listen to Mbira dza vadzimu (hosho rattle)—CD 2.23.) Most rattles have a hollowed center filled with small objects, such as pebbles, seeds, or sand. When the instrument is shaken, the particles bounce against the outer shell of the instrument causing it to vibrate. Other rattles are constructed so that the small particles are loosely fixed to the outside of the object, such as with a netted gourd rattle (e.g., shekere). Membranophones MEMBRA- Membranophones are defined as having a vibrating membrane, traditionally animal skin NOPHONE but often synthetic today, that is stretched over a frame. This category encompasses most Instruments, drums found in the world. The different types of drums are further categorized on the basis typically drums, of body shape—some, for example, are goblet-shaped, while others are barrel-shaped—and that use a vibrating according to whether they are single- or double-headed. Most drums are struck with either stretched membrane as the the hand or some implement, usually a stick. (Compare Hindustani Raga (tabla)—CD 1.5; principal means of Ghanaian talking drum—CD 2.20.) There are too many kinds of drums throughout the world sound production. Goblet drums (djembe) from sub-Saharan Africa 24 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 to make generalizations about timbre; however, smaller drums usually have a higher, tighter sound, while larger membranophones are deeper and earthier in character. Some drums can be tuned to specific pitches. Becoming familiar with the unique sounds of different drums takes time and effort. The essential first step is being able to distinguish between struck membranophones and struck idiophones. Not all membranophones are struck, however; those that are not—such as friction drums and “singing membranes” (e.g. kazoos)—are less common but particularly unique in timbre. (Listen to Samba (cuíca)—CD 3.14.) Summary Learning to distinguish among aerophones, chordophones, idiophones, and membranophones is the first step in training your ear to listen attentively to world music. Being able to recognize subcategories within these instrument groups greatly enhances your appreciation of sound and helps you identify the music you hear more quickly. You will encounter many similar types of instruments, such as the Japanese shakuhachi and the Native American flute, that are hard to distinguish from each other based on timbre alone. Fortunately, other aspects of musical performance such as pitch, rhythm, dynamics, and style can help you identify the tradition you hear. Differences in timbre, however, are most often what distinguish the sound of two instruments, even when all other aspects are identical. Familiarize yourself with the unique “aural colors” of each recorded example supplied with this text before trying to tackle the often more complicated issues associated with musical creation. Pitch Every sound can be described as having either a definite or indefinite pitch. A definite pitch PITCH is determined by the dominance of a specific frequency level, which is expressed as Hz A tone’s specific (Hertz or formerly, cycles per second) For example, the Euro-American “concert pitch,” A frequency level, measured in Hertz above middle C, has 440 Hz as its pillar frequency. Definite pitches are necessary to produce (Hz). melody and harmony. An indefinite pitch consists of a cluster of frequency levels at more or less equal volume—that is, no one level dominates. Indefinite pitches, such as those produced by handclaps or rattles, are most often used in a rhythmic capacity. (Listen to Kiribati group song (vocal—definite pitches; handclaps—indefinite pitches)—CD 1.4.) Some indefinite pitches are continuously variable, such as that of a siren. While indefinite pitches are regularly found in music traditions throughout the world, the varied uses of definite pitch are more often the primary focus of musical activity; therefore, the term pitch hereafter refers specifically to definite pitches. Tuning System The term tuning system denotes the entire collection of pitch frequencies commonly used in TUNING SYSTEM a given music tradition. Tuning systems are culturally determined. Our ears become accus- All the pitches tomed to the tuning system of the music we hear on a regular basis. When we hear an unfamiliar common to a musical tradition. tuning system, some of its pitches may sound “out of tune” because we have been culturally conditioned to accept only certain frequency levels as “correct.” Pitches with frequency levels significantly different from those in our familiar tuning system may sound strange. 25 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Tuning pegs and micro-tone tuners of Turkish kanun zither The basis for most tuning systems around the world is the octave. An octave is produced when the frequency level or Hz of a specific pitch is either doubled or halved. Using 440 Hz (A) as the example, the octave above is 880 Hz and the octave below is 220 Hz. Pitches that are an octave apart (or a series of octaves apart) are considered to be the “same” pitch (i.e., they have the same pitch name) even though they have different frequencies. An easy way to understand this concept is to listen to a man with a “low” voice and a woman with a “high” voice sing the “same” pitch. Our ears sense that the two pitches are equivalent even though the man may sing at a frequency level of 220 Hz while the woman sings at 880 Hz, two octaves higher. In the most commonly used European tuning system (called “equal-tempered tuning”), the octave is divided into twelve equal parts. In the Thai classical music tradition, however, the same octave is divided into only seven equal parts. (Compare Thai Piphat—CD 1.11; Highland bagpipes—CD 2.15.) Consequently, some of the pitches common to the European tuning system sound different from the pitches common to the Thai tuning system, whose intervals between pitches are wider. The tuning systems common to some traditions (e.g., in the Middle East) may use more than thirty discrete pitches within a single octave. (Listen to Arabic Taqasim—CD 2.7.) After extended exposure to a different tuning system, your ear will become accustomed to its standard frequencies. Even before this, however, the very “oddness” of an unfamiliar tuning system may help you recognize the musical tradition to which it belongs. 26 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 Scale While a tuning system encompasses all of the pitches commonly used in a music tradition, a scale consists of a set of pitches (generally expressed in ascending order) used in particular performances. For example, a pentatonic scale (penta meaning “five,” and tonic meaning “tone”) uses only five tones from the greater tuning system. (Listen to Jiangnan sizhu—CD 1.17.) Different pentatonic scales can be derived from a single tuning system, as long as the number of pitches available within a tuning system is greater than five. Thus, pitches 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 from a particular tuning system may constitute the pentatonic scale for one composition, while pitches 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 from that same system may form the pentatonic scale in a different composition. Scales in some music compositions are limited to as few as two or three pitches, while other pieces in the same tradition may use a greater number of pitches. Interval An interval is perhaps best thought of as the “distance” between two pitches. Intervals are described as either wide or narrow. A wide interval—such as that from A ascending to G (a seventh)—is one with a large difference in frequencies, while a narrow interval—such as that between A and B (a second)—has a relatively small difference. Likewise, the interval between the bottom and top pitches of an octave is wider than the interval distance of any two pitches within the octave. The difference between narrow and wide intervals can be both seen and heard. On a piano, for example, the size of an interval can be understood visually in terms of the distance between a pair of keys and aurally in terms of the frequency levels of the keys sounded, bearing in mind that Hz are expressed proportionally. A given tradition may be partially recognizable just based on its preference for wide or narrow intervals. Range Range refers to the span of pitches a given instrument or voice is capable of producing. It is described as being wide or narrow as well as high or low. An instrument with a narrow range is capable of producing fewer pitches than an instrument with a wide range. Instruments with wide ranges, such as the piano, are typically, though not always, physically larger than those with narrower ranges, such as the harmonica. Vocal ranges can vary substantially: trained professionals practice to extend their range, sometimes to more than three octaves, while an average person has a narrower vocal range of roughly two octaves or less. Ranges are also characterized in terms of where they fall on the spectrum from very low- pitched sounds to very high-pitched sounds. An instrument or voice may have a relatively high or low range in comparison to other musical media. A female, for example, generally has a higher vocal range than a male. Instruments also often have characteristic ranges; for example, a violin uses a high range, while a tuba plays in a low range. (Compare Beijing Opera—CD 1.18; Tibetan Buddhist ritual—CD 2.5.) 27 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Melody MELODY A melody is defined as an organized succession of pitches forming a musical idea. These An organized are the “phrases” and “tunes” that characterize a specific composition, such as “Twinkle, succession of Twinkle Little Star.” Because pitches exist in real time—that is, because each has a pitches forming a duration—rhythm also is always a necessary component of melody. If, for example, you play musical idea. a descending C major scale on any instrument, this is generally not considered a melody. However, if you vary the duration of each pitch, that is, rhythm, to correspond to the tune “Joy to the World,” those same pitches in combination with the new durations create a recognizable musical idea, or melody. Melodic Contour MELODIC A melody can be described in terms of its melodic contour, or shape. “Joy to the World,” CONTOUR for example, has a “descending” melodic contour as the pitches descend from high to low The general (see figure 1). Melodic contours are typically drawn as a graph representing the direction of direction and shape the melody. It is often useful to graph the contour of a melody to identify regularly occurring of a melody. features characteristic of a music tradition. For example, our graph of a Native American Plains Indian chant reveals a characteristic “cascading” melodic contour, reflecting the Plains Indian practice of holding certain pitches longer than others in the course of an overall descending melodic line (see figure 2; listen to Plains Indian Dance song—CD 3.27.) DRONE Drone pitches (pitches held or played continuously) can be represented as horizontal lines, A continuous or while chords (several pitches played at once) are typically represented with vertical lines, repeating sound. as in our graph of Irish bagpipe performance (see figure 3; listen to Uilleann bagpipes—CD 2.16.) Figure 1: Descending Figure 2: Cascading Melodic Contour Melodic Contour Figure 3: “Irish Bagpipe Melodic Contour” Ornamentation Ornamentation consists of embellishments or decorations that are applied to a melody, and thus modify the original musical idea. This is often done when performers improvise on a melody. Improvisation is the art of spontaneously creating music as it is performed. Some traditions have elaborate systematic procedures for ornamenting a melody, while others place less emphasis on ornamentation or shun it altogether. Ornamentation can consist of just a few added notes or a long series of tones meant to display a performer’s skills or make the basic melody more interesting. (Listen to Kriti—CD 1.6.) 28 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 Text Setting Text setting, a term limited to vocal performance, is the process of combining music and TEXT SETTING words. Settings can be one of two broad types, depending on the relationship they establish The rhythmic between syllables of text and individual sung pitches. If each syllable of a text corresponds relationship of words to melody; to one pitch, the text setting is considered syllabic. If, however, several pitches are sounded can be syllabic (one for a single syllable of text, the setting is considered melismatic. It is perhaps best, however, pitch per syllable) or to think of most text setting as being on a continuum between the purely syllabic and the melismatic (more purely melismatic. Most vocal performance falls somewhere on this continuum, more than one pitch per frequently toward the syllabic side. (Compare Islamic “Call to Prayer”—CD 2.6; Jali with syllable). kora—CD 3.1.) However, some traditions strongly emphasize either syllabic settings, as with rap vocal performance in hip-hop music, or melismatic settings, as with African-American spirituals. Rhythm Rhythm is essentially the relationship of sound durations. Some rhythms fall into regular RHYTHM patterns while others are less predictable. The lengths, or durations, of sounds as patterns in time. Beat and Tempo Beat is a regular pulsation of sound. The simplest example is your heartbeat, which pulsates at a relatively fixed rate. This rate, or speed, is called tempo. The tempo of your heartbeat increases when you become more physically active, whereas its speed decreases when you sleep. In the same way, musical tempo can be described as relatively fast or slow in relation to a basic beat. (Listen to Hurdy gurdy—CD 2.17.) Accent and Meter An accent is an emphasized beat. Accents frequently signal a particular kind of musical activity or a specific stage in a performance or piece. For example, the louder sound of accented beats may correspond to dance steps or signal the end of a performance. Accents are often used to indicate the underlying rhythmic structure of a musical performance. In many traditions, this structure is based on a system of grouping beats into regular units. Such grouping of beats is called meter. Most meters can be considered as either duple or triple. When groups of beats are divided by two, the meter is duple; when the beats are divided by three, it is triple. (Compare Russia Balalaika—CD 2.14; Mariachi—CD 3.16.) Meter may be articulated aurally by a single instrument, such as a woodblock sounding the basic beat. More typically, however, the meter is implied through the use of rhythms that elaborate on the basic beat to make the music more interesting. In some musical traditions meter can be asymmetrical (as in groupings of 2+3); in others, it is organized into closed cycles. Understanding these meters is important but hearing them is sometimes difficult. (Listen to P’ansori—CD 2.2.) In other cases, such as often occurs in Africa, musicians do not think in terms of meter but rather in terms of 29 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Xylophones (gyil) from Ghana (Amy Unruh) how rhythms relate. Ascribing a meter to music from such traditions can detract from one’s appreciation of the musician’s approach to music-making. The opposite of metered music is music in free rhythm. (Listen to Lined hymn—CD 3.19.) Such music has no regular pulse, as is the case with speech. Without a regular beat to follow, a meter cannot be established. If you cannot easily snap your fingers to a piece of music, it may be in free rhythm. Such freely rhythmic music is usually highly ornamented and when performed vocally tends to have melismatic text settings. Rhythmic Density The term rhythmic density refers to the relative quantity of notes between periodic accents or within a specific unit of time. Rhythmic density can be described as a continuum between low and high (or thin and thick). Long sustained tones in free rhythm with little melodic activity have a low rhythmic density in contrast to music with a steady, usually quick, tempo and numerous notes of short duration. (Compare Gu qin—CD 1.16; Akadinda—CD 2.24.) PHONIC If the music sounds “busy,” the rhythmic density is generally high (thick); if it sounds STRUCTURE “relaxed,” the density is more likely low (thin). The relationship between different sounds in a given piece; it can be Phonic Structure either monophony or some form of The term phonic structure (also phonic music structure and often described as texture) refers polyphony. to the organizational relationship between or among musical sounds. A single line of music, 30 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 whether performed by a soloist or in unison by an ensemble, is described as monophonic (adj.) or monophony (n.)—mono meaning “one”—as long as the performers play the same MONOPHONY pitches with the same rhythms. (Listen to Ballad—CD 3.18.) Music featuring melodic lines Music with a single performed an octave apart, as when male and female voices sing the same line of music in melodic line. different ranges, is still considered monophonic. For the study of world music, we have adopted the principle that multiple lines of music (or parts) performed simultaneously are considered polyphonic (adj.) or polyphony (n.) (Please note that in discussions by Western music specialists, the term polyphony is typically limited to what we have called “independent polyphony.”) Polyphony, therefore, has POLYPHONY three primary subsets: homophony, independent polyphony, and heterophony. The term The juxtaposition or homophony refers to multiple lines of music expressing the same musical idea in the same overlapping of multiple lines of meter, homo meaning “the same.” Music that is homophonic requires the use of at least two music; the three pitches played simultaneously at an interval other than an octave. In Euro-American musical types of polyphony traditions such music is referred to as harmonic, a description that generally implies the use are homophony, of chords, or combinations of three or more tones that are blended together simultaneously independent to produce harmony. Because harmony generally supports a melody, most homophony can polyphony, and be described as melody with chordal accompaniment. (Listen to Bluegrass—CD 3.21.) heterophony. Independent polyphony consists of two or more lines of music expressing independent musical ideas. Each line of music is played or sung in relation to the others without any HOMOPHONY Multiple lines of single line dominating. (Listen to Pygmy vocal ensemble—CD 2.22.) This concept covers a music expressing variety of possibilities from European counterpoint to styles in which the voice and the same musical instrumental accompaniment are melodically independent. Having several singers perform idea in the same “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” starting at different times results in a kind of independent meter. polyphony called a “round.” The term heterophony refers to simultaneous variations of the same line of music, hetero INDEPENDENT meaning “different” or “variant.” As such, heterophonic music requires more than one POLYPHONY Multiple lines of performer—each performing the same melody, but differently, either in terms of pitch, music expressing rhythm, or both. (Listen to Jiangnan sizhu—CD 1.17.) Each manifestation of the melody in independent heterophony is shaped by the idiomatic characteristics associated with the performance style musical ideas as a of each instrument or voice. A single melody played by two performers, only one of whom cohesive whole. adds frequent ornaments to the melody, is considered heterophonic in structure. Complex heterophonic structures are especially common throughout much of Asia. HETEROPHONY Multiple performers playing simultaneous Dynamics variations of the same line of music. The term dynamics refers to the relative volume of a musical sound. The relative loudness or softness of a music can be a distinguishing characteristic of its performance. (Listen to Balinese gamelan gong kebyar—CD 1.15.) A gradual increase in volume is known as a crescendo, while a gradual decrease in volume is called a decrescendo. These and other terms related to dynamics are mostly derived from the European art music tradition, which typically uses Italian terminology. Others, such as forte (loud) or pianissimo (very quiet), are rarely used in ethnomusicological writing. 31 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Form Another important feature of music is form. This term refers to the overall pattern or structure of a piece of music as it unfolds in time. Form may be likened to architectural design in that it provides the underlying structure over time that gives a musical performance a predictable or coherent shape. Some kinds of music follow a pre-existing form with, for example, an established beginning, middle, and ending section, while others have less obvious organ- ization. The forms used in one world music tradition may vary greatly from those used in another tradition. Becoming familiar with some of these forms will help you recognize cer- tain traditions and will also help you understand how particular performances are conceived of by performers and audiences alike. Bruno Nettl A N I N S I D E L O O K I got into ethnomusicology in the most conventional way— Dr. Bruno Nettl, Professor by taking an elective course in 1949 at Indiana University— Emeritus, University of Illinois in one of the very few schools offering such courses. I think what turned me on to this field was the immense variety of musical sounds produced by the world’s cultures; and the many different kinds of ideas about music—what it is and what it can do—that one finds in the world. I began by study- ing the music of Native American societies, particularly of the Northern Plains, and then went on years later to do fieldwork in Iran, and eventually found my way to India, all the while teaching undergraduates and graduates at the University of the music of Japan? When it comes to doing research, I’ve Illinois in Urbana. I’ve been in this profession for a half been concerned with understanding the differences between century and so have had, over the years, to change my mind the ways the people in a society perceive their music, and about many things, and to learn new ways of studying and the cultural outsider’s perspective, and ways to reconcile the doing research. Today’s younger students can hardly believe inevitable differences. As a teacher, I’ve been particularly the kinds of technology we had (or didn’t have) in the 1950s. concerned with finding ways for helping students of But I think I can identify three questions that have motivated Western, mainly classical, music to see this music in the me all these years. They are related, as you’ll see. context of a world of musics, trying to understand why it developed the way it did, learning to value it as an expression About the musics of the world, I keep wondering what it is of its culture while learning to appreciate and comprehend that causes a society to have, or maybe to select, a particular the world of musical sounds and musical cultures. kind of music for itself. Why does Native American music sound as it does? Why is the music of Iran so different from 32 A U R A L A N A L Y S I S : L I S T E N I N G T O T H E W O R L D ’ S M U S I C 2 Fundamentals of Music NEED TO KNOW TIMBRE. The tone quality or “color” of a musical sound. RHYTHM. The relationship of sound durations. Related con- MEDIUM. An object which produces a sound—a voice, cepts include: instrument, or both; solo or ensemble (duet, trio, choir, orchestra, etc.); one of various instrument types (aerophone, • Beat. A regular pulsation. chordophone, idiophone, membranophone). • Tempo. The relative rate of speed of the beat. PITCH. A specific tone determined by its frequency level. • Accent. An emphasized beat. • Meter. A system of grouping beats into individual units. Related concepts include: • Free rhythm. Music with no regular pulsation. • Tuning system. The pitches common to a particular • Rhythmic density. The quantity of notes between musical tradition. periodic accents or over a specific unit of time. • Scale. The pitches used in a particular performance PHONIC STRUCTURE. The organizational relationship arranged in order. between or among musical sounds. Related concepts include: • Interval. The difference between two pitches. • Range. All the pitches that a voice or instrument can • Monophony. A single line of music. potentially produce. • Polyphony. Multiple lines of music. Related concepts • Melody. An organized succession of pitches forming a include: musical idea. • Melodic contour. The general direction and shape of a • Homophony. Multiple lines of music expressing melody. the same musical idea. • Ornamentation. An embellishment or decoration of a • Independent polyphony. Two or more lines of melody. music expressing independent musical ideas. • Text setting. The correspondence of words to melody. • Heterophony. Multiple performers playing simul- Text settings can be syllabic (one pitch per syllable) or taneous variations of the same line of music. melismatic (several pitches per syllable). DYNAMICS. The volume of a musical sound. FORM. The underlying temporal structure of a musical performance. Questions to Consider 1. Which of the four basic components of music is most helpful in identifying a world music tradition? Why? 2. Name at least three examples from each instrument category in the Sachs– Hornbostel system. In which subcategories do these examples belong? 33 2 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y 3. How does pitch differ from tuning system? How does tuning system differ from scale? How does scale differ from range? 4. How does homophony differ from independent polyphony? How does independent polyphony differ from heterophony? 5. What are some difficulties in using English terminology to describe the world’s musics? 6. When music is represented graphically in notation, what are some of the limitations? How is Western staff notation limited in its ability to describe world music? w ww On Your Own Time Book: Kartomi, Margaret. On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/O/bo3774458.html Website: Wesleyan University Virtual Instrument Museum http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/vim/ Website: Comprehensive Table of Musical Instrument Classifications http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/appendix/instruments/instrumentmain.html Website: The American Musical Instrument Society http://www.amis.org/ Website: The Metropolitan Museum of Art—Musical Instruments http://www.metmuseum.org/en/about-the-museum/museum-departments/curatorial-departments/ musical-instruments Book: Sethares, William A. Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale. London: Springer-Verlag, 2005. http://www.springer.com/engineering/book/978-1-85233-797-1 Website: San Francisco Symphony Kids Site (Fundamentals of Music) http://www.sfskids.org/templates/home.asp?pageid=1 Website: Musipedia—The Open Music Encyclopedia http://www.musipedia.org/ Book: Nettl, Bruno. Heartland Excursions: Ethnomusicological Reflections on Schools of Music. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1995. http://www.press.uillinois.edu/books/catalog/67rdq6mq9780252064685.html 34 1 Cultural Considerations: Beyond the Sounds Themselves 3 Cultural Knowledge 36 Music and the Arts 46 Istanbul’s “Blue Mosque,” built in An Inside Look: Judith Becker 38 Transmission and Pedagogy 48 the sixteenth Value Systems and Hierarchies 40 Notation Systems and the Creation of century by the Music 48 Ottoman Turks Music and Identity 40 Exchange and Adaptation 49 Use versus Function 42 Cultural Intersections 50 Music and Spirituality 42 A Case Study of Istanbul, Turkey: Music and Ethics 43 A Lesson in Geography, History, Music and the Environment 43 Religions, and Musical Exchange 51 New Theoretical Perspectives 45 Questions to Consider 59 Music Technologies and Media 45 On Your Own Time 59 35 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y In a technical sense, music is organized sound and can be analyzed by concentrating on its elements alone, such as melody, rhythm, phonic structure, form, and so forth. But no music exists in a vacuum, free from social context, even if it primarily lives on concert stages or in recordings. All music manifests itself within a “culture,” however defined, and has meanings for those who create, perform, or consume it that go far beyond the sounds them- selves. This chapter briefly discusses some of the perspectives that may be brought to bear on a given musical type or style. These ideas, however incomplete, at least suggest that a full understanding of any music would require multiple approaches. Obviously, with only limited space we cannot apply all these concepts to every Site, but those that are most relevant will be discussed where appropriate. Cultural Knowledge Every individual absorbs a certain amount of cultural knowledge while growing up. Just being there makes you a member of a “cultural group,” whether at the level of family, “tribe,” community, nation, continent, or global cultural sphere (such as “the West”). Who you are depends on where you are and with whom you are living. The experience of growing up within a given society creates a sense of normalcy; individuals develop expectations that the typical patterns they experience each day will continue. This sense that one’s own culture is “normal,” and that cultures which exhibit differences, both great and small, are “abnormal,” “weird,” or “exotic,” is a natural perspec- tive known as ethnocentrism. Frederick Verney, Secretary to the Siamese (Thai) Legation in London in 1885, wrote that a great “stumbling-block” for many in the West when attempting to appreciate non- Western music is Western education, which “precludes the possibility of a full appreciation of music of a foreign and distinct school.” In order for a Westerner to fully appreciate Asian music, it would be necessary “to forget all that one has experienced in the West.” Ethnocentric reactions are natural and perhaps inevitable—but an awareness of ethno- centrism makes it more likely that one will come to accept and understand music that is “different.” Scholars attempting to understand how music is experienced and “known” (i.e. “cognition”) have developed a distinction between “outsider” and “insider” knowledge. ETIC They have dubbed the “outsider” perspective etic (from “phonetic”), and the “insider” per- The perspective of spective emic (from “phonemic”). a cultural outsider. Insiders are assumed to react to their own culture’s music in ways that draw on a lifetime of unconsciously absorbed cultural knowledge and attitudes. Outsiders, because EMIC they come to a given culture after their perceptions are formed, are assumed not just to The perspective of a cultural insider. inject ethnocentrisms into their interpretations but also to prefer to dwell only on those aspects of music that are observable to outsiders, such as objects and sonic structures. The major drawback to this concept of “insider” and “outsider” is that it doesn’t allow for a middle ground: there’s no room conceptually for the sympathetic “outsider” who has acquired “insider” knowledge. Do we value the views of an insider, simply because he or she grew up in a given culture, over those of an outsider, no matter how knowledgeable that person is? Can individuals shift identities by living among a “foreign” people? If so, for how long must they live among them? These are questions that do not have simple answers. 36 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 Ivory tusk horns in Ghana are essential to the Asante court in Kumase, but African elephants are endangered, and transporting such instruments across national boundaries is forbidden (Joseph S. Kaminski) French ethnomusicologist Alain Weber performs with “The Musicians of the Nile” from upper Egypt 37 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Two cases in point. In 1982, when I (TM) studied the precented (lined out) psalm singing done in the Scottish Gaelic language services primarily in the Hebrides Islands but also among island ex-pats living in Edinburgh and Glasgow, the worshippers at Greyfriar’s Kirk (church) in Edinburgh presented a challenge to the folklorists at the University of Edinburgh. Some years earlier, a young French woman had gone to live on the Hebridean island of North Uist, learned Gaelic, and had become exceptionally skilled in psalm singing. After moving to Edinburgh, she attended Greyfriar’s and provided the strongest voice of the Gaelic-speaking congregation. Some of the folklorists contended that her singing was not “authentic” because she had come to Gael life as an adult—even though she was the group’s best singer. In their view, an outsider could never attain insider status, even after many years of life among a new group and they did not consider her singing to be “authentic” or “valid.” In contrast to that, growing up outside a musical system’s home territory is not neces- sarily an impediment to its mastery. Audiences worldwide have no problem in respecting orchestral conductors and musicians who grew up outside Western culture—people such as Japan’s Seiji Ozawa, India’s Zubin Mehta, and New Zealand’s Kiri TeKanawa, the latter of the Maori ethnic minority. These artists, unlike the French psalm singer, however, were raised and trained in Western music from the beginning, even though the culture sur- rounding them was “non-Western.” Dr. Judith Becker A N I N S I D E L O O K My sojourn in the Shan States of Burma, from 1958 to 1961, eventually led me to the field of ethnomusicology. My husband was a Fulbright teacher in Taunggyi, Burma, and I was a newly married piano teacher. I found myself 400 miles from the nearest piano, and surrounded by music that I couldn’t fathom. After studying the Burmese harp, saung gauk, and attending many festivals and dramas at which the Burmese percussion/gong ensemble, the hsaing waing, performed, I steadily grew to love Burmese traditional music. I had also come to appreciate how profound and how stimulating cultural differences and musical differences could be. Judith Becker My husband and I and our three children returned to the the university. When I took Professor Malm’s world music United States in 1961 and took up residence in Ann Arbor, course, I knew that I had found my calling. Hearing for the Michigan where my husband began studying linguistics at first time the music of the Shona mbira, the Persian the University of Michigan under Kenneth Pike (the emic/etic kamanche, the Sundanese kacapi/suling ensemble, not to man). I discovered then that there was a discipline called mention Central Javanese gamelan music, left me weak- ‘ethnomusicology.’ William Malm had recently been hired to kneed. At the same time, I was taking courses in anthro- teach world music courses and ethnomusicological theory at pology and, with a certain astonishment, read the works 38 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 of Edmund Leach, Clifford Geertz, Edward Sapir, Alfred religious groups that included trancing as an integral part Kroeber, and Franz Boas—seminal influences all. of their ceremonies, that is, Muslim Sufis in New Delhi, Buddhist Yak-tovil practitioners in southern Sri Lanka, and In 1968, during the course of my protracted graduate study, Balinese bebuten trancers in Indonesia. These three, plus William Malm arranged for the purchase of a large gamelan Christian Pentecostals, formed the core of the ethnographic ensemble and asked me to direct it. (Remember, this was examples for my book on trance, Deep Listeners: Music, the 1960s and running ethnic ensembles was still a bootstrap Emotion, and Trancing (2004). In that book I put forward the operation.) After many listenings to the 1967 UCLA record- hypothesis that religious trancers and folks who are deeply ing, “Music of the Venerable Dark Cloud,” and reading Music moved by listening to music, whom I call “deep listeners,” in Java, by Jaap Kunst, I taught the students to play Bubaran share a certain common physiology. It was clear that this Udan Mas, in slendro and in pelog. Later in that year, we intuition would remain in the realm of speculation unless I were able to invite Hardjo Susilo from UCLA to come to could devise an empirical methodology to test it. I was finally Michigan to teach gamelan for two weeks. When he first able to conduct a research project that involved measuring arrived, my students and I met with him in the gamelan room. and comparing galvanic skin response of three groups, “deep He asked us to play for him. We played my interpretation of listeners,” Pentecostal trancers, and the control groups, what I thought I heard the instruments playing on the UCLA while listening to music they loved. The results suggest that recording. After an excruciatingly long pause, Susilo good- deep listeners and trancers do indeed share comparable humoredly quipped, “Well, . . . there’s Yogya style, there’s lower-brain reactions to music they find moving. (See Solo style, and then . . . there’s Ann Arbor style.” So began “Religious Ecstatics, ‘Deep Listeners,’ and Musical the beginning of my education about gamelan performance. Emotions,” Empirical Musicology Review, 4(2), 2009; In 1972, I finally finished my Ph.D. and was hired as an “Ethnomusicology and Empiricism in the Twenty-First assistant professor at the University of Michigan. For many Century,” Ethnomusicology 53(3), fall 2009.) years I directed the gamelan ensemble with help from visiting Javanese artists. Until the early 1990s, gamelan This venture into the realm of the science of music and the music, theory, and history were the focus of my research. brain initiated my turn toward the biology and the neuro- This roughly twenty-year period resulted in many articles and science of the brain/body, an intellectual pursuit that I will not the books, Traditional Music in Modern Java: Gamelan in a outlive, as I am now nearly 80. Changing Society (1980), Gamelan Stories: Tantrism, Islam, I have so far written almost exclusively of my scholarly and Aesthetics in Central Java (1993/2004), and the three- activities. But these interests were never pursued alone. volume set of translations of works on Javanese music by Over the decades, my students, many now in leading posi- Javanese scholars, Karawitan: Source Readings in Javanese tions all over the country in the discipline of ethnomusicology, Gamelan and Vocal Music (1984,1987,1988). have been both my first audience and my best critics. They Then, feeling that I had put into print all of the burning issues have always been an integral part of my thinking-through I had concerning gamelan music, I turned to a topic that had scholarly questions about music. They have provided inspi- been simmering on the back burner of my mind for a long ration and, I hope, kept me honest. For me, teaching and time—trance. Throughout the years in Burma and in Java I scholarship have always been fused, and now, even in had witnessed many trance rituals, some of extraordinary retirement, interaction with students continues to be a crucial beauty, all of which were compelling and mysterious. In aspect of my intellectual and musical life. 1996, I made a research trip specifically targeting three 39 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Value Systems and Hierarchies Within any given culture, people tend to evolve value systems that dictate what kinds of music, which performers, and which instrument-makers are considered “better” than others. Although in the West many accept and others assert that “classical” music is superior to “popular” music, such a ranking begs the question of authority—that is, the complex ques- tion of who gets to make such judgments. What, after all, are the criteria that make one music tradition superior to another? And who decides? Is it done by some kind of consensus, by appointed critics, or by self-appointed critics? What are the implications of such hierarchies? Essentially, the question is whether expressions of value are to be taken as matters of truth, opinion, or perspective. In the United States, value systems and hierarchies are now understood more in political than aesthetic terms. Many ask whether a value system can be taken seriously when it asserts that the musical heritage of a dominant group, such as European-derived peoples, is inherently superior to that of, for example, African Americans. Music is necessarily part of the current debates in our society over canons, diversity, and hegemony. As with the canon of “great books,” the canons of “great composers” and “great works” are essentially European. Calls for “diversity” challenge not just the canons but also hitherto accepted standards of greatness. Some feel threatened by these challenges to the hegemony of European tradition, others feel liberated. Courses in “world musics” (and textbooks like this one) have been part of this partially political process. Until relatively recently, the study of “music” in education at most levels focused almost exclusively on the Western “classics.” Courses on the musics of the rest of the world, which have now become common, still do not rock the boats of established music departments as long as they are restricted to studies of musical style and “exotic” instruments. But when you add scholarly assertions that all musics are potentially valid—or, as University of Michigan Japanese specialist William Malm often said, “different but equally logical”—those devoted entirely to “Western art music” can find these contentions unsettling. Music and Identity A person expresses his/her identity in a variety of ways. The clothes we wear, the foods we eat, and the language we speak are all outward projections of “who we are,” or more accu- rately, “who we think we are” or “want to be.” Biological factors, namely race and sex, are often cited as the source of a person’s identity; however, cultural factors are equally, if not more, important determinants. For example, what makes a person “African”? Must he or she have “black” skin? That can’t be the case, because Africans come in an array of skin pigmentations, including “olive” and “white.” Likewise, would it make sense to consider Australian aborigines or the Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea “African” because many of them have a dark skin color? Certainly not. Rather, people are “African” because they think “African.” And because they think this way, they behave as “Africans.” While it is obviously naïve to think that “African” denotes any specific culture, it is equally naïve to think that “Western” is a culture as well, and yet this gigantic category of identity is often applied to anyone or anything associated with a Euro-American background. 40 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 How others interpret the behaviors of an individual or group is also important to the formation of identity. If, for example, a person’s behaviors are considered by others to be representative of the qualities of being “African,” then that person’s self-perception as an “African” is reinforced. However, if others do not agree that the person’s behaviors are typical of an “African,” then a conflict arises in which either the individual must modify their behaviors, thereby altering the perception of them, or the atypical behaviors must be accepted by the others as properly “African.” If the conflict is not resolved, then the “African” identity of our hypothetical person would be continually questioned. Obviously, discussions of identity easily run the risk of stereotyping. Music plays a vital role in expressions of ethnic identity. Groups and individuals often use music as a way to assert their unique ethnic qualities in relation to others. Outside perceptions of particular musical activities as normative behavior for a group or an indi- vidual reinforce the sense of ethnic identity expressed through the music. Along with other cultural elements, such as language, religion, dress, diet, and so on, music shapes how people think about themselves and their role within a society. In many cultures, the expression of ethnic identity through music is an essential aspect of daily life, so understanding and appreciating musical activities is an important part of getting to know how people from these cultures think. Even in cultures where music is considered a specialized activity, much is expressed and revealed through the types of music common to the culture. For example, the glitz and glamour of Super Bowl halftime shows reveals the emphasis American culture places on extravagant entertainment, even though these music performances are certainly not representative of all the music found in the United States. Japanese tourists watch a Thai Cultural Show at a Bangkok restaurant that caters strictly to tourists 41 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Use versus Function The anthropologist Alan Merriam spent an entire chapter of his landmark 1964 book The Anthropology of Music differentiating use from function. Whereas use, defined as “the ways in which music is employed in human society” (p. 210), can be easily observed, function requires much deeper inquiry into the meanings of music. Most studies of music’s use are descriptive and are based on the observations of the researcher. The study of music’s func- tion, however, requires deep-level cultural knowledge and can entail much interpretation; for this reason, in answering questions of function, the perspectives of “insiders” are often privileged over those of “outsiders.” One of the most important contexts for music is its use in ritual. While the term ritual obviously encompasses religious services, it is more broadly applied to all situations in which formal patterns of behavior are repeated without question because they are seen to have meaning. Ritual behavior also occurs at sporting events, graduations, Memorial Day parades, Christmas dinners, and many other occasions when music is desired as part of the “pomp and circumstance.” For example, the singing of the American national anthem occurs before virtually all sporting events in the United States. Superficially, this use is merely a step in a longer sequence of requisite events, but at a deeper level its function is to reaffirm national identity and solidarity. When music’s use in certain ritual contexts is considered, questions inevitably arise about the relationship between music and trance states. In rituals where trance occurs, such as those associated with the African-derived religious systems found in the Western hemisphere (e.g., Cuban Santeria), does music cause trance? Gilbert Rouget, in his seminal 1980 book Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relations between Music and Possession, demonstrates that seemingly trance-inducing music does not in fact cause trance, because if it did, it would automatically affect all who hear it, including the musicians and researchers. Music instead acts to stimulate, regulate, or end ritual trance states, which are not possible without training for and the expectation of altered states such as possession. Music may be used in a given possession ritual in order to “call the gods”—but its function is to regulate trance. Music and Spirituality The association of music with healing and spirituality goes beyond the “use” and “function” of music in ritual because it ascribes to music the power to affect beneficial change in human health, both physical and mental. In recent times, for example, many in the “New Age” movement have asserted that music can heal, directly affect the mind and its many moods, or enhance contact with the spiritual world. Some believe in the so-called “Mozart effect”— an alleged increase in intelligence among infants exposed early on to the music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart—while others claim that listening to specific compositions will cure certain ailments. The field of music therapy, widely accepted as having a scientific basis, uses music therapeutically to address a wide range of problems both physical and mental. 42 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 Spiritual Baptists in the Caribbean nation of St. Vincent and the Grenadines sing a hymn in a trance state called “doption” (from the “adoption of the Holy Spirit”) Music and Ethics Music has also been thought of in ethical terms. For Plato (428–328 B.C.E.), the ideal ruler was one shaped by an array of ethical forces, including music performed in the appropriate musical modes. Conversely, Plato also saw great ethical peril in music performed in the “wrong” modes. China’s great philosopher Kong Fuzi (also known as Confucius) (551–479 B.C.E.) taught that the harmonious operation of the universe, down to the lives of individual humans, was directly affected by music. In his view, music must reflect the same order, balance, and restraint expected of human behavior. This kind of thinking persists in contemporary society where some believe that playing the music of W.A. Mozart for babies in the womb will have beneficial effect or that rock music potentially corrupts our youth. Music and the Environment Music, it is often said, is “everywhere.” One might conclude that this “every-whereness” means that modern societies place a high value on music. For many musicians, however, music’s omnipresence may be more a curse than a blessing. Music is frequently the “auditory aspirin” of modern society. Especially with the development of media capable of delivering it anytime, anyplace, anywhere, music has come to be used more and more like a drug. People use music to get themselves going, to facilitate relaxation, to enter meditative states, 43 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Plato’s student, Aristotle, founded this school near Vergina, Greece, in about 338 B.C.E. where he tutored Alexander the Great and the other children of Philip of Macedonia to control the pace of work, or to dispel boredom. The music business has developed the means to use music as a manipulative tool. Muzak, the company, promotes its “music product” as a means of achieving increased sales, moving people in and out of rapid-turnover restaurants (or keeping them there to buy more drinks), and maintaining productivity in the workplace by responding to the natural daily cycle of human energy. Some people drown their concerns in a tidal wave of sound, indeed, loud parties and booming cars have brought about “noise” laws in many cities, in an attempt to curb what many hear as “noise pollution.” Other forms of environmental degradation have also had an effect on music-making. As numerous plant and animal species have become endangered, many long-time musical practices have been lost or permanently altered. This is because traditionally many musical instruments were made of now-rare natural materials, such as hardwoods or ivory. Dancers used feathers from now-endangered birds, or instruments were made of skins from now- endangered mammals. As a result, many old instruments cannot be brought into countries that enforce international environmental laws, and in fact may be confiscated and destroyed. New materials have been developed to substitute for restricted substances; for example, plastic or bone are now often used in place of ivory. Some instruments, though, cannot be made of substitute materials, such as the ivory elephant-tusk horns used in West Africa. In certain situations, governments permit the hunting and use of certain endangered animals that are part of the ritual tradition of a given people. 44 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 New Theoretical Perspectives Although we cannot offer an extensive history of recent scholarship, we believe that some discussion of it is required in any essay on holistic approaches to music. The original work of the musicologist was to create authoritative musical scores based on manuscripts or prints, as close to the original as possible. Musicologists also sought to write histories of music and musicians based on “primary sources,” namely first-hand documents such as letters, as did ethnomusicologists whose “primary sources” were living musicians. Documenting and describing what the musicians did was the field’s original goal. This concern for “sticking to the facts” and “establishing verifiable truth” constitutes the core of what is called modernist scholarship. Such work continues to be the focus of the majority of musicologists and ethno- musicologists, but a counter-trend arose as a result of new kinds of scholarship in other fields, such as literature. Whereas modernism taught that (capital T) Truth could be estab- lished, what is now called postmodernism teaches that “truth” is relative and has little validity beyond the person attempting to establish it. Instead of “describing facts,” post- modern scholars seek to “interpret texts,” a text being any manifestation of culture, including a book, painting, sculpture, or a performance of music. There are other new directions in ethnomusicological scholarship as well, including those focusing on political and economic perspectives (e.g., Marxist interpretation); gender issues, such as feminism; and non- heterosexual perspectives (e.g., “Queer Theory,” which examines music-making from a gay or lesbian viewpoint). While some of this scholarship has proved to be provocative and stimulating, the specialized vocabularies common to such writing are often impenetrable to readers not familiar with the jargon or theories involved. Music Technologies and Media Technology has played a key role in the development of ethnomusicology. Wire recordings and the Edison wax cylinders of the late 1800s and early 1900s were important to the research of “comparative musicologists” who focused much of their attention on transcrip- tion and on the tuning systems of world music traditions. Throughout the twentieth century, technological advances enabled ethnomusicologists to record music in increasingly remote locations with greater and greater ease. While early field researchers traveled with heavy loads of equipment and numerous boxes of cylinders, later reel-to-reel tapes, and eventually cassettes and compact discs, today’s ethnomusicologist can get studio-quality digital record- ings with equipment that fits easily into a shirt pocket. The media through which music is disseminated have also vastly changed over the last 100-plus years. They have evolved from radio and vinyl records to television and CDs to the Internet and MP3s—and each new development has made dissemination of the world’s music easier and faster. This evolution has created greater opportunities for ethnomusic- ologists to disseminate their research in both academic and mass-market arenas. The ease with which recording can be done today has resulted in a proliferation of world music recordings for sale to the general public. While many of these are well researched and come with scholarly liner notes, others are simply tourist trinkets slapped together to make a quick buck. Often what seems to be a poor-quality recording is actually an attempt to 45 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y capture music in its original context, such as a crowded festival. Conversely, a studio recording with excellent sound quality may misrepresent a tradition, by, for example, leaving out instruments from an ensemble or incorporating inauthentic rhythms or melodies. It is generally best to stick to well-known labels, such as Smithsonian-Folkways or Lyrichord, although sometimes even a carelessly compiled audio collection can provide an enjoyable listening experience. Music and the Arts The relationships between music and other arts—including dance, theater, the visual arts, and literature—are varied and complex. While there certainly is music that stands alone for its own sake, a surprisingly great part of the world’s music exists in relation to other arts. The relationship with dance is the most obvious. Dance without music is rare. Dance music provides far more than just a beat: it must also have a character appropriate to the kind of dance it accompanies, whether the dance occurs in the world of classical ballet, folk music, opera, an Asian theater genre, or in a ballroom. A great deal of dance music may also be heard—indeed, normally is heard—separately from dance, causing us sometimes to forget that a particular song or piece was actually conceived to accompany movement. Theater in the Western world is usually thought of as spoken drama, opera being a separate category of sung theater. The West also has theater types that include both speaking and singing such as the old German Singspiel of Mozart’s time (the eighteenth century), the A street performance of Chinese (Chaozhou) regional opera with percussion accompaniment in Shantou, Guangdong province, People’s Republic of China 46 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 The elaborate altar for a Thai wai khru (teacher greeting ceremony) English ballad opera (e.g., The Beggar’s Opera), and the American outgrowth of the latter, the Broadway musical. But throughout the rest of the world, theater without music is mostly unthinkable. This is particularly true in Asia, which has some of the world’s most distinctive theatrical traditions, including Indian Kathakali (masked dance), Thai Khon (masked drama), Indonesian Wayang (shadow puppet theater), and Chinese Jingju (Beijing Opera). Music tends to have one of two relationships with the visual arts. The first is found in the field of musical iconography, the study of music history and practice—and particularly musical instruments—through pictures. The second occurs when a composer, especially in the Western classical tradition, creates a work that is allegedly inspired by a work of visual art. Perhaps the most obvious example is Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky’s famous Pictures at an Exhibition, composed in 1874 and based on a series of paintings by Viktor Hartmann. Music can also be related to literature—primarily by association—through title, text setting, or allusion. The general term for music of this type is programmatic music, meaning music that alludes to something outside itself, be it a story, a great literary work, a poem, a painting, or, even more broadly, an emotion or aspect of nature. Chinese music titles commonly allude to well-known stories from novels, “Chinese opera,” natural phenomena, and famous poems. Most pieces in the Chinese repertoire have titles that suggest an image, emotion, or place—such as “Meditation at the Dressing Table,” “Suzhou Scenery,” or “Winter Ravens Sporting over the Water.” 47 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Transmission and Pedagogy Musical knowledge can be acquired in various ways: intuitively by living in a given culture, directly from a teacher, from a book, or by observation. When teaching is involved, many issues arise—such as the nature of the student–teacher relationship and the question of what educational methodologies are employed. When technologies are used in instruction, ques- tions concerning memory, notation, and recording also arise. Some cultures have developed formal institutions that transmit music to anyone willing to learn (the conservatory, for example) and others have created institutions for preserving it within a closed system (the Japanese Imperial Household, for example). In some societies, especially those of East, South, and Southeast Asia, the music teacher is a revered individual who offers knowledge as a privilege. The Indian guru (and by extension, the Thai, Cambodian, and Lao khru) dispenses knowledge in a somewhat unsystematic fashion over a long apprenticeship; in the past, students lived with teachers and acted as their servants. The process of transmission in these instances is most often by means of oral tradition, in which the musical knowledge is transmitted directly to the student through performance, rather than any form of written notation. In these Asian societies, rituals that honor the teacher and the teacher’s lineage are often required before learning is permitted. In contrast, music teachers in Europe have historically sometimes been seen as odd characters deserving of ridicule, as with the exaggerated eccentricities of Don Basilio in Rossini’s famous opera The Barber of Seville (1816). As for students, many societies offer titles or other forms of recognition, such as certificates or degrees, when students attain certain levels of skill. Notation Systems and the Creation of Music Students of Western music are accustomed to thinking in terms of a “composition” and a “composer.” Western classical music developed a division of labor between the creator/ composer and the realizer/performer. Composers are assumed to have the “genius” that leads to a work’s creation. In order to maintain control over all aspects of a work, the composer represents his ideas through graphic symbols called musical notation—which must be played “as written” by subservient performers. Performers may add nuances but may not violate the composer’s intentions. As a result, formal music education in the West tends to privilege “musical literacy,” with the unspoken implication that cultures without notation suffer from “musical illiteracy.” It is important to realize, however, that only certain aspects of music—such as pitch, melody, rhythm, meter, form, and texture—can be depicted in nota- tion; aspects such as ornamental nuance, mood, timbre, and slight gradations of pitch and tempo cannot be written with much specificity. Musical notation exists elsewhere in the world but most often only to preserve com- positions for posterity or as a reminder to performers. Few cultures outside the West use music notation prescriptively, that is, as a guide to live performance. And even where there is notation, it is usually skeletal, because its function is to provide only what is necessary to cause performance. This type of notation is viewed as a point of departure, much as you find with jazz charts intended to include improvisation. 48 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 Exchange and Adaptation Although the existence of disparate musical categories such as kabuki and bluegrass suggests that musical systems are isolated from each other, the reality is much more complex. As distinctive as a given musical culture can be—and many are quite unique—none developed without outside influence. Some borrowed or loaned features travel better than others, how- ever. Instruments, because they are objects, can be easily adopted by other cultures, though they are usually adapted as well to make them serve the aesthetic ideals of the borrower. On the other hand, even neighboring cultures can have dramatically differing musical concepts, timbre preferences, decorative styles, and tuning systems. To give a specific example, Vietnam’s musical culture is distinctive enough to be quickly recognized even by minimally experienced listeners. But it is also true that Vietnam was virtually a Chinese colony for nearly 1,000 years and adopted many aspects of Chinese music, especially its instruments. The Vietnamese transformed these Chinese instruments, however, to satisfy the requirements of their own sonic world. The most striking difference The graphic notation for Tibetan Buddhist chant is enough to help informed practitioners remember the chants Notice the wood is carved out from between the frets of this “Vietnamized” guitar to allow for ornamentation by pressing the strings 49 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y is the use of noticeably higher frets on the lutes, which also have loosely strung strings. While Chinese instruments were built primarily to produce fixed pitches, the Vietnamese system uses many “in-between” pitches and thus requires tone-bending created by pressing the strings downward between frets or sliding the fingers along the strings of fretless instruments. Though borrowed from Europe rather than China, the Vietnamese guitar, as an example, has an unusual neck with the wood between the frets scooped out to give the player the space in which to press the strings. Cultural Intersections To the extent that the world ever had any isolated, unique cultures, the modern world in which we live has certainly breached most of the old walls. Culture contact between and among distinctly named cultural groups is the norm. Whereas in the past this contact occurred through personal interaction as people from one group visited, encountered, traded with, fought with, or expanded into the territory of other groups, today there are also per- vasive media bringing music, film, and dance to almost anyone living anywhere. In 1991, I (TM) visited a remote village in central Laos accessible by Landrover over miles of dirt roads through other pre-modern villages. As we approached our destination, we had to disembark from our vehicle and walk the last mile, because the bridge had been destroyed during the Vietnam War some twenty years earlier and had yet to be replaced. As A remote village house in China’s Fujian Province (Shouning County) now has electricity from a nearby hydro project and—seen in the photo’s center—a satellite dish bringing state television 50 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 we neared one of the larger houses, owned by the village headman, a group of traditionally dressed children, both ethnic Lao and upland minorities, emerged from the house to witness a rare visit by Westerners. After we climbed the ladder into the house, we noticed they had been watching a television powered by a car battery. On the TV were current popular music videos being broadcast from Khon Kaen, Thailand, hundreds of miles to the south. In this village seemingly 3 miles from the end of the earth, the young generation was fully aware of modern entertainments emanating from modernized Southeast Asian cities. Throughout history, distinctive musics have resulted not from isolation but through contact. It is the unique mixing of peoples, events, and responses that generates the energy that leads to new and hybrid musical styles and instruments—and sometimes even to completely new genres. The United States offers many examples of this: jazz, blues, gospel, and salsa are four results of the energy produced when European- and African-derived peoples reacted to each other. A Case Study of Istanbul, Turkey: A Lesson in Geography, History, Religions, and Musical Exchange We have chosen the modern city of Istanbul, Turkey, as a case study of cultural exchange. Situated in a strategic location straddling the Bosporus (a broad river connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean), it marks the boundary between Europe and Asia. A remarkable amount of history and culture passed through here, profoundly affecting vast areas from Europe to Central Asia and North Africa. Indeed, travelers to Istanbul today will encounter remains and monuments from each historical layer. Although now seen as an Islamic city— albeit in a secular Turkish state—Istanbul was once a major center of Christian European civilization. How Istanbul’s status changed, and the musical implications of these changes, are the subjects of this case study. The story begins with the conquests of the Macedonian-Greek, Alexander the Great (356–323 B.C.E.), son of Philip of Macedonia (382–336 B.C.E.). Soon after being crowned in 336 B.C.E., Alexander set off to conquer a vast territory that eventually included northern Greece, much of Egypt, and lands across Western Asia into Central and South Asia, an expansion that continued until his death in 323 B.C.E. These conquests brought Macedonian- Greek (also called Hellenistic) civilization, including its architecture, language, sculpture, art, and most likely music as well, to the conquered peoples. The area around the Bosporus was well within the Greek world, and the small city founded on the European side was called Byzantium. The Roman Empire expanded as Alexander’s declined, and by the death of Emperor Trajan in C.E. 117, the Romans occupied much of western, central, and southeastern Europe, northern Africa, and most of the territory earlier conquered by Alexander. Within a few hundred years, Rome’s unity would, however, crumble, and the humble village of Byzantium would grow to become one of the world’s greatest cities. Because of the gradual decline of Rome and the defacto separation of the empire into western and eastern sectors, in 330 Roman Emperor Constantine I made Byzantium the capital of the [eastern] Roman Empire and renamed it Constantinople. His successor, Theodosius I, in 395 divided the empire into 51 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The Early Islamic western and eastern halves, giving each of his sons dominion over one of the halves, though Empire (c.800 C.E.) with the decline and fall of the western Roman Empire during the fifth century, the eastern half rose to greater prominence. Whereas Rome was the center of what came to be called Roman Catholic Christianity, Constantinople was the center of the Eastern Rite, also called Byzantine Rite, the origin of a plethora of “Orthodox” faiths, each headed not by a pope, but a patriarch. With the fall of Rome to the Ostrogoths in 476, Constantinople assumed its place as both capital of what remained of the Roman Empire (the Eastern Empire) and center of the Eastern Church. The blending here of Greek and Middle Eastern civilizations brought about a culture, religious and otherwise, that was distinct from that of Rome. Emperor Justinian I (reigned 527–565) attempted to reform the Church, strengthened the Empire, and built one of the city’s noblest churches, the Hagia (Saint) Sophia church. The birth in 570 of Muhammad, the prophet and founder of Islam, in Mecca on the Arabian Peninsula was to change everything. By the time of his death in 632, Arabia had been converted to Islam, and by 656 parts of North Africa and most of the eastern expanses of the Eastern Roman Empire had been conquered as well. By 814 Islam had spread entirely across North Africa and into the Iberian Peninsula (Spain). At the same time, the Roman Catholic and Byzantine Churches continued to engage in disputes with each other even as 52 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 The great Cathedral of St. Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the sixth century, became an Islamic mosque, with minarets added after the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 both were also being torn apart by internal disputes. By 1054 a formal schism between East and West completed the separation. As Islam conquered the “Holy Lands,” a succession of events led to the Crusades, organized by various European emperors and kings to reclaim Jerusalem from those who were termed the “Infidels.” There were seven crusades organized in Europe and originating from various points between 1096 and 1270. The great armies raised for these crusades spent months, if not years, marching (sometimes sailing) across vast lands, rivers, and mountains intending to re-conquer Jerusalem and the Holy Land. Those that traversed the land had to fend for themselves, often resorting to raiding and destroying cities and killing their unlucky residents. Some sailed through the Mediterranean, but storms often reduced such navies to small bands of survivors. The ill-fated Fourth Crusade, organized in Venice in 1202, only reached Constantinople in 1204. Although the residents of the city were primarily Christian, the Crusaders plundered the capital of the Eastern Church, even establishing a line of weak Latin emperors, but failed to reach their goal, the Holy Land. Although there was a restoration of Eastern Emperors and a renewed flourishing of the Byzantine Church in the eleventh century, Constantinople remained under growing pressure from the Muslim Seljuq Turks, who were expanding their domain from the east. The siege of Constantinople, begun in 1395, ended in 1453 when the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, and the city’s name was changed to Islambol (“City of Islam”), romanized 53 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y as Istanbul. The Turkish ruler, Mehmed II, repopulated the city with people brought from elsewhere in the rapidly expanding Ottoman Empire and converted the city’s great churches into mosques. Not only were the great mosaics of these buildings covered in plaster, but towers, called minarets, were added around the buildings, both to indicate the importance of the mosque and to provide a tower from which a Muslim muezzin could call the faithful to prayer five times daily (see Chapter 8). Under Mehmed II and especially Süleyman the Magnificent (1520–1566), great mosques were constructed following the same basic cruci- form (cross-like) pattern of the earlier eastern churches. The Ottoman Empire continued to expand, especially into southeastern and central Europe, reaching its point of greatest expansion at the gates of Vienna in 1680, after which the empire began to recede and crumble. The Ottoman emperors, called caliphs, ruled from magnificent Topkap Saray Palace overlooking the Bosporus on the western side, accu- mulating great wealth—expressed in the arts, architecture, and music—by bleeding the subjugated areas dry of resources. Because the Ottoman Turks were exceptionally harsh masters, many rebellions arose, leading to great battles that make absorbing a full history of the Empire and southeastern Europe a daunting task. Of special importance, because of its musical implications, is the Janizary (spelled Yeniceri in modern Turkish and Janissary is many Western writings), a corps of elite troops commanded by the Ottoman caliphs from the late fourteenth century until their destruction in 1826. Said to consist of Christian youths captured in the conquered Balkan provinces, these celibate (until the late sixteenth century) soldiers included bands of musicians who played martial music in parades. What made them distinctive was their use of double-reed aerophones (called zurna), metal trumpets, and a battery of percussion including bass drums, triangles, cymbals, and other percussion, including a pole with jingles, later called a “jingling johnny” in England. To Europeans these “exotic” instruments were later seen as quite attractive. After 1680, as the Empire retreated from Europe, replaced by the now-growing House of Hapsburg (or at different times called the Holy Roman Empire or Austro-Hungarian Empire), the Ottoman government became increasingly corrupt and experienced various coups. After joining Germany as part of the Axis in World War I and being defeated, the Ottoman Empire was ripe for total reform. Mustafa Kemal (later given the title Atatürk (Father of the Turks)), disbanded the Empire in 1922 and reformed Turkey into a modern, European- oriented secular republic. Kemal also changed the writing system from Arabic to the Latin alphabet in the process. At this writing, Turkey is a member of NATO and aspires to membership in the European Union. The modern traveler visiting Istanbul will be struck by the many layers of its history, manifested in a multitude of monuments all within walking distance of each other. There are Greek-style ruins, an Egyptian obelisk covered with hieroglyphics brought to Byzantium by conquering Romans, the incredible Roman cisterns—football field-sized chambers beneath Istanbul supported by stone columns from dismantled government buildings and designed to store water for a city notoriously short of it—great Christian churches with their magnificent mosaics, and mosques that rival the great cathedrals of Europe. The musical results are many, too. Among the more significant of these developments we should at least briefly mention the following: 1. Greek and Arabic music theories developed in closely related ways. They in turn became the basis for Medieval European music theory, the foundation for the system used today. 54 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 2. Certain procedures and melodic styles from Turkey became fundamental in southeastern Europe. Likewise, various Arabic styles penetrated Spain, Portugal, and certain Mediterranean islands. 3. When Islam expanded into Europe, it became a permanent part of many countries, including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. The mosques throughout these lands practice typical Islamic forms of chant, including the Call to Prayer and the reading of the Koran, Islam’s holy book. 4. Although the Byzantine Church once headquartered in Constantinople (now Istanbul) has long since disappeared, its direct descendant, the Greek Orthodox Church, even today retains many of Byzantium’s musical practices. 5. Another group of people, the Romany (often called Gypsies), who came from India, migrated during the fourteenth to nineteenth centuries into northern Africa and Europe. They too brought with them much musical culture from western Asia. In some places the public music of the Romany became, or at least blended with, local traditional music, making conceptual separation nearly impossible. Musical interchange occurred for many reasons: 1. The flow of culture from the Greek west to the conquered lands of the East (beginning with Alexander the Great), and the return flow of culture from these lands to the West as it was partially conquered by the Ottoman Turks. 2. The Crusaders, who no doubt brought aspects of European culture to the lands they crossed, and the souvenirs, mental and physical, they carried back if they were lucky enough to return home. 3. Intellectual, cultural, and material interchange within each of the great empires that successively occupied these lands. Because the Ottoman Turks were so hated in Europe, many people are still reluctant to admit the degree to which Turkish culture influenced the architecture, cuisine, dress, languages, lifestyles, and music of the conquered lands, but this influence is often quite obvious to an outsider lacking these age-old scars. Even a casual comparison of Turkish instruments with many found in Greece, Albania, Romania, Bulgaria, and the former Yugoslav states will reveal obvious relationships. While the patterns of diffusion into both Asia and Europe are complex, we note some of the more obvious examples here: 1. Fiddles or Bowed Lutes. The distinctive shape of the Turkish kemence appears in the instruments of several southeastern European countries, including Greece (lyra) and Bulgaria (gadulka). We can speculate that these instruments are also related to such instruments as the medieval German Scheitholt and the French rebec. In some cases, the route of entry could also have been through Moorish Spain during the Muslim Arabic period. 2. End-Blown Flutes. The Turkish end-blown flute, called ney, also appears in southeastern Europe. Like the others, it is held obliquely. 3. Dulcimer/Hammered Zither. Among the most widespread of instrumental types is the hammered zither (also called a dulcimer), which nearly always has a box resonator of trapezoidal shape. The origin is assumed to be the Persian santur. This instrument 55 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Turkish kemence (right) and Greek lyra (left). Note the similarities to the medieval instruments played by angels depicted in a cathedral carving 56 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 (far left) The Turkish ney, an end blown and obliquely held flute Persian (Iranian) santur (right) with the American “hammered dulcimer” (right bottom) traveled west throughout Europe, transforming into, for example, the Greek sandouri, the Rom cimbalom, the German Hackbrett, and the French doulcemelle. It also traveled east to East Asia (China and Korea) and Southeast Asia, and west to North America, where it is called the “hammered dulcimer.” 4. Double Reeds. Like the dulcimer, double-reed instruments have traveled east and west, though it does not seem probable that all are related to those from western Asia. The Turkish/Arabic zurna instruments are the likely predecessors of the Greek zournas, in a chain of instruments leading all the way to the French bombarde and even perhaps to the capped reeds, such as the medieval and renaissance shawm or Schalmei. It is also possible that all of these instruments, including the zurna, descended originally from the ancient Greek aulos, first developed in western Asia, then transmitted back to Europe. 5. Pear-Shaped Lute. The name for a pear-shaped lute in Arabic and Turkish is al-’ud, the root of the English word “lute.” As the al-’ud traveled west, it evolved into folk instruments such as the Greek lauto and Romanian cobza, as well as the highly refined Renaissance instrument simply called lute. The Renaissance lute played in France, Germany, and England most likely entered from Arabic (Moorish) Spain. The al-’ud also traveled east, where it became the Chinese pipa, the Japanese biwa, and the Vietnamese dan tyba. 6. Round-Bodied Lute. Round-bodied lutes abound in western Asia and southeastern Europe under a variety of names, but they also occur in Europe outside the areas occu- pied by the Ottoman Turks. The Turkish tanbur (and related instruments called bag ^ lama and saz) is made in various sizes with movable frets, and similar instruments, usually called tambura or a variant of this term, are found in, for example, Bulgaria, Croatia, and 57 3 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Two double-reed aerophones: Turkish zurna (left) and Turkish ud lute (left) with Greek lauto (right) Malaysian serunai (right) Turkish tanbur (also spelled tambur) (left) with Greek bouzouki (right) Serbia. Possibly even the Italian mandolin derives from these prototypes. Ironically, the best-known Greek instrument, the bouzouki, descends from the Turkish buzuq, and as a result some nationalistic Greeks refuse to listen to bouzouki music, since they consider the instrument a survival from the culture of their Turkish oppressors. Our study of Turkish music shows how culture ebbs and flows between and among sometimes strikingly different civilizations over time and place. These processes are always complicated 58 C U L T U R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S : B E Y O N D T H E S O U N D S 3 and can never be sorted out precisely, but it is clear that today’s world results from a series of events that have been taking place over a long period of time. Without an awareness of these interactions, it is impossible to understand why things are the way they are today. Questions to Consider 1. How might an “insider” to a musical tradition hear it differently from an “outsider”? Are both perspectives necessary for a complete picture? 2. What music best expresses your individual identity? 3. What distinguishes “modern” from “postmodern” scholarship in music? 4. What role does music play in your spiritual life? 5. How has technology changed the kinds of music we listen to and how we hear them? 6. Why is history important to the study of world music? w On Your Own Time ww Book: Becker, Judith. Deep Listeners: Music, Emotion and Trancing. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2008. http://www.iupress.indiana.edu/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=21676 Book: Stokes, Martin, ed. Ethnicity, Identity and Music: The Musical Construction of Place. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. http://www.bergpublishers.com/?tabid=2196 Book: Post, Jennifer, C. Ethnomusicology: A Research and Information Guide. New York: Routledge, 2004. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415879774/ Book: Shepherd, John and Peter Wicke. Music and Cultural Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1997. http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745608648 Book: Clayton, Martin, Tervor Herbert and Richard Middleton, eds. The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2003. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415938457/ Book: Turino, Thomas. Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2008. http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/M/bo5867463.html Book: Solís, Ted, ed. Performing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Representation in World Music Ensembles. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004. http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520238312 Video: Marre, Jeremy, ed. The Nature of Music (3 programs: 1, Sources and Sorcery; 2, Songs and Symbols; 3, Legends and Labels). (Out of print VHS videotape but worthwhile if found in a library.) Book: Rouget, Gilbert. Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relations between Music and Possession. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/M/bo5956162.html 59 Site 2 Site 4 Site 3 Site 1 4 Oceania: Australia, Papua New Guinea, Hawaii, Kiribati 4 Background Preparation 62 An Inside Look: Amy Ku’uleialoha Ayers Rock, Stillman 75 known locally as Planning the Itinerary 63 Uluru, rises 2800 Explore More: Hawaiian Steel Guitar Arrival: Australia 63 feet/863 meters and Ukulele 76 above the central Site 1: Australian Aboriginal Song Australian plain Site 3: Hawaiian Drum-Dance with Didjeridu 64 southwest of Alice Chant 77 Arrival: Papua New Guinea 69 Springs (Max T. Arrival: Kiribati 80 Miller) Site 2: Susap (lamellophone) from Site 4: Group Song for bino Papua New Guinea 70 (sitting dance) from Kiribati 81 Explore More: Singsings of Papua Questions to Consider 85 New Guinea 73 On Your Own Time 86 Arrival: Hawaii 74 61 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Background Preparation The area known as Oceania includes Australia and numerous island groups spread across a vast region in the Pacific Ocean. Whereas the land area of Australia is nearly three million square miles (more than 7.6 million square km), the total land area of the Pacific Islands is less than 500,000 square miles (just over 800,000 km), smaller than the state of Alaska. The islands of New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Hawaii comprise over 90 percent of this land area, while the remaining islands, numbering almost 25,000, account for fewer square miles/km of land area than the country of Belgium. The Pacific Islands are divided into three SUBREGIONS OF subregions: Melanesia (meaning “dark islands,”), Micronesia (meaning “small islands”), THE PACIFIC and Polynesia (meaning “many islands”). ISLANDS Most of Oceania is considered tropical or subtropical. The Pacific Islands straddle the Melanesia (meaning equator, with Micronesia in the northern hemisphere and most of Melanesia and Polynesia, “dark islands”) as well as Australia and New Zealand, being part of the southern hemisphere. While Micronesia Australia and larger islands such as New Zealand and Hawaii are accessible by plane, many (meaning “small of the smaller islands and atolls of the Pacific are still quite isolated, with ships arriving on islands”) only a weekly or monthly basis. Tourism is a primary economic resource in the Pacific, but Polynesia (meaning most indigenous groups continue to survive on subsistence farming or hunting and gathering. “many islands”) Australian Aboriginal communities keep their traditional practices fairly secluded, though many have adopted an urban lifestyle or rely on government support. While European cultural influence is extensive throughout Oceania due to colonization, primarily by the British, the indigenous populations of Australia and the Pacific Islands maintain traditional cultural practices. These vary widely and are considered in many cases to be among the most ancient customs on the planet. A common denominator for all groups is a close relationship with nature. Complex animistic and totemistic spiritual systems have evolved throughout Oceania, in which practitioners call on animals and natural elements for guidance, protection, and subsistence. Rituals involving musical activity are most often associated with these beliefs, and many songs are believed to derive from ancestral spirits who are inevitably linked with spiritual forces of nature. Along with these traditional beliefs one also finds much Christian influence, introduced by European and American missionaries during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Missionaries, along with colonial governments, drastically changed the cultural customs and social systems of many populations throughout Oceania. English or French are con- sidered the “official” languages of most nations, though indigenous dialects continue to be spoken. Home to roughly 1,200 languages, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and the islands of the Pacific provide some of the world’s most fertile soil for linguistic and anthropological studies. The music of Oceania is primarily vocal, and thus effective research on music traditions DIDJERIDU often requires specialized linguistic study. With few exceptions, instruments tend to be A long trumpet small and portable, most being idiophones or membranophones. Slit drums are common, made from a especially in Melanesia. The few aerophones found are primarily flutes, though the most hollowed tree famous instrument from the region is likely the Australian didjeridu, classified as a trumpet. branch and played Chordophones—namely the guitar or derivatives of it—are largely of European origin. by Aborigines from Australia. The sound Myths and belief systems, along with practical knowledge and oral histories, pass from is characterized by a generation to generation through song and dance. Music is often considered a link to the low, rumbling drone. spiritual plane, and specialists in ritual-associated music traditions are common. Subtle 62 O C E A N I A 4 distinctions in vocal performance are considered vital to the identity of individual social groups; thus, music and dance are regarded as highly valued cultural property. Planning the Itinerary Our review of music traditions from Oceania begins with the mysterious sound of the didjeridu—an instrument found among the Aborigines of northern Australia, who maintain ABORIGINES some of the planet’s most intriguing and ancient cultural practices. Next we introduce an A generic term example of one of the world’s most common instrument types, the mouth harp, as we travel for an indigenous population, often to Papua New Guinea, an area of major anthropological interest for several decades. While used to describe ethnomusicologists have been studying this region extensively, many music traditions native peoples of remain largely unexplored due to the great cultural diversity of its indigenous populations. Australia. We then arrive on more familiar ground—Hawaii—to examine indigenous vocal practices associated with the precolonial period of Polynesia, as well as more modern music, namely the Hawaiian slack-key guitar. Finally, we introduce the choral traditions of the Pacific through an example of Kiribati vocal performance, which reveals the influence of European musical creation over the last 200 years. Arrival: Australia RAL ST IA AU The Australian wilderness is home to sev- eral unique species of animals. The koala, kangaroo, and platypus, just to name a few, are among the world’s most intriguing animals. While many of the coastal areas have moderate vegetation that supports such species, the interior of the continent, known as the Outback or Bush, mainly con- sists of vast plains and large desert regions. The major cities—Sydney, Melbourne, and Perth—are located along the coast, while the few inhabitants of the interior are mostly members of Australia’s well-known indigenous population, who are referred to as Aborigines. While most Aborigines live in urban settings today, a government reserve in the Northern Territory, known as Aerial view of Arnhem Land, is home to more than 30,000 Sydney, Australia, and its iconic Aborigines who maintain cultural prac- Sydney Opera tices that have existed for roughly 40,000 House designed years. Though some of these Aborigines in 1973 (Harvey live in government-sponsored housing, Lloyd/Getty many continue to follow a semi-nomadic Images) 63 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y An Aboriginal dance accompanied by clapsticks and a didjeridu (Axel Poignant, 1952) lifestyle. These Aborigines acquire few material possessions, mostly related either to hunting (such as spears or boomerangs), or spiritual practices (musical instruments). The close affinity such Australian Aborigines have with their environment is revealed in their totemistic belief system. Totemism centers on the relationship of an individual or group with animals or natural objects or elements, such as specific mountains or the ocean. ANIMISM Animism—the belief that all living things as well as natural phenomena, such as wind or Belief systems in fire, have a spirit—also plays an important role in the Aboriginal cosmology. Known as The which natural Dreaming or Dreamtime, this cosmology is the focus of much artistic activity within the phenomena as well Aboriginal communities of Australia. as both animate and inanimate objects are considered to possess a spirit. Site 1: Australian Aboriginal Song with Didjeridu DREAMTIME First Impressions. The vocal exclamations in this example are accompanied by the steady A term describing pulse of wooden clapsticks and the low rumble of the didjeridu, an end-blown wooden the Australian trumpet that is the most distinctive feature of traditional music from Arnhem Land. The aboriginal spiritual vocalist is like a storyteller shouting his words to all who would listen, including ancestral belief system and spirits, while the constant drone of the didjeridu may suggest to the first-time listener a cloud concept of creation. of hornets swirling overhead or the rumbling sound of a large waterfall. Aural Analysis. The didjeridu is traditionally made from a tree branch, typically eucalyptus, hollowed out by termites. Some didjeridu are made of bamboo, while modern instruments used in non-traditional contexts are sometimes made of plastic or even metal. Most didjeridu are between 3.5 and 7 feet long (106 cm to 213 cm), with a diameter of 1–3 inches (2.5 cm 64 O C E A N I A 4 A didjeridu player of Australia (Grant Faint/Getty Images) to 7.5 cm). The ring of the blowing end is covered with beeswax to protect the performer’s mouth from the wood’s ragged edge and to shape the blowing end to a preferred size, in order to create a secure seal for the player’s mouth. The guttural sound of the didjeridu is made by relaxing the lips and blowing air through the mouth to make the lips flap or buzz. This vibration echoes through the instrument producing a deep fundamental drone with a multitude of overtones. An adept performer can create different timbres and a rhythmically patterned drone by altering the airflow with his mouth and tongue. He may also force sudden bursts of air through the instrument to increase the volume or alter the pitch and timbre. Performers often add vocalizations, such as humming or growling, to change the sound of the instrument. This latter technique is especially important when performers attempt to imitate the sounds of birds or other animals. Fundamental to playing the didjeridu is utilization of the circular breathing technique, CIRCULAR which creates a continuous exhaled airflow, making it possible to produce a steady drone BREATHING over long periods. Air is expelled through the lips by tongue and cheek muscles. As the A technique used to maintain a performer exhales, he simultaneously inhales through his nose to replenish the air reserve continuous exhaled stored in the cheeks. An easy way to try this technique is with a cup of water and a straw; airflow in aerophone a continuous airflow will maintain a steady stream of bubbles. While a beginner can soon performance. do this with a small tube, the larger didjeridu is more difficult to master, because it requires much more air and pressure to produce a consistent and correct tone. The clapsticks that are used to accompany didjeridu are generally made of hard woods and tend to be roughly a foot and a half (45 cm) in length and about an inch (2.5 cm) in diameter. Some Aboriginal groups use boomerangs as clapsticks, especially in ceremonies 65 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y that prepare hunting parties for expeditions. The clapsticks provide a steady pulse, which the vocalist uses to frame his vocal phrases. The didjeridu performer may also correlate his rhythmic drone to the clapsticks by adding overtone bursts in conjunction with the pulse of the clapsticks. These bursts alter the pitch of the drone. In our example this pitch alter- ation, which raises the initial pitch by a semitone, occurs on roughly every other pulse shortly after the clapsticks enter. Often the clapsticks are played only during the didjeridu interludes and not during sung sections—though they do sound throughout both sung and instrumental sections of our example. This performance consists of two parts: a presentation of the main text and a secondary section of vocables in which non-lexical (untranslatable) formulaic phrases are used. Though some overlapping of pitches occurs, the main text is generally sung in a higher range than the vocables section, which concludes in a comparatively lower range. Throughout the example, the melodic contour of the vocal line is typically descending. Here is a transcription of the words heard before the clapsticks enter (the main text is in boldface): Dijan old jong, dijan iya—bushfire (This one’s an old song—bushfire) [Didjeridu enters] ga andegarrana andegarran(a) andegarrana andegarran(a) andegarrana andegarrana ya a ga na ya ya ga ga [Clapsticks enter] (Bunggridj-bunggridj: Wangga Songs, Alan Maralung; Northern Australia. SF 40430. Washington DC: Smithsonian Folkways, 1993, p. 30) Village elders chant with accompaniment by didjeridu and clapsticks as well as clapping (Mark Crocombe) 66 O C E A N I A 4 The vocal timbre is nasal, and there is only one singer, which is typical among the Aborigines—though group vocal performances do occur. There is only one didjeridu player, as is almost always the case, because the fundamental pitches of different didjeridu are rarely the same. The instrumental dynamic level remains consistent throughout, while the sec- ondary vocables section is at a slightly lower volume than the main text. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.1 (1’52”) Chapter 4: Site 1 Australia: Aboriginal Song with Didjeridu Voice: Single male Instruments: Didjeridu (aerophone), clapsticks (idiophone) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Spoken introduction. (0’04”) (“Bushfire” said by vocalist.) 0’07” Didjeridu enters playing a drone (continuous sound). Listen for the dynamic “bursts” that initiate the cycle and provide a rhythmic pulsation. 0’12” Vocalist enters. Listen for a descending melodic contour and a tendency toward syllabic text setting in the vocal line. The vocal timbre is quite “nasal” and has a declamatory style. 0’26” Clapsticks enter with a steady pulse. 0’31” Vocalist, second entry. 0’51” Didjeridu and clapsticks alone. 0’54” Vocalist, third entry. 1’05” Didjeridu and clapsticks alone. 1’10” Vocalist uses partial phrases with descending melodic contours to close the sung section. 1’33” Vocalist imitates the drone of the didjeridu. 1’42” Didjeridu stops. 1’45” Closing section of clapsticks and voice. Source: “Bushfire” by Alan Maralung, from the recording entitled Bunggridj-bunggridj Wangga Songs, Northern Australia, SF 40430. Recorded by Allan Marett and Linda Barwick; provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. © 1993. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.1): Attempt to “circular breathe” (see Aural Analysis) by blowing bubbles in a cup of water through a straw continuously throughout the performance (1’51”). 67 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Cultural Considerations. The title of this example, “Bushfire,” with its animistic reference to a natural phenomenon, is indicative of the strong association between musical per- formance and spiritual belief characteristic of Australian Aborigines. Most traditional Aboriginal performances, whether in ritual contexts or for entertainment, have a sacred element that relates to The Dreaming (Dreamtime), the Aboriginal cosmology. The Dreaming tells of an ancient mythological past when the earth was merely a featureless swirl of creative energy. At that time, ancestral spirits (wondjina) roamed the planet creating life and shaping the topographical features of the earth. The spirits also created songs, known as “history songs,” that provided the framework with which the Aborigines were able to maintain their society, the land, and totemistic relationships. Through the correct performance of these songs, the Aborigines are able to tap into this ancient and creative power left behind by the ancestral spirits. Aborigines believe that these history songs have remained unchanged since the beginning of time. A night-time corroboree ritual performed by Aborigines from Goulburn Island, Arnhem Land, Australia (Axel Poignant, 1952) 68 O C E A N I A 4 While history songs are regarded as the most important, songs related to totems or social activities also exist. New songs in the latter two categories are sometimes composed, though they usually are considered to have been inspired by an ancestral spirit or taught to an individual in a dream. Women do not usually perform songs along with men, and it is taboo for women to play the didjeridu. The sound of the didjeridu is considered the most sacred of all sounds and is regarded not only as symbolic of the creative powers of the ancestral spirits but also as an actual aural manifestation of their creative energy. Female performance on the didjeridu is taboo primarily because Aborigines believe that exposure to the instrument’s spiritual power would make a woman more fertile, causing her to give birth to too many children for the community to support. While tourists often have access to staged performances of aboriginal music, the most common contexts for traditional Aboriginal music performances are mortuary rites and boys’ circumcision ceremonies. Songs are also performed on more informal occasions, most frequently during a corroboree, or night-time ritual. Most of these events are considered sacred and are closed to the uninitiated; thus, there is little documentation of them. Dance plays an important role in ritual contexts. White paint is applied to the dancer’s dark-skinned body according to prescribed patterns associated with a clan’s totems and the specific ritual. At the night-time corroboree, this paint shines in the firelight. During these events, which are believed to connect participants with ancestral spirits, the hypnotic sound of the didjeridu helps create a feeling of disorientation from time and place. Arrival: Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 22 JAN While Papua New Guinea (often referred to as PNG) has a population of fewer than five million inhabitants, there are more than seven hundred languages spoken among its diverse cultural groups. Comprising the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the western half being part of Indonesia), the region is the largest land area in Melanesia. Its precolonial his- tory dates back roughly 50,000 years and is believed to be linked with that of the Aboriginal populations of Australia, based on several cultural and genetic similarities. The major cities are found along the coast, while the highland interior is home to much of the population. Most indigenous groups practice subsistence farming—that is, they grow food and raise livestock for personal use rather than for commerce. While English is the offi- cial language due to years of British colonial influence, only a small portion of the population speaks it fluently. Indigenous languages predominate, along with Tok Pisin, a combination of pidgin English and Melanesian. Christian missionaries, primarily from Europe, have had some influence on indigenous spiritual beliefs found in Papua New Guinea. Local traditions that missionaries considered pagan or erotic in nature were often prohibited by them, in particular traditional dancing that was targeted as an immoral activity thought to promote sexual promiscuity. As a result, many local customs, especially in lowland areas where missionaries have had the most influence, have been lost or modified. Nevertheless, a wide array of traditional music and dance is still found in Papua New Guinea, and many customs have been reestablished since the country achieved indepen- dence in 1975. Tourists are visiting the island in increasing numbers, drawn by the elaborate dress and varied cultural activities of the many different ethnic groups. Probably the most 69 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Enga men play the kundu goblet drum and dance in Papua New Guinea (Don Niles) visible of instruments found among the Papuans are the large slit drums called garamut and the hourglass-shaped drums known as kundu. These are used in many ceremonial contexts and have become a staple of tourist shows and government-sponsored festivals. Less popular at these events, but perhaps the most widespread instrument in the country, is the susap, a bamboo mouth harp commonly played for self-entertainment. Site 2: Susap (lamellophone) from Papua New Guinea First Impressions. The susap has a distinctive “twangy” timbre, as if the performer were talking through an electronic voice modulator. A first-time listener not seeing the instrument might imagine the performer is striking a metal spring or taut cable with a small screwdriver, creating a wobbly “boing” effect. This unique tone quality makes our example memorable even in the absence of a singable melody or repeatable rhythm. Aural Analysis. Mouth harps, such as the susap, are one of the most common instruments found throughout the world. Most are made of either wood or bamboo, but some are made from metal, such as what used to be known as a “jew’s harp” common to American folk music. Such mouth harps are not actually classified as harps (chordophones) but belong, rather, to a subcategory of idiophone known as lamellophones (or linguaphones). Lamellophones in general have multiple flexible tongues (each known as a lamella) that are typically plucked to produce sound. Most mouth-resonated lamellophones have a single lamella that is set or cut into a frame. The performer plucks the lamella so that it vibrates within the frame, producing a distinctive “twangy” timbre, whose quiet sound is amplified 70 O C E A N I A 4 A Baruya man plays the susap mouth harp from the Eastern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea (Don Niles) by the mouth cavity. The lamella must pass tightly within the frame to produce the desired effect. A small piece of wax is sometimes fixed to the end of the lamella to encourage its vibration or to change the instrument’s timbre. To play the susap, the performer holds its frame tightly within the lips, holding one end to maintain the proper angle while plucking an extension that is attached either to the frame or to the lamella. Often a small string is attached to the instrument and jerked to vibrate the lamella. The performer alters the sound by changing the size and shape of his oral cavity and vocal tract. While the fundamental pitch of the mouth harp does not change, the manipulation of overtones resonating in the mouth can produce recognizable melodic features, usually more closely related to speech than song. In our example the performer maintains a steady plucking pattern but varies the rhythmic content through timbral changes. While the performance is likely improvised, the example can be segmented into four sections. The opening section includes twenty pulses without much timbral variation. This is followed by a more rhythmically active section in which the player begins to “speak” with the instrument, producing an accented low tone echoed by a faint overtone. The rhythmic emphasis shifts frequently: sometimes the funda- mental tone is played twice before the echo is sounded, other times the player alternates evenly between the two timbres, producing one overtone for every low tone. This section is also marked by the frequent use of a long–short rhythmic pattern created by the performer using his tongue to silence the resonation just before plucking the instrument to produce the accented tone. One might express this rhythm as a short–long pattern, such as “du-duu, du-duu.” 71 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Close-up showing details of a bamboo lamellophone from the southern Philippines. A toothpick has been inserted to display the vibrating tongue The third section occurs approximately ninety pulses into the performance and is characterized by a less-prominent role for the lower, accented tone and a new emphasis on varying the timbre of the higher overtones. Variations in timbre are produced through manip- ulations of the size of the mouth cavity and by changes in the position of the player’s tongue. This section is the most speech-like of the four sections. The final section commences at approximately 150 pulses and is marked by the “boing” effect already mentioned, which is created by fluttering the tongue inside the mouth cavity to produce a wavering, “wobbly” sound. This is perhaps the most unique timbral effect of the performance. Cultural Considerations. In Papua New Guinea, as elsewhere, the mouth harp often acts as a “speech surrogate.” Performers use it to imitate speech patterns and phonemes in order to create the illusion of speech in a musical context. The sounds of the mouth harp are often considered to be speech that is “disguised,” in order that it not be understood by eaves- droppers. While mouth harps are commonly used for self-entertainment, they are also frequently found in traditional courting rituals. In Papua New Guinea the susap is considered to possess love-controlling magic that men can use to attract a woman’s affections. By using the instru- ment as a speech surrogate, the man is able to “say” things to the woman that might otherwise be considered inappropriate. The instrument also provides impunity from rejection. If the woman is attracted to her suitor, then the magic has worked; if not, the magic was either ineffective or not correctly utilized by the performer. An ignored suitor either has to improve his technique or use a different instrument to attract the woman’s affections. This allows the woman more freedom to act on her feelings as well, as the instrument can be blamed for affecting her action or inaction with regards to her suitor. Thus, the susap functions to main- tain social relationships between young men and women in small communities where daily interaction is necessary for subsistence. 72 O C E A N I A 4 L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.2 (1’22”) Chapter 4: Site 2 Papua New Guinea: Susap (lamellophone) Instruments: Susap TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Opening pulse established. Timbre is consistent, with little variation. 0’07” Second section, emphasizing a “short–long” (du-duu) rhythmic pattern. 0’24” Section transition. High-frequency manipulation initiated. 0’28” Third section, characterized by a “speaking” manipulation of the fundamental tone and emphasis on a single prominent overtone. 0’50” Fourth section, characterized by “wobbly” overtone manipulation. 1’17” Close of performance on the fundamental tone. Source: “Badra from Buzi” (“Sounds of a Susap”) performed by Amadu, recorded by Wolfgang Laade, Buji, Western Province, Papua New Guinea, 1964, from the recording Music from South New Guinea, Folkways 04216, provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. © 1971. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.2): Make a “mouth harp.” To do this, cut a “tongue” into a rectangular piece of plastic, metal, or wood. Experiment with different sizes and shapes. Explore More emphasize group vocal production, typically accompanied by Singsings of communal dancing. Papua New Guinea The most common instrument throughout PNG is the kundu, As with all of the destinations we visit, there is much more a small goblet-shaped drum with a face made of either lizard to the music of Papua New Guinea than covered in this book. or snake skin. Many have anthropomorphic features, such as While the susap is a common instrument, it is primarily played a crocodile shape and can exceed 9 feet (3 meters) in length. by children and is considered by most adults as a “toy” The largest drums (known as diwaka) are considered for those of courting age. Many other traditional forms of community property and played for important rituals and music have a much higher status for communities. These village gatherings. The smaller kundu are carried by the 73 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y performers as they dance and sing. Other instruments often overnight. Singsings today are intended in part to include stamping tubes, a variety of flutes, and the well- celebrate the diverse ethnic makeup of the island known garamut, which are large hollow log idiophones struck communities and foster cultural exchange between groups with sticks that are used to communicate messages over that otherwise have little contact with each other. Participants large distances as well as accompany singing and dancing. adorn themselves in a colorful array of regalia, body paint, and sometimes face masks, attracting many outsiders to these Singsings are among the most common contexts for musical social gatherings once considered a musical battleground performance among aboriginal populations in PNG. These between opposing clans, similar to the singing competitions events typically include participants from several villages, found in other parts of Oceania (see Site 4: Kiribati). who perform clan dances and music throughout the day and Arrival: Hawaii HAWAII The fiftieth state of the United States of America is geographically considered a part of Polynesia, a region including many other well-known islands such as Tahiti, Samoa, Easter Island, the Cook Islands, and even New Zealand. The first inhabitants of Hawaii most likely arrived from the Marquesas Islands and Tahiti, the largest of the Society Islands, sometime between the seventh and thirteenth centuries. These early settlers subsisted primarily on fish and poi, a pasty food made from taro root. Their social organization was essentially feudal and incorporated strict taboo systems, called kapus. The first European visitor to Hawaii was the Englishman Captain James Cook, one of the most famous explorers of the late 1700s. Arriving in 1778, Cook was initially welcomed by the islanders, but relations between the British and Hawaiians soon turned sour, and in 1779 Cook died in a skirmish on a return visit to the islands. Nonetheless, within a few years the islands became an important port for European and North American trade. Increasing contact with outsiders brought many changes to indigenous ways of life. The islands were politically unified in 1810 by King Kamehameha I, who encouraged foreign trade and suc- cessfully maintained Hawaii’s independence from colonial control. He also supported native cultural customs and the indigenous religion until his death in 1819. Support for Hawaiian culture was, however, abandoned by Kamehameha’s son and successor, Kamehameha II, who in less than a year destroyed the old system of kapus and abolished the ancient ritual practices. The temples and idols of the old religion, a complex form of animism, were ordered to be destroyed, and the king welcomed the arrival of Christian missionaries soon afterward. Visitors to the former palace in downtown Honolulu will note the strong central European influence adopted by the old monarchy. These events brought drastic changes to secular life as well, and the 1800s saw rapid changes in social organization, political power, and economic patterns. Sugarcane became a major export, and wealthy American businessmen began to acquire much power and land throughout the islands. The political power of the Hawaiian monarchy evaporated in the 1890s, and the country was eventually annexed by the United States. The early 1900s saw an increased influx of immigrants from the United States, the Philippines, China, and Japan. Most came as laborers to work for the burgeoning pineapple 74 O C E A N I A 4 and sugarcane plantations. The Japanese attack on Hawaii’s Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, precipitated U.S. entry into the Pacific theater of World War II and made the islands of vital strategic interest to the United States. Initially, Japanese-Americans in Hawaii were distrusted, but their bravery in the ensuing war—they comprised some of the most decorated regimental military units in American history—diminished racial prejudice against them in the postwar years. Hawaii acquired statehood in 1959 and quickly became one of the most popular tourist destinations in the United States. Amy Ku’uleialoha Stillman A N I N S I D E L O O K Hawaiian music is my birthright. My mother took me to hula lessons when I was five years old, and I had a ukulele in my hands by the time I was seven. After an adolescence hooked on Elvis and the Beatles, I returned to Hawaiian music in my high school years and have embraced it as my passion since. As an undergraduate at University of Hawai’i in the 1970s, I was shocked to read anthropological scholarship on Hawaiians that dismissed my parents’ and my traditions of “modern” Hawaiian music as inauthentic because of its westernized character. I resolved then to get a Ph.D. in order to join the scholarly conversation at that level and be taken seriously. Amy Ku’uleialoha Stillman, music researcher and scholar A deliberate focus on research and writing precluded teach- ing hula performance for several decades, despite that I tained the skills of singing and dancing. Since then, I have possessed the capacity to do so, because there were so few done exactly that, by curating three concerts and producing scholars with the aptitude for laborious archival research. My three CDs of contemporary settings of archival repertoire. work has been devoted to exploring how contemporary This experience led to an opportunity to collaborate with Hawaiian performance retains indigenous Hawaiian aes- Grammy Award-winning producer Daniel Ho on writing new thetics even as Hawaiian people embraced westernization songs. Our very first CD of original material, ‘ikena, received and Christianity. I’ve reached back into archival resources and the Grammy Award for Best Hawaiian Album in 2009, and uncovered hundreds (if not thousands) of pieces of reper- our second CD, He Nani, received a nomination in 2010. My toire, only a fraction of which had been passed to the present career, initially devoted to documenting Hawaiian perfor- in continuous performance. In the first edition of this book mance, has gone full circle to creating new repertoire, by I wrote of my aspiration to bring the archival repertoire back adding to the stream of tradition. to life by reuniting it with the performers who have main- 75 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Explore More Hawaiian Steel Guitar and a “bottle-neck” style of blues music that incorporated Ukulele fingerpicking as well. Hawaiian steel guitar remained popular through the 1960s, particularly in association with Hollywood Although Hula is the music and dance tradition most movies, such as Elvis Presley’s Blue Hawaii (1961). associated with the islands, steel guitar is also an important Whereas the Hawaiian steel guitar tends toward a long, lilting musical export of Hawaii. The Hawaiian steel guitar style is melody, the ukulele, a small four-stringed Portuguese version distinctive for its characteristic “sliding tone” (i.e., porta- of the guitar, often has a more rapid playing technique. mento) produced by sliding a metal bar along the strings Brought to the islands in the late nineteenth century, the without pressing them down to the fretboard. This allows the ukulele was adopted by Hawaiians to accompany vocal performer to sound all the frequencies between two standard performance and to be played as a solo instrument. The name pitches, thus “sliding” into many pitches of the melody. translates as “flying flea,” a reference to the fast plucking Because of the emphasis on this pitch-bending effect, technique utilized by its early performers. The standard (or melodic lines tend to have a low rhythmic density and the soprano) ukulele is roughly 18–20 inches long (46–53 cm) overall tempo is moderate to slow. Wide vibrato and har- with twelve to seventeen frets following the Western tuning monic overtones are common to Hawaiian steel guitar system. The strings are tuned to G–C–E–A, such that the C performances, particularly on electric instruments, which first is the lowest pitch, with the others above in the same octave. became popular in the 1930s. The instrument often appears in small ensembles that also While the guitar is believed to have arrived in Hawaii during include a guitar and string bass and has become popular to the 1830s, the first appearance of the “sliding” performance accompany hula dances. technique is typically attributed to Joseph Kekuku in 1885, Another important Hawaiian style of performance is known who as a young boy experimented for several years with this as the “slack-key guitar,” which first appeared on commercial sound on his guitar using various materials, string tunings to recordings during the 1940s. This method requires the produce a variety of chords, and timbral effects, such as instrument strings be loosened to alter the standard guitar harmonic overtones, that were to become standard to the tuning. Instrumental performances include a rapid finger- Hawaiian steel guitar tradition. In 1904, Kekuku traveled to picking style as well as hammer-on and pull-off techniques the United States (Hawaii was not yet a state) and also toured with the fretboard hand and “chime” effects produced by Europe with his pioneering guitar style. Other performers lightly touching a string at its harmonic node to sound an who had adopted Kekuku’s style followed, and by the mid- overtone. Vocalists often accompany themselves with this 1920s the Hawaiian steel guitar had become popular through- guitar style and pass on their songs through oral tradition. out the mainland and abroad, particularly with vaudeville Among the most famous performers of the genre was troupes and Country & Western musicians who incorporated Raymond Kane (1925–2008), a recipient of the National the instrument into their own music, leading to the devel- Heritage Fellowship in 1987, as well as Ledward Kaapana opment of the dobro and pedal steel guitar as the instruments (n.d.) who is well-known today. are known today. African-American blues artists of the 1920s–1930s also utilized a similar sliding technique, creating 76 O C E A N I A 4 Site 3: Hawaiian Drum-Dance Chant First Impressions. While chanting in most traditions is strongly speech-like, Hawaiian drum- dance chant is often more song-like. Each phrase rolls off the vocalist’s tongue like the gentle lap of ocean waves on a white sand beach or the graceful, flowing arm movements of Hawaii’s famous hula dancers. The drums add a solid, but not overbearing, undercurrent that gives the performance an earthy feel, suggestive of a spiritual connection to nature. Aural Analysis. Hawaiian drum-dance chant consists simply of a voice, one or two drums, and accompanying dance. Other rhythmic instruments, such as stamping tubes (ka’eke’eke) or gourd idiophones (ipu heke), can be added. The preferred vocal timbre is usually full, with a deep, resonant tone quality. Vocal ornamentation is important, as with all styles of Polynesian chant. A prominent feature of Hawaiian vocal performance is the use of vibrato (a wavering of a tone). While vibrato is commonly used in many world traditions, it is generally applied to sustained pitches. Hawaiian vocalists, however, frequently apply vibrato to shorter tones as well. The text setting is primarily syllabic—that is, it employs only one pitch per syllable, utilizing only two tones at an interval of a minor third. The vocalist emphasizes the upper pitch but “falls” or “slides” to the lower pitch on sustained tones. This “sliding” technique is referred to as portamento and involves a continuous movement from one pitch to another, usually from high to low, with all of the frequencies between the The Hawaiian two pitches being sounded. The singer in our example uses portamento occasionally at ukulele the beginning of the performance. (Shutterstock) Another distinctive feature of Hawaiian vocal performance is inherent in the language itself. Most words end with open vowel sounds, such as ah, oh, oo, ai, and so on, rather than closed, hard consonants, such as k, t, or p. While hard consonants are found at the beginning of some words, they tend to be deemphasized. As such, the singing flows from one phrase PORTAMENTO A smooth, to the next with smooth transitions, as in our example, which begins with the vocalist uninterrupted glide speaking the phrase “(Ai) Kaulilua i ke anu Waì alé ale” before singing it. The open vowel from one pitch to sounds facilitate the use of portamento as well as vibrato and help give the music its “flow- another. ing” feel. The accompanying drums are known as the pahu and the kilu (also puniu). The pahu PAHU is a single-headed cylindrical membranophone that stands vertically on a carved footed base. A single-headed The base and resonator are typically a single unit made from the wood of either a breadfruit cylindrical membranophone or coconut tree. The pahu can be as short as around 9 inches (23 cm) or as tall as almost 4 from Hawaii that feet (123 cm). Its face is traditionally made from sharkskin, or sometimes from manta ray stands vertically skin, and is attached with twine made from the outer fibers of coconuts. The kilu is a smaller on a carved footed drum made from a gourd, wood, or a coconut shell and traditionally has a face made from base. fish skin. The kilu is sometimes attached to the performer’s leg with a strap. It is played with a narrow strip of braided coconut fibers, creating a higher “slapping” sound relative to the KILU pahu, which is played with the hand. The pahu is considered the more important of the two A small drum from Hawaii, usually instruments, and its irregular rhythmic patterns correspond to important points in the song made from a text and associated dance movements. coconut shell with a fish skin face. 77 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.3 (2’02”) Chapter 4: Site 3 Hawaii: Mele Hula Pahu (Drum-Dance Chant) Voice: Single female Instruments: Kilu (high-pitched drum), pahu (low-pitched drum) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Spoken text: “(Ai) Kaulilua i ke anu Waì alé alé” 0’04” Introductory four-pulse (duple meter) drum pattern, followed by basic pattern used throughout performance. Listen for variations in the basic drum pattern, such as at 0’28”, 0’37”, 0’54”, etc. Drum Introduction Kilu (high) -333 -333 -333 3- Pahu (low) 3 3 3 3- Basic Pattern Kilu (high) -333 3 -333 3 Pahu (low) 3 3 3- 3 3 3- 0’09” Vocalist enters. Spoken text (at 0’00”) is now chanted (0’09”–0’13”). 0’37” Both drums sound simultaneously. 0’56” Listen for extended vibrato in voice. 1’01” Second verse begins. 1’44” Extended vocal vibrato closes verse. 1’49” Closing drum pattern. 1’55” Closing spoken verse. 1’58” Kilu drum closes the chant with three strikes. Source: “Kau ka hali’a I ka Manawa,” performed by Noenoe Lewis (drum, vocal) and Hau’oli Lewis (calls, dance); from the recording entitled Hawaiian Drum Dance Chants: Sounds of Power in Time, SF 40015, provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recording © 1989. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.3): Write out the drum patterns for the entire example and play along with the performance. 78 O C E A N I A 4 Cultural Considerations. The best-known examples of Hawaiian music today are heavily influenced by European musical traditions. Because Christian missionaries were often strict with regard to the vocal practices of converted islanders, much of the vocal music came to be based on European hymnody and utilizes conceptions of harmony that presumably did not exist prior to contact with Europeans. Popular instruments such as the Hawaiian “slack-key” steel guitar, which uses a steel slide to stop the strings, or the ukulele, a small chordophone modeled after the guitar, only appeared in Hawaiian music after the colonial period began. Thus, the “traditional” ensembles that tourists often see accompanying hula dancers or hear on popular recordings reveal much Western influence. A Hawaiian musician plays the kilu (left) and pahu (right) drums (George Bacon) Near the edge of Hale Ma’uma’u Crater, dancers perform a hula in honor of Pele, the volcano goddess (Adrienne L. Kaeppler) 79 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Hawaiian drum-dance chant, however, is considered free from outside influence and remains a vital aspect of Hawaiian musical identity. The songs play an important role in the maintenance of indigenous language, spiritual beliefs, history, and social customs. While the poetic text of these songs or chants is the primary focus, the musical delivery is also important, as it enhances the efficacy of the words. Poetry used in drum-dance chant is generally referred to as mele. There are several categories of mele, the most sacred of which, mele pule, consists of prayers dedicated to traditional gods, performed by ritual specialists known as kahuna. Lesser categories of mele trace genealogical histories, name and honor people, or signify specific ritual contexts, such as weddings or funerals. Mele hula are songs specifically associated with dance. Some are purely vocal, while HULA PAHU those called hula pahu are accompanied by the pahu drum. Pahu are highly valued ritual Hawaiian dance objects that hold much spiritual power (or mana). The sound produced is considered a voice songs using drum and traditionally was believed to “speak” to the gods. Drums were typically the property of accompaniment. chiefs or priests and were symbolic of their authority and sacred power. As such, they were treasured items sought after by rival kingdoms. The pahu was used in many ritual contexts, such as important births or memorial services but today is primarily found accompanying dances and rituals promoting Hawaiian ethnic identity. Hawaiian hula dancers (Shutterstock) Arrival: Kiribati K I R I B AT I Kiribati (pronounced “Kiribas”) is a collection of islands in Micronesia situated about 2,500 miles (4,000 km) southwest of Hawaii. Its thirty-three coral islands, all but one of which are atolls (circular islands with a central lagoon), are divided into three groups: the Line Islands 80 O C E A N I A 4 Uninhabited islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of the Republic of Palau in Micronesia (Shutterstock) (east), the Phoenix Islands (central), and the Gilbert Islands (west), the latter being where most of the population resides. Kiritimati, also known as Christmas Island, is the largest coral atoll in the world and was among the many islands of the Pacific explored by Captain James Cook in 1777. Throughout the 1800s, British and American sailors visited the islands while hunting sperm whales and expanding trade routes. The British eventually claimed most of the islands of Kiribati as British protectorates; thus, English is widely spoken along with the native tongue, Gilbertese, an Austronesian language. The first Protestant missionaries arrived in 1857, while the earliest Roman Catholics came in 1888. Much modern social life revolves around church activities. International sports, such as soccer and volleyball, are popular, along with traditional competitive activities, such as canoe racing. Many I-Kiribati, as the islanders are known, rely on fishing and subsistence farming for survival and live in traditional houses made of wood and coconut palms, though there are also a few urban areas where inhabitants live in modern houses and import much of their food and other necessities. Site 4: Group Song for bino (sitting dance) from Kiribati First Impressions. Vocal performance among Pacific islanders is often a communal activity. The choir in our example comprises both men and women and has a distinctive “childlike” tonal quality once the group begins to sing. The example may initially give the impression of a solemn occasion, but then transitions to a celebratory atmosphere with boisterous hand clapping and enthusiastic singing in a regular rhythm with harmony. 81 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Seated dancers during a bino ceremony in Kiribati (Mary Lawson Burke) Kiribati women perform in a temporary performing space at an island festival wearing a thick grass skirt and flower-and-fiber adornments, with a conductor and a seated chorus in the background (Adrenne L. Kaeppler) 82 O C E A N I A 4 Aural Analysis. Vocal choirs are common throughout Micronesia and Polynesia. Because most traditional performances are sung in unison, the use of harmony in our example reflects European musical influences, primarily introduced by Christian missionaries. Indigenous songs tend to use fewer pitches than those associated with the church—normally no more than five. The “youthful” vocal timbre of primarily the female singers is somewhat nasal and strained, in contrast to the male voices that are forceful and full. In the Kiribati islands, vocal performances influenced by the church sometimes start with a freely rhythmic section that is closer to indigenous traditions. These are most typical of sitting dances (te bino), where the majority of performers are seated on the ground. More recent music/dance genres (e.g., te buki, te kaimatoa, te kateitei) do not have an initial freely rhythmic section. These begin with the metered section often marked by the steady pulse of handclaps. During the metered section, the voices follow a call-and-response pattern, though the call is primarily just a shout that establishes pitch and signals the choir’s entrance. The text setting is mostly syllabic. A whistle is sometimes used to signal the choir to close the performance with a brief series of handclaps. As described by Mary Lawson Burke, the ethnomusicologist who recorded the site example. This example of music for the bino sitting dance begins with the traditional freely rhythmic section, and then proceeds into the main body of the piece, which is charac- terized by a steady beat, clapping accompaniment, and alternation between “traditional” monophonic music and harmonized music. Prior to the beginning of the piece you can hear the call “akeia,” which calls everyone to attention and provides the starting pitch, and then the song leader sings “au bino,” or “my bino”—which is always done at the start of the sitting dance. I picked this example because the text is rather interesting in that it deals with WWII. (The famous Battle of Betio was fought on Tarawa atoll.) After the initial rather ambiguous section, the words don’t discuss the local battle, but instead describe the pitiable state of Hitler (Ai kawa ra, Hitler eee), in that he thinks he will triumph in the end, but won’t. America is fighting against him, with the aid of Britain. And near the end . . . the flag of victory is flying. Hurray. Except for the repeat of the last section, and some minor internal textual repeats, the text is through-composed. In performance, people would generally immediately repeat the whole thing again. The clapping patterns correspond with quick movements of the head, arms, and hands in the dance. The bino is one of over 10 dance genres, exact number depending on the island, that are distinguished by melodic style (“trad- itional” music genres), dance style, local vs. Polynesian-influenced, and whether the music incorporates Western harmony. (Personal Communication, 2011) 83 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.4 (2’25”) Chapter 4: Site 4 Kiribati: Group Song for bino (sitting dance) Voices: Mixed male/female ensemble TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Opening section in free rhythm. Two male vocalists establish tonal center and initiate the performance. 0’14” Choir enters singing in free rhythm with a monophonic structure. 0’35” Main body of performance begins with regular beat and handclaps. Note that slight variations of tempo occur throughout the performance. Singing continues with monophonic structure (A section). 0’43” Singing shifts to homophony (B section). 0’56” Monophonic singing (A). 1’06” Homophonic singing (B). 1’18” Monophonic singing (A section with variation). 1’40” Homophonic singing (B section with variation). 1’59” Previous section (B with variation) repeats. 2’16” Closing calls. Source: “Kai e titirou e matie,” sung with clapping by men and women of Ititin Rotorua Dance Troupe, Betio Village, Tarawa Island, Kiribati; recorded by Mary Lawson Burke, 1981. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.4): Listen repeatedly and sing along with each part of the homophonic structure (just the pitches will do). If you are able to, try to transcribe the music with Western staff notation. Cultural Considerations. Choral traditions in Oceania predate the arrival of European colonialism. In Kiribati, music and dance were important symbols of social identity. All members of a performance ensemble were of the same descent group. Participation in per- formance was essential to community cohesion, and musical skills were regarded as valuable MANEABA clan property. Song was considered a vital link to ancestral spirits and supernatural powers Term for a communal associated with natural elements, such as the wind or the ocean. Communities sang in meetinghouse communal meetinghouses called maneaba the night before a battle, in order to help protect in Kiribati. warriors or weaken enemies. 84 O C E A N I A 4 In lieu of physical combat, battles between rival clans frequently took the form of music and dance contests. Contests could involve the whole community or consist of matches between individuals. Competitors drew upon their knowledge of song to empower them- selves with offensive and defensive magic. A dancer might call on the wind to “knock over” his enemy or conjure up a wall of dark thunderclouds to hide himself from his opponent. Through song, powerful deities were called on for strength and disparaging insults were traded, wrapped in metaphorical phrases, intended to antagonize the rivals. For example, a deity might be called on to strike the “distant rocks” (i.e., the rival group), so that they would crumble into the ocean and be eaten by baby sharks—a request that obliquely insulted the strength of the competitors, because baby sharks were viewed as weak and harmless. Competitions could put the dancers into an ecstatic state in which the power of the spirits would seem to work through the performers. These states were marked by labored breathing, trembling, and occasional screaming, and performers generally fainted after the spiritual power had left them. The colonial government and Christian missionaries found the dances and their asso- ciated spiritual beliefs to be irreligious, unhealthy, and unproductive. As a result, restrictions were placed on dance activity to subdue the potential for ecstatic physical states. At the same time, church-related groups and social clubs without lineal affiliation began partici- pating in the competitions, which undermined their function as surrogate battles between lineages. The focus of the competitions shifted from an emphasis on descent groups and the supernatural powers of the participants to the artistic skills of the dancers and musicians. Along with this shift in focus came changes in musical values. European musical practices, namely the use of harmony, became markers of superior musical performance and thus a common feature of song in Kiribati. Since achieving independence in 1979, however, Kiribati has experienced a revival of interest in traditional culture that has encouraged the performance of freely rhythmic unison singing along with the metered harmonic choral singing. Questions to Consider 1. Why would vocal traditions predominate in Australia and Oceania? 2. How do you circular breathe? Why is this technique useful when playing certain musical instruments? 3. How do Hawaiians use music to express their unique identity within American culture? 4. Why is music important to the Australian Aborigine’s cosmology, The Dreaming? 5. How might musical instruments be used in courting practices? Does your culture have any courting rituals? If so, does music play a role in them? 6. Name some ways in which Christian missionaries have influenced traditional music in Oceania. 85 4 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y w ww On Your Own Time Visit the textbook website to find these resources for further exploration on your own. Australia Book: Marret, Allan. Songs, Dreamings, and Ghosts: The Wangga of North Australia. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2005. http://www.upne.com/0-8195-6617-9.html Audio: Maralung, Alan, and Peter Manaberu. Bunggridj-Bunggridj: Wangga Songs: Northern Australia. Smithsonian Folkways: SFW40430, 1993. http://www.folkways.si.edu/albumdetails.aspx?itemid=2318 http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/the-worlds-musical-traditions/id81978916 Audio: Seachnasaigh, Will. Dharpa Songs of the Dreamtime. Lyrichord: LYRCD 7442, 1998. http://lyrichord.com/dharpasongsofthedreamtime-willseachnasaigh.aspx http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/the-didjeridu-dharpa-songs/id56890650 Website: Music Australia http://www.musicaustralia.org/apps/MA Website: Australian Music Center http://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/ Website: Australian Government—Music http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/music/ Popular Artists: Australia Yothu Yindi Kylie Minogue Hoodoo Gurus INXS Papua New Guinea (Melanesia) Audio: Bosavi: Rainforest Music from Papua New Guinea. Smithsonian Folkways: SF40487, 2001. http://www.folkways.si.edu/albumdetails.aspx?itemid=2690 http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/bosavi-rainforest-music-from/id82375605 Book: Feld, Steven. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. http://music.unm.edu/faculty_staff/fac_profiles/feld.htm Website: Melanesian Music http://www.melanesianmusic.org/ Website: National Geographic Music—Papua New Guinea http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/country/content.country/papua_new_guinea _854/en_US Internet: Popular Artists from Melanesia George Telek Rosiloa The Wagi Brothers Hawaii (Polynesia) Audio: Hawaiian Drum-Dance Chants: Sounds of Power in Time. Smithsonian Folkways: SF40015, 1989. http://www.folkways.si.edu/albumdetails.aspx?itemid=2057 http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/hawaiian-drum-dance-chants/id117733099 Video: Holo Mai Pele: The Epic Hula Myth. Dir. Catherine Tatge. PBS, 2004. http://www.piccom.org/programs/holo-mai-pele 86 O C E A N I A 4 Website: Black Pearl Designs—Polynesian Culture http://blackpearldesigns.net/index.html Website: Hawaiian Music and Hula Archives http://www.huapala.org/ Audio: Amy Ku’uleialoha Stillman and Daniel Ho. Ikena. Daniel Ho Creations: DHC 80078, 2010. http://www.danielho.com/html/naikena.html http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/ikena/id288690522 Book: Elbert, Samuel H., and Noelani K. Mahoe. Na Mele O Hawai’i Nei: 101 Hawaiian Songs. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1970. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/cart/shopcore/?db_name=uhpress&page=shop/flypage&product_id=87 8&category_id=b3e6237d1b1b3b8594488ed1c40d0dfb&PHPSESSID=64a98cce4139e1bb203f37073f 898e6e Book: Stillman, Amy Ku’uleialoha. Sacred Hula: The Historical Hula ‘Ala’apapa. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1998. http://173.201.252.229/press/web/detailed.php?ID=0-930897-73-0 Book: Kaeppler, Adrienne. Hula Pahu: Hawaiian Drum Dances, Volume I: Ha’a and Hula Pahu, Sacred Movements. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1993. http://173.201.252.229/press/web/detailed.php?ID=0-930897-55-2 Website: Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar Festival http://www.slackkeyfestival.com/ Internet: Popular Artists from Polynesia Daniel Ho IZ (Israel Kamakawiwo´ole) Led Kaapana (Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar and Ukulele) Kirbati (Micronesia) Audio: Spirit of Micronesia. Saydisc: CD-SDL 414, 1995. http://www.saydisc.com/ (Pacific) http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/spirit-of-micronesia/id423356983 Book: Abels, Birgit. Sounds of Articulating Identity. Tradition and Transition in the Music of Palau, Micronesia. Berlin: Logos, 2008. http://www.logos-verlag.de/cgi-bin/buch/isbn/1866 Book: Feinberg, Richard. Oral Traditions of Anuta: A Polynesian Outlier in the Solomon Islands. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Linguistics/SociolinguisticsAnthropologicalL/?view=usa &ci=9780195106831 Book: Kaeppler, Adrienne. The Pacific Arts of Polynesia and Micronesia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/ArtArchitecture/History/NonWestern/~~/dmlldz11c2 EmY2k9OTc4MDE5Mjg0MjM4MQ== Website: Jane’s Oceania Home Page—Dedicated to music and culture of Oceania http://www.janeresture.com/index.htm Website: New Micronesian Magazine http://newmicronesian.com/ Internet: Popular Artists from Micronesia Ozeky ReChuuk 87 Site 1 Site 4 Site 2 + 3 South Asia: India, Pakistan 5 Background Preparation 90 Explore More: Kathakali 115 One of many great temples on the An Inside Look: Shanti Raghavan 94 Site 3: Hindu Bhajan Devotional sacred Ganges Song 116 An Inside Look: Aashish Khan 95 River in Varanasi Explore More: Indian Filmi Git (Film (Benares), India Planning the Itinerary 96 (Max T. Miller) Song) 121 Arrival: North India 97 Arrival: Pakistan 122 Site 1: Hindustani (Instrumental) Site 4: Qawwali (Sufi Devotional Raga 97 Song) 123 Need to Know: Fundamentals of Indian Explore More: Bhangra 127 Classical (Hindustani) Music 107 Questions to Consider 128 Arrival: South India 108 On Your Own Time 128 Site 2: Carnatic Classical (Vocal) Kriti 108 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Background Preparation There are two areas of the world that can easily overwhelm someone wishing to explore their musics. The first is East Asia, where approximately one quarter of the world’s people live. The second is South Asia, an area with 1.5 billion people, again nearly a quarter of the world’s people. One nation—India—dominates South Asia demographically (population 1.1 billion) and in landmass, but the region also includes Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and even Afghanistan (in some groupings). India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh all have extensive coastlines stretching to the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, leaving the other countries landlocked—except for Sri Lanka, which is an island to the southeast of India. In addition, a few island groups, though having slight populations, are also considered part of South Asia, including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Maldives, and the Seychelles. Parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan and most of Nepal and Bhutan are mountainous, but unlucky Bangladesh is not only flat but also only a little above sea level, leaving it vulnerable to numerous typhoons each year during which up to half of the country may flood. Much of the region experiences fairly harsh climates, varying from the intense heat of India to the tropical moisture of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the arid winters of the northern and upland areas. Temperatures in India can reach as high as 127˚ Fahrenheit/53˚ Celsius; conversely, temperatures in India’s snowy northern mountains are frigid in winter. Numerous great rivers drain the Himalayas through India and Bangladesh, including the well-known and sacred Ganges (or Ganga), along with the Indus and Brahmaputra. Parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan, however, are desert. Populations tend to be the greatest and most concentrated where water is most plentiful; most great civilizations began and flourished along rivers, and this principle holds true for South Asia. Village in the hills near Kathmandu, Nepal, from which could be seen the tops of the Himalaya Mountains 90 S O U T H A S I A 5 A sheep herder in Afghanistan (Shutterstock) In South Asia, India is the country no one can ignore. It is a nation of striking contrasts. India has riches in the form of palaces, treasures, and temples that are beyond imagination, but it also has great poverty. Many in the West are familiar with the plight of the underclass in places like Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), where Mother Theresa worked to alleviate suffering. India is the world’s largest democracy, but struggles to maintain a balance among competing religions and ethnic groups. It is a nation where hundreds of millions of farmers work in conditions that have changed little over the centuries, but which also is home to In Old Delhi, Jama Masjid Delhi or Masjid-i-Jahan Numa, the largest Muslim mosque in Asia (N. Scott Robinson) 91 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y the world’s largest computer programming industry, clustered around high-tech Bangalore. India is home to several of the world’s great religions, all having the common goal of peace— but it is also a place where tragic interethnic violence has been known to break out. While South Asia is dominated by a small number of large countries, these monolithic political groupings belie the diversity of the region’s populations. During the colonial era prior to the independence of both India and Pakistan in 1947, the British collected together some 562 small states into a single Indian colony, which originally included Pakistan and Bangladesh. While modern-day India uses only two main languages—Hindi and English— the constitution recognizes sixteen official languages. Some 25 percent of the population, mostly in the South, speak a variety of Dravidian languages. In reality there are some 1,652 languages and dialects spoken in India today. In addition to India’s many languages, Persian (Farsi) and several Turkic languages are spoken in Afghanistan, Urdu and English are officially spoken in Pakistan, and Nepali in Nepal. Most of these languages are part of the vast family of Indo-European languages. Many different religions can be found throughout South Asia. Hinduism is the major religion of India (82%). Islam is also found within India (12%), principally in the north, and is the dominant religion of Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. When Britain granted independence to the Raj in 1947, Pakistan was formed as a separate Muslim state and originally consisted of eastern and western portions flanking India. In 1971 Pakistan’s Eastern Province seceded to become Bangladesh. Theravada Buddhism is the primary religion of Sri Lanka, though the country has a Hindu minority as well. Mahayana Buddhism predominates in Nepal and Bhutan, but some Hinduism is also found in both countries. Finally, Jainism, The Taj Mahal in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, the most famous tomb in the world, built by Shah Jahan and completed in 1652 (N. Scott Robinson) 92 S O U T H A S I A 5 Indian street musician “charms” two cobra snakes with his pun¯gı¯ (also called bı¯n or murlı¯ ), consisting of two pipes with single reeds (a drone pipe and a melody pipe with finger holes) inserted into a gourd windchest (Max T. Miller) Sikhism, the Baha’i Faith, and Christianity, not to mention a small community of Jews, are also found in India along with small congregations of animistic practitioners. Traditionally, social organization in South Asia was hierarchical. This was especially true in India, where the population was organized into castes or groupings—ranging from CASTE SYSTEM the highest or priestly class to the lowest or “untouchable” class—to which an individual A hierarchical was assigned based on their status at birth. This system, which is tenuously related to system of social organization based Hinduism, has now been abolished in India, though it still influences many spheres of life, on one’s hereditary such as marriages and occupational opportunities. Certain castes or sub-castes were closely status at birth, associated with specific kinds of music. For example, only Brahmin priests are permitted to found in India and recite the highly sacred Vedic chant, while non-Brahmins normally specialize in the playing associated with of instruments, particularly ones that involve skin (drums) or saliva (flutes and reeds). In Hinduism. addition, gender plays a major role in determining who can perform what kinds of music or play what kinds of instruments. 93 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Shanti Raghavan A N I N S I D E L O O K I have been teaching Carnatic music for the past twenty-five years in the Cleveland area and am an exponent of the Karaikudi style of Veena. I started learning Veena at age seven and trained under Shri [honorific title] Viswanathan, a direct disciple of the legendary Shri Karaikudi Sambasiva Iyer, and then briefly under Mrs. Rajeswari Padmanabhan, grand- daughter of Shri Sambasiva Iyer. From the beginning, because I displayed an innate talent for music, my teachers were delighted to see me progress quickly from one level to the next. I hail from a family of musicians. My mother, a devout lover of Carnatic music, was an excellent violinist. My sister, Mrs. Mohana Santhanam, was trained under Shri Shanti Raghavan, teacher of South Indian Music Jayarama Iyer (who was a disciple of Shri Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer). Thus, my childhood years were inundated students’ confidence and self-esteem, and they learn not only with these two very powerful styles of music. to appreciate music but also to perform in social and cultural events. Bhajans and sloka classes, as well as music appre- When first approached to teach music, I was hesitant and ciation classes, are also available for those interested. The unsure if this would work out. But once I started, I have never school sponsors performances by both community members looked back. I saw teaching Carnatic music as an opportunity and professionals to make music a regular part of their lives. to introduce Indian culture to children growing up in the United While the primary focus is on children, this school reaches out States. Therefore, I have never turned away any student for to everyone who is interested in learning music. The goal is to lack of apparent talent. Instead, I have taken a disciplined fill a need for structured and comprehensive musical instruc- approach to developing talent in all students who show an tion. My daughter, who is well trained in both Carnatic vocal interest and instilling in them an awareness of Indian culture. and Carnatic violin, also gives lessons in the Cleveland area. I have a sincere belief that music is a truly spiritual experience that brings people closer to the Almighty. I also believe that In keeping with the school’s goals, the Ragapriya School has learning music brings balance to academics and enriches all produced several thematic music programs. The inaugural facets of life. This passion and dedication has had a significant program was entitled “Great Composers in Carnatic Music” impact on the students and their parents. Not only passing on and covered the lives and compositions of a dozen com- the art form has been important, but also making music part posers. Other programs included the “Dasavatara (the ten of the very being of my students has been my goal. avataras of Vishnu)” and a fund raising program on “Devi (the life force and energy).” The school has also trained one In 2008 my daughter, Mrs. Shruti Aring, and I founded a non- student in music arangetram, which is a two-hour concert profit organization called The Ragapriya School of Carnatic demonstrating the student’s ability in all the advanced Music. Its goal is to teach and promote Carnatic music in techniques of Carnatic music. Northeast Ohio. The school seeks to provide a high-quality musical education by combining music theory with vocal, It is my hope that I have made a difference in the lives of all violin, and veena classes. Disciplined training increases my the children I touched through the power of music. 94 S O U T H A S I A 5 Aashish Khan A N I N S I D E L O O K I was initiated into North Indian classical music at the age of Aashish Khan, concert artist, five by my grandfather, the legendary Acharya Baba Allauddin composer, and teacher of North Khan Sahib, exponent of the Senia Beenkar and Senia Indian Classical Music Rababiya Gharana founded in the sixteenth century by Mian Tansen, court musician to Emperor Akbar. I also learned music from my father, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, and aunt, Smt. Annapurna Devi, both leading musicians in India. In 1953, I gave my first public performance at age thirteen with my grandfather on the All India Radio National Program in New A Passage to India, as well as Tapan Sinha’s Aadmi aur Aurat Delhi. In 1961, I accompanied my father as a representative and Joturgriha, for which I received the “Best Film Score of the Government of India to the East–West Music Award” from the Bengal Film Journalist’s Association. I have Encounter in Tokyo, Japan. By 1967, I was performing the collaborated with such diverse Western musicians as John sarod internationally at such places as the Hollywood Bowl Barham, George Harrison, Ringo Starr, Eric Clapton, Charles in Los Angeles (for an audience of over 20,000 people) as Lloyd, John Handy, Alice Coltrane, George Brooks, Emil well as throughout India. In 1978, my brother, Pranesh Khan, Richards, Dallas Smith, Don Pope, Jorge Strunz, Ardeshir and I founded the “Allauddin Academy of Music and Farah, and the Philadelphia String Quartet. I have been a Performing Arts” in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. In 1989, I was music guru (teacher) for many years and have been on the appointed to the prestigious post of Composer and faculties of the Ali Akbar College of Music, Ravi Shankar’s Conductor for the National Orchestra, Vadya Vrinda of All Kinnara School of Indian Classical Music, the University of India Radio, New Delhi, succeeding such musical stalwarts Washington, and the University of Alberta. I teach students as Pandit Ravi Shankar and Pandit Pannalal Ghosh. A few throughout the United States, Canada, Europe, South Africa, years later, I traveled to South Africa on a concert tour and India while pursuing a busy career as a concert artist and organized by the governments of India and South Africa. composer. I am a true believer and follower of the “Guru I was the first Indian musician to represent India as an Shishya Parampara,” one of the oldest methods of teaching ambassador of Indian culture and classical music. My work Indian classical music in an oral, practical, theoretical, and can be heard in numerous films, such as Sir Richard traditional manner. My true belief and objective is to pass on Attenborough’s Gandhi, John Houston’s The Man Who for generations to come the sixteenth-century traditions and Would Be King, Clint Eastwood’s Breezy, and David Lean’s culture from which I descend. South Asia exhibits striking contrasts in terms of level of development. Afghanistan, a thinly populated and mountainous country with little infrastructure or internal unity, remains the least developed, while the urban areas of Pakistan and India are highly devel- oped. Indeed, India and Pakistan have produced many of the world’s greatest scientists and thinkers, and today India is a leader in the high-tech world. With its crushing population statistics, however, India must struggle to keep much of its population fed, clothed, housed, and employed. As in most developing countries, there are great contrasts between the wealth of the few and the poverty of the many. In Afghanistan and Sri Lanka, and sometimes in Pakistan as well, political instability has made modernization and development difficult to 95 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y maintain. India, often described as the world’s largest democracy, has remained stable even with one of the most diverse populations in the world. Planning the Itinerary Each of the nations that comprise South Asia offers exciting and distinctive musics, but it is the “classical” music of India that has gained most of the attention of outsiders. A visit to any large record store offering “international” releases will demonstrate this. Culturally, India is divided into a northern region and a southern region, with the former comprising HINDUSTANI two-thirds and the latter one-third of the country. Northern culture is called Hindustani and A term referring southern culture is called Carnatic (also spelled Karnatak). The north of India was deeply to the cultural influenced by Indo-European invaders who brought the Aryan civilization from the north- traditions of North west between 2000 and 1500 B.C.E. No one religion dominates the north, a situation not only India. giving rise to many coexisting faiths (Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, the Baha’i Faith, Islam), CARNATIC (ALSO, but also resulting in a more secular society. Hindustani music reflects this diversity and has KARNATAK) far fewer relationships to religion than Carnatic music. Most northern languages are related A term referring to Hindi, while southern languages are mainly Dravidian, having been derived from layers to the cultural of people who preceded the Aryans. The South in general has experienced less outside traditions of South influence, and as a consequence Hinduism predominates—leading to a society that makes India. little distinction between the sacred and the secular. Not surprisingly, Carnatic music is closely tied to Hinduism, though it has little to do with temple activities per se. Classical music in both traditions can be vocal or instrumental. The North Indian classical music with which Western audiences are much more familiar is primarily instrumental. Carnatic music, on the other hand, is primarily vocal. Indeed, much of the instrumental music of South India consists of transcriptions of vocal compositions. Indian classical music, unlike the communal music of Africa or the ensemble music of Southeast Asia, is individual and often virtuosic. One attends a concert to hear a particular artist, rather than specific compositions or ensemble types, because most Indian classical music is composed spontaneously during performance through a process called improvi- sation. These improvisations usually unfold at a very leisurely pace: a full performance of a single improvisation can last anywhere from thirty minutes to two hours, and Indian classical concerts can easily last four or more hours. In spite of the fact that Indian classical music is widely disseminated both in and outside India, the majority of the Indian population prefers to sing or listen to other kinds of music. Hindu lay people often sing devotional songs called bhajans, which can be popular in style. Music written for and transmitted by the movies is widely popular; in fact, the term for much FILMI (ALSO, of India’s popular music is filmi; and because India’s film industry produces more films per FILMI GIT) year than that of any other country, the number of filmi songs is understandably vast. Beyond Popular music taken that is a great variety of popular styles collectively called “Indo-pop,” while bhangra, a new from films in India. form of popular music and dance derived from traditional Panjabi sources, first flourished among the Indian community in the United Kingdom in the 1980s and 1990s. A musical tour of South Asia might also lead us to eastern India—known as Bengal— and to Bangladesh as well as to the west, to Pakistan. Most striking in Bengal and Bangladesh are the Bauls, free spirits who comment in their songs on topics as diverse as society, philosophy, and the joys and pains of daily life—and who can perhaps be thought of as the 96 S O U T H A S I A 5 equivalent of America’s “singer-songwriters.” Although Pakistan is an independent nation with a Muslim majority, no single type of music epitomizes its culture. Depending on the region, its music alternately reveals relationships with Afghanistan, Iran, or India. One kind QAWWALI of Pakistani music has, however, attracted a following outside Pakistan, a Sufi-Muslim (ALSO, KAWWALI) devotional song genre called qawwali (sometimes spelled kawwali). Sufi-Muslim devotional songs. Arrival: North India India’s northern cities—especially Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Varanasi (Benares), and Lucknow— TH reflect the diversity of the peoples who together created modern Hindustani culture. What NOR A I made North Indian culture distinctive were the many waves of people migrating or attacking IND from the Northwest, especially Persia. Consequently most people in the north are described as Indo-Aryan. This influx eventually brought Islam to India. Northern India offers visitors many great mosques, along with Sikh and Jain temples, the sixteenth-century palaces of the Mughal emperors, and the many governmental and celebratory edifices left by the British colonials. The region’s vast cities are also home to North India’s complex and sophisticated classical music tradition. Site 1: Hindustani (Instrumental) Raga First Impressions. Hindustani instrumental improvisations, called raga, are normally quite long. Because a piece of an hour or more would not be practical to study here, we have chosen an example that lasts less than five minutes—but that is nonetheless a “complete” raga performance. If you listen carefully to the very beginning, you will hear a buzzing timbre emanating from a plucked chordophone. Almost immediately, a more prominent and North Indian (Hindustani) music played by Buddadev das Gupta, sarod lute; Zakir Hussain, tabla drums; and Elizabeth Howard, tambura drone lute 97 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y commanding stringed instrument asserts itself, while the first instrument continues in a slowly repetitious manner. The rather dreamy introduction music gradually grows more excited until there is a sudden deceleration, an exhale, if you will—followed by the entry of drums and return of the solo instruments. This new phase continues to the end. Several elements stand out to the first-time listener: the “twangy” buzz of the intro- ductory instrument, the constant ornamentation and pitch-bending of the main melodic instrument, and the steady tempo of the drums, one of which has a distinctive “scooping” sound. Noticeable changes in the level of relaxation and an increase in tension also occur as the performance proceeds. Aural Analysis. Few other areas of the world’s music require as much technical explanation as does Indian classical music. That is because an appreciation of this fascinating blend of fixed and improvised elements involves an understanding of several important musical aspects. Even as it employs a highly systematic compositional process, Indian classical music also allows for endless variation, and the genius of a performer is not in how well he or she follows established conventions but in how those conventions are manipulated for the purposes of individual expression. RAGA The word raga (or rag, meaning “color” or “atmosphere”) denotes a comprehensive A mode or system system for the simultaneous composition and performance of music in both North and South of rules and India. Because the English word improvisation suggests a near total degree of spontaneity, procedures for it fails to capture the control, predictability, and bounded nature of raga. The creation of a composition and raga is indeed a highly controlled compositional process, with established constructional improvisation in Indian classical boundaries—even if it allows for nearly unlimited individual variations within these bound- music. aries. Western ethnomusicologists use the term mode to describe such systems. Think of them as composition kits; the elements of each raga provide the tools for the musician’s per- MODE formance. Whereas most Western music is notated on paper by “composers” before its A set of rules performance, Indian classical music is unwritten, even though a raga unfolds in highly pre- and customary dictable ways. The length of a performance can vary from a few minutes to a couple of hours, procedures used depending on time constraints and the interest of the audience as sensed by the musicians. to compose or improvise music in a Raga comprises several elements, the first being tonal material (what might be called a particular tradition. “scale”). These “scales” consist of a hierarchy of strong and weak notes, a set of typical melodic figures, and a set of extra-musical associations with such things as moods, times of the day, and magical powers. Ragas are sometimes represented pictorially as individual human beings or deities in miniature paintings called ragamalas. SOLFÈGE The pitches of a raga are expressed in solfège syllables, a mnemonic system of names Mnemonic syllables for each degree of the scale. The Indian equivalent to the West’s do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do is corresponding to sa-re-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa, with which students of Indian raga can sing melody. As in the individual pitches in West, there are actually more pitches in the total tuning system than these seven because a scale. some pitches can be flatted or sharped; in India the total is usually said to be twenty-two, whereas only twelve pitches are used in the West. More than one raga may use the same set of pitches, but identical pitch sets are differentiated in practice from raga to raga due to dif- TAMBURA ferences in pitch hierarchy, typical melodic units, and extra-musical aspects. The two most A round-bodied gourd lute used to important pitches are sa and pa, always a fifth degree apart. provide the “drone” The “buzzing” pitches briefly heard alone at the beginning of our audio example are element in Indian played on the tambura, a four-stringed, long-necked lute with a large gourd body. The buzz classical music. timbre is produced due to small threads being placed under each string, causing them to 98 S O U T H A S I A 5 vibrate against the bridge when played. The person who plays this instrument, often a young SAROD disciple or a spouse of the lead instrumentalist, simply plucks the four strings successively A fretless plucked lute from northern throughout the raga. The four pitches reinforce the two most important pitches of the raga, India. usually the fundamental or “home” pitch (sa/pitch I) and another an interval of a fifth above (pa/pitch V), and are generally played in the order V (upper), I (upper), I (upper), I (lower). This continuous sound of the tambura helps solidify the tonal center of the raga and can be likened to incense permeating a room, except through sound rather than smell. The main melodic instrument in our example is the sarod, also a long-necked lute. The sarod is generally around 40 inches (approximately 1 meter) long and has a large wooden body covered with goatskin. Its neck is tapering and hollow. The sarod has six main strings of metal running over a fretless metal-covered fingerboard to large tuning pegs, but there are also eleven to fifteen “sympathetic” metal strings running from within the neck (out through small, ivory-lined holes) to a series of smaller pegs on the side of the neck. These latter strings are tuned to vibrate in sympathy with the main strings, and provide a background of ethereal ringing. Sometimes the player will strum them briefly, mostly at the beginning of the piece, but otherwise they are not directly plucked in order to sound. Holding the instrument horizontally (similar to the way a guitar is held) and using a triangular pick of wax-covered coconut shell held in the right hand, the player can simply pluck the main melodic strings or pull (stretch), in the case of fretted instruments like the sitar, them to the side with the left hand to create the tone-bending and ornaments that practically define Indian raga. The tambura lute has an unfretted neck, four strings, and is played throughout a raga to produce drone pitches (N. Scott Robinson) The late Indian musician Vasant Rai plays the sarod lute 99 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Below the main strings of the sitar, and passing beneath the curved metal frets, are a large number of “sympathetic” strings that vibrate involuntarily when the main strings are played ALAP The opening section of a raga performance in which the performer “explores” the raga. The first portion of a raga is called the alap and could be described as a period of exploration of the raga and its characteristics. The principal melodic player begins with the JOR lower pitches, approaching them in a leisurely and experimental manner; there is no regular A regularizing of the beat because the melody is played in free rhythm. Consequently, the drum, which is pri- beat in the opening section of raga marily responsible for the rhythmic element of a raga performance, is not heard during this performance in opening section. Indian classical An alap can last for a mere minute or so, or be extended to an hour or more, depend- music. ing on the taste of the performer and the interest of the audience. As the alap progresses, the player explores more pitches and melodic units, moving from the lower range of the JHALA instrument—representing relaxation or repose—into the higher ranges, which increases Refers to a set tension. Gradually the rhythms become somewhat steadier, though they never become totally of drone strings on Indian metered; the term jor refers to this tenuous regularizing of beat. As the tempo and excitement chordophones. Also, increase (along with the tension), the player begins a regular alternation between melodic a reference to the pitches and a set of drone strings called the jhala. Just as the playing reaches a feverish level climactic end of the of excitement, the “drive” suddenly slows as the player quickly descends through the scale alap section of raga back to the point of relaxation and the alap concludes. performance in At this point a pair of drums enters. These consist of a small cylindrical wooden drum India. with a single head called tabla and a larger, rounded metal drum with single head known as baya; together, the pair is also called tabla. Most players strike the smaller drum with TABLA A pair of drums the right hand and the larger with the left. The tabla (i.e., the smaller of the pair) is tuned found in Hindustani to the raga’s fundamental pitch by tightening or loosening leather straps attached to the face; music from India. their tension is controlled by moving cylindrically shaped pieces of wood wedged between 100 S O U T H A S I A 5 Tabla refers to both the pair of Hindustani drums and to the cylindrical drum (below) in particular, while the kettle drum (above) is called baya 101 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y the straps and the body of the drum. Each drum stroke has a name, and drummers memorize the stroke names as part of the learning process. Indeed, most drummers can speak the strokes, in a kind of “verbal drumming”—and many listeners are able to keep track of the cycle of strokes through patterns of handclaps and waves (see below). TALA The drummer plays a cycle of strokes called the tala. A tala is considered a closed cycle, Cyclic rhythmic because it has a fixed number of beats; these are subdivided into three or four sections. In framework that Hindustani music there are hundreds of possible talas, each with its own name and specific organizes a raga number of beats, theoretically ranging from 3 to 128. In practice far fewer are used, and talas performance in using seven to sixteen beats predominate. Of these, the best known and most often encoun- India. tered is tintal, a tala having sixteen beats divided into four groupings of four pulses each. While talas are played beginning on beat 1, they do not end on the last beat, that is, 16, but rather end on beat 1 of what would have been the next cycle. The audience can hear where they are in the cycle by listening for the deep tones of the baya drum; in tintal, the baya either drops out or is played quietly during the third group (beats 9–12), allowing listeners to anticipate the restatement of beat 1. Each drum stroke—whether played on a single drum or on a combination of drums— has a name, such as dha. Totally there are more than a dozen named strokes, some involving one drum, some both, some closed, that is, dampened (the fingers stay on the head, dead- ening the tone), some open (the fingers spring away allowing the head to vibrate). Drum BOLS stroke names are called bols. The entire pattern or set of words for a given tala is called the Mnemonic syllables theka. The most basic theka for tintal is: dha, dhin, dhin, dha/ dha, dhin, dhin, dha/ dha, corresponding to tin, tin, ta/ ta, dhin, dhin, dha. Talas can be recited in syllables as well. Skilled drummers drum strokes in play patterns that go far beyond this basic set, including a great many elaborate “compo- Indian drumming traditions. sitions,” each based on the tala’s cycle of beats. During the tabla’s performance, disciples and audience members may “keep the tala” THEKA in a pattern involving claps, counts, and waves. As mentioned, tintal has four sections with (pronounced four beats each. For sections 1, 2, and 4, you clap on beat 1 and silently count beats 2, 3, and teh-kah) The entire 4. In section 3, you turn one hand over, giving a mini-wave (instead of clap) and then silently pattern or set of count the remaining three beats. When silently counting, you can either touch your right words (bols) for hand to the left or touch your thumb to three successive fingers. a given tala in When the drum enters, it often starts in the middle of the tala cycle (beats 9–16), but classical Indian music. exceptions occur frequently. In our example, the gat begins on beat 1 and the drum enters on beat 11. The sitar or sarod, now relaxed and calm, plays a short composition—a kind of GAT tune—called the gat (in vocal music this is called chiz). The gat is the skeletal melody around The skeletal melody which the player will improvise. When improvising, the player may fragment the gat, restate used as a basis for improvisation in a raga performance of classical Indian instrumental music. Schematic of the North Indian tala in a sixteen-beat cycle called tintal. 102 S O U T H A S I A 5 it in whole, or depart from it entirely. Some longer raga performances have more than one gat, perhaps a slow gat (vilambit) first that is longer in duration, a medium gat (madhya), then a fast gat (drut) that takes the shortest time to complete. The rhythmic density of the slow gat is the lowest, whereas the fast gat has the highest rhythmic density, contributing to the increasing tension of the music. The name of the raga remains the same regardless of the gat chosen, and although the gat is a composition, it does not usually have a “title” and the identity of its composer is regarded as insignificant. The length of the gat matches the length of the tala; therefore, the use of tintal requires a 16-beat gat. In a sense, anything can happen during the overall gat section, which can last anywhere from a few minutes to an hour. As with the alap, the length of the gat depends on the audience’s reaction, the performers’ skill level and ability to cooperate or challenge each other in positive ways, and the context of the performance. The instruments of India are numerous, and quite a few of them can be used as the lead melodic instrument in ragas. In the West, the instrument that has become most famous is the sitar, which for Westerners is virtually synonymous with Indian music. The sitar is a long-necked plucked lute, with a body made from a gourd and with seventeen arched metal frets running up the neck. Over these frets four main melodic strings and three jhala (rhythm/drone) strings and beneath them pass around twelve sympathetic strings. Ragas can also be performed on many other stringed instruments, such as the sarod, the santur (hammered zither), or the sarangi (bowed lute), as well as on non-stringed instruments such as the bansri (flute) and several reed instruments, such as the shehnai. Among the most curious of instruments used in ragas is the jal tarang, a semicircular series of small china bowls each filled/tuned with different levels of water and struck with a small beater. Ragas are also sung. Vocal ragas are structured according to one of two formal patterns, both of which differ from patterns used in instrumental ragas. These patterns, called Dhrupad and Khyal, both require great endurance on the part of performers. Full appreciation of vocal ragas naturally requires knowledge of Indic languages, which is perhaps why instrumental performers tend to be more internationally recognized. Now that we have run through some of the basic principles and characteristics of the raga, we will return to our musical example. It is Raga ahir bhairav, a type of raga appropriately performed at daybreak. The ascending and descending scale used in this per- formance consists of the pitches C♭, D♭, E, F, G, A, B♭, c—though in the ascending form the G is often avoided. The tala used is a fast tintal (16 beats). Cultural Considerations. If you were to attend a raga performance, you would probably be amazed at the musicians’ dexterity, creativity, and stage presence, and at the way that their music can involve an audience. These are some of the aspects that have long made Indian raga attractive to Western audiences and to a number of Western popular performers, such as George Harrison and John McLaughlin. While a raga performance may be relatively easy to follow on an aural and visual level, RASA A mood or there is, however, much more involved than mere sound and sight. Important extra-musical sentiment cultural and philosophical matters come into play as well, encompassing the raga’s relation- associated with ship to, and effect on, both the individual listeners and broadly on the smooth working of artistic activity, the universe. such as raga The extra-musical aspects of raga, which may seem merely curious to outsiders, are performance, essential to Indians. Each raga has an articulated mood, called rasa, which creates in in India. 103 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.5 (4’38”) Chapter 5: Site 1 India: Hindustani (Instrumental) Raga Instruments: Sarod (fretless plucked lute), tambura (plucked lute), tabla (pair of hand drums) TIME LISTENING FOCUS The duration of the initial alap section—the exploratory opening section of the overall form—is much shorter than normal in this performance, due to the recording’s time limitations. Note the use of free rhythm and the absence of drum during the alap section. 0’00” Tambura enters. Plays four pulses before melody begins on sarod. Listen for the characteristic “twang” of the tambura drone at 0’04”, 0’14”, 0’18”, 0’25”, 0’35”, etc. 0’03” Sarod enters. Note that the melodic pitches that are emphasized begin in the lower range of the instrument and gradually work toward the upper range. Listen for the “sliding” between distant intervals (rather than “bending”), which is characteristic of a fretless chordophone. Also listen for the gradual increase in rhythmic density of the melodic content. These two aspects (range and rhythmic density) encourage an increasing feeling of tension in the music, though the shortened alap encourages the performer to build the tension continuously into the composed section of the performance. 2’10” The gat, or composed section of the overall form, begins. Note the transition into a rhythmic meter and the appearance of the drum (tabla). Listen for the characteristic “boing” timbre of the lower-pitched drum (baya). 2’13” Listen for the “melodic hook,” repeated again at 2’17” just before the tabla enters. This short four-note motif appears many times throughout the gat and often signals the end of the tala cycle, such as at 2’34” and 2’58”. 2’18” Tabla enters. The tala is a sixteen-beat cycle. Listen for the “one” pulse on the third strike of the drum. (Begin the “Ethno-Challenge” here.) 4’19” Final use of the “melodic hook” to signal the end of the piece. The performers likely made prior visual contact to signal the approaching ending. 4’23” Tabla stops. 4’27” Sarod stops. The tambura (drone) closes the performance. Source: “Raga Ahir bhairav,” played by Buddhadev DasGupta, sarod. From The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas, Nimbus NI 5536/9 (4 CDs and 196-page book), 1999. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.5): “Keep the tal” (sixteen beats) during the gat section of the performance (clap on beats 1 and 5; wave on beat 9; clap on beat 13). Listen especially for how your “1” pulse corresponds to the melodic hook throughout the performance. Anticipate the final pulse of the performance and stop counting. 104 S O U T H A S I A 5 performer and listener alike a state of mind, such as love, heroism, or anger. The rasa can become so pervasive that listeners begin to conceive of the rasa as a person. Personified ragas are frequently depicted in miniature paintings called ragamala, often showing humans performing music. Some ragas are believed to have magical powers. A raga performed cor- rectly can heal, influence personality, and even bring the divine into both performer and listener. Raga Dipak is said to create fire when performed well, and the Mallar ragas can create rain. Kedar ragas will cure diseases and melt stones. Indian jailers, always ready to earn some extra money, were said to have taught Raga Kedar to prisoners who hoped to melt the stones of the prison and escape. Each raga is to be performed at a proper time of day, and consequently there are ragas appropriate for specific times, from before dawn to after sunset. For Indians this is important because they believe there is a reciprocal relationship between the sound of music and a smoothly functioning universe. Walter Kaufmann, who researched ragas in India prior to World War II, reported that one great musician predicted the coming of that terrible war, which he claimed would result from the Western habit of playing music at the wrong times (as when funeral music is played when there is no funeral). He shouted to Kaufmann, “How long will the universe tolerate this abuse of music, music, mind you, a most sacred thing?” An Indian minature painting, or ragamala, entitled “Krishna and Radha watching rain clouds,” from India’s Punjab Hills, c.1790 (Cleveland Museum of Art) 105 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y As a result of this negligence a great calamity would befall the West, he said—and indeed it did. During the 1960s, many Westerners turned to the East—India in particular—in search of spiritual enlightenment. Because Indian music is overtly spiritual, it soon became popular with Western audiences. Ravi Shankar, the Hindustani sitar specialist, who has also com- posed many film scores, toured the United States as early as 1964 and soon became a cultural icon. George Harrison of The Beatles studied sitar with Shankar, and Harrison’s use of the sitar in several Beatles’ songs, including “Love You Too” from Revolver (1966) and “Within You Without You” from Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), brought about a rising interest in Indian music. Around the same time England’s John McLaughlin, leader of both Shakti and the Mahavishnu Orchestra, also invoked Indian sounds and spirituality. These groups, and many others, added Indian drummers and sitarists, making the distinctive dry timbre of the tabla and the twangy sitar familiar to many Westerners. Today the sounds of the tabla and sitar can be easily imitated on synthesizers and have become commonly accepted in mainstream Western popular music. Ravi Shankar, India’s most famous musician, plays the sitar, a fretted North Indian lute with sympathetic strings (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) 106 S O U T H A S I A 5 Because Indian music is played by soloists, one finds both virtuosos and a “star” system associated with its performance. Ironically, Indian musicians can make more money touring in Europe and North America than in India. Ravi Shankar made a great success for himself doing this, and his daughter, Anoushka Shankar, has followed in his footsteps. A few Americans, such as Ken Zuckerman, have completely mastered Indian instruments and styles and have become professional Indian musicians, touring both here and in India. Even though Indian music no longer holds Western popular culture in its thrall, Indian concerts in the West continue to attract large audiences of both Indian expatriates and Westerners. Fundamentals of Indian NEED TO KNOW (Hindustani) Classical Music Modal System. Raga denotes a comprehensive system • Visible means of “keeping the tala” with a clap followed governing the creation of melody—improvised or composed. by counts or a wave followed by counts Its elements include: • Words to represent drum strokes (known as bols) used by drummers during learning or in demonstrations of • Tone material (a limited number of pitches presented in drumming. both ascending and descending forms) • Pitch hierarchy (strong and weak pitches that define the Form. Although partly improvised, raga performance follows tonal center of the mode. The vadi is the strongest— expected patterns. These include: and central—pitch followed by the samvadi; these are reinforced by the sounds of the drone instrument) • Alap, the beginning section of melody (vocal or instru- • Solfège (a system of syllables used to articulate pitches, mental) accompanied only by the drone instrument called sargam and expressed in ascending order as sa, • Jor, as the alap proceeds, it becomes faster and empha- re, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa) sizes the higher pitches of the raga. In the jor the music • Magical powers (Indian musicians ascribe magical pow- becomes somewhat steady, but not yet in tala ers to some individual ragas) • Jhala, coming at the end of the alap, the music reaches • Mood or character (each raga has a rasa or mood/ maximum tempo and rhythmic density. It is mostly feeling/personality that can be personified in small paint- steady in beat, while the player repeatedly use drone ings called ragamala). strings (called jhala string) in alternation with the melodic pitch Rhythmic/Metric System. Tala denotes a comprehensive • Gat, the section that coincides with the entry of the system governing the organization of the music in time. Its drum(s). The gat is a relatively short composition that elements include: becomes the basis for further improvisation. Gat refers to instrumental ragas; the vocal equivalent is called the • Fixed number of beats organized into a closed cycle chiz. • Grouping of beats into units 107 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Arrival: South India SOUTH INDIA South India has been less influenced by outside cultures over the centuries than the northern region, which was more affected by foreign peoples who invaded or established trade routes through the area. Primarily Hindu, southern India is thought to preserve what remains of India’s earliest civilization, that of the Dravidians. The sophisticated music of South India, called Carnatic (also Karnatak) music, is closely associated with Hinduism, though not specifically with temple rituals. There is a greater emphasis on vocal performance, though many instruments, such as the Sarasvati vina, are distinctive to the region. Many Carnatic music enthusiasts claim that the music of the south is more “pure” than that of northern India due to its historical insulation from outside influence. Site 2: Carnatic Classical (Vocal) Kriti First Impressions. Our example begins with a sustained drone, after which a rich toned male vocalist begins to sing in free rhythm, as a drum is briefly heard warming up in the back- ground. The opening section seems also to be a “warm-up” for the singer as he improvises on a few non-lexical syllables. As he improvises his phrases, another instrument—a bowed instrument that sounds like a violin—shadows him. After a brief pause, the vocalist initiates a metered section, that prompts the drummer to join the performance with accented pulses and short flourishes of rhythmic vibrancy. Listening closely, it is evident that the singer is repeating the same lyric with each vocal phrase, decorating his performance with a fascinat- ing display of ornamentation and seeming improvisation. Compared to the previous track (Hindustani raga), the rhythm and meter are clearly articulated by strong drum beats, giving it an almost march-like feeling. Aural Analysis. The most important difference between the classical music of North and South India is that whereas Hindustani music is mostly improvised, Carnatic music is based on fixed compositions. Improvisation occurs only after the composition has been fully presented, and even the highly patterned ornamentation performed by the singer is part of the composition. Carnatic music’s most important compositional form is a type of devotional KRITI song called kriti, which is based on a genre of devotional Hindu poetry of the same name. A South Indian While the lyrics could speak of devotion to God, they can also be religious, love, or historical genre of devotional stories. The composer of a kriti normally writes both the poetry and the melody, the former songs using Hindu being written in one of several South Indian languages, each with its own script (e.g., Telugu, poetry. Kannada, Malayalam, and Tamil). Pitches are written in one of the many local notational systems; only the main pitches are indicated, ornamentation being determined by oral tradition, highly patterned, but not freely improvised. Vocalists usually perform an impro- vised introduction called alapana before launching into the kriti itself, though these can be extremely brief in some cases. This serves to ready the vocalist for the more demanding vocal feats of the ensuing performance and helps to prepare the audience as well. The enclosed example is “Manasa¯! Etulorttune” (“O unworthy Mind!”), a kriti by Sri (usually translated as “saint”) Tya¯gara¯ja (1767–1847), South India’s most famous composer. The language is Telegu but the title is Sanskrit. Kriti texts are typically in three sections. The first, called pallavi, consists of one or two lines of text which reappear throughout a 108 S O U T H A S I A 5 A Carnatic (South Indian) classical singer performs a kriti devotional song, accompanied (left to right) by a mridangam drum, kanjira hand drum, tambura lute, and violin (N. Scott Robinson) performance, a kind of refrain. This kriti’s text begins with the words “O unworthy Mind! How long can I put up with you, if you do not listen to my counsel!” (translation by T.K. Govinda Rao, Compositions of Tya¯gara¯ja. Chennai, Tamil Nadu: Ga¯namandir Publications, 2009, p. 136). The pallavi is followed by a second section, called anupallavi, which begins “Follow my advice. Spend your time in singing the glory of Srı¯ Ra¯ma, the jewel of the solar race with humility and devotion.” The final section of the text, called charanam, is longer than the others and is followed by the pallavi text, giving it a “rounded form.” Improvisation, if present, follows the charanam, but the work will always conclude with a restatement of the pallavi. Regarding the overall form, where improvisation loosely based on the pallavi melody occurs, some describe the form as resembling “theme and variations.” The enclosed track only goes through the beginning of the anupallavi, but the complete raga performance is included in the website that accompanies this book. South Indian ragas, whether they are kritis or other musical forms, operate on principles similar to the ragas of North India—but the specifics are quite different. The Carnatic system is, at least on the surface, unusually extensive because there are so many theoretically possible scales. If you allow for all possible arrangements of the seven pitches (some pitches are available in two variants as well), there are seventy-two possible scale forms. When you factor in other variables, such as ornamentation and pillar pitches, there are theoretically some 36,000 possible ragas. In practice, only a small number of ragas are commonly used. Our example is Raga Malayama¯rutam, whose pitches in ascending order are C♯, D, F, G♯, A♯, and B (if sounded on a Western instrument such as piano). Expressed in solfège, the raga is Sa, Ri, Ga, Pa Dha, Ni, Sa; the raga then has six tones, the fourth pitch (Ma) being omitted. 109 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y South Indian drum cycles, like those in the North, are also called tala but follow a different set of operating principles. As with the raga system, the Carnatic tala system also allows for far more cycles than are actually used. In practice, the system is actually fairly simple, but like so much of Indian music, it can be confusing to beginners because of its extensive terminology. A Carnatic tala consists of three variable elements, called anudrutam, drutam, and laghu. As in the North, South Indian music uses a system of hand gestures to symbolize tala patterns. The anudrutam is signed as a one-beat clap; the drutam is a clap followed by a wave gesture of the right hand; the laghu, which consists of a variable number of beats, is signed as a clap followed by right-hand finger counts. South Indian audience members often “keep the tala” on their hands during a performance, and sometimes a singer will also use the gestures as s/he performs. Each tala has a name that combines two elements: a tala name and a jati name, with the latter representing a variable number of beats in the laghu. The most commonly used tala in Carnatic music is properly called triputa (tala name) chaturasra (jati name), consisting of a four-beat laghu (clap and three counts) and two drutam (each a clap and wave). The full cycle of eight beats, then, is “clap, count, count, count, clap, wave, clap, wave.” Because the name triputa caturasra does not roll off the tongue so easily, the nickname adi tala (“ancient” tala) is commonly used. It is unlikely that you could ever attend a Carnatic music concert and not hear adi tala. The selected track, however, is an exception, using a much shorter tala called ru¯pakam, which consists of only three beats, consisting of an anudrutam and a drutam, with no laghu; it is signed as “clap, clap, wave.” But because the cycle is so short, the performers have combined four repetitions into an overarching twelve beat cycle (3+3+3+3). South Indian mridangam drummer plays during a concert surrounded by six more drums (N. Scott Robinson) 110 S O U T H A S I A 5 The most commonly used drum in Carnatic music is called mridangam; it is a two- headed barrel drum with leather strap lacing, and heads that are weighted (tuned) with a mixture of cooked rice mixed with iron filings and perhaps ash; this pasty mixture adds weight to the drum head, thereby lowering the pitch. Players use their hands to strike each head. Many players also wrap the body of the drum in cloth. The recording also includes a kanjira, a small frame drum consisting of a jackfruit frame, a single head usually of monitor (lizard) skin, and a single hole in the frame into which three or four thin metal discs or old coins are placed to rattle when the drum is struck by the player’s hand. The kanjira is essen- tially the same as what Westerners know as the “tambourine.” This instrument only became common in classical playing in the 1930s. The first sounds heard in our example, those of the drone, could be the tambura, the same drone chordophone found in Hindustani music, but in this performance the musicians employ a small “black box” called a sruti box that emits continuous drone pitches elec- tronically. As in the North, the drone reinforces the basic pitches of the raga. The bowed instrument that shadows the singer is a European violin—but one that is held in a way that no Western violinist would ever employ: it is placed between the chest and right foot of a player seated on the floor. The violin, like the harmonium, was introduced into India by British colonialists but completely transformed into an Indian instrument. Its function in Carnatic music is to closely follow and imitate the singer. Thanks to the way that the instru- ment is held, players can easily slide their left hand along the neck to create any of the twenty-three named ornaments found in both the instrumental and the vocal music of South India. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.6 (4’14”) Chapter 5: Site 2 India: Carnatic Classical (Vocal) Kriti Voice: Single male Instruments: Violin (bowed lute), sruti box (electronic drone), mridangam (barrel-shaped drum) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Sruti box (drone) begins. (Tonal center = C♯). Note the violin tuning and mridangam (drum) warming up in background. 0’09” [Alapana] Voice begins with highly melismatic improvisation in free rhythm. 0’14” Listen for the violin “imitating” the melodic contour of the vocalist. Note this exchange of voice followed by violin throughout the opening section of the performance. 2’59” Applause signals the end of the opening section. 3’04” [Pallavi section] Vocalist begins the “composed” section of the performance. Note that the violin (3’06”) no longer “imitates,” but plays along with the same melody as the vocalist. 111 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Line 1 (first half): Manasa! Etulorttune (“O Unworthy Mind! How long can I put up with you,”) Repeats a total of five times before the second half of the line begins. 3’10” Mridangam enters. 3’24” Line 1 (second half): Manavi Cekonave (“if you do not listen to my counsel.”) 3’28 Return to beginning of line 1 and sung three times. 3’51” Return to first half of line 1. 3’56” Vocalist sings on syllable “O!” 4’04” Drums signal end of the pallavi section. 4’07” Second section [anupallavi] begins just before the excerpt fades. Though brief, listen for the change in text. Line 2: Dinakarakula Bhushununi (“Follow my advice.”) Source: “Manasa¯! Etulörttunë” Raga Malayama¯rutam, Ru¯pakam Tala, composed by Sri Tya¯gara¯ja and performed by Sri V. Ramachandran, vocal; Sri S. Varadharajan, violin; Ramnad Sri Raghavan, mridangam; Sri R. Balasubramaniam, kanjira; recorded at the 2002 St. Thyagaraja Festival by the Thyagaraja Aradhana Committee, Cleveland, Ohio, 2002. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.6): Mimic the vocal melody, along with the violin part, during the introduction (alapana). Also, sing along and memorize the melody of the composed section (pallavi) as if you were a student of this musician. Cultural Considerations. Whereas Hindustani music is primarily improvised, albeit with a pre-composed gat or chiz serving as a skeletal framework in the metrical portion of the per- formance, Carnatic music is primarily composed in song form, though with the expectation that the performer will add typical (and codified) ornaments to the main notes. Consequently, South India has, like Europe, a small pantheon of saint-like composers, of whom Tya¯gara¯ja (1767–1847) is the most famous. Other renowned composers include Muttusvami Diksitar (1776–1835), Syama Sastri (1762–1827), and Svati Tirunal (1813–1846), all contemporaries of Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, and others from early nineteenth-century Europe. Tya¯gara¯ja, a man who prophesied his own death and is therefore called “Saint” in English, is celebrated ARADHANA in an annual aradhana (festival), originally held in Tamil Nadu state but now observed in A South Indian many parts of the world, including the United States. Since 1907 the festival has included, festival. in addition to puja (worship), performances of Tya¯gara¯ja’s compositions by both amateurs and professionals. One of the largest festivals is held each year in Cleveland, Ohio, when the local community brings in major singers and instrumentalists from India. 112 S O U T H A S I A 5 A South Indian violinist plays during a St. [Sri] Tya¯gara¯ja Festival in Cleveland, Ohio. Note how he holds the instrument between his chest and right foot, making it easier to play the ornamentation required in this music While they predominate, kriti are not the only vocal form found in South Indian classical music. Vocalists sometimes improvise extensive alapana, together with a violinist who imitates entire phrases following the main performer’s rendition. Carnatic repertory also includes other song genres, including the varnam, ragamtanam-pallavi, and tillana. Some are secular, even erotic, and may include extended melismatic passages in which the per- former shows off his or her mastery of improvisatory techniques. Carnatic dance is typically accompanied by vocal performance, especially the widespread Bharata Naatyam dance tradition. 113 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Sri Tya¯gara¯ja (1767–1847) is South India’s most famous composer, whose music is still celebrated in festivals throughout the world (Aradhana Committee, Cleveland, Ohio) SARASVATI VINA A plucked lute from The instruments of South India are fewer than those of North India, but several are South India, often worthy of mention. The most important is a plucked lute called sarasvati vina (or veena). associated with the Held horizontally or even placed on the floor, this instrument has up to nine strings for Hindu goddess playing melody and rhythm but generally no sympathetic strings. Players may use plectra Sarasvati. or their bare fingertips. The most memorable South Indian instrument is a long, black double- NAGASVARAM reed called nagasvaram, usually played in pairs and enthusiastically accompanied by a A double-reed pair of short barrel drums called tavil. One may also encounter performers using the venu aerophone from (flute) or the dilruba (fretted bowed lute). In recent years, several new Western instruments South India. have been adapted into Carnatic music, most prominently the mandolin, made famous by one player, the youthful U. Srinivas. Other Western imports include the violoncello (or TAVIL ’cello), the viola, the alto saxophone, and the clarinet; the latter’s reeds and mouthpiece have A pair of drums been altered to allow for greater ornamentation and tone-bending. In South India, from South India, often used to instrumental music consists primarily of vocal compositions performed without words, accompany the though the original melody is generally elaborated on through improvised passages requiring nagasvaram. great virtuosity. 114 S O U T H A S I A 5 The sarasvati vina lute of South India Explore More Kathakali experience. Perhaps you will not recall the musical accom- paniment (drums, percussion, singing), but you cannot have Attending a performance of Indian Kathakali dance drama, ignored the actors’ make-up or costumes. Going beyond the whether in India or a touring group, is an unforgettable fascinating visual aspects, however, requires the detailed study of all the aspects appreciated by connoisseurs: gestures, make-up codes, facial expressions, dance move- ments, and the accompanying music, including the meaning of the sung words and their role in telling the story. Although it originated in the extreme southern state of Kerala, Kathakali is considered particular to that state alone but has come to the notice of audiences not just throughout India but world- wide. But understanding the words, which are in a southern language called Malayalam, sometimes mixed with Sanskrit, is near impossible for people living elsewhere. Fortunately, Kathakali performance: two drums on left, two actors in most of the clips of Kathakali available on the Internet include middle, two gong players on right subtitles. None of the actors, whose facial colors indicate 115 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y character (e.g., green indicates a noble character), speaks or sings, this being done by off-stage performers, because the actors’ gestures, expressions, and dance are so complicated. But the musicians are clearly seen on stage: one or two drum- mers (a horizontal drum played with the hands (maddalam) and one vertical played with sticks (chenda)) on the viewer’s left, and two players who strike small gongs with wooden beaters on the right. Traditionally sacred in character, though never part of Hindu temple rituals, the 101 classical stories derive from many sources, especially the epic tale called the Mahabharata. In earlier times a performance lasted the entire night, but today’s performances are shortened to three or four hours (although on-tour performances are much shorter). In addition to the old stories, writers have created new stories, such as from the Bible, from Shakespeare’s dramas, and even from Goethe’s Faust. Learning to perform Kathakali requires up to ten years just to appear on stage followed by a lifetime of continuing effort, including the study of Kerala-style martial arts. Because arts such as Kathakali are so “deep,” serious connoisseurs also grow over time, coming to see and hear more with every Kathakali dancer (Wikimedia Commons) new performance. This inherent allure to appeal to both novice and veteran audiences makes the Kathakali one of the most memorable of Indian theatrical genres. BHAJAN Site 3: Hindu Bhajan Devotional Song Hindu devotional songs from India. First Impressions. Along with a reed instrument and pair of drums, a male vocalist sings a short line, which is answered by a group of singers, both male and female, who sound more like a congregation of ordinary people at worship than professional singers. The melody they sing is rather simple, repetitive, and easy to imitate with the melodic instrument providing the pitch outline of the vocal phrases. A metallic instrument joins the group, adding a steady rhythmic element like the sound of a model train chugging along to the beat. Aural Analysis. The reedy sound of the melodic instrument is a harmonium, a free-reed pump organ originally from France. Full-sized harmoniums became popular parlor instru- ments in “better” American and European homes during the nineteenth century, and many families today still preserve one as a treasured heirloom. These domestic instruments were fairly large, often had extensive wood carvings as decorations, had a keyboard, a bank of pull stops, and were pumped by two pedals. 116 S O U T H A S I A 5 Portable versions of the harmonium became popular by mid-century and were quite compact with a small keyboard and a hand-pumped bellows at the rear of the case. This type of harmonium was originally designed for missionaries and other traveling religious leaders, who used them to accompany hymn singing. Many British missionaries went to India, taking the harmonium with them—though they certainly did not anticipate that Indians would embrace the instrument so enthusiastically and blend it into their traditional music. In bhajans today the harmonium player often provides just a steady drone, but can also play the lead melody to support the vocal line, as with our audio example. In addition to a harmonium, a drum (or, more properly, two drums) is often heard in bhajan performance. The sound should seem familiar, as it is a tabla, an instrument heard earlier in the Hindustani raga (see above). Unlike the tala patterns heard in classical per- formances of Hindustani raga, the one rhythm here is simple and regular, alternating between a four- and an eight-beat cycle. The metallic instrument that is also heard is peculiar to the overseas Indian community in Trinidad and Tobago, called a dandtal (or dental), and consists of a steel rod struck from within a horseshoe-shaped beater. In this example, it plays a short–short–long pattern throughout. Bhajan singing typically follows a call-and-response format in which a leader (in this case male) sings a phrase that is then sung by the group. This pattern differs from call-and- response performance in most traditions, because normally a group completes a vocal line A man sings while playing a hand-pumped harmonium at a temple in Kathmandu, Nepal 117 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y sung by its leader, rather than simply repeating it. Therefore, bhajan practice is closer to antiphonal singing, in which leader and group alternate. Practically speaking, the leader in bhajan performances is also prompting the singers, who might not know the words other- wise. The vocal lines are very simple melodically and are repeated. In our example, there are basically two phrases, both of which use a pentatonic scale. The five tones could be described as 5, 6, 1, 2, 3, with 5 and 1 as the most important and 1 as the fundamental pitch. Because the term bhajan denotes a great range of devotional songs sung by members of virtually any of India’s faiths (though they are most prominent in Hinduism), and because they are normally sung by lay people, the texts can be in whatever local or national language GURU is preferred. A teacher or spiritual guide, primarily The text of our example was written for the Hindu sect that follows the great guru associated with (teacher) Sai Baba, and begins (in translation) with these exhortations: “Lord Ganesha, son Hindu traditions of mother Parvati and Lord Shiva. You are ever pure. Protect me O Blissful Lord. You confer from India. auspiciousness.” L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.7 (1’36”) Chapter 5: Site 3 India: Hindu Bhajan Devotional Song Voice: Male vocal lead and mixed-group response Instruments: Harmonium (keyed aerophone), tabla (pair of hand drums), dandtal (idiophone) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Tabla and harmonium enter. 0’02” Lead vocal enters with first verse. Line 1: Parvati Nandana Gajanana (Translation: Lord Ganesha, son of mother Parvati and Lord Shiva.) 0’07” Congregation responds with repetition of the first line. 0’13” Lead vocal, then congregation, repeats first line. 0’18” Dandtal enters with a consistent short–short–long rhythm. 0’25” Lead vocal enters with second verse. Line 2: Pashupati Nandana Niranjana (Translation: You are ever pure.) 0’31” Congregation responds with repetition of the second line. 0’37” Lead vocal, then congregation, repeats second line. 118 S O U T H A S I A 5 0’48” Lead vocal, then congregation, sings first line again. (Repeated.) 1’11” Lead vocal enters with third line. Line 3: Pahi Prabho Mam Pahi Prasanna (Translation: Protect me O Blissful Lord. You confer auspiciousness.) 1’16” Congregation responds with repetition of the third line. 1’22” Lead vocal, then congregation, repeats third line. Source: “Parvati Nandana Gajanana,” recorded by Terry E. Miller at the Sai Baba Temple, Longdenville. Trinidad, 1985. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.7): Sing along, as if you were a member of the congregation. Additionally, clap the dandtal rhythmic pattern throughout the example. For an additional experience, watch one or more bhajans on YouTube and ascertain as much as you can about the visuals that accompany it. Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple in Delhi, the world’s largest Hindu temple (N. Scott Robinson) 119 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Bhajan performance at Hindu temple near Chaguanas, Trinidad, West Indies. The dandtal is a metal rod struck with a Accompaniment is provided by drum, harmonium, and dandtal horseshoe-shaped metal beater used to accompany bhajans Cultural Considerations. Bhajans are devotional songs sung by lay people for many occa- sions, both formal and informal, at home or in a temple, accompanied or unaccompanied. They can be traditional songs, homemade ones, or a blend of traditional and popular music styles. In a sense they parallel Protestant hymns in the Christian tradition. Indeed, some Indian Christians have adopted bhajans to their own faith. Bhajan meetings, predominantly associated with Hindus, are often held during the week, and anyone in the congregation can lead a song. If Hindu, services usually begin with the chanting of om, the fundamental sacred sound of Hinduism. Bhajan texts can be sung in any language and may consist of nothing more than a repetition of the names of God, because God is believed to have many incarnations. Other texts express the devotees’ love for God, and offer praise and devotion. Bhajans can be heard throughout India, Nepal, the Tamil parts of Sri Lanka, and any- where else where there are Indian or Hindu communities, such as South America and the Caribbean, particularly Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Among the Hindu spiritual teachers who have attracted followings outside India is Sai Baba, originally from the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Bhajan singing typically takes place in Sai Baba temples on Thursday or Sunday. The bhajan selected for inclusion here was recorded in a BOLLYWOOD Sai Baba temple in Chaguanas, a town in central Trinidad, where there is a concentration An informal name for India’s film of Hindus. (Around 40 percent of Trinidadians are descendents of Indians brought to the industry, combining country as indentured workers after slavery ended.) Bhajan singing is a major aspect of Sai “Bombay” and Baba worship but is also found among Hare Krishna devotees, another sect that has also “Hollywood.” established congregations and temples worldwide. 120 S O U T H A S I A 5 Explore More Indian Filmi Git (Film Song) While Indian film songs, or filmi, are clearly not part of the classical raga tradition, many film directors and performers were trained in Indian classical music, and as a result filmi retains some classical characteristics. Most films are laden with musical productions that break away from the basic plot and encourage an escapist experience for the audience. Though atypical in modern cinema, historical film buffs will recall that many American films from the 1930s to the 1960s also included numerous songs. Just as The Sound of Music (1965) or Singin’ in the Rain (1952) would be unremarkable A dance scene typical of Indian film with actress singing a without musical performance, so, too, would the hundreds filmi song (Shutterstock) of similarly produced film-musicals found in Indian cinemas and abroad today. While the song-film format fell out of favor the words on the film set. Because of India’s diverse in the West long ago, it has not in India, a country where population and languages, songs were frequently recorded millions toil every day in the heat for little reward. Movies that in more than one of India’s major languages. Film producers help to transport people from the grinding poverty of their hired music directors who, with a team of writers and own lives into fantasies of love, adventure, or exceptional musicians, created, performed, and recorded all the music religious devotion is clearly valued by its primary audience. for a given film. To this end, studios had to retain a great many musicians playing primarily Western orchestral instruments The Indian film industry, colloquially referred to as plus a few Indian instruments, especially for “traditional” “Bollywood” (a combination of the words “Bombay” and scenes. “Hollywood”), has become the world’s number-one producer of films, releasing more than 2000 films per year. Hindustani Today’s film music, however, makes greater use of syn- artists traditionally dominated the Indian film industry, and thesizers. Certain of the film music producers became major as a result for many years mainstream filmi git were also figures in their own right, and most of them were musicians generally Hindustani. Eventually, the South developed its own themselves. The “playback” singers who have performed style of film songs, and in recent years these have gained most songs since the late 1930s are far fewer in number than popularity throughout India and abroad. the actors and actresses they sing for, meaning that audi- ences often hear the same voices doing the songs in film The first Indian “talkie” was released in 1931. Early films after film, regardless of who is being seen on-screen. required the actors themselves to sing songs derived from “light classical” Indian music into a “single-system” camera. Two figures have tended to dominate the genre, either By the 1940s, however, when sound and image could be personally or by setting the style. Male actor-singer Kundan recorded separately, producers began using “playback sin- Lal Saigal set the standard early on with his warm voice, gers,” individuals who recorded the songs in a studio; the which recorded well with the early microphones. But a single songs were then played back to the actors who lip-synched female singer, Lata Mangeshkar, dominated the industry for 121 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y six decades, since 1942; her light, “little girl” voice being achieving critical acclaim and financial success rivaling the virtually the signature sound of Indian filmi. Cited by the Hollywood film industry. The recent success of British Guinness Book of World Records as having produced more production, Slumdog Millionaire (2008), which was filmed and recordings than any other singer, she has recorded thousands set in India, has done much to heighten global attention to of film songs in numerous languages. Her younger sister, South Asian cinema. While the musical format is often absent Asha Bhosle, is similarly an iconic figure of the filmi music from these newly released films, filmi remains a popular industry. In recent years, the Indian film industry has become music style of the majority of Bollywood films. increasingly prominent on the global market with many films Arrival: Pakistan N I S TA PA K Pakistan, like many other nations formed out of colonial empires, took its form more as a result of external forces than around common culture or language. Unified geographically by the Indus River basin and by its religion, Islam, Pakistan was home to some of the world’s earliest civilizations and a crossroads of numerous cultures arriving both through trade—it was on the “Silk Route”—and because of invasions. By the nineteenth century, Pakistan had become the western portion of the British Raj encompassing most of South Asia. Soon after the British granted independence to its Indian empire in 1947, disputes broke out between the Hindu majority and the Muslim minority which were resolved in the agony of one of history’s greatest human migrations; millions of Hindus left the provinces of both the east and west for what became India and millions of Muslims left India for either the eastern or Lahore, Pakistan, at sunset with minarets silhouetted in the fading sunlight (Shutterstock) 122 S O U T H A S I A 5 western provinces, which together became Pakistan later that year. Following numerous disputes with India over Kashmir and internally with East Pakistan, in 1971 the eastern province of Bengal broke away and became the nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan, whose area is slightly smaller than Texas, has a population of 187 million, making it the second most populous Muslim country after Indonesia. In addition to its two official languages—English and Urdu—there are more than sixty other languages spoken among the country’s numerous ethnic groups, Punjabis being the largest (44 percent). The country’s capital, Islamabad, with a population of only 700,000, is dwarfed by its largest city, Karachi, with a population of around fourteen million. Because of its ethnic diversity, Pakistan has long been stressed by ethnic division, and although the military has trad- itionally been the glue that held the country together, its territories along the Afghanistan border have remained notoriously difficult to govern. Visitors to Pakistan would rightly ask, “what is ‘Pakistani music’?” There is no easy answer because each of Pakistan’s cultural regions has more in common with neighboring countries (Iran, Afghanistan, India) than with a national culture. Further, when the great migration occurred in 1947, a great number of people from India settled in West Pakistan, and yet the country’s new identity was founded on being distinct from India. As a result, the most sophisticated form of Pakistani music (what some call its raga-based “classical music”) is virtually the same as Hindustani (Indian) raga. After that there are nearly endless forms of regional and local music associated with particular ethnic groups. In the 1960s Pakistan’s national radio attempted to use qawwali songs to represent the national culture. Unofficially this continues to hold true in that qawwali is Pakistan’s most prominent music in the eyes of the rest of the world. Site 4: Qawwali (Sufi Devotional Song) Qawwali performance by Rizwan-Muazzam Qawwali during the WOMAD Festival, 2010 in Wiltshire, United Kingdom (David Corio/Getty Images) 123 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y First Impressions. The clustered tones of a reed instrument are immediately joined by one— or sometimes two—voice(s) in a seemingly improvisatory melody. Three quick raps on a drum allude to the coming main section in which drums help define the meter. Sometimes sounding subdued, sometimes not, the singers reach sudden points of intensity, suggesting this is more than mere poetry but perhaps a personal declaration. Aural Analysis. Two elements constitute the sound of qawwali song: instruments and voices. The melodic instrument heard immediately is the harmonium, a small hand bellows- powered keyboard instrument whose sounds emanate from small cane free-reeds. This instrument was discussed more fully in the bhajan site (see above). The player, who is usually also the singer, parallels the sung melody. Typically, two kinds of drums participate: first, a pair of drums called tabla (see Chapter 5, Site 1), and second, a small two-headed barrel drum called dholak, better known for its widespread use in Indian film music, bhajan singing, and other “light” forms of South Asian music. Dholak can be tuned using metal turnbuckles or traditional rope lacing; the left head is “loaded” with a pasty mixture to tune it. The lead singer or singers dominate the vocal element. In this case there are two: the world-famous Sabri Brothers, who sometimes alternate and sometimes sing together. Joining them now and then is a chorus of four or five men, who also provide clapping sounds on the strong beats. The chorus also repeats some of the lines sung by the soloists to emphasize their importance. The song heard here makes use of a simple diatonic scale of seven tones, approximating the Western C major scale but theorized by qawwali musicians as a raga (see Chapter 5, Site 1). When the drums enter, the metrical pattern is a three-beat tala (rhythmic cycle), Two kinds of Pakistani drums: naal (left) and dholak (right), the latter the mainstay of qawwali singing (N. Scott Robinson) 124 S O U T H A S I A 5 creating the feeling of triple meter. The sung text of this section, part of a much longer composition, begins “Jamale kibriya main hoon,” meaning “Man is the light of God. Adam modeled in clay is made of divine transparence. Adam, the first of men, opens the way.” Originally sung in Persia’s main language, Farsi, most qawwali today are sung in Punjabi or Urdu, though songs exist in many other languages as well. Qawwali songs typically last between fifteen and thirty minutes, too long to be repro- duced here in full. Some, however, last more than an hour. During that time period the song changes mood, from the restrained emotion of the beginning—heard here—to increasing power and emotion. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.8 (4’09”) Chapter 5: Site 4 Pakistan: Qawwali (Sufi Devotional Song) Voices: Two male leads, male vocal group of four to five singers. Instruments: Two harmoniums, tabla, dholak TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Harmoniums enter in free rhythm, followed by lead vocalists and then vocal group in brief. The text setting is strongly melismatic, paralleling the ornamented melodic line of the harmoniums. 0’44” Tabla and dholak (drums) sound briefly. 0’53” Melodic performers pause, followed by a gutteral vocal utterance, “Allah.” 0’54” Male vocalists continue, exchanging the lead. Note that the text setting is less melismatic than the opening section. 1’18” Both male vocalists sing together. 1’46” Vocal group enters along with drums. The text setting tends toward syllabic singing. 2’06” Lead vocalists return briefly. 2’12” Vocal group returns with repeated refrain. 2’31” Dynamic level diminishes as only a couple of male background vocalists continue. 2’37” Audio example is edited to transition to next section. 2’39” Example fades in during antiphonal chanted section between lead vocalists and vocal group. The text setting is strongly syllabic. A steady beat is emphasized with hand claps. 3’11” Drums stop as the music shifts to free rhythm. Lead vocalists and harmonium continue in upper melodic range. 3’39” Steady beat returns as drums and vocal group enter at a faster tempo. 125 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y 4’03” Music shifts again to free rhythm as vocal group and drums drop out. 4’04” Gutteral vocal utterance, “Allah,” is heard as example fades. Source: “Jamale kibriya main hoon” performed by the Sabri Brothers, from Musiciens Kawwali du Pakistan/Les Fréres Sabri/Musique Soufli, vol. 3, Arion ARN 64147, 1991. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.8): Accompany the vocal group throughout the performance. For a more difficult challenge, sing along with the lead vocalists. Cultural Considerations. Associating qawwali music with Islam seems counter intuitive at first, because of Islam’s traditional distrust of the sensuous art of music. Qawwali, however, is not part of mainstream Sunni or Shia Islam, rather it is expressive of the mystical Sufi sects of both Pakistan and India. Sufis are indeed Muslims but are considered heretical by many for their pursuit of spiritual and mystical experiences that bring them into communion with God. Music is an important element in most Sufi religious meetings (see Chapter 8, Site 5). The musicians (called qawwal) heard in this example traditionally performed at shrines for Sufi saints on their anniversaries, but sometimes weekly on Thursday or Friday as well for audiences of devotees. Revered for having achieved exceptional nearness to God, the saints are celebrated by modern Sufis wishing to achieve such spiritual elevation, which can be enhanced by hearing qawwal sing. As the song progresses from calm to agitation and exclamation, the listeners, too, can experience heightened spirituality to the point of achiev- ing a trance state. As the song winds down, then, the participants are guided in gradually withdrawing from their trance back to normalcy. For devotees, the most important element in qawwali is the poetry, for, although the music can reach great intensity, it is the text that affects their minds and arouses their spirituality up to and including a trance state. Much qawwali poetry, however, is strikingly earthy, speaking directly of human love. But this is the surface meaning, and devotees understand that all is metaphorical for the love and connection between humans and the divine. For this to happen, listeners must understand the language of the singer, suggesting that traditional performance was assumed to take place within a small community. This being so, it is somewhat surprising how qawwali has managed to become one of the most sought after of “world musics,” for audiences who are neither Muslim nor speakers of the singer’s language. Qawwali came to the notice of the non-Muslim world primarily as a result of the career of one of its greatest exponents, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (1948–1997), who became head of his family’s qawwali group in 1971 at the age of 23. By the early 1980s he began touring in Europe and later participated in several of Peter Gabriel’s WOMAD world music concerts in the early 1980s and appeared on numerous RealWorld label releases. From 1992 to 1993 he was a visiting artist at the University of Washington. Nusrat’s untimely death in 1997 cut short a career that had nevertheless put qawwali on the world’s stages. Our example was recorded by the Sabri Brothers, a family group headed by lead singers Haji Ghulam Farid 126 S O U T H A S I A 5 Qawwali ensemble led by Farid Ayaz (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) Sabri and younger brother Maqbool Ahmed Sabri. Ghulam died in 1994 at the age of only 64. Both the Sabris and Nusrat went beyond traditional qawwali, participating in the sound tracks of numerous Pakistani films. In addition Nusrat (or his songs) were featured in two American films: The Last Temptation of Christ (1985) and Dead Man Walking (1995). Explore More Bhangra around the world in search of economic prosperity. Bhangra accompanied them and remained an important cultural Bhangra is a music style originally associated with the Punjabi activity to remind these populations of their homeland. By the populations of northern India and southern Pakistan. The 1980s, however, Punjabi youth in London, England, began music is common to group celebratory dances, particularly in blending bhangra rhythms and vocal performance with association with harvest festivals and weddings. The major modern music styles to create a new “pop” genre of bhangra instruments heard in bhangra are the dhol, a large barrel that reflected their cultural identity in a diaspora community. drum played with two sticks on both ends, and the tumbi, a The sound quickly spread throughout Punjabi populations single-stringed plucked lute. Other instruments, such as the around the world, making its way back to India and Pakistan harmonium, are also common, but the dhol and tumbi provide where the music is commonplace alongside Bollywood filmi the basic rhythm and tonal center for performances. A lead music and other forms of Indian popular music. Bhangra male vocalist with accompanying group response is typical superstars, such as Malkit Singh and Daler Mehndi, perform in both folk and popular contexts. internationally to huge audiences and frequently record for Hindi film soundtracks that have helped to promote bhangra During the late 1960s and 1970s, large numbers of Punjabis, to global audiences as well. primarily Sikhs, migrated to Great Britain and elsewhere 127 5 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Questions to Consider 1. Why does the Indian classical tradition dominate the musical image of South Asia in the West? 2. Discuss the following terms important to a Hindustani classical music performance: Raga, Alap, Gat, Tala, Rasa. 3. Compare and contrast Hindustani and Carnatic music traditions. 4. How do filmi songs differ from Qawwali songs? 5. In what ways is Indian music spiritual? 6. What made India and Indian music attractive to the “world traveler” or “hippy” generation of the 1960s and 1970s? w ww On Your Own Time Visit the textbook website to find these resources for further exploration on your own. India Book: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Music of India. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Music/Reference/?view=usa&ci=9780195650983 Website: Official website of Ravi Shankar http://www.ravishankar.org/ Audio: The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas. Nimbus Records, NI 5536/9, 1999. http://www.wyastone.co.uk/the-raga-guide-an-illustrated-survey-of-74-hindustani-ragas.html http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/the-raga-guide-a-survey-74/id220037848 Website: Bhangra http://www.bhangra.org/ Website: Chhandayan (Indian Classical Music) http://www.tabla.org/ Website: Ali Akbar—College of Music http://www.aacm.org/ Book: Lavezzoli, Peter. The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc., 2007. http://www.continuumbooks.com/Books/detail.aspx?ReturnURL=/Search/default.aspx&CountryID=2& ImprintID=2&BookID=125074 Book: Nelson, David P. Solkattu Manual: An Introduction to the Rhythmic Language of South Indian Music. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2008. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~upne/0-8195-6871-6.html Book: Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. New York: Routledge, 2004 (2nd edition, 2012). http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415583886/ 128 S O U T H A S I A 5 Internet: Popular Artists from India A.R. Rahman Lata Mangeshkar Asha Bhosle Sukhwinder Singh Alka Yagnik Udit Narayan Malkit Singh Daler Mehndi Pakistan Book: Qureshi, Regula Burckhardt. Sufi Music of India and Pakistan: Sound, Context, and Meaning. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Music/WorldMusicEthnomusicology/?view=usa&ci=97 80195979107 Website: Pakistani Music http://www.pakistanimusic.com/ Audio: Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Shahen Shah. Real World Records, 1989. http://realworldrecords.com/catalogue/shahen-shah http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/shahen-shah/id270807704 Internet: Popular Artists from Pakistan Ahmed Rushdi Nazia Hassan Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Hadiqa Kiyani 129 Sites 4 & 5 Sites 1 & 2 "ISAN" Site 3 Site 6 Site 7 Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Northeast Thailand, Indonesia (Java and Bali) 6 Background Preparation 132 Site 4: Lam Klawn Repartee Bangkok’s Wat Singing 155 Arun (Temple of Planning the Itinerary 134 Dawn), a Buddhist Site 5: Luk Thung Popular Song 159 An Inside Look: Priwan Nanongkham 135 complex next to Arrival: Indonesia (Java and Bali) 164 the Chao Phraya Arrival: Vietnam 137 River, attracts Site 6: Javanese Court Gamelan 166 thousands of Site 1: Vietnamese Central Highlands Bronze Gong Ensemble 138 Site 7: Balinese Gamelan Gong visitors each Kebyar 171 month drawn to Site 2: Nhac Tai Tu Amateur its architectural Chamber Music 141 Explore More: Kecak: The Balinese design and brilliant “Monkey Chant” 177 colors Arrival: Thailand 145 Questions to Consider 178 Site 3: Classical Piphat Music 146 On Your Own Time 178 Arrival: Laos and Northeast Thailand 152 Explore More: The Ramayana 153 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Background Preparation It is difficult to imagine a more colorful region of the world than Southeast Asia, a vast area split between the Asian mainland and some of the largest islands in the world. As a result of both internal histories and colonization, the region has developed into eleven independent states, seven on the mainland and four among the islands, of which all but Thailand were earlier colonized by European powers before gaining independence during the twentieth century. Prior to the colonial period, Southeast Asia consisted of both large and small kingdoms, the borders of which constantly expanded or retreated depending on a given power center’s projection of influence. The names of some countries may be familiar, but others are understandably little known, including that of the region’s newest nation, Timor- Leste (East Timor), which only gained independence from Indonesia in 1999. The nations on the mainland include Myanmar (formerly Burma), Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, while the island nations are Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Timor-Leste. There are many more ethnic groups than there are states, however—mainland Southeast Asia alone is home to more than 140 named ethnic groups and the islands another sixty or more. Population densities throughout the region vary widely: both Vietnam and Indonesia (especially the main island, Java) have high-density and rapidly growing populations, while the populations of Burma and especially Laos are scattered and sparse. The largest urban areas grew rapidly during the last half of the twentieth century, especially as rural populations migrated to the cities seeking safety (during periods of war) or economic opportunities. The region’s largest cities include Jakarta in Indonesia, Bangkok in Thailand, Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam, Manila in the Philippines, and the city-state of Singapore at the tip of the Malaysian Peninsula. Some capital cities, however, remain relatively small and undeveloped; these include Vientiane in Laos and Phnom Penh in Cambodia. Myanmar, however, recently built an entirely new capital in an isolated area 500 miles/800 km north Typical of modern Southeast Asian cities, Bangkok’s endless A typically timeless village near the banks of the mighty traffic and general congestion can be both exhilarating and Maekhong River in southern Laos near the Khong waterfalls exhausting 132 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 The terraced rice paddies of Bali, Indonesia, effectively utilize every inch of available space (Amy Unruh) of the old capital in Rangoon (Yangon) called Nay Pyi Taw. Because Southeast Asian cities exhibit the most modern aspects of life in each country, it is in the small towns and villages, where rice-growing and animal husbandry are the chief occupations, that “traditional” culture thrives. Many aspects of Southeast Asian life—agricultural, ritual, and festive—are shaped by broad weather patterns called monsoons (winds). Life on the mainland is governed by alternating wet and dry monsoons; the former come from the sea and bring on the rainy season, and the latter come from the Asian continent and bring dry weather, either cool or hot. During a given season, the weather tends to vary little. Island climates are generally more even throughout the year, because the humidity that produces rain is nearly always present. Overall, equator-straddling Southeast Asia is tropical and rather humid, but upland areas, especially on the mainland, can become quite cold during the cool, dry monsoon. Temperatures in northern Thailand and upland Laos can drop to freezing, and snow has been known to fall in the highlands of central Laos. Because most rice is grown in flooded paddy fields, rice agriculture is restricted to the rainy season except where irrigation systems have been constructed. Countries experiencing a dry monsoon period otherwise have only one harvest, while those with rain year-round may have two or more. Poverty remains a major issue in many Southeast Asian countries. Economically, most of Southeast Asia is still considered “developing,” though Malaysia, Thailand, and Singapore have achieved rapid growth and modernization in recent decades. In economically advanced countries such as these, one finds fully developed communication and sanitation infra- structures, but in the less developed areas, such as Laos, there are still few paved roads, no railroads, and little modern communication. 133 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Planning the Itinerary Because around 200 distinct, named ethnic groups are found throughout Southeast Asia, an exploration of the region’s cornucopia of musics is as daunting as it is exciting. Each of the larger nations, with the exception of the Philippines, has or had aristocratic courts that were longtime patrons of the arts. Wherever these court systems thrived, highly sophisticated “classical” music developed, performed by relatively large instrumental ensembles in a variety of contexts, including dance, theater, and ritual. In one case, that of Bali in Indonesia, these ensembles were primarily associated with Hindu temples rather than with the royal court. Outside courts and temples, music largely flourishes in the rural areas, primarily in villages, because Southeast Asian farmers prefer to live in clusters. In these areas, music- making is necessarily simpler because few musicians are able to devote themselves to it full- time or afford expensive kinds of instruments. Many Southeast Asian nations also have large minority groups, usually living in remote uplands. Their music is often unrelated to that of the dominant lowland cultures. In addition, most cities have large segments of Chinese or Chinese-descended people who are either well integrated, like those of Thailand, or remain more separate, as in Indonesia or Malaysia. Throughout Southeast Asia, though especially in urban areas, there is also a great variety of modernized popular music. In countries with developed media, this type of music reaches into the most remote areas, even if the tele- visions have to be powered by car batteries. Southeast Asia is especially known for two materials used to make instruments—bronze and bamboo. Bronze is an alloy of the naturally occurring metals copper and tin. Bronze metallurgy is extremely old, going back to around 2000 B.C.E. For this reason, a great variety of bronze instruments are found throughout the region. Being rigid and heavy, bronze instruments are invariably idiophones. Most ensembles that feature bronze instruments also include non-idiophones, especially drums. A second key feature of this region’s music is the widespread use of bamboo, although bamboo instruments are also commonly found in East Asia. In Southeast Asia’s tropical climate, bamboo grows rapidly and easily, providing material not just for musical instruments but also for numerous everyday objects, such as bowls, knives, building materials, even textiles from the interior fibers. Demographics must be considered when categorizing the music of the region. One basic division is between lowland and upland peoples. Lowlanders mostly live in villages and are generally wet rice farmers, though the people of the great lowland cities, who vary from wealthy businessmen and high-ranking government officials to unskilled laborers, live quite differently. Uplanders everywhere remain rural, with some practicing swidden agriculture, in which nomadic communities clear hillsides or mountaintops for temporary agricultural use by slashing and burning the trees and planting dry crops such as rice or maize. Besides its indigenous peoples, Southeast Asia also hosts great numbers of Chinese immigrants, most of whom came to the cities to engage in commerce during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, often retaining their distinct temple traditions, instrumental music, and opera. On a smaller scale, the same is true of immigrants from India. Southeast Asia is a subcontinent known more for instrumental ensembles than for soloists. Vocal music also plays a strong role, because many traditional forms articulate narratives of great warriors, royalty, and religious men, as well as great women, comic char- acters, and superhuman heroes. Theater is exceptionally important as well, and virtually all Southeast Asian theater types combine instrumental music, song, and dance. Additionally, 134 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Priwan Nanongkham A N I N S I D E L O O K I grew up in a rice-farming village in Northeast Thailand, a region that is culturally Lao and known locally as Isan. When I was in the seventh grade at the local secondary school, I joined a Thai music club. At that time people said that playing Thai classical music was not just for enjoyment but it also influenced people to be good human beings. There I began my first music lesson on the ranat thum (lower xylophone) and later saw u (two-stringed coconut fiddle), the first two instruments that brought music into my life. I really enjoyed playing music in our school’s music club ensemble. We practiced and rehearsed after school and weekends and had chances to perform locally. Priwan Nanongkham, Thai musician and teacher At the end of that academic year, I came to the conclusion that music was what I wanted to do for the rest of my life. Thus, I decided to switch schools and restarted seventh We were invited to perform throughout Thailand and even grade in Roi-et city at the local Natasin, a kind of high school went to Germany and the Netherlands in the summer of for the arts that includes the first two years of college. There 1989. I majored in piphat ensemble, one of the classical genres After having six years of intensive training as a performer at from central Thailand. Classical was the only genre offered Natasin Roi-et, I decided to expand my work in music through as a major program in academia in the mid-1980s. the study of pedagogy at Chulalongkorn University in As an Isan native, however, I felt that I should also know the Bangkok, where I earned a Bachelor of Music Education music of my home region. My school also offered the study degree in 1992. The following year I entered the masters of local music as elective courses, but only for the fourth program in Cultural Studies at Mahidol University near year-students and beyond, and I could not wait that long. In Bangkok where I began my graduate music study. Before my second year, I began informally taking lessons on Isan finishing, however, I decided to pursue an opportunity to go music with an older friend at school. The first Isan instrument to the United States to teach Thai music in 1994. Soon after I studied was the khaen, a free-reed mouth organ that is the I moved to New York where I taught Thai music in a Thai primary instrument in Lao culture. By the third year I was Buddhist temple. Following that I entered the graduate ready to join our school’s “Isan traditional music” troupe program in Musicology-Ethnomusicology at Kent State (consisting of musicians and dancers) known today as wong University and wrote an MA thesis on ponglang music from ponglang. It was so named after the ponglang, a vertical log Isan. My dream, after completing my Ph.D, is to become a xylophone, the main instrument of an ensemble created music professor, field researcher, scholar, and musician during the 1980s to help preserve our tradition in the face of focused on the study of the music of my own regional influences from modernization and globalization. Our school culture, Thailand as a whole, and of the rest of Southeast troupe rehearsed after school and during vacation periods. Asia, if not the world. 135 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The famous triple chedi in fourteenth-century Wat Sri Samphet in Thailand’s former capital, Ayuthaya, which was destroyed by Burmese armies in 1767 theater employing puppets of various sorts—especially flat, leather “shadow” puppets—is a major art form throughout the region. Vietnam’s unique water-puppet theater, which takes place in a pond with the puppeteers behind a screen standing waist-deep in water, features amazingly agile wooden puppets placed at the ends of long, complex mechanical arms. All musics, whether traditional or modern, require a system of patronage in order to survive. While the courts and royal families of Vietnam, Laos, and Burma have long since disappeared, royal arts in those countries continue to a degree thanks to modest state support. Even in Thailand, Malaysia, and Cambodia, which retain kings and royal families, patronage has also been taken over by the state, which encourages the arts in various ways, especially through the educational system. Only in Indonesia, where Javanese sultans still hold court, does royalty actually help sustain the traditional arts. But even there, government-supported music conservatories can be found. Traditional music, theater, and dance at the local and regional levels, however, are mostly left to their own devices. Many music traditions have had a tough time surviving due to increased modernization and the spread of popular culture through globalization. Some forms have retained widespread support by modernizing, but many have simply become rare or extinct as people turn increasingly to various popular musics, both of local and of foreign origin. All Southeast Asian countries now have their own popular music, much of it originally stimulated by the importation of Anglo-British ballroom dance music from the 1930s and continuing to today with the latest releases from European, American, and Asian pop stars. 136 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Arrival: Vietnam IMMIGRATION Vietnam stretches dragon-like along the South China Sea for some 1,500 miles (2,400 km). VIETNAM Two major rivers create vast sandy deltas before they empty into the sea: the Red River in the north, which flows past the capital city, Hanoi, and the Maekhong River (sometimes IMMIGRATION spelled Mekong), which splits into nine branches—the “Nine Dragons” (Cuu Long in Vietnamese)—and flows through the endless rice fields of the southern delta. Vietnam’s backbone is a chain of mountains that runs from south to north, spilling into neighboring Cambodia, Laos, and China. Vietnam’s vast population of more than eighty-seven million people is predominantly Viet (or Kinh), a wet rice-growing people who live in the lowland plains between the mountains and the sea. In central Vietnam, the coastal plains are sometimes no more than a few miles or even a few hundred feet wide. Indeed, between Danang and the old imperial capital of Hue, “Sea and Cloud Pass” brings the mountains into the sea itself. The majority of Vietnam’s people live in the lowlands, while some fifty-four minority groups, most unrelated to the Viet, live in the interior hills and mountains that border Cambodia and Laos to the west and China to the north. Culturally speaking, Vietnam has three distinct regions: the north, the center, and the south. Each has a different history, a distinct accent, and different preferences for instru- ments and genres of music or theater. The north includes Hanoi, the country’s ancient capital and the locale for several important kinds of music, including the music of the distinctive water-puppet theater. The center’s heart is the old imperial city of Hue, seat of the Nguyen dynasty from the early nineteenth century until 1945, when Vietnam’s last emperor, Bao Dai, abdicated. The south, centered on Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) and several major cities in the delta, has the youngest culture and is the least formal in behavior. An upland Bahnar village near Kontum, Vietnam. Note the lightly framed houses with stucco walls and the steps carved into a log 137 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Members of the Jarai ethnic group, the same ones heard in the track, perform on a set of flat bronze gongs and a drum in Vietnam’s Central Highlands (Phong Nguyen) The people who live in the mountains are mostly different from the Viet and speak a variety of Austro-asiatic and Malayo-Polynesian languages. Living in isolated villages and often practicing “slash-and-burn” or “swidden” agriculture on the mountainsides, they relocate from time to time when the fields are depleted. Their musical cultures encompass both songs and instrumental music. Most instruments in the uplands are made of bamboo and other organic materials, but they are nonetheless incredibly varied. Perhaps most surprising are the large bronze gong sets played during year-round rituals and festivals. For many in the West, “Vietnam” is a war, but, of course, it is actually a country—and one country, not two as during that war. The capital, Hanoi, formerly only known as a forbidding Communist city and the prime target of American bombers in “North Vietnam,” is located along the broad Red River, whose delta forms a vast plain in the north. Hanoi’s architecture reflects three eras: fascinating temples dating back to the eleventh century, French colonial architecture created during the later nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and the modern buildings of a capitalist-leaning and increasingly cosmopolitan Vietnam reborn in the 1990s. Site 1: Vietnamese Central Highlands Bronze Gong Ensemble First Impressions. The clanging sound of the gongs may remind you of church bells, albeit a very large set of them, in a small country church. This hypnotic music seems simple, using mainly metal gongs with somewhat “fuzzy” pitches for the short-repetitive melody. A careful listen reveals a mix of sound changes because the musicians are walking in a circle past a stationary microphone. Aural Analysis. The ensemble heard in our example consists of approximately thirty members, all from the Jarai ethnic group, and was recorded in Pleiku in Vietnam’s Central Highlands. Led by young female dancers, the male musicians walk counter-clockwise in a circle, each striking a single bronze gong. These vary in diameter from about 24 inches (61 cm) to around 12 inches (30 cm). Some have bosses (raised knobs), and others are flat; all 138 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 are struck by padded beaters. In addition, the ensemble includes two horizontally played barrel drums and metal cymbals. A careful listen reveals six pitches in the octave, expressed as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7—but because the Jarai do not theorize about their music, this scale has no name. The range of the melody is relatively narrow, and the intervals between adjacent melodic pitches are no more than a fifth. Because each musician has only one gong, each capable of producing only a single pitch, the sounds of the different gongs are “strung together” to produce melody. This is an example of interlocking construction, in which a succession of individual pitches played by different people creates the effect of a continuous melody. A Western music tradition that parallels this idea is a bell choir, often heard during the winter holiday season. Considering that each musician only strikes one gong, it is not surprising that there is no ornamentation, as this would disrupt the continuity of the melodic line. The rhythm follows a clear duple meter and sounds fairly simple except for a certain freedom displayed in the pitches’ non-simultaneity. One senses that these performers cooperate but do not feel obligated to play in lockstep. The melodic units are relatively short and have a narrow range that falls toward the lowest pitch (1). This pitch is the tonal center, or “home” note that creates an aural feeling of rest and resolution. Although the music con- sists primarily of a single melodic line, making it monophonic, accompanying gong-players sound the “pillar” pitches of 1 and 5 from time to time, giving the music a strong tonal framework. Its form is iterative in that the melody is repeated for as long as necessary. There are no intentional dynamic shadings. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.9 (1’11”) Chapter 6: Site 1 Vietnam: Central Highlands Bronze Gong Ensemble Instruments: Bronze gongs of various pitches, small cymbals, low- and high-pitched drums TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Cymbals signal beginning of performance. 0’02” Opening gong establishes the duple meter and central pitch. The cymbals also mark this regular pulsation, initially at half the rhythmic density of the opening gong and then with the same density (at 0’09”). 0’05” Melodic gongs enter and repeat the melody every sixteen beats. Listen for the primary melodic pitches of 1 and 5 in contrast to the interlocking melodic gongs. The drum also enters, but is not easily distinguished until roughly 0’10”. 0’13” The melodic line repeats. 0’14” A low-pitched drum enters, adding a recurring “roll” throughout the performance. 139 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y 0’21” The melodic line repeats. Listen for further repetitions at 0’28”, 0’36”, etc. 0’48” A syncopated “inner” melody is added to the performance. 1’01” A very high-pitched gong adds an additional syncopated rhythm. Source: Gong ensemble of the Jarai, Pleiku City, Pleiku province, recorded by Terry E. Miller and Phong Nguyen; from Vietnam: Mother Mountain and Father Sea, White Cliffs Media WCM 9991 (6 CDs and 47 pp. book), 2003. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.9): Walk along with the basic beat and then choose a prominent pitched gong heard in the recording (such as 1) and clap at the points in the melody where it sounds. Cultural Considerations. Ensembles of gongs are typical among upland Vietnam’s ethnic groups. They are associated with both festivals and religious rituals, including funerals and the annual buffalo sacrifice. Because they require a large number of musicians, no one of whom dominates, these ensembles reflect the communal nature of upland village life. In this music, as in the society, each person has a specific role to play: some reiterate the pillar- like pitches, some play melody, and some dance; overall, there is no apparent distinction between “musician” and “non-musician.” Anyone in the community could expect to participate, if so inclined. Gong ensembles typically play for funerals and thus have a strong association with the afterlife. But visitors are more likely to encounter them during public upland festivals now promoted by the government. Perhaps the most difficult event to witness is the buffalo sacrifice, during which several young men seem to become nearly hypnotized as they begin piercing the hide of a buffalo tied to a tree. Accompanied by the gongs, whose music lends itself to this hypnotic state, they continue stabbing the buffalo until it finally dies. For most visitors, this is not a pleasant experience—but for central highlanders the sacrifice is an important ritual that honors the spirits in order to assure the continuity of human life and successful harvests. Many unanswered questions remain about the relationship between upland and lowland cultures. While bronze metallurgy has been dated to around 2000 B.C.E., it is unclear which culture developed it first. Are the upland peoples the remnants of the original inhabitants of Southeast Asia, whose ancestors were pushed from their lowland homes by advancing peoples (the early ancestors of the Viet) coming from the north? Because the lowland Viet make little use of bronze and play instruments that reflect Chinese influence, it is tempting to conclude that the upland peoples reflect the earliest layer of musical culture in Vietnam. Others argue, however, that upland cultures have always been at the margins of Vietnamese society and have absorbed and preserved aspects of lowland culture no longer prominent there. That would suggest that upland cultures reflect what is called “marginal survival,” in which aspects of mainstream culture now lost are preserved in outlying areas, where culture changes more slowly. At present, however, there is no way to prove either theory. In 2005 the Central Highlands were designated as “The Space of Gong Culture” in the Third 140 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Proclamation of UNESCO’s “Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity” program. Site 2: Nhac Tai Tu Amateur Chamber Music First Impressions. Nhac tai tu has a free and improvisatory feel in both melody and rhythm NHAC TAI TU that includes much tone-bending and syncopation. While a prominent fiddle cuts through (pronounced ni-yak with a busy melodic line, lower stringed instruments complement with a cornucopia of tai tuh) A type of chamber music timbres and rhythmic riffs. The music well reflects the casual setting where a group of friends ensemble from meet to play favorite compositions, be it in a private village home or in a music club room southern Vietnam. in the market area of a town. Aural Analysis. While many Vietnamese instruments were derived from Chinese instru- ments, they nearly always have been modified to allow for the tone-bending so preferred by Vietnamese musicians. Thus, to accommodate this fundamental aspect, Vietnamese stringed instruments have higher frets and looser strings than their Chinese equivalents. The decora- tion on Vietnamese instruments also tends to be unlike that found on Chinese instruments— generally, it features much intricate mother-of-pearl inlay. These refined decorations are in some ways analogous to the ornamentation that is so crucial in Vietnamese music. A southern instrumental chamber genre, nhac tai tu is a gathering of amateur instru- mentalists who play more for their own enjoyment than for others. In this way it is similar to the Chinese sizhu “silk and bamboo” chamber music from Shanghai (see Chapter 7). The recording features three melodic instruments—the dan kim lute, the dan tranh zither, and SONG LANG the dan co fiddle—plus the song lang “slit-drum” clapper. While this is a typical ensemble (pronounced shong for this type of music, on some occasions other instruments may also join in such as a long ) A “slit-drum” Vietnamese guitar (dan ghi-ta), a horizontal flute (sao), or a pear-shaped lute (dan tyba). clapper idiophone from Vietnam. At My Tho, along one branch of Vietnam’s Cuu Long (“Nine Dragons”) making up the delta of the Maekhong (Mekong) River, the area where nhac tai tu flourishes 141 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y A southern Vietnamese nhac tai thu group performs at a festival in Ho Chi Minh City. From left to right: dan nhi (fiddle), dan nguyet (lute), singer with guitar behind, and dan tranh (zither) (Phong Nguyen) A Vietnamese song lang clapper/ slit drum. The small beater strikes the slit wooden gong to produce the “clicks” that articulate the rhythmic cycle in Vietnamese music (Phong Nguyen) Vietnamese music is generated from a complex modal system. Each mode has its own set of pitches (basically five), a hierarchy of strong and weak tones, required ornamentation, and associated extra-musical meanings. In this way, the Vietnamese system resembles the raga system of South Asia more than music processes found in East Asia, even though East Asia is the source of Vietnamese instruments. Certain pitches in each of the Vietnamese modes are outside the Western tempered tuning system, giving Vietnamese music a piquant feeling for those accustomed to Western tuning. 142 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Another aspect of Vietnamese music that relates to India is the use of a closed cycle of beats similar to the Indian tala; in Vietnam, the clicks of the song lang clapper articulate points in these cycles. Unlike the Indian cycle, however, but similar to the Thai cycle, the final beat is the most accented. Our example is organized in a four-beat cycle called nhip tu, and the song lang is struck on beats 3 and 4. It may be easier to feel and hear this cycle in sixteen beats instead of four, counting the clapper strikes on beats 12 and 16. Another distinctive feature of Vietnamese rhythm is its tendency toward rhythmic syncopation (i.e., toward shifting the accent to a weak beat in a measure). The musicians in a tai tu ensemble all play the same fundamental melody but add different kinds of ornamentation typical of their instrument, resulting in the phonic structure called heterophony. Before the group begins playing the tune, it is customary for each musician, in succession, to improvise a short introduction in free rhythm. Improvisation of this sort is atypical of the rest of Southeast or East Asia, lending further credence to the view that Vietnamese culture, while deeply influenced by East Asia, sometimes exhibits traits more typical of South Asia where a freely rhythmic introduction is common in classical music performance. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.10 (1’37”) Chapter 6: Site 2 Vietnam: Nhac Tai Tu Amateur Chamber Music Instruments: Dan Kim (plucked lute), dan tranh (plucked zither), dan co (bowed lute, i.e., fiddle), song lang (clapper idiophone) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Dan tranh (zither) enters with a freely rhythmic improvisation. 0’05” Dan kim (lute) enters. 0’09 Dan co (fiddle) enters. 0’23” Song lang (clapper) sounds to mark the transition to the composed/metered section of the performance. 0’24” Dan tranh initiates composed section with a gradual increase in tempo. 0’26” The dan kim and then the dan co reenter to affirm the basic pulse, but listen for the heavy use of syncopation. 0’28” Song lang sounds on the third beat of the rhythmic cycle. Breaking the cycle down into sixteen subdivisions, the instrument marks the twelfth subdivision. 0’31” Song lang sounds again on the fourth beat (sixteenth subdivision) to close the rhythmic cycle. 0’42” Melodic instruments “close” the melody (i.e., reach a cadence) on the sixteenth beat of the cycle as the song lang sounds. 143 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y 0’50” Song lang sounds on the third beat (twelfth subdivision). 0’53” Song lang sounds on the fourth beat (sixteenth subdivision). 1’03” Melodic line reaches a closing cadence again. 1’25” Closing cadence. 1’47” Closing cadence. 1’55” The example fades. Source: “Xuan tinh (Spring Love)” performed by Nam Vinh, dan kim; Sau Xiu, dan tranh; and Muoi Phu, dan co; recorded by Terry E. Miller and Phong Nguyen. From Vietnam: Mother Mountain and Father Sea. White Cliffs Media WCM 1991 (6 CDs and 47 pp. book), 2003. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.10): Keep track of the song lang rhythmic cycle and clap on the beats where it sounds. Cultural Considerations. Vietnam is, musically, an extremely complex country. The example used here, tai tu, is but one of many kinds of music that are essentially songs accompanied by a small instrumental ensemble. Some types of music were originally associated with court ceremonies in the former imperial capital, Hue; some are associated with rituals such as possession rites or funerals; and some, like tai tu, are still used simply for entertainment. Sophisticated poetry is much appreciated in Vietnam, and even though tai tu songs are “amateur,” they are also refined. It is difficult to divide Vietnamese music into categories such as “classical” and “folk,” because the same repertory of tunes can be played in many different ways. A learned musician will most likely approach a given piece differently than a farmer would—but in fact many farmers are highly refined and skilled musicians. Within the span of a few days, the same musicians might be hired to play for a religious rite and a theater performance— and might also perform together for their own enjoyment. In fact, tai tu music was the basis for the music that accompanied the cai luong theater, a “popular” (i.e., commercial) genre created and cultivated in the south from around 1917 until its gradual decline in the 1990s in the face of competition from film and television. The challenge for visitors to Vietnam today is finding genuine “traditional” music as opposed to what is normally offered as such, what the Vietnamese call cai bien music and which can be translated as “neo-traditional.” During the communist period from the 1950s until the 1990s, many northern Vietnamese studied in eastern Europe where they learned about the propaganda value of “folkloric” state troupes that presented modernized forms of old music, fully composed and rehearsed, that conveyed ideas of national solidarity and identity. Most returned as professors at the Hanoi Conservatory of Music, and there they created Vietnam’s response to these ideas. They combined “improved” (i.e., modernized) versions of lowland Viet instruments with similarly altered versions of instruments from the Central Highlands and composed elaborate compositions making use of harmony, full orchestration, and having politically loaded titles. Although the promoters claimed the music 144 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 came from “the people,” in fact it came from European ideas of “socialist realism,” an aesthetic philosophy that uses music to influence people’s political thinking. Conservatories came to teach this style almost exclusively, and the current generation of students tends to believe that this is indeed Vietnam’s “traditional music.” Arrival: Thailand IMMIGRATION Thailand has long been one of Southeast Asia’s favorite tourist destinations. For many years THAILAND travelers entered the country through Bangkok’s Suvarnabhumi (pronounced Suwannaphum) Airport, but with the development of southern Thailand’s beaches and island resorts, quite IMMIGRATION a few fly directly to Phuket (pronounced Poo-ket) Island and skip Bangkok altogether. As beautiful as these islands are, they provide visitors with little of the country’s musical and artistic culture. Although going to Bangkok is obligatory for anyone wishing to experience Thai music, many visitors also travel to the northern region and its principal city, Chiangmai, where many tourist-oriented regional musical performances can be heard. Few travelers, however, make it to the northeast region, called Isan. Isan maintains a vibrant traditional culture, which, if somewhat modernized at times, remains an integral part of society and is not geared toward outsiders. Bangkok is a busy, sprawling city famous for its gorgeous Buddhist temples, palaces, shopping, and, alas, world-class traffic jams. Tourists are still enticed to Thailand by colorful posters of small boats laden with produce and crafts on the khlong (canals), but if you want to see this “floating market” phenomenon, you must now travel southwest of Bangkok, where it is maintained both for tourists and for Thai. While old neighborhood open markets can still be found in many areas, the outlying and newer parts of Bangkok are served by gigantic Old-fashioned khlong (canal) at Bang Khen east of Bangkok in 1972. The same area now is fully developed with high rises, the small boats replaced by fast, modern boats 145 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y malls and megastores that dwarf American Wal-Marts and attract throngs of shoppers, many from Japan and China who fly to the country specifically for this purpose. The tourism authorities have in recent years promoted the slogan “Amazing Thailand.” What we find most amazing about Thailand is that, no matter how modern it seems, beneath the apparent development, commercialization, and Westernization is a “Thainess” that triumphs over all things imported or imposed. As you walk through one of Central Corporation’s many gigantic malls and observe thousands of ordinary Thai walking, shop- ping, eating, and generally relaxing in the air conditioning, understand that hidden within remains a Thai worldview that makes room for spirits alongside Toyotas, magic alongside the stock market, a faith in Buddhism alongside a job running computers, and a complex form of traditional “classical” Thai music alongside every imaginable form of popular music, both domestic and imported. Sometimes this clash can be maddening to a foreigner trying to figure out just what Thai culture is. While there is the appearance of modernization, democratization, and globalization through the Internet, there are also factors such as the monarchy, Buddhism, village life, and age-old rituals (such as the “teacher greeting cere- mony”), which connect even the most forward-looking Thai to the past and his/her culture. Traditionally, Thailand (or Siam, as it used to be called) was an absolute monarchy. Following the revolution in 1932, the monarchy lost political power, though it retains tremendous moral authority to this day. Thailand is now a constitutional monarchy with a revered royal family headed by King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Rama IX—who, incidentally, earlier aspired to become a jazz musician. Traditional music requires a context in which to thrive, and as much of that context (age-old rituals, old-style farming, close-knit villages, a slow pace of life, etc.) has diminished, some of the music and dance associated with it has disappeared or survived by moving to the stage. One thing that remains, however, is “clas- sical” music. Though classical music was never popular with the masses, there is a general tendency to think of classical traditions, such as the piphat, as representing the essence of Thainess through music. Site 3: Classical Piphat Music PIPHAT First Impressions. For many listeners new to world music, piphat, considered the main Thai (pronounced classical court ensemble, may have to be appreciated as an acquired taste. The percussive bee-paht) A type of timbre of the melodic instruments overlaid with a nasal aerophone play what seems to be a classical ensemble clamor of notes only held together by drums and some minimal percussion. After an initial from Thailand listening, some elements will stand out, such as the regular ring of a small pair of cymbals characterized by the use of melodic and and the predominance of a very active high-pitched xylophone. Several different melodies rhythmic percussion seem to overlap continuously in a sort of “organized chaos.” and a double-reed aerophone. Aural Analysis. Called piphat mai khaeng (“hard-mallet piphat”), this ensemble produces what is perhaps the most characteristic sound of Thai traditional music. Central Thai instruments are quite varied. They may include prominent wooden- or bamboo-keyed instru- ments played with mallets (higher and lower xylophones), circular frames of tuned metal gongs, bowed and plucked strings, flutes, double reeds, drums, and small rhythmic per- cussion. Although some of these have solo repertories, Central Thai instruments are more characteristically found in ensembles. Three ensemble types predominate: (1) piphat, made 146 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 A piphat ensemble performs for a wai khru (teacher greeting ritual) at Bangkok’s Thammasat University. From left clockwise: pi (double reed), khawng wong yai (large gong circle), klawng that (barrel drums), ranat thum (lower xylophone, ranat ek (higher xylophone), and taphon (horizontal drum) up of melodic and rhythmic percussion and the double reed (heard in this track); (2) mahori, consisting of melodic and rhythmic percussion, strings, and flute; and (3) khruang sai, consisting of strings and flute with minimal rhythmic percussion. Whereas the piphat primarily plays theater, dance drama, and ritual music, the other ensembles ordinarily play lighter, more entertaining and tuneful music. Piphat ensembles require at least three melodic instruments and two rhythmic instru- ments but usually add to these. The lead instrument is a high-range xylophone (ranat ek) with twenty-one bars of either hardwood or bamboo suspended over a boat-shaped resonator. Although this instrument’s performance is the most rhythmically dense, the lower circle of tuned gongs (khawng wong yai)—whose player sits in the middle of its round rattan frame— plays the fundamental form of the composition. In addition a full ensemble includes a lower- ranged xylophone (ranat thum) that plays a highly syncopated, even playful, version of the composition, plus a higher-ranged gong circle (khawng wong lek) that plays a highly embellished version of the main melody. The aerophone used in hard-mallet ensembles is a quadruple-reed oboe (aerophone) called pi, and its duty is to play a flexible, seemingly PI distinct, version of the same main melody. Although it works as a double reed, each half is (pronounced bee) folded, making it actually quadruple. A double reed aerophone found in The Thai tuning system has seven equidistant tones in an octave in contrast to the the piphat classical European system of twelve equidistant pitches, meaning that some of its pitches can sound ensemble of “out of tune” to non-Thai ears. This is not always obvious since within a given passage a Thailand. melody will mostly employ a pentatonic scale of only five tones, in the form of 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. Because this kind of music sometimes shifts from one tonal center to another, it is possible to hear a total of six or even seven pitches used in a given composition, including those heard here. Virtually all Thai music is in duple meter, which means it operates with groupings of two, four, or eight beats. Certain strong beats are articulated by a pair of small cup-shaped 147 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y (top left) Khawng wong yai (large gong circle) and ranat ek (higher xylophone) (left) Left to right: two sizes of pi (double-reed aerophones), three sizes of khlui (vertical flutes) (top right) Left to right, rear: thon (goblet drum), rammana (frame drum). Left to right, front: chap lek (larger cymbals), ching (small cymbals), and krap sepah (wood clappers) CHING bronze cymbals, called ching, that are attached to each other with a string. The ching plays A pair of cup-shaped two strokes, the undamped (open) “ching” and the damped (closed) “chap.” Thai meter is cymbals from organized cyclically, somewhat like an analog clock. The cycles of much of the repertory Thailand. have four ching strokes (“ching-chap-ching-chap”), with the final stroke (“chap”) being accented. This means that Thai music is actually end-accented, making it the opposite of Western music generally, which accents beat 1. There are three relative rates of ching strokes, the slowest (called “third level” or sam chan), a medium rate twice as fast (called “second level” or sawng chan), and a fast rate twice as fast again (called “first level” or chan dio). These relationships are relative to the rhythmic density and not the absolute tempo. The 148 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 track included here consists of three separate compositions: the first (Sathukan) uses only “ching” strokes, the second (Sathukan klawng) alternates “ching” and “chap,” and the final one (Rua) returns to “ching” alone. There are two drums: 1) the taphon, a two-headed drum mounted horizontally on a stand, and 2) the klawng that, a pair of large barrel drums tilted at an angle toward the player. The lower gong circle (khawng wong yai) is key to the organization of piphat music. It plays the simplest and least dense form of a given composition; its part has fewer notes—a lower rhythmic density—than the other instruments. Although it can be hard to hear, all of the other melodic instruments play idiomatic variants of the lower gong circle’s version. Thus, the phonic structure of Thai piphat music is best described as a kind of layered heterophony often referred to as polyphonic stratification—that is, a layering of simultaneous variants of the same melody. All Thai music is composed, and the names of the composers are known for most compositions created after about 1800. Unlike Western composition, however, the composer writes nothing, for until the mid-twentieth century there was no notation system used in Thai music. The composer was also a musician and transmitted his creations to fellow ensemble members (or students) by playing the large gong circle version. The others then “realized” that structure into the particular idioms of their own instruments; all memorized the composition. The track included here presents the first two compositions of a much longer suite played during the “Teacher Greeting Ritual” (Pithi wai khru) explained below. All are KHRU classified as “action tunes” (phleng naphat) because in addition to appearing in several A Thai teacher; the different ritual suites they also accompany the masked drama (khon), dance drama (lakhon), term is linguistically associated with the and the large shadow puppet theater (nang yai). The first piece, “Sathukan” (meaning word guru in the “Greeting” and referring to the Thai custom of greeting each other with hands in “prayer Hindi language. position”), like most “action tunes” is too old to have a known composer but is the opening piece played for all ritual suites and for many theatrical performances. Motivic rather than melodic, this work flows continuously without obvious phrasing, and its rhythmic structure is marked by continuous “ching” strokes. “Sathukan klawng” (meaning “Greeting the drum”) immediately follows. It is more clearly phrased, and the ching plays alternating “ching” and “chap” strokes. Completing the track is a short coda called “Rua” (referring to the tremolo technique used by the instruments to sustain pitches) which can be attached to many parts of the suite. It is non-metered, uses only “ching” strokes, and requires players to rapidly alternate the beaters to produce “tremolo.” 149 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.11 (4’48”) Chapter 6: Site 3 Thailand: Classical Piphat Music Instruments: Pi (reed aerophone), ranat ek (high xylophone), ranat thum (low xylophone), khawng wong yai (gong circle), daphon (barrel drum) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Daphon (drum) initiates the performance. Listen for the contrasting high and low pitches of each drum face. Although it follows a cycle, the patterns played do not regularly repeat. 0’02” Ranat ek (high xylophone) initiates the melodic content followed by the pi (reed aerophone) and remaining instruments. Listen for the higher range of pitches on the lead xylophone played in octaves and its busier rhythmic density in comparison to the other instruments. Also, note the “duck call” timbre of the pi that is quite prominent. 0’05” Listen for the ching (small hand cymbals) entrance. Note there are no “chop” strokes during this section of the performance. 0’13”–0’14” The heterophonic structure of Thai classical music makes it difficult to follow the melodic content. A good thing to focus on is the point at which the khawng wong yai reaches a cadence (closing phrase). Listen for the “ringing” timbre and thinner rhythmic density of this instrument, which provides the fundamental melody. 0’49”–0’55” Listen for the ranat thum (low xylophone). This instrument is most difficult to hear, having a mellower timbre than the lead xylophone. Listen for its characteristic syncopations, broken octaves, and quick three-note ornamentations. Its melodic line frequently moves in a direction contrary to the other instruments. 1’16”–1’29” Listen for the brief decrease in rhythmic density of the pi for twelve ching strokes as the ensemble moves toward a cadence point that quickly passes. Note how the pi (and other instruments) matches the ending pitch of the phrase at 1’29”. 2’30” Contrast the tempo at this point in the performance with the opening material. The tempo has increased significantly. (From roughly 84 beats per minute to about 104 by this point in the music.) 2’49” Tempo slows dramatically at closing of opening section. 2’59” Second section begins. Note the use of both “ching” and “chop” strokes with the ching. Also, note the increased activity of the daphon and clearer synchronization of the melodic instruments. 3’24” Melody repeats. 3’45” Tempo slows as ensemble reaches end of section. 3’51” Third section begins. Note the ensemble plays in free rhythm to the end of the performance. Listen for the contrasting timbre and melodic style of each instrument. Source: “Sathukan” and “Sathukan Klawng.” Produced by The Committee of the College of Music Project, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, 1994. 150 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.11): Match the basic rhythmic density of the khawng wong yai by tapping your hands on your book at each pitch. Listen again and match the rhythmic density of the ranat ek (lead xylophone), using both hands simultaneously from start to finish (as is the performance technique of the musician). An easier challenge is to listen to the example repeatedly following each instrument through the performance to note its unique realization of the fundamental melody. Cultural Considerations. During the heyday of the Thai monarchy in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, classical music was generously patronized and played a major role in court ceremonies, both secular and Buddhist-related. As a consequence, Thai classical music is closely associated with the society’s most important state occasions, festivals, and sacred rites of passage, such as ceremonies to honor teachers, ordinations, funerals, and certain Buddhist rituals. Perhaps we can say that Thai classical music as a sonic structure is mainly of interest to musicians; for others, it serves to engender positive feelings and to reaffirm Thai cultural identity. Although relatively few Thai choose classical music for general listening, there is a broad consensus that classical music best represents the country and its traditional culture. In Thai society, the acts of teaching and learning, of passing on and receiving knowledge, are considered near sacred, and one honors not just the present-day living teacher, but that person’s entire lineage leading back to the ultimate sources of knowledge, the pantheon of gods drawn from animism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Before a master can begin transmitting knowledge to a student, the latter must perform a ritual “teacher greeting ceremony” or phithi (pronounced pee-tee) wai khru, the last word being the Thai pronunciation of the well-known Indian term guru. Simple wai khru ceremonies are performed at schools in which students simply reaffirm their allegiance to all their teachers, but for classical musicians and other such artists the teacher greeting ceremony is one of the most important rituals of their life. A piphat ensemble using a pair of klawng khaek drums (in front) performs at a festival to honor a great teacher near Bangkok, Thailand 151 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y A teacher initiates new students of Thai music at the annual wai khru “teacher greeting” ceremony at Bangkok’s Chulalongkorn University (Andrew Shahriari) A wai khru ceremony requires an elaborate altar area containing tables covered with many kinds of food, finely crafted objects, theatrical masks of the deities, and a full set of musical instruments, many being newly made in order to receive blessing during the ritual. A male ritualist intones sacred words in a mix of Thai and Pali, the latter being the sacred language of Thai Buddhism. The piphat ensemble performs several pieces throughout the ceremony—which concludes when the ritualist marks the forehead of each student and musician with ashes and places a small cone made of banana leaf behind one of their ears. If a student has not studied before, they are given a ritual first lesson on the large gong circle or, for young children, a lesson on playing the small ching cymbals. Although few non-musicians normally experience Thai classical music except in passing or as background to rituals and ceremonies, such as the wai khru, general attention to serious piphat music became widespread after the release in 2004 of Itthisoontorn Vichailak’s hit film titled Homrong (The Overture), now available with English subtitles. A partially fictional life story of Luang Phradit Phairoh (1881–1954), Thailand’s most famous composer, the film includes extended footage of classical music performed both solo and in ensemble, climaxing with a dramatic contest between the protagonist and his chief rival, Khun In, the latter played by an actual master musician. Musically, it is accurate in most details and recommended as an introduction to Thai music and culture. D Arrival: Laos and Northeast Thailand S AN T LAO E A S TH NOR ILAND Various historical events, including the European colonization of much of Southeast Asia, THA led to the Lao people being separated into two areas. Currently, only about five million live in sparsely populated Laos north and east of the mighty Maekhong River, while approx- imately thirteen million live in the northeast region of Thailand. The people of both countries 152 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Explore More The Ramayana : An Indian Epic from a Southeast Asian Perspective One of the great epics of world literature is the Ramayana, a story based on Hindu mythology and believed to be more than 3,000 years old. Originating in India, this tale spread throughout much of South and Southeast Asia and is fun- damental to understanding many elements of the cultures of the region. The Ramayana’s influence has been profound. Social and moral codes exemplified in the stories and Scene from a khon masked dance performance of the characters of the Ramayana shaped political structures, city Ramakian, Thailand’s version of the Indian epic Ramayana, planning, marriage customs, and basic human interaction for at the Siam Society. Rama (right) with the “good” demon Pipek (rear), Rama’s brother, Lakshmana (left), and fallen centuries. Indeed, the present king of Thailand is known as monkey warrior, Sukreep. Rama IX, after the Ramayana’s main character. Scenes found in the Ramayana inspire much artistic activity Performed monthly at the National Theater in Bangkok, Khon in Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and Indonesia, as well as Thailand, features masked dancers who enact a different scene from in the visual arts, dance, and music. In Thailand, where the the epic with each performance to the accompaniment of a story is called Ramakian, the most important classical genre piphat ensemble. The dancers do not speak while on stage; of entertainment, known as Khon, is based on this work. rather, a vocalist chants/sings the story as the actors mime the epic’s best-known scenes. Khon has become symbolic of the arts in Thailand; it is performed by students and professional performers in tourist shows, school plays, and television broadcasts, as well as in festivals and other cultural programs overseas. Although countless variations exist, the basic storyline of the Ramayana is as follows: Prince Rama, an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, retreats to the forest at his father’s request for several years accompanied by his wife, Sita, and brother, Lakshmana. During his exile, Sita is kidnapped by the evil demon Ravana (Totsakan in the Thai version) after the two brothers are lured from her protection by a golden deer. Ravana takes Sita to his island fortress, Lanka, where he tries Mural scene from the epic Ramakian at the Temple of the to persuade her to marry him, but she refuses as she is loyal Emerald Buddha in Bangkok. The performance scene shows a piphat ensemble and the large shadow puppets to her husband and confident in her rescue. During her that actually depict the Ramakian story capture, Sita drops a clue for a watching band of monkeys 153 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y who aid Rama in rescuing his wife. Key among these char- The conclusion of the story varies depending on the region. acters is Hanuman, the white monkey god who has many In the Indian version, Rama and Sita return to his kingdom supernatural powers. Hanuman’s adventures are numerous together, but rumors casting doubt on Sita’s fidelity while as he searches for Sita. He eventually discovers where Sita imprisoned force her to undergo a trial by fire to prove her is imprisoned and returns to Rama to aid in a great battle with loyalty. Although she passes the test, Rama still exiles her to Ravana’s demons. Allied with the monkeys and bears of the prevent his rule from being undermined by rumors that forest, Rama defeats Ravana’s demon army, kills Ravana, and continue to persist. In the Thai version, Rama and Sita are rescues the princess. reunited after the trial by fire and live happily ever after. share a common language, cuisine, literature, and traditional way of life, but the two populations are also now quite different due to their political separation. Until the 1970s both areas where the Lao people are concentrated were equally undeveloped: Laos was a French colony until 1949 with no modern infrastructure while the northeast of Thailand was that country’s most neglected region. After 1975, when the Royal Lao government fell to the communist Pathet Lao, Laos went backward economically and is only now beginning to recover, whereas Northeast Thailand’s level of development was raised dramatically by Thailand’s booming economy and the government’s new attention to the region after the 1970s. Indeed, the northeast now includes two of Thailand’s largest cities—Khon Kaen and Nakhon Ratchasima (known also as Khorat). Of the six million plus people in Laos, a significant number live in the uplands—which account for much of the country’s terrain—and speak non-Lao languages. The ethnic Lao live in the lowland areas, primarily along the Maekhong and its tributaries. Because the Lao are primarily farmers, growing glutinous (also called sticky) rice in wet paddy fields, the cities are small and economically dominated by Vietnamese and Chinese. Vientiane, the capital, has only about 700,000 residents. With infrastructure being so underdeveloped, Lao culture has developed regionally, giving rise to more than a dozen local musical styles. ISAN Northeast Thailand, commonly known as Isan, is primarily a flat plateau, and although (pronounced subject to dramatic variations in weather—drought to flood—facilitates easier travel. With ee-sahn) A term modern development has come the growth of the media and the rise of a vibrant popular referring to music culture drawn from its traditional music. While the people of both Isan and Laos share Northeast Thailand the same cultural roots, those of Isan are strongly oriented toward Bangkok and the dominant and its regional culture, including culture. Since World War II great numbers of young Isan people have migrated to Bangkok music. seeking employment in factories, in construction, as maids, and as taxi drivers, bringing with them their vibrant culture. Earlier looked down upon as inferior and rustic, Isan culture is now viewed positively, and its attractive music (along with its food) was a principal reason. Music in Isan includes both old-fashioned forms and many newer ones—including pop songs featuring troupes of dancing women, a rock combo, and bright lights. Even the modern types often appear in a traditional context, however, such as a Buddhist or New Year’s festival. Our audio example exemplifies an older form of traditional singing that was popular until the 1990s, when it was eclipsed by more modern styles, but people today continue to honor this style by showcasing it at cultural events. 154 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Mr. Ken Somjindah plays the northeastern Thai khaen with sixteen pipes in See-Kaeo village, Roi-et province Site 4: Lam Klawn Repartee Singing First Impressions. Many first-time listeners will find the sound of the instrument heard in lam klawn, known as the khaen, relatively familiar, likening it to a harmonica or an organ. The instrument seems to play harmony, a musical concept usually reserved for European- inspired traditions. The two vocalists—one male, one female—have a slightly nasal quality and often seem to be speaking their lyrics between extended melismatic phrases. As the music moves into a more regular rhythm, their performance seems like a Southeast Asian “freestyle rap” more than melodic singing. Aural Analysis. Musically, what defines a Lao is playing the khaen, the culture’s most KHAEN significant instrument. The khaen is a free-reed bamboo mouth organ ranging in length from A bamboo free-reed about 23 inches (0.6 meter) to more than 3 feet (one meter). It has sixteen thin bamboo tubes mouth organ from Northeast Thailand fitted into a carved, hardwood windchest with the pipes wrapped at three points with a kind and Laos. of wide, dried grass. Each bamboo tube has a small, rectangular hole cut into its wall fitted with a thin plate of copper-silver alloy into which is cut a three-sided tongue, the “reed” (technically, a “free reed”) that produces the sound as it vibrates. With the reeds sealed inside the windchest by a black insect wax, the reed tongue vibrates up and down when the player either inhales or exhales through the windchest. Each tube has a finger hole, and its reed only sounds when the finger hole is covered. Since many finger holes can be covered at once, the khaen is capable of clusters of pitches which form sounds analogous to Western chords, that is, harmony. 155 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The khaen shown in side view and front view with parts labeled. Isan singers perform lam, a kind of singing in which the melody is generated according to a basic pattern coordinated with the lexical tones of the words. (Lao and Thai are tonal languages, meaning that each syllable has, in addition to consonants and vowels, a tonal inflection. Without this inflection, the word’s meaning may be unclear or erroneous.) The language is Lao as spoken in Northeast Thailand, which has six tones. The term maw denotes someone with a skill, and thus a singer is a mawlam and a khaen player is a mawkhaen. There are numerous genres of lam among the Lao; the one heard here is performed by a pair LAM KLAWN of singers—one male and one female—and is called lam klawn (poetry singing) or lam khu (pronounced lum (pair singing). Although lam klawn has lost much of its popularity in the last twenty years glawn) Vocal as several modernized genres of lam have become the rage among the younger generation, repartee with khaen it is still performed for special events and embodies Isan–Lao traditions better than any other accompaniment form. from Northeast Thailand. An old-fashioned traditional performance of lam begins around 9.00 p.m. and continues to nearly 6.00 a.m. The performance takes place on a temporary stage, and the singers and khaen-players stand to perform. When the male is singing, the female usually performs a simple but graceful dance, and vice versa. The performance proceeds in three sections, the first lasting most of the night. Called lam thang san (literally “short-way singing”), this first 156 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 A female mawlam singer, accompanied by khaen, performs on a small temporary stage at a Northeast Thai Buddhist temple in Mahasarakham, Thailand. Her male counterpart dances next to her section consists of the male and female vocalists singing in alternation (known as a “repartee”), each beginning a section with an unmeasured introduction, usually on the phrase, “O la naw,” followed by the main poem in meter. The scale is pentatonic and could be described as C, D, E, G, A (or 1, 2, 3, 5, 6), with C (1) as the “home” pitch. The meter is always duple. Singers memorize vast amounts of poetry, all written in four-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme peculiar to Lao poetry. The example here represents the beginning of lam thang san for both male and female singers. 157 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.12 (3’07”) Chapter 6: Site 4 Thailand: Lam Klawn Repartee Singing Vocals: Single male, single female Instruments: Khaen (free-reed aerophone, i.e., mouth organ) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Khaen enters with improvisatory free rhythm. Listen for the three musical elements of drone, chord accompaniment (polyphony), and melody. 0’04” Male vocalist enters with improvisatory free rhythm on a single non-lexical syllable (“O”), using a three-pitch melodic line to establish the tonal center. 0’14” Vocalist continues improvisation with extended melismatic phrase, “O la naw.” 0’30” Vocalist introduces some poetic verse while the khaen continues to play in free rhythm. 0’55” Melismatic improvisation on the phrase “O la naw,” again with a brief verse to close the phrase. 1’14” Vocalist transitions to the metered section with poetic verse. 1’19” Khaen follows the vocalist with duple-metered performance and regular melodic content. 1’46” Example briefly fades. Normally, the male vocalist sings for several minutes before the female vocalist enters. 1’48” Khaen enters with improvisatory free rhythm. Listen for the change in mode (i.e., the pitches utilized). 1’53” Female vocalist enters with melismatic improvisation on the phrase “O la naw,” sung in free rhythm. 2’07” Vocalist introduces some poetic verse while the khaen continues to play in free rhythm. 2’27” Melismatic improvisation on the words “O la naw,” again with a brief verse to close the phrase. 2’44” Vocalist transitions to the metered section with poetic verse. 2’48” Khaen follows the vocalist with duple-metered performance and regular melodic content. 3’00” Example fades, though the female vocal section would normally continue for several minutes. Source: “Lam thang san” (excerpts), sung by Saman Hongsa (male) and Ubon Hongsa (female), and played by Thawi Sidamni, khaen; recorded by Terry E. Miller in Mahasarakham, Thailand, 1988. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.12): Learn the melismatic style of the vocalists by matching the introductory phrases (“O la naw”). Clap the beat during the metered sections of the performance. 158 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Cultural Considerations. There is a saying about the Lao people: if a man lives in a house on stilts, eats sticky rice, and plays the khaen, he is a Lao. Traditionally, the Thai, Lao, Khmer, Burmese, and even Malay lived in houses built on stilts, partly for protection, partly to provide a shelter for their animals beneath. Sticky, or glutinous, rice, however, is peculiar to the Lao; the rest of Asia eats ordinary rice. Lam klawn is not merely entertainment, even though it can be highly enjoyable. While a performance often takes the form of an imaginary courtship between the singers, and can involve earthy double entendres, it also addresses many essential aspects of Lao life. The vocalists often “discuss” or debate (in sung verse) matters of history, religion, literature, politics, geography, etiquette, and excerpts of famous stories, sometimes, but not always, offering listeners a model of approved thinking and behavior. Here is a typical example of love poetry, sung by a female: O la naw [introductory words without meaning] You are a handsome one. Please divorce your wife and then marry me. I will also divorce my husband and we will marry each other; can you? O la naw, you are a handsome man. One day I looked at the stars in the clear night and found the moon and many stars. But for myself, I could find no one. (Translation by Jarernchai Chonpairot) As recently as the 1980s, lam was enjoyed by people of all ages throughout Northeast Thailand. Before Northeast Thai villages acquired electricity, entertainment was scarce, and everyone availed themselves of the chance to hear live music. In Laos the old days remain because there has been less development; the situation there remains much as it was in Isan thirty years ago. In Northeast Thailand, lam was most often heard during the cool or warm dry seasons (November to April), in conjunction with various events including monk ordinations, Buddhist festivals, the New Year (Western, Chinese, and Thai), an annual temple fair, and even funerals. People gathered and sat on the ground around the stage, which was open on four sides and the grounds were flanked by vendors selling snacks. As the lam performance progressed without breaks, audience members ate, slept, snacked, wandered off, flirted, or gossiped. This form of lam lost popularity in the later 1980s as electricity—and thus radio and television—became widespread, and as a type of popular song called luk thung (see Site 5) became the rage. Lam singers fought back, creating a new fast-paced, popularized, brightly lit genre called lam sing (sing meaning “racing” or anything that is fast). Lam sing and other LAM SING modernized genres have since swept Northeast Thailand, although they have barely (pronounced lum penetrated Laos. Because there are so many Isan people living and working in Bangkok, lam sing) A popular music form from sing and its related genres have also become well known there and throughout Thailand. As Northeast Thailand. a result, Isan music in particular and Isan culture (and food) in general have become popular. Even McDonalds in Thailand for a period offered the now famous Isan green papaya salad called somtam. Site 5: Luk Thung popular song First Impressions. As the song starts, it sounds vaguely like the lam poetic verse heard in the previous track. But with the addition of drums, other instruments, and harmony this 159 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The three most common musical instruments of Northeast Thailand, left to right: saw pip (fiddle), phin (lute), and khaen (free-reed mouth organ) suggests popular song with an attractive, danceable beat. Those who are accustomed to current forms of American popular music may find this style old-fashioned and folky, but it is among the most attractive of current pop styles in Thailand, especially among people living in or from the northeast region. Aural Analysis. Melodically, the accompaniment stays close to the traditional style of the khaen mouth organ heard in the previous track but here it is played by an electric guitar. During the later 1980s, when this song first appeared, musicians had not yet adapted the PHIN traditional plucked lute of the northeast, the phin, into a useable electric form, but the guitar (pronounced pin) heard in this track clearly imitates the style of the phin. Accompaniment is provided by a A fretted, plucked basic rock combo that includes a keyboard synthesizer, electric bass, and drum set. The scale lute from Northeast form heard is pentatonic but unlike that of the lam in the previous track. Here it sounds Thailand. minor, having the pitches A, C, D, E, and G, with A as the “home” pitch; sometimes it also uses pitch B in passing. The song’s title, “Sao Jan Kang Kop,” translates as “Miss Chan’s Broken Heart.” It was released in 1986 by male singer Phawnsak Sawng-saeng (b. 1960) who was born and raised in Isan’s Khon Kaen province. Beginning in 1981 with three albums of luk thung isan songs— country songs that used the Isan language but little of any local style—he switched to the new mawlam style for this album. Because luk thung mawlam remains immensely popular, Phawnsak’s popularity has held over a long period as well, and this song retains its popularity today. While the title suggests a broken heart, kangkop literally means “to shade one’s eyes,” referring to the female protagonist constantly looking into the distance for her 160 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Two “classic” luk thung covers: (left) Four luk thung artists, one holding the khaen mouth organ as a reminder of luk thung’s connections to traditional northeast Thai music; (right) scene of traditionally dressed singer with drawing of old fashioned village and water buffalos Luk thung pop songs are part of the performance of lam sing, a modernized form of the traditional lam klawn repartee. This performance took place on a temporary village stage on New Year’s Eve southwest of Mahasarakham, Thailand Bangkok lover, who broke his promises to follow her back to Isan. The lyrics imply that she was too easy in giving in to the demands of her selfish boyfriend who left her without saying “good bye” after exploiting her. She constantly looks into the distance, searching for him. The singer, however, speaks as a local village boy who did his best to warn her of the dangers of Bangkok, of city people, and especially of central Thai. He says “I warned you but you never listened to me. Instead you got mad at me. Now, see! You deserve what happened.” 161 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Most of the lyrics are in Isan dialect (actually Lao) and set to a flexible version of a traditional melody called lam toei phama, literally “Burmese toei.” About halfway through, however, the style changes abruptly to a typical luk thung melody similar to such tunes found throughout Thailand. Even within the toei sections, however, the singer switches between central Thai and northeast Thai several times. After the pop melody, he returns to the toei melody before repeating both sections. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.13 (3’17”) Chapter 6: Site 5 Thailand (Northeast): Luk Thung Popular Song Voice: Single male Instruments: Electric phin (plucked lute), keyboard synthesizer, electric bass, rock drum set with klawng fifa (electric drums), chab lek (cymbals) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” (Intro section) Drum set, electric bass, and synthesizer begin with a steady beat in common meter. Listen for the melodic shift of the synthesizer (0’10”). 0’17” (A section, “toei”) Electric phin enters followed by the vocalist who sings in the Central Thai language. The text setting is syllabic and the rhythmic density of the voice in this section is thick in comparison to the B section (below). Note also that the synthesizer sustains a single pitch to provide a strong tonal center. 0’40” (A section) Section repeats with different lyrics sung in the Isan language. 1’12” (B section, “luk thung”) The rhythmic density of the voice lessens and is more melodic. The lyrics are again sung in the Central Thai language. Note the synthesizer plays a complementary melodic line. 1’40” A section returns with the lyrics sung in the Isan language. 2’05” B section returns with the lyrics sung in the Central Thai language. 2’32” A section returns with the lyrics sung in the Isan language. 2’59” (Outro section) Opening content returns to finish the performance. Source: “Sao Jan Kang Kop” sung by Phawnsak Sawng-saeng, from Sao Jan Kang Kop, JKC Marketing Co., Ltd, JKC-CD 157 (nd), used with permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.13): Investigate Luk Thung artists and popular music from Thailand via the Internet to find the karaoke video associated with this example. 162 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Cultural Considerations. Thai popular music developed out of the ballroom dance music that began to be created in the 1940s by the Suntaraphon Band. With their sophisticated poetic texts, these songs came to be called luk krung, literally “children of the city.” During the 1950s some composers began creating songs with poetry that commented on the lives of the working people, both farmers and city people, using more direct and casual words. These were first called phleng talat (“market songs”) but later came to be called phleng luk thung (“children of the fields”). Today outsiders call these “country songs,” and in many ways the suggestion of Nashville is justified. But while country songs originated in central Thailand, especially in Bangkok, the present track comes from the northeast, culturally Lao but now referred to as Isan. Because this song shows a clear relationship with traditional mawlam, it is a luk thung mawlam, the current favorite among both immigrants from Isan living in Bangkok and back home in the villages and towns of the northeast. Some of the artists singing these started in traditional lam but crossed over into luk thung. Luk thung songs have no clear point of origin, but their predecessors, found from the 1940s onward, were those Thai popular songs (called phleng sakon, “modern songs”) that had less-sophisticated texts and often commented on the lives of common working people, including farmers. Like the “city songs” with their sophisticated poetry, many were in ballroom dance tempo, especially cha-cha-cha and rumba. Others derived from the music for a Thai couple dance called ramwong (“circle dance”), which had its origins in the 1940s. They differed in that ramwong songs were accompanied by small percussion only—prin- cipally a small clay drum—while luk thung used melodic instruments as well. During the later 1960s and early 1970s singers took traditional regional styles from the north, south, and northeast and began infusing them with local elements. Besides the usual combo instruments—drums, electric guitar, and, later, keyboard—some added regional instruments; whether present or not, composers imitated the styles of local instruments. Many luk thung singers had a background in traditional genres and crossed over when it became apparent there was money to be made. Luk thung from the north and south, however, declined in popularity, while those from the northeast became increasingly favored, even- tually coming to dominate the Thai media in the 1980s. This process snowballed because tens of thousands of northeasterners had been migrating to Bangkok over the years as Thailand developed into an “Asian Tiger” economy. These economic refugees, many of whom became relatively prosperous, became a natural market for all manner of luk thung- related media products and events. These included luk thung movies, live luk thung shows, and, of course, luk thung cassettes, CDs and VCDs. Get into most any taxi in Bangkok and you will hear northeast luk thung songs on the radio or on cassette, because most taxi drivers come from the northeast. Go into the servant’s quarters of an upper-class house or into factories and you will encounter them as well. Each stanza of the song includes a switch from the Lao language of the Northeast (called Isan) to Central Thai. When this song first appeared, the Central Thai still looked down on Northeasterners, seeing them as country bumpkins. By singing part of the song in Central Thai, the singer demonstrates that he is bilingual and therefore “respectable.” By the advent of the twenty-first century attitudes had changed, and it is now “respectable” to sing in the Isan language alone. Luk thung has given rise to star singers who, in spite of the sparseness in which they grew up, have become quite wealthy singing songs that express the feelings and lives of their compatriots. Early favorites who solidified the style in central Thailand include the late 163 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y female singer Pompuang Duangjan and the late male singer Suraphon Sombatjalern. Today there are too many luk thung singers to mention, some making recordings and being heard throughout the land, others singing their songs in local restaurants and clubs in gritty upcountry towns. Luk thung shows nearly superseded traditional mawlam by the late 1980s, and traditional performers, because they receive little government support even as honored “culture carriers,” had to change in order to stay in business. The traditional theater genres of Isan adopted luk thung songs into their format, as did the lam klawn form, with its alternating male and female singers. Because Isan was producing the most popular type of music in Thailand, many people in the other regions modified their thinking of Isan as a backwater full of poor rice farmers and came to see it instead as a hotbed of stylish young musicians. Arrival: Indonesia (Java and Bali) INDONES IA Map of Indonesia. Note locale of Java and Bali Indonesia, the largest archipelago in the world, consists of more than 13,000 islands created by centuries of volcanic activity, which continues to this day, sometimes resulting in devas- tating tsunamis that engulf coastal areas. Though many of these islands are uninhabited, the larger islands, especially Sumatra and Java, are densely populated, making Indonesia the world’s largest Muslim nation with 240 million people. The first-time visitor will be struck immediately by the extreme heat and humidity, due to Indonesia’s position on the equator and its sea-level elevation. Tropical rainforests, which have suffered extensive deforestation, are found in many of the areas, along with mist-shrouded mountains and volcanoes, white sand beaches with spectacular offshore underwater reefs, colorful flowers, and unique wildlife on less-populated islands, such as orangutans. The heavy annual rainfall helps support an agricultural system largely based on wet rice cultivation, which together with seafaring activity provides the mainstays of Indonesian cuisine. 164 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Dancers at the Akademi Seni Tari Indonesia (College of Indonesian Dance) in Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia, perform a refined court dance (R. Anderson Sutton) Indonesia recognizes several religions: Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and a variety of animistic traditions, each with their own varied cultural activities. Throughout the main islands of Java and Sumatra, Islam gave rise to the courts of the sultans who were the traditional patrons of the arts. Bali, however, preserves an even richer tradition of music, dance, and theater associated with the Hinduism that makes the tiny island so distinctive. Though there are over 300 languages spoken throughout the islands, the national language is Bahasa Indonesia, an Austronesian language common throughout the region and Malay peninsula. English is widely spoken as well in areas frequented by tourists, but the colonial language, Dutch, has virtually disappeared. The music of Indonesia, which is dominated by ensembles of bronze instruments, is perhaps the most studied and best known in academia of all world music traditions. Many pioneer ethnomusicologists, such as Jaap Kunst, Colin McPhee, and Mantle Hood, took an interest in the music of Indonesia and spread knowledge of it through writings, teaching, and their own musical compositions. Various composers, including Claude Debussy, Benjamin Britten, Francis Poulenc, Philip Glass, and Steve Reich, have also acknowledged the influence of Indonesian music on their works. Indonesian music has therefore greatly affected the development of modern music in Europe and America, and its influence can still be heard in everything from orchestral music to television commercials. GAMELAN Although there are hundreds of distinct musical traditions found throughout the An ensemble numerous islands of Indonesia, the most recognized music is that of the gamelan ensemble. from Indonesia We will focus on two traditions, Javanese court gamelan and Balinese gamelan gong kebyar, comprised in order to introduce this intricate and entrancing music. primarily of membranophones and metallophones. 165 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Site 6: Javanese Court Gamelan Gamelans are normally made of bronze, but this full Javanese gamelan at Northern Illinois University, DeKalb is actually made of iron, a less expensive, yet satisfactory, substitute for bronze First Impressions. A gamelan is an ensemble that primarily comprises idiophones made of either bronze or iron, including a variety of hanging gongs, rack gongs, and metal-keyed instruments. The ethereal sound of the instruments is hypnotic, as is the music’s repeating cyclical structure. Other instruments, such as flutes, zithers, various drums, and a fiddle called the rebab, may also be present along with vocalists, both male and female. The voices, too, contribute an elegant air to the overall feel of the performance. The music of the Javanese A Javanese gamelan at the kraton (palace) of the Sultan in Yogyakarta with a court musician seated at the gender, an instrument with bronze keys and tube resonators (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) 166 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 court gamelan is divided into two basic styles, soft and strong. The soft style has a “misty” quality that is mellow and tranquil, reminiscent of an early morning fog lifting as the sun rises from the ocean. In contrast, the strong style is bold and loud; more reflective of the midday sun watching over hard-working rice farmers during a harvest. Aural Analysis. Javanese court gamelan is based on a colotomic structure, meaning that its music is organized into cycles defined by periodic punctuation played by a specific instru- ment—in its case, hanging gongs. The principal melody is typically provided by either voices and/or melodic instruments, such as the rack gongs, metal-keyed instruments called metallophones, wooden-keyed instruments called xylophones, or non-idiophones such as the fiddle or bamboo flute. Other rack gongs, metallophones, and xylophones embellish this melody by filling in the aural space, giving the music its “misty” quality. Javanese gamelan must be built and tuned as a unit; interchanging instruments from one ensemble to another is not permitted due in large part to the individuality of the tuning. There are two primary tuning systems: sléndro (comprising five relatively equidistant pitches to an octave) and pélog (comprising seven pitches to an octave at non-equidistant intervals). Gamelan instruments tuned in one system cannot be played with a set tuned in the other. Furthermore, the fundamental frequencies of two different gamelan using the same system, for example, pélog, do not always match, so interchanging instruments even in this case is not possible. Indeed, individual gamelan sets have specific names (the one housed at UCLA in Los Angeles is “The Venerable Dark Cloud”), suggesting the instruments are to be thought of as part of one family. A complete ensemble includes a subset of instruments in both sléndro and pélog tunings, which can be thought of as siblings in the same gamelan “family.” The example here is in sléndro tuning—that is, it uses a five-tone pentatonic tuning/scale. Our example includes two styles of Javanese court gamelan performance, described as strong and soft. Strong-style gamelan emphasizes the metallophones and bossed rack gongs, which carry the principal melody at a faster tempo and are struck powerfully. Although the soft-style gamelan, when the metal bars or gongs are struck with less force, often includes a female vocal soloist and a male chorus, this example does not. The non-idiophone instru- ments, namely the fiddle, zither, and bamboo flute, support the principal melody, and the tempo is slower than in the strong style. After a brief introduction by a bonang (rack gong), the principal melody is loudly proclaimed. This melody can be simply notated using numbers to represent pitch. The full ensemble enters on the last pitch of the introduction, which is also the start/stop point of the cycle marked by the largest and deepest pitched hanging gong (gong ageng). Principal Melody of Javanese Gamelan Audio Example Introduction - 111 5612 2165 6165 A 6532 6532 2353 6 5 3 2 (repeat) punctuation - *- - - *- - - *- + B 1561 5612 2165 6 1 6 5 (repeat) punctuation - *- - - *- - - *-+ * = upper hanging gong + = lower hanging gong 167 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Each melodic line is repeated once before the entire melody is repeated (AA-BB-AA- BB-AA, etc.). Notice that the phrasing of the melody is symmetrical (there are two groups of four phrases with four beats each), exemplifying an emphasis on balance typical of Javanese music. Underlying this melody is the periodic punctuation provided by the hanging gongs (marked by * and +). These instruments punctuate specific points in the cycle to articulate the underlying aural framework of the piece. Falling between the pitches of the principal melody at twice the rhythmic density are the quiet embellishments of other metallophones and rack gongs. These three parts are most easily heard in the strong-style gamelan performance. The soft-style section is signaled by the drums. The tempo slows and the quieter instru- ments become the aural focus, providing the principal melody along with the subdued sounds of the gongs. The colotomic structure and embellishing instruments are still present, but the shift in mood gives the music a haunting quality. The dynamic level diminishes with the slowed tempo and both increase again when the strong-style gamelan returns. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.14 (5’34”) Chapter 6: Site 6 Indonesia: Javanese Court Gamelan Instruments: Full instrumental gamelan ensemble (metallophones, flutes/chordophones, drums) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Bonang (rack gongs) enter with a brief introduction. 0’05” Full ensemble enters with principal melody (A), embellishments, and periodic punctuation. Listen for each of these musical elements during repeated listening. Use the table included in the Aural Analysis to follow the principal melody and periodic punctuation. 0’13” Melodic phrase (A) repeats. 0’21” Second phrase of principal melody (B). 0’28” Melodic phrase (B) repeats. 0’35” Melodic phrase (A) returns. 0’43” Melody phrase (A) repeats. 0’51” Melodic phrase (B) returns. 0’58” Melodic phrase (B) repeats. 1’06” Melodic phrase (A) returns 1’14” Melodic phrase (A) repeats. The tempo gradually slows in anticipation of the “soft-style” interlude. 168 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 1’27” Melodic phrase (B) returns at a slower tempo. 1’31” “Quieter” instruments, namely the rebab (fiddle), celimpung (plucked zither), and suling (flute), become the aural focus. The principal melody (B) continues, most easily identified by the low- pitched metallophones heard in the background. Listen for the gong ageng (lowest-pitched hanging gong) sounding the end of each phrase. 1’49” Melodic phrase (B) repeats. 2’10” Melodic phrase (A) returns. 2’32” Melodic phrase (A) repeats. 2’54” Melodic phrase (B) returns. 3’15” Melodic phrase (B) repeats. 3’36” Melodic phrase (A) returns. 3’56” Melodic phrase (A) repeats. Drums quietly signal the reentrance of the louder metallophones. 4’02” Drums play at a louder volume and the tempo increases as the metallophones gradually return as the aural focus (4’06”). 4’11” Melodic phrase (B) returns. 4’20” Melodic phrase (B) repeats. 4’28” Melodic phrase (A) returns. 4’36” Melodic phrase (A) repeats. 4’45” Melodic phrase (B) returns. 4’53” Melodic phrase (B) repeats. 5’01” Melodic phrase (A) returns. 5’09” Melodic phrase (A) repeats at a lower dynamic level and slowing tempo to close the performance. Source: “Udan Mas” (“Golden Rain”), from the recording titled Music of the Venerable Dark Cloud: The Javanese Gamelan Khjai Mendung. Institute of Ethnomusicology, UCLA, IER 7501, 1973. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.14): Imitate the upper and lower gongs utilized during the “periodic punctuation” heard throughout the example. Cultural Considerations. Although the gamelan music of both Java and Bali uses similar instrumentation and is organized in structures governed by colotomic periods, the sharp contrast of musical characteristics between Javanese Court Gamelan and Balinese gamelan gong kebyar (see below) reveals strong differences in musical values. These values are in large part due to differences in the function and contextual associations of the two musics. 169 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The population of Java is predominantly Muslim, though the Islam here is peculiar to Java. Javanese gamelan music is frequently associated with court ritual functions, usually presided over by a sultan. The sultan is regarded as a secular authority with divine powers, and his palace grounds are imbued with spiritual significance. The slow, stately sound of the court gamelan reflects the regal atmosphere of this environment, and the music is characteristically calm, to avoid distracting attention from the sultan or the ceremonial activity. The music serves the occasion rather than being the primary focus of the event. Dancers at the Sultan’s Kraton (palace) in Yogyakarta perform bedhaya, considered the “crown jewel” of Javanese court dances (Jack Vargoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) A Javanese gamelan at the Sultan’s palace in Yogyakarta with a musician seated at a large bonang, a set of bronze pot-shaped gongs in two rows (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) 170 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 Most often, gamelan performance accompanies dance and/or theatre. The bedhaya dance is among the most sacred, symbolizing the mythical union between a historical sultan and the goddess of the sea, an indication of pre-Islamic spiritual beliefs helping to legitimize Islamic secular authority. The slow-moving choreography and subtle gestures of the dancers express serenity and refinement, just as the gamelan itself demonstrates the tranquility and balance valued so highly in Javanese culture. Gamelan also accompanies shadow-puppet theatre, known as wayang kulit. The storylines for these productions often draw from the ancient Indian epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, similarly revealing the under- lying Hindu influence on Javanese culture that pre-dates Islamic rule, which first appeared in Indonesia during the twelfth century. Site 7: Balinese Gamelan Gong Kebyar First Impressions. Whereas the music of Java conveys a sense of tranquility, the music of Bali is filled with dynamic energy. Similar instruments are used, including bronze gongs, metallophones, flutes, and drums, but the character of the music continually shifts, with sudden bursts of brilliant virtuosity contrasting with airy melodic phrases. A feeling of con- tinual agitation pervades the music as it accelerates, slows, crescendos, and relaxes. Then just when you think you have it figured out, the music again turns in an unanticipated direction. Aural Analysis. Balinese gamelan gong kebyar, like the Javanese court gamelan, is GAMELAN GONG organized according to a colotomic structure. However, this structure is not always as evident KEBYAR as with its Javanese counterpart. Many compositions are through-composed, meaning that An ensemble type from Bali, Indonesia, primarily comprising metallophones and characterized by rhythmically dense performance technique. Balinese gamelan at the “Full Moon Festival” in Bedulu village, Bali (Shutterstock) 171 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y A portion of Bowling Green State University’s gong kebyar (gamelan) showing flutes and fiddle (front row) with keyed instruments and drum behind. Gamelan, both Javanese and Balinese, have been common since the 1960s in universities worldwide the melody does not repeat in a series of continuous cycles. Also, gamelan gong kebyar frequently uses sectional solos in which different instruments, such as the drums and cymbals, flutes, metallophones, or rack gongs, are highlighted. This shifting orchestration emphasis, along with dynamic variation and sudden tempo changes, contributes to the sudden shifts of mood that characterize the Balinese gamelan style. The high rhythmic density of Balinese gamelan gong kebyar is also a distinguishing characteristic. In many sections of a performance the musicians interlock their parts, so that multiple musicians playing identical instruments are required to produce a complete melodic line. For example, if Player X plays the odd-numbered pitches (1, 3, 5, 7) and Player Y plays the even-numbered pitches (2, 4, 6, 8), the players must interlock their pitches to play them in consecutive order from one to eight. This interlocking of melodic pitches, known as kotekan, enables the performers to create a high rhythmic density, so that the music sounds as if the melody is being played at a “superhuman speed”; indeed, it is often faster than a single player could perform. While this technique is used in Javanese gamelan as well, the super-thick rhythmic density is associated primarily with the Balinese style. Another noticeable distinction of the Balinese gamelan gong kebyar is what might be described as the “shimmer effect.” This shimmering sound is most evident in the wavering tones of the small metallophones on long sustained pitches. The effect is produced by the use of pairs of identical instruments tuned slightly apart. When the instruments are played simultaneously on the same pitch, the slight tuning difference in frequency produces a perceptible pulsation due to the minimal increase in volume as the pitch frequencies overlap. Therefore, a complete Balinese gamelan must include identical pairs of metallophones, with 172 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 A pair of gendèr wayang bronze- keyed idiophones with tube resonators used, with an identical pair (not shown) tuned slightly differently to produce shimmering sounds, to accompany the shadow play (wayang kulit). The larger, lower one is called gedé or pemade, and the smaller, higher one is barangan Danced by two males, the barong is a Hindu-derived mythological beast that represents “good” in Balinese theater (Amy Unruh) 173 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y separate players on each instrument playing the same notes but with slightly different tuning. When coupled with the need for interlocking pitches, four or more musicians may be required to produce a complete melodic line. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.15 (4’01”) Chapter 6: Site 7 Indonesia: Balinese Gamelan Gong Kebyar Instruments: Gender (metallophones), bonang (rack gongs), gong ageng (pair of hanging gongs), kempli (“timekeeper” gong), suling (flute), and kendang (barrel-shaped drums) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Gender initiate performance. 0’04” Double-interlocking technique (known as kotekan) on the gender first appears. A “timekeeper” gong is also heard providing a steady beat as lower-pitched metallophones enter. 0’10” The largest of the gong ageng sounds, and the melodic instruments pause. Listen for the “shimmering” sustain of the metallophones. 0’14” Melodic activity resumes. 0’20” Another melodic pause and “shimmering” sustain. The gender become the aural focus, continuing with “start/stop” melodic activity. 0’53” Lower metallophones and “timekeeper” gong return. The example continues, with frequent melodic pauses followed by “bursts” of melodic passages introduced by the gender and followed by the “timekeeper” gong and others. 2’00” A new melodic section begins to anticipate entrance of full ensemble. A dancer often performs during this section of the music. 2’26” Full ensemble enters, including bonang and drums. 2’38” Bonang performs solo, utilizing the double-interlocking technique to achieve a thick rhythmic density. 2’58” Gong ageng sounds briefly in the background. 3’00” Gender return as aural focus. Tempo is slower. 3’07” Drums sound to introduce return of full ensemble. 3’15” Listen for the suling (flute) playing as the metal instruments play more quietly. 3’42” Listen for the gender’s more frequent use of syncopated rhythms, which generally corresponds to a dancer’s movements. Source: “Hudjan Mas,” recorded in south Bali by a gamelan gong kebyar ensemble; from the recording titled Gamelan Music of Bali, Lyrichord CD 7179, n.d. Used by permission, Lyrichord Discs Inc. 174 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.15): Try to perform the “superhuman” double-interlocking technique (kotekan) along with a friend by tapping your hands on a flat surface or by using a musical instrument, such as a piano or xylophone. Once successful, add another matching pair of performers. Cultural Considerations. While Java’s population is chiefly Muslim, the island of Bali is predominantly Hindu. Temples are found throughout the island, each devoted to a particular Hindu deity. Most temples have a gamelan ensemble that is expected to perform for festivals or other events associated with the temple’s deity or the Hindu faith. Frequently perfor- mances function as a musical offering, and the music is therefore intended to attract and entertain the deity as well as participants. The dynamic character and bright timbre of the Balinese gamelan gong kebyar, with its “superhuman speed” and bright, boisterous metal- lophones, becomes the center of attention. Dances are often vigorous and characteristically “angular,” with quick movements of the head, arms, and legs. These performances, too, are typically related to Hindu mythology and often involve spirit possession and demonstrations of supernatural power, particularly in masked drama performances, such as the barong dance. Gamelan gong kebyar, which often accompanies such performances, is a relatively recent musical style that first appeared in the early twentieth century. While numerous styles of gamelan exist on Bali, kebyar, translated as “to flare up” or “to flower,” is by far the most A young boy dances Baris, a warrior dance, to the accompaniment of a Balinese gamelan (Amy Unruh) 175 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Young dancers perform a Welcome Dance at the Full Moon Festival in Bedulu village, Bali (Shutterstock) A Balinese puppeteer brings the story of the Ramayana to life through his skillful manipulation of leather shadow puppets (Amy Unruh) 176 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 prominent. The explosive character of the music and astounding displays of virtuosity by its musicians require hours and hours of practice to achieve precise performance. The music is carefully composed, though musical notation is not generally used, and rehearsals are intense, particularly in preparation for the frequent contests that attract ensembles from throughout the island. The high demand for this music encourages experimentation and continual creation of new music to the delight of tourists, locals, and academics alike. Many ensembles have found success touring internationally, presenting spectacular shows to audiences worldwide. The popularity of the gamelan gong kebyar has spread to academic institutions around the world as well, where student ensembles perform the music often with the assistance of a guest artist/composer direct from Bali who teaches the ensemble. The respective styles of gamelan music from the islands of Java and Bali give listeners a strongly differing musical experience. Indeed, the contrast between the hypnotic serenity KECAK of the Javanese court gamelan and the entrancing dynamism of the Balinese gamelan gong A Balinese theatrical kebyar is a testament to the creative power of Indonesian musicians, who have managed to performance of create two very different musics out of similar resources. The Ramayana Explore More Kecak : The Balinese “Monkey Chant” The “Monkey Chant” has become one of the most popular tourist attractions on the island of Bali. Its performers, who are considered a kind of “human gamelan,” act out scenes from the Indian epic the Ramayana (see p. 153) with minimal stage props and costumes. The name of the genre, kecak, is derived from the interlocking “cak” sounds of the performers as they imitate armies of monkey soldiers in a mythological battle of good versus evil. Other performers In Bali, a circle of men sway in unison during a kecak sound out the colotomic structure by imitating gongs of the dance, a modern variation of an ancient sang hyang trance gamelan ensemble. In addition to the monkey armies, whose dance (Ernst Haas/GettyImages) performers are dressed merely with a black-and-white checkered sarong, there are costumed dancers who portray Rama, a major character in the epic. This association, the major figures of the story. Such performances were however, as well as the storyline, is typically unfamiliar to originally intended as musical offerings to the Hindu deity Bali’s many visitors. 177 6 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Questions to Consider 1. To what extent are the terms classical, folk, and popular appropriate labels for describing Southeast Asian musics? 2. What are some factors that help maintain traditional Southeast Asian music in the face of modernization? 3. Metrical cycles are characteristic of many Southeast Asian musics. How do they work in the sites reviewed? 4. How do the types of “heterophony” found in Vietnamese Tai Thu, Thai Piphat, and Javanese Gamelan differ? 5. Though Thailand and Vietnam are both part of Southeast Asia, what historical and cultural factors have determined the present musical differences? 6. Compare Javanese and Balinese Gamelan in terms of their function and use. How do their differing functions affect their respective musical styles? w ww On Your Own Time Visit the textbook website to find these resources for further exploration on your own. Vietnam Audio: Ngyuen, Phong T. and Terry E. Miller. Music from the Lost Kingdom Vietnam: The Perfume River Traditional Ensemble. Lyrichord, LYRCD 7440, 1998. http://lyrichord.com/musicfromthelostkingdomvietnam-theperfumerivertraditionalensemble.aspx http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/music-from-lost-kingdom-vietnam/id78666859 Book: Reyes, Adelaida. Songs of the Caged, Songs of the Free: Music and the Vietnamese Refugee Experience. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999. http://www.temple.edu/tempress/titles/1426_reg.html Internet: Popular Artists from Vietnam My Tam Quang Dung Lam Truong Thailand Film: Homrong (The Overture). Directed by Ittisoontorn Vichailak. Sahamongkol Film International, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Overture http://www.imdb.com/video/screenplay/vi418906393/ Audio: Royal Court Music of Thailand. Smithsonian-Folkways, SF 40413, 1994. http://www.folkways.si.edu/albumdetails.aspx?itemid=2330 http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/royal-court-music-of-thailand/id83572118 Audio: Silk, Spirits, and Songs: Music from North Thailand. Lyrichord, LYRCD 7451, 2006. 178 S O U T H E A S T A S I A 6 http://lyrichord.com/silkspiritsandsongmusicfromnorththailand.aspx http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/silk-spirits-song-music-from/id258470887 Book: Shahriari, Andrew. Khon Muang Music and Dance Traditions of North Thailand. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 2006. http://www.whitelotuspress.com/bookdetail.php?id=E22486 Book: Wong, Deborah. Sounding the Center: History and Aesthetics in Thai Buddhist Performance. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2001. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/S/bo3629073.html Audio: Fanshawe, David. Music from Thailand and Laos. ARC, 1997. http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/music-from-thailand-and-laos/id285183310 Internet: Popular Artists from Thailand Keyword: Loso Keyword: Tay Orathai Keyword: Katreeya English Indonesia Audio: Gamelan Music of Bali—Gamelan Angklung, and Gamelan Gong Kebjar. Lyrichord, LYRCD 7179, 1997. http://lyrichord.com/gamelanmusicofbali-gamelanangklungandgamelangongkebjar.aspx http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/gamelan-music-of-bali/id49332149 Audio: Java Court Gamelan. Nonesuch: 79719, 1971. http://www.nonesuch.com/albums/java-court-gamelan http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/java-court-gamelan/id128049636 Book: Spiller, Henry. Gamelan Music of Indonesia. Abingdon, Oxford: Routledge, 2008. http://routledge.customgateway.com/routledge-music/ethnomusicology/gamelan-music-of- indonesia.html Book: Tenzer, Michael. Gamelan Gong Kebyar: The Art of Twentieth Century Balinese Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/presssite/metadata.epl?mode=synopsis&bookkey=3630827 Audio: Indonesian Popular Music: Kroncong, Dangdut, and Langgam Jawa. Smithsonian-Folkways, SF 40056, 1991. http://www.folkways.si.edu/albumdetails.aspx?itemid=2298 http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/music-indonesia-vol-2-indonesian/id151045292 Internet: Popular Artists from Indonesia Rhoma Irama Dangdut (music genre) Jeni Anjani 179 Site 1 Site 5 Sites 3 & 4 Site 9 Site 2 Site 6 Sites 7 & 8 East Asia: China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Tibet 7 Background Preparation 182 Site 5: Mongolian Urtïn Duu (Long The Great Wall Song) with Khöömei (Overtone or of China north of An Inside Look: Luo Qin 185 Throat Singing) 214 Beijing (Max T. An Inside Look: Masayo Ishigure 186 Miller) Arrival: Korea 217 Planning the Itinerary 187 Site 6: P’ansori Narrative 218 Arrival: China 189 Arrival: Japan 223 Site 1: The Guqin (Seven-String Site 7: Sankyoku Instrumental “Ancient” Zither) 192 Chamber Music 224 Site 2: Jiangnan Sizhu (“Silk Explore More: Komuso 227 and Bamboo”) Ensemble from Shanghai 195 Site 8: Kabuki Theater 228 Site 3: Beijing Opera (Jingju) 203 Explore More: Taiko 232 Site 4: Revolutionary Beijing Arrival: Tibet 233 Opera (Yangbanxi) 208 Site 9: Tibetan Buddhist Ritual 234 Explore More: Popular Music in Questions to Consider 238 East Asia 212 On Your Own Time 239 Arrival: Mongolia 213 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Background Preparation Culturally, East Asia incorporates not just the immense nation of China but also North and South Korea, Japan, and Mongolia. Although disputed, Tibet and Taiwan are also parts of China, the latter remaining independent as the Republic of China. Geographically, East Asia also encompasses the eastern half of Russia, including Siberia, which constitutes Northeast Asia. East Asia is home to roughly one quarter of the earth’s population: China has 1.38 billion people, the Koreas 71 million, Taiwan 23 million, and Japan 127 million, for a total of 1.56 billion. The other areas, including Mongolia and eastern Russia, have very slight populations spread over a vast territory. Tibet, an autonomous region of China, is often viewed by outsiders as a distinct nation under Chinese occupation while the Chinese government views it as an integral part of China. The term Chinese, broadly speaking, can be applied to cultural activity found not only in the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) but also in the self- governing city of Hong Kong and in other places where “Overseas Chinese” comprise important segments of the population. These places include Malaysia, where nearly one- third of the population is of Chinese ancestry, and the city-state of Singapore. Throughout the world there are cities with large Chinese populations, including Bangkok, Thailand; Manila, Philippines; Jakarta, Indonesia; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Toronto, Canada; New York, USA; London, UK, and in smaller concentrations throughout the world. Roughly ninety million people out of China’s total population belong to some fifty-five non-Chinese minority groups, which are as diverse as the Hmong and Dai of the southwest and the Koreans of the northeast. From top to bottom, the scripts are from China (top), Korea (middle), and Japan (bottom) 182 E A S T A S I A 7 In spite of its immense size, East Asia is unified in numerous ways. Foremost among the factors that bind East Asian cultures together is an ideographic writing system developed by the Chinese millennia ago, in which icon-like “characters” have meaning rather than phonetic sound. At various times in history, each East Asian culture has adopted the Chinese writing system, allowing literate people in all areas to communicate even though the spoken languages (e.g., Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Mongolian) were otherwise unrelated and mutually unintelligible. Over time, however, distinctive writing systems also developed in Japan, Korea, and Mongolia, while Vietnam romanized its writing system because of the influence of French and Portuguese missionaries. Geography has played a major role in the development of East Asian culture. The original Chinese civilization, that of the “Han” Chinese, arose along the Yellow River in northern China forty centuries ago (c.2000 B.C.E.) and over time spread through the vast territory of East Asia, even into Southeast Asia. At the same time, Chinese civilization was profoundly influenced by outside cultures, especially those coming from Western and Central Asia along the “silk road.” Many foreign elements, such as Buddhism, came to the Chinese first, were transformed into a Chinese form (a process called sinicization), and then absorbed and further modified by neighboring cultures. Within China, Han Chinese civilization spread mostly to the south and southeast, because much of eastern China is relatively flat, while the rest of the country consists of mountains, deserts, and high plateaus. Even today, in fact, the vast majority of China’s billion-plus people live in the eastern third of the country. The Korean civilization developed on a peninsula to the northeast of China, and although Korea was profoundly influenced by China, its culture is otherwise distinct. Because the Korean peninsula is to the north and rather mountainous, Korea has limited arable land and harsh winters, and the Korean people have often had to struggle to survive. After the division of Korea into South and North Korea in 1945, the South has prospered and developed its own form of democracy, while the North has suffered immense ecological damage from industrialization and deforestation, which has brought cycles of droughts and floods. In addition, its autocratic government has brought isolation to North Korea. The result is that many people in the North are starving and much of their culture has been completely politicized. Japan’s culture is also deeply affected by its geography. Japan is a chain of islands, stretching from cold and bleak Hokkaido in the north to the warm and lush Ryukyu Islands trailing southwest from Kyushu, Japan’s southernmost major island. Although influenced by Chinese civilization, Japan was relatively isolated until the nineteenth century, which allowed it to develop a distinct culture. With most of Japan’s population, nearly half that of the United States, crowded into the main islands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu—together smaller than the state of California—efficient land use is critical. The Japanese have developed an amazingly homogenous culture, though ethnic diversity certainly does exist, particularly in rural areas. The country’s historical isolation from outside political and cultural influences until the mid-nineteenth century supports this mindset of the Japanese as a strongly nationalistic and unified entity. 183 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y CHINA KOREA JAPAN ANTIQUITY Xia 21st to 16th century B.C.E. 1200 Shang c. 1600–1045 1100 Zhou 1045–256 1000 900 800 ANTIQUITY 700 Spring and Autumn 770–476 Zyoˆmon to c. 200 600 500 400 Warring States 475–221 300 DYNASTIES OF IMPERIAL CHINA Qin 221–206 Yayoi c. 200 B.C.E.–250 C.E. 200 Han 202 B.C.E.–220 C.E. 100 C.E. 0 100 200 Three Kingdoms 220–280 Jin 265–420 THREE KINGDOMS 300 Kohun Culture c. 300–400 Koguryo˘ ?–668 400 Northern and Southern Dynasties 420–589 Paekche ?–660 Silla ?–668 500 IMPERIAL PERIOD Sui 581–618 Asuka c. 550–710 600 Tang 618–907 DYNASTIES OF ROYAL KOREA Unified Silla 668–935 700 Nara 710–794 800 Heian 794–1192 900 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 902–979 Koryo˘ 918–1392 Liao (Qidan [Khitan]) 916–1125 1000 Song 960–1279 Northern Song 960–1127 MEDIEVAL PERIOD 1100 Southern Song 1127–1279 Kamakura 1192–1333 1200 Jin (Nüzhen [Jurchen]) 1115–1234 Yuan (Mongol) 1279–1368 Muromati 1334–1573 1300 Ming 1368–1644 Choso˘n 1392–1910 1400 PREMODERN PERIOD 1500 Azuti–Momoyama 1573–1610 1600 Edo 1600–1867 Qing (Manchu) 1644–1911 1700 MODERN KOREA MODERN JAPAN 1800 MODERN CHINA Japanese colonial period 1910–1945 Meizi 1868–1912 1900 Republic of China 1911– Republic of Korea (South) 1948– Taisyoˆ 1912–1926 People’s Republic of China 1949– Democratic People’s Syoˆwa 1926–1989 2000 Republic of Korea (North) 1948– Heisei 1989– 184 E A S T A S I A 7 Luo Qin A N I N S I D E L O O K As a professional violinist (concert-master), amateur com- poser, and occasional conductor, I had learned how to lead an orchestra and to create musical works for an ensemble. I was basically a Western-centered person at this time, although I was familiar with Chinese music and instruments as well. However, the graduate program at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, where I majored in the history of Chinese music, changed my thoughts. After teaching at the Conservatory for several years, in 1991, as a young scholar and graduate student, I entered the Ethnomusicology pro- gram at the University of Washington and then went on for doctoral study in ethnomusicology at Kent State University. During my time in the States, I not only learned various Dr. Luo Qin, Professor of Musicology, Shanghai musics from around the world but also came to understand Conservatory of Music; president and editor-in chief of the peoples, societies, and cultures related to these Shanghai Conservatory Press musics. concerto called The Butterfly Lovers into a work combining Through the study of the theories and practices of violin solo and Chinese ensemble. Ethnomusicology, I feel I became a true musician, scholar, and person who loves music, culture, people, and their lives. After receiving my Ph.D. degree I came back to China. At I specialize in two fields: the history of Chinese music and present, I am a Professor of Musicology at the Shanghai the urban ethno-orientated study of Shanghai City and its Conservatory of Music, one of China’s premier music people. I have done much fieldwork and published several institutions. In addition I am in charge of the Research works, such as History of Chinese Musical Instruments; Department. Through several years teaching, I have learned Kunju, a Chinese Classical Theater and Its Revival in Social, that I could and should do more if I want people to Economic, Political and Cultural Contexts; Street Music: understand more musics and their cultures. Therefore, I An Epitome of American Society and Culture; Heart & entered the publishing business. Right now, I am the Music.com: World Music and Its Narration, and others. I also president and editor-in-chief of the Shanghai Conservatory love to create music for people who intend to communicate Press. Nonetheless, I still teach. I hope to continue making with each other by playing music. For example, while contributions to the society in which I live and work and help directing Kent State’s Chinese Ensemble, I revised a violin more and more people to love music. 185 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Masayo Ishigure A N I N S I D E L O O K While growing up in Japan I started to learn the koto under the influence of my mother at the age of five. Because there was no child-sized koto, I had to use a full-size instrument from the beginning. For reasons unknown I loved to play the koto and never thought of quitting lessons. I first thought of the koto as a possible profession when I met Tadao Sawai, who was one of the greatest virtuosos and composers of koto music in the twentieth century. After studying under him at a music college, I became a special research student at the Sawai Koto Academy of Music. As a result of coming into contact with his outstanding music while improving my own performance skills every day, I was so fascinated with the depth of the koto music that I decided to become a professional koto player and teacher. Mr. and Ms. Sawai had progressive ideas regarding the edu- cation of koto players. They actively accepted international students and sent high-level disciples to many countries such as the United States, Australia, and The Netherlands to promote the koto as well as Japanese culture generally. After moving to the United States in 1992 to teach koto to students at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, I participated in Masayo Ishigure professional Koto musician innovative performances involving classical orchestra, jazz musicians, and also made recordings for films and computer In Japan the number of people playing traditional musical games. Participating in the recording for the sound track of instruments is fewer than those playing Western music. In The Memoirs of a Geisha with world-class musicians was an spite of this situation, traditional music has not been unusually fulfilling experience. At the same time I spend abandoned as an old-fashioned art but is still very much alive much of my time teaching the koto, currently involving in the present time along with our famous theaters, “Noh” about fifty students—half of them are Americans who are and “Kabuki”. Why? You may think it strange that in Japan, interested in Japan, and the rest are Japanese residing in a country known for its high-tech industry, there is also the United States. I haven’t changed my mind or beliefs careful conservation of the traditional culture handed down when I’m teaching outside Japan, but I find that the students from our ancestors. We love to participate in our culture’s in the United States are quite free from the formal con- many seasonal events throughout the year. I think the sound ventions usually associated with the traditional (conservative) of Japanese traditional musical instruments symbolizes a art world in which I grew up. In my academy I give them consciousness that lies deep both in our culture and in our chances to perform in front of large audiences as much as individual psyches. Within this meaning, we can say that our possible. I believe this is a joy for all the performers. musical instruments are devices to convey not only sound or 186 E A S T A S I A 7 melody but also a metaphysical sense of who we are. or if they can create a new culture beyond their own tradition Perhaps this type of sense exists within all Japanese people without having that sense. and the musical instruments merely reawaken such con- The koto is the essence of my life. I have been fortunate to sciousness. The Japanese people will feel a “communal continue concentrating on the koto while living in a com- satisfaction” from it. It would be interesting to study whether petitive music world for years without questioning my choice. foreign people develop the same sense as Japanese people, Whereas Western histories are conceived in terms of centuries, Chinese history—and by extension Korean and Japanese history—are conceived in terms of dynasties, a dynasty DYNASTY being a succession of related rulers, such as the Sung or the Ming. The Chinese dynastic In China, a ruling chart reveals a fairly consistent pattern of change. First, an energetic new Chinese dynasty family, like the Ming, and the era forms and quickly unifies the country under newly effective rule; then, over time the characterized by dynasty’s effectiveness erodes, enemies begin nibbling at China’s borders, and public that family’s services and safety break down; finally, the dynasty crumbles, and following a period of dominance. instability, a new dynasty establishes itself. Between China’s greatest, most stable, and longest-lasting dynasties were periods of disunity and chaos, such as the “Warring States” period (403–221 B.C.E.) and the “Six Dynasties” (222–581 C.E.). During certain dynasties, such as the Yuan (1260–1370) and Qing (1636–1911), foreign invaders—in these cases, the Mongols and Manchurians respectively—dominated China. Even though the rulers were foreigners, the vast Chinese bureaucracy maintained a control over Chinese institutions that insulated them from foreign cultural influence. Indeed, some foreign conquerors such as the Mongolians and Manchurians ended up being Sinicized to the extent that their own cultural distinctiveness eroded or disappeared. The arts have long been elements of the political process in China. Seeing the arts as far more than mere entertainment, the government has often harnessed music and theater for their ability to influence the thinking and behavior of the general population. Underlying this is a belief that music can have an influence on a person’s ethical character. In ancient China—and by extension elsewhere in East Asia—the views of philosopher Kong Fuzi (551–479 B.C.E.; romanized as Confucius) had a profound influence on the role of music in the lives of the scholar class. In more recent times, Chairman Mao Zedong (1893–1976), China’s communist leader from 1949 to 1976, not only believed that music and theater could influence people, but insisted the arts be harnessed by the state to create correct political thinking. Similarly, the government of North Korea has used music and related arts to influence its population. Planning the Itinerary Our musical tour will encompass China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, and Tibet. The music of each country is quite distinct in overall sound, timbre, character, and process. Yet all share certain traits that bind them together, making the concept of “East Asian” music a reasonable one. One way to explain this is through an analogy with food. If you have had opportunities to visit both Chinese and Japanese restaurants outside Asia (Korean, Mongolian, and Tibetan 187 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y restaurants are rarer), you have probably noticed striking differences. Those differences in the way food is prepared and presented and in overall atmosphere are analogous to some of the differences between the various countries’ musics. Consider the décor: Chinese restaurants are usually highly decorated with colorful lanterns, dragons, and phoenixes (mythological birds) in strong shades of red, gold, blue, and green, whereas Japanese restaurants tend more toward plain white walls and natural wood, especially blond varieties. Whereas Chinese dishes, which feature colorful mixtures of many ingredients, are randomly placed on the table and shared by everyone, Japanese meals are usually served individually on lacquered trays with many compartments for well-separated delicacies. The space separating the food in Japanese restaurants is analogous to the silence separating sounds in Japanese music. Whereas the behavior of both patrons and staff in a Chinese restaurant— especially in Chinese cities—is informal, enthusiastically loud and busy, behavior encoun- tered in a Japanese restaurant is much more formal, quiet, and subtle. Once again, many of these distinctions also apply to Chinese and Japanese music. A second analogy may perhaps help explain some of the major differences in East Asian attitudes toward “tradition,” preservation, and change. Consider the following metaphor: a wonderful, ancient bridge (akin to traditional music) occupies a key position in a city. Because it is no longer adequate to handle modern traffic, the government calls for engineers to study the situation—one Chinese, one Korean, and one Japanese. After a thorough consideration, the Chinese engineer announces that the bridge will be “preserved” by bringing it up to modern standards. Workers will replace and widen the deck, put on new railings, add modern lampposts, rebuild the support system, and level the approaches. Thus, The statue of China’s greatest philosopher and teacher, Kong Fuzi (Confucius), in the Kong temple of Quanzhou, China 188 E A S T A S I A 7 they claim, the old bridge will remain, but it will have been “improved” and “modernized.” The Korean and Japanese engineers, however, conclude that the bridge is wonderful in its present form and should be preserved as it is. Recognizing the demands of modern travel, however, the engineers recommend both keeping the old bridge open for those who prefer to use it and building a new one nearby for those who need it. Thus, in China most “traditional” music struggles to survive as best it can, while newly arranged and orchestrated music, considered “improved” and “modernized” by many Chinese officials, is commonly used to represent Chinese music to the outside world. In Korea and Japan, however, institutions both public and private preserve all surviving forms of traditional music and theater as living anachronisms in an otherwise modern world. As a result there is little difficulty in defining “tradition” in Korea and Japan. Within China there are differing views of what is traditional and what music should represent China, while foreign researchers often have views that contradict those of the Chinese. The state of trad- itional music in Mongolia resembles the Chinese situation, whereas traditional Tibetan music survives intact, including among exiles living in countries such as India, Nepal, and Bhutan. Arrival: China PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA イッミ G ラ チ オ N 10 APR As with all major civilizations, the Chinese developed their great cities and agricultural Te m p o rary v isito r centers along rivers and around great lakes. Indeed, the names of many Chinese provinces reflect geographical features. For example, the name of Shandong province means “east of the mountains,” while Shanxi means “west of the mountains.” Similarly, Hubei is “north of the lake” and Hunan is “south of the lake.” China’s greatest threats in earlier times came from the northern border areas where non-Chinese invaders, including the Jürched, the Mongols (of Chinggis (also spelled Genghis) Khan fame), and the Manchu originated. China’s Great Wall, stretching 1,400 miles over the northern mountains, was built to keep out the northern “barbarians.” Being a vast land, China has more than one gateway city. These include Beijing (the capital), Shanghai (China’s largest city and commercial center), and Guangzhou (its most internationalized city). Beijing, a sprawling city of thirteen million built around the spacious Forbidden City (the former palace of the emperors), is the center of government and culture, whereas Shanghai and Guangzhou are centers of industry, commerce, and banking. The majority of the Chinese population lives in eastern China, an area with a remarkable number of surprisingly large cities unknown to most foreigners. Though little known to outsiders, Shandong province in central China nonetheless produces products that are much appreciated. Owing to Shandong’s earlier “colonization” by Germany, it is the center of Chinese beer-making, with Qingdao being the home of “Tsingtao” beer. But to the Chinese, Shandong is more important as the ancestral home of Kong Fuzi (Confucius) in the small city of Qufu near the sacred mountain called Tai Shan. China has undergone an extreme makeover since the 1990s, and the construction crane is far more prominent than temples or red-tiled roofs. Skyscrapers, department stores, vast restaurants, and wide, traffic-clogged roads represent China today, and one cannot go far without stumbling on a McDonalds (“Mai dang lao”), Pizza Hut (“Pi shang ke”), KFC (“Ken de ji”), or Wal-Mart (“wo er ma”). In this din of modernity, traditional music is only one small voice. 189 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y In terms of culture, it is customary to make a distinction between northern and southern China. One essential difference is that the northern Chinese prefer wheat (in the form of flatbreads, dumplings, and noodles), because it grows more readily in the relatively dry and temperate north, whereas in southern China, which is subtropical, rice is the fundamental carbohydrate. Even within northern or southern China, there are numerous regional dis- tinctions, often identified with specific provinces. As is widely known, there are regional styles of Chinese cuisine, such as Sichuan (Szechuan), Hunan, Guangdong (Cantonese), Shanghai, Beijing, and so forth. Language is also regional, because Chinese civilization developed in relatively isolated pockets. While all Chinese languages are related (as all the European Romance languages are), many are also mutually unintelligible, even though the writing system is the same for all. Even within a single province there are several languages; in Guangdong, for example, these include Cantonese, Hakka, and Chaozhou. At the provin- cial level, languages may differ markedly from village to village because the mountainous terrain imposes such isolation. Today’s national language, called Mandarin in English and pu tong hua in Chinese, originated in the north. Regional distinctions are also extremely important in Chinese music, especially in the narrative and theatrical genres. Until the latter part of the twentieth century, most writing on Chinese music focused on ancient instruments, rituals, and aesthetic principles. The great Chinese music documents often took into account the living music of the time, but when Westerners began writing about Chinese music, they tended to omit living music. European scholars from the early twentieth century often viewed living music as unsophisticated and insignificant remnants of the glorious past. Ethnomusicological research into Chinese music only blossomed during the last three decades of the twentieth century, because, in earlier years, China had been off limits to most foreign researchers because of near continuous war from the 1920s until 1949 CULTURAL and the country’s later political convulsions. This was particularly so during the Cultural REVOLUTION Revolution (1966–1976), a top-down upheaval initiated by Chairman Mao Zedong and his A ten-year period influential wife, Jiang Qing, a former actress. After the end of the Cultural Revolution, a few in China’s history, foreign researchers came to China at a time when most Chinese scholars were still collecting from 1966–1976, “folk music” for use in compositions by conservatory-trained professionals. Much of the new marked by severe social and political research, however, was confined to urban phenomena because the government for some time upheaval. rarely permitted research in rural areas and favored sending conservatory ensembles on foreign tours. Today the government no longer views music as a tool of propaganda and has allowed all kinds of music to flourish as best they can. But the question of what music best represents Chinese culture to the outside world remains a topic for discussion even today. BAYIN China has an incredibly diverse array of instruments, many of which had origins outside The Chinese organological China but were Sinicized over time. Traditionally, the Chinese classified musical instru- system based on ments into eight categories, known collectively as the bayin (or “eight materials”)—namely, eight materials. wood, bamboo, metal, stone, clay, skin, silk, and gourd. For the Chinese, the number “8” had a philosophical and aesthetic significance, and a philosophically complete ensemble SIZHU would necessarily include instruments from all eight categories. Many ensemble types have A “silk and names that refer to these material categories, including one studied here, the “silk and bamboo” music bamboo” ensemble (sizhu). ensemble, Chinese music is fundamentally vocal music. Besides a vast quantity of regional folk comprising Chinese stringed (“silk”) songs, there are many regional forms of narrative song and theater, the latter always having instruments and music. Because of the language problem, however, Western recording companies have flutes (“bamboo”). preferred to release instrumental music, giving a skewed impression of the reality in China. 190 E A S T A S I A 7 Chinese music is primarily based on melodies that can exist in any number of guises and contexts, be they vocal or instrumental, solo or ensemble. Most have programmatic titles that allude to nature (e.g., “Autumn Moon and Lake Scenery”), literature or myth (e.g., “Su Wu the Shepherd”), a mood (e.g., “Joyous Feelings”), or even musical structure (e.g., “Old Six Beats”). Whether a composer’s name is known or not—most are anonymous—the tune exists at an almost conceptual level, ready to be performed as an unaccompanied or accompanied instrumental solo, an ensemble piece, a song with or without accompaniment, an orchestral piece arranged for modern ensemble, or even as an operatic aria or modern popular song. Besides this vast body of instrumental and vocal music, there is also the now rarely heard but once vibrant narrative tradition in which singers combined speaking and singing to tell long tales, accompanied by one or more instruments. More prevalent today are the nearly countless regional forms of theater, all of which have music and singing as integral parts. Beyond these one could also explore a variety of forms of instrumental and vocal music associated with Daoism and Buddhism, as well as the now revived music of Confucian ritual. The twentieth century also saw the development of many new forms of Chinese music reflecting “international” (read, “Western”) influence, from violin-inspired erhu fiddle playing, to fully orchestrated arrangements of Chinese traditional melodies played by Western-style orchestras using “traditional” instruments, to all manner of Western-style classical music and popular song. Now experiencing a surprising revival is the politically influenced Revolutionary Operas and Revolutionary Ballets created during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) and imposed on the population to the exclusion of all else during that difficult time. Inner court of the Kong Temple (Confucian) temple in Quanzhou, China 191 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Site 1: The Guqin (Seven-String “Ancient” Zither) QIN/GUQIN First Impressions. The guqin represents Chinese culture at its most historical and refined. A bridgeless, Many first-time listeners are struck by its sparseness, its lack of a clear beat, and its variety plucked zither with of odd timbres, including scraping sounds and ringing overtones. The character of the music seven strings. is intimate and meditative, as if the performer were just playing for himself. Indeed, this quiet contemplation was for centuries a music particular to Chinese scholars and philoso- phers. Aural Analysis. The guqin (also spelled (gu) ch’in—pronounced “chin”) is one of the most ancient instruments in the world to have remained in continuous use. The instrument is a roughly 51 inch (130 cm)-long rectangular board zither made of paulownia wood (top only) painted black, and has seven strings, traditionally of twisted silk, running lengthwise from end to end, without frets or bridges. There is also a series of eleven inlaid mother-of-pearl circles along one side marking the acoustical nodes or vibration points for each string. To the player’s left, the strings pass over the end and are tied underneath to two small peg-like feet attached to the instrument’s lower board. At the right end the strings run over a slight ridge that acts as a bridge, then pass through holes to the underside where each is tied to a small wooden peg. The instrument is tuned by twisting these pegs to loosen or tighten the string’s tension. The player, seated on a chair with the instrument on a table or frame, plucks the strings with the fingers of the right hand and stops the strings with the fingers of the left hand. The Chinese guqin (seven-string bridgeless zither), one of China’s most ancient instruments 192 E A S T A S I A 7 The characteristic timbres of the guqin are many, as a typical per- formance includes plucked sounds produced either by the nail or the flesh of the finger, tone-bending created by the sliding movements of the left hand, and the use of harmonics (clear, hollow sounds produced by gently touching the string at a node). Scraping sounds are produced when the player slides the left hand along the rough textured strings. Sometimes these sliding movements continue even after the string has stopped vibrating, expressing the view that music does not have to be heard to exist. Each string is tuned differently, but many of the same pitches can be produced at various nodes on different strings. Sometimes a pitch is repeated not on one string but on different strings or stopping points, which creates a series of slightly different timbres. While guqin music is fundamentally pentatonic (comprising five tones), other pitches may come into play, though all sound familiar enough to ears accustomed to the Western tuning system, because the Chinese system is similarly con- structed. Rhythmically, guqin music sounds fluid, improvisational, alternately halting or rushing, especially because often there is no clear beat to define a steady meter. Guqin notation is in a form called tablature; more pre- cisely, it consists of a chart that indicates how to pluck, stop, or touch each string, with minimal indications of pitch or rhythm. Thus, it is left up to each individual performer to express the meaning of a piece in his or her own idiosyncratic rendition. Guqin music, like most traditional Chinese music, is basically mono- phonic, but is more often built of short motives rather than extended melodic lines. For this reason, guqin compositions may sound inconsistent at times because they can suddenly change style or mood. Perhaps this explains why the guqin is a connoisseur’s instrument and its sound something of an acquired taste. Our example, titled “Yangguan Sandie” (Parting at Yangguan—a mountain pass used as an outpost in ancient China), illustrates the most common guqin traits: a contemplative atmosphere, a rather changeable form, and a great variety of subtly different timbres. Much of the beginning is played with stopped tones, but there are brief passages of harmonics at 1’30.” During some of the higher-range passages you can clearly hear the scraping sounds, produced as a finger or thumb of the left hand slides up or down to reach the next pitch. TABLATURE Notation that indicates how to pluck, stop, or touch Guqin tablature notation each string rather than indicating pitch. 193 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.16 (2’04”) Chapter 7: Site 1 China: Guqin (“Ancient Zither”) Instruments: Guqin (bridgeless plucked zither) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Melodic theme begins performance. 0’12” Listen for tone-bending as the performer slides between pitches. 0’21” Listen for “scratching” sounds that add timbral variation. 0’35” Listen for subtle variations in timbre as the performer plays the same pitch on two different strings. 0’37” Melodic variation of the opening theme. 1’29” Melodic variation of the opening theme using harmonic overtones until 1’35”. Source: “Yangguang sandie,” performed and recorded by Bell Yung, Pittsburgh, PA, 2002. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.16): Find a chordophone—for example, a guitar—and sound the overtones on a single string by lightly touching various harmonic nodes (at the mid-point, or a quarter or an eighth along the length of the string, for example) while plucking with your other hand. Cultural Considerations. From ancient times and continuing at least into the nineteenth century, the guqin was closely associated with the literati or scholar class, from which the Chinese government chose its officials. Scholars were required to be knowledgeable in Confucian Chinese literature, poetry, calligraphy, divination, history, philosophy, and music. Music, rather than being a pleasurable or sensuous art, was a way of inculcating and expressing the ethical values of Confucianism, which include restraint, order, balance, subtlety, and hierarchy. Nonetheless, much guqin music is indeed quite sensuous. When scholars played a guqin composition, they had to flesh out and interpret the minimalist score by taking into account the meaning of the piece, its mood, and their own feelings in relation to it. In short, guqin music was a form of personal expression that aided in self-development and brought the player closer to China’s highest ideals through a kind of sonic meditation. Because guqin playing was part of a scholar’s general cultivation of learning and of sensitivity to the arts, it is not surprising that “Parting at Yangguan” was inspired by a poem—specifically, a Tang Dynasty poem by Wang Wei (701–761) titled “Seeing Yuan Er Off to Anxi.” Sometimes performers will sing this poem as they play “Parting at Yangguan” on the guqin, because the form of the composition closely parallels the poem’s verse 194 E A S T A S I A 7 structure. The earliest tablature notation of “Parting at Yangguan” appeared in 1491 in a collection titled Zhiyin Shizi Qinpu, although the version performed here is from an 1864 publication. Guqin playing, because it was cultivated by a small elite, was probably always rare and little known to the general public. Today it is similarly rare, and the scholar class of bureaucrats who once practiced guqin playing along with their calligraphy and poetry has long been abandoned by Communist Party functionaries. Nonetheless, guqin players of many nationalities are still found throughout the world in small numbers, and in recent years, these scattered groups of musicians have been linked together by the Internet. In 2003, UNESCO designated guqin playing as an “Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.” Site 2: Jiangnan Sizhu (“Silk and Bamboo”) Ensemble from Shanghai First Impressions. Most listeners find China’s “silk and bamboo” ensemble music readily accessible. Compared to guqin music, one can more easily hear a tune, clear phrases, con- sistent rhythm, and repetition of certain musical ideas. The music is quite busy, as each instrument plays continuously throughout and makes frequent use of ornamentation. But, because most instruments play in a high range, the overall sound is “thin,” due to the lack of low range instruments and absence of harmony. Aural Analysis. Why the name silk and bamboo (sizhu)? Recall that the Chinese classified instruments according to eight materials. “Silk” instruments are those with strings, both plucked and bowed, because the original material used for strings was twisted silk. “Bamboo” instruments are flutes, both vertical and horizontal. Thus a “silk and bamboo” ensemble consists of fiddles, lutes, and flutes, with or without a few small percussion instruments. These ensembles play named compositions or tunes from a limited repertory, especially the “eight great compositions” that every musician must know. Some Jiangnan compositions, like much Chinese music generally, have titles that suggest an emotion, allude to a poem, describe a scene, or reference something historical. Our example’s title, “Huan Le Ge,” means “Song of Joy” and suggests its character as a “happy” piece. But Jiangnan music also has a great many pieces whose titles suggest musical structure, such as “Lao Liu Ban” meaning “old six beats” and referring to the structure of the original notation. Another well-known piece in the repertory is “Zhong Hua Liu Ban,” literally, “middle flowers, six beats,” also describes technical aspects of the music’s organization. The Chinese term fangman jiahua means “slowing down and adding flowers” (i.e., ornaments), and thus zhonghua refers to a “middle” degree of ornamentation (zhong is “middle” and hua is “flower”). This process of “adding flowers” suggests a traditional approach to embellishing melodies spontaneously but according to the idiomatic characteristics of each instrument. The “silk” category includes a wide variety of bowed and plucked stringed instruments, including certain lower-range versions introduced during the twentieth century as part of China’s drive to modernize. Four instruments, however, are essential: the erhu (fiddle), yangqin (hammered zither), pipa (pear-shaped lute), and dizi (horizontal bamboo flute). Other instruments can be used as well. Our track adds the xiao (vertical notch flute), ruan 195 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y This amateur Jiangnan sizhu “silk and bamboo” music group meets each Sunday afternoon in a neighborhood school in Shanghai to play through favorite compositions The Chinese erhu (two-stringed fiddle) 196 E A S T A S I A 7 (round bodied long-neck lute), san xian (three-stringed lute), plus two small percussion instruments, a ban woodblock struck with a small beater in the right hand and a gu-ban clapper held by the left hand. The erhu fiddle consists of a round or hexagonal wooden resonator with python skin covering one face. The scales of the snakeskin influence the timbre of the instrument: larger scales produce a deeper sound, while smaller scales encourage the preferred thin and grittier timbre of the erhu. A long stick serving as the neck pierces the body and has two rear tuning pegs at the top. Two strings, traditionally of silk but now often nylon, run the length of the instrument, although their acoustic length is limited to the section between the string loop along the neck and the bridge in the middle of the resonator. The horsehairs of the bow pass between the two strings, and the player pulls or pushes the bow hairs against the appropriate string while touching the strings with the left hand to create specific pitches; unlike the violin, the strings are not pressed so as to touch the neck. The yangqin dulcimer, formerly a small trapezoidal-shaped instrument with two rows of bridges, was modified during the twentieth century to increase its range and power, first to three bridge sets, then four, and most recently to five or six. Each “string” is actually a course of two or three strings, which the player strikes with two small bamboo beaters, one in each hand. The yangqin is often used as an accompanying instrument, much like the piano in Western music. The pipa lute is one of China’s quintessential instruments, as it has an extensive solo repertory in addition to appearing in ensembles. It has a hollow wooden pear-shaped body with four strings that pass over raised bamboo frets that allow for the use of all twelve tones The Chinese yang qin (hammered zither) 197 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The Chinese pipa (pear-shaped lute) The Chinese dizi (bamboo flute) 198 E A S T A S I A 7 of the Chinese tuning system. Earlier instruments had fewer frets because older Chinese music used only seven tones. The player, using fingernails or plectra covering the nails of the right hand, plucks the strings in an outward fashion (unlike finger-picking a guitar). The use of all five fingers in rapid-fire motion to sustain a pitch during some passages is a particularly distinctive stylistic feature of pipa performance. The dizi is a bamboo tube ranging in length from about 16 inches (41 cm) to 2 feet (51 cm), with a blowing hole at the left end, a membrane hole, and six finger holes. The membrane hole must be covered with a thin membrane taken from the inside of a piece of bamboo. When properly attached and stretched, this skin vibrates to create a buzz that gives the dizi its particular timbre, somewhat like a subtle kazoo. While some regional styles of Chinese music make use of pitches that sound out of tune to Western ears, “silk and bamboo” styles originating in the Shanghai region, such as our example, use pitches that sound quite familiar. Players need only instruments capable of playing the seven regular pitches of the D major scale. Seven pitches are required even though the music is essentially pentatonic, because the melodies expand to more than five pitches through shifts in tonal center or conjunct passages. The two most common keys— called diao in Chinese—are D and G, especially in the Shanghai area. Unlike guqin music, the meter of which is often vague, “silk and bamboo” music has a clear duple meter, with obvious downbeats and upbeats. Rhythms tend to be relatively simple, with nothing more complex being found than a few syncopations and many dotted values. What might strike you about our example, though, is that all the musicians are playing the same tune—but differently, resulting in a heterophonic structure. Heterophony is a fundamental phonic structure of most east and southeast Asian traditional music ensembles. Virtually all instruments in sizhu have a high range, giving the music a bright, busy quality. If you listen carefully, you can hear the timbres of individual instruments and differences in the way each plays a phrase. The erhu “slides” into some notes, the dizi “flutters,” the pipa utilizes its tone-bending and “rapid-fire” plucking techniques, while the yangqin “bounces” along adding occasional ornamentations, primarily at the octave. Also notice that the instruments play all the time and that there is little or no shading of dynamics. This type of music is quite tuneful, so you may find yourself humming the catchier melodies, some of which are quite well known and are part of the foundational repertory of Chinese music. Even though such compositions are tuneful, the more advanced repertory—of which “Huan Le Ge” is an example—tends to be through-composed or continuously unfolding. What binds a piece together is the use of a number of short musical motives that reappear often, as well as the use of a single key and a consistent heterophonic structure. For the most part, this music is played at one dynamic level and with little more subtlety as far as tempo is con- cerned than a slowing down at the end. What makes the music fascinating, however, is the ever-evolving interplay of the different instruments, which makes each performance unique in its details. 199 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.17 (5’32”) Chapter 7: Site 2 China: Jiangnan Sizhu (“Silk and Bamboo”) Ensemble Instruments: Erhu (bowed lute), gaohu (bowed lute), pipa (plucked lute), dizi (flute), yangqin (hammered zither), zhong ruan (mid-range plucked lute), ban (woodblock idiophone) and gu ban (hand-held clapper). TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Wood block (ban) initiates the piece. 0’06” All instruments enter following a heterophonic structure. Listen attentively for the timbre of each instrument and note the individual interpretations of the melodic line. The initial five pitches are noted as 3, 2 3, 5, 1. 0’29” Listen for the brief sustain on the sixth scale degree (6) of the pentatonic scale (1, 2, 3, 5, 6). Note that an additional pitch (7) appears as a passing tone periodically throughout the performance (e.g., 0’33”, 1’18”, 1’54”, etc.). 0’48” Melodic resolution on first scale degree (1). 1’07” Brief sustain on sixth scale degree (6). Listen for such sustains on this pitch throughout the performance (e.g., 1’44”, 3’04”, etc.). 1’27” Melodic resolution on the first scale degree and again at 2’03”. 2’44” Brief sustain on third scale degree (3). Listen for such sustains on this pitch throughout the performance (e.g., 3’13”, 3’32”, etc.). 2’50” Brief tonal shift to second scale degree (2). 3’39” Melodic resolution on the first scale degree and again at 4’25”. 4’28” Musicians pause and then transition to faster tempo section. 5’16” Tempo slows to final resolution on the first scale degree (1). Source: “Huan Le Ge” recorded in Shanghai, PR China by Terry E. Miller, 2007. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.17): Using the pitches indicated in the Listening Guide, notate the basic outline of the melody using cipher (numeral) notation. Cultural Considerations. As with Chinese cuisine, “silk and bamboo” music is regional, and there are at least four distinct traditions. Our example, as we have already noted, represents the tradition found in and around Shanghai. Because the mile-wide Yangtze River, the more southern of China’s two major rivers, reaches the ocean at Shanghai, it forms a major 200 E A S T A S I A 7 Jiangnan sizhu meeting: three lutes (from left to right) small san xian (three-stringed lute), ruan (round lute), and pipa (pear-shaped lute) geographical marker for the region. For this reason, the region is known as Jiangnan (“south of the river”), and the “silk and bamboo” music from the area is called Jiangnan sizhu or the “silk and bamboo music south of the river.” Other distinct regional types include Cantonese (from Guangdong province in the south), Chaozhou (from eastern Guangdong province), and Nanguan (from Xiamen and Quanzhou in southern Fujian province). “Silk and bamboo” music is best described as an amateur music because it is typically played by non-professionals in a casual clubhouse setting for their own pleasure, rather than on a stage for an audience. Originally, however, Jiangnan music was more widely heard in other settings, including weddings, and was also used to accompany one of the operatic genres of Shanghai as well as a local narrative singing tradition. As in many Asian cultures, professional musicians in China traditionally had a low social status, especially those who played for opera performances, weddings, and above all funerals. “Silk and bamboo” ensembles allowed ordinary working people the opportunity to be artistic without being tainted as “professional musicians.” While all regional styles are typically played in a private clubhouse or meeting room situations, the Jiangnan style can be heard by visitors to the Mid- Lake Pavilion Teahouse in Shanghai’s historical district, where the sounds of the music mingle with the chatter of patrons and the clatter of dishes. In addition, music conservatories now teach students to play this music but from refined, fully written-out arrangements. Experienced Chinese musicians play without notation from a knowledge of the tune’s basic structure plus the idiomatic characteristics of the instrument. Less experienced musicians may prefer to read notation using jianpu, a form of Chinese notation using Arabic numerals (referred to as cipher notation in English). Probably adopted originally from Western missionaries, most likely from France, who brought hymnals printed in numeral 201 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Measures 1-3 of “Huan Le Ge” in jianpu (numeral) notation. Pitch 1 is Western pitch D or do. Order of instruments from top to bottom: dizi (horizontal flute), sheng (mouth organ), pipa (lute), san xian (three- stringed lute), yangqin (dulcimer), erhu (fiddle), zhong hu (middle-range fiddle), and ban/gu (clapper and drum). Ed. Ma Sheng- Long and published in Shanghai in 1986/2000 A Jiangnan sizhu (“silk and bamboo”) ensemble playing informally in its meeting room, Shanghai, China (Phong Nguyen) notation, jianpu is quite practical and easy to read. Regardless of key, the “home” pitch (tonic or keynote) is 1. In “D diao” (key of D), 1 is D, 3 is F♯, and 5 is A, but in “G diao” pitch 1 is G, 3 is B, and 5 is D. Though Chinese melodies are mostly diatonic and remain in a single key, this notation can also be used to notate more complex compositions using additional signs from Western 202 E A S T A S I A 7 staff notation, such as sharps (♯) or flats (♭) and other graphic signs. Much traditional music is played in D and G diao, though other keys are possible. Dots above or below a number indicate octaves above and below the main octave, respectively. Rhythm/duration is indi- cated with horizontal lines below the numbers, while measures are marked with vertical lines. Site 3: Beijing Opera ( Jingju ) First Impressions. On listening to our recorded example, you probably cannot help but notice the clangor of the percussion, particularly the “rising” and “falling” sound of the gongs. The prominent fiddle is quite nasal-sounding and some of the pitches it plays probably strike you as out of tune. The vocal quality is piercing compared to most world music traditions, particularly in comparison to opera traditions from the West. The music of the Beijing Opera is often challenging for first-time listeners to appreciate, although the chance to see a live performance would no doubt win some new fans with its visual spectacle: the vivid costumes, the striking painted faces of some of the performers, and the stage action— especially the acrobatics, which are inspired by Chinese martial arts. Aural Analysis. With many musics from around the world, timbre is the aspect that most challenges the first-time listener due to unfamiliarity with the instrument sounds and vocal styles. This is certainly true of Beijing Opera, called jingju (meaning “capital city opera”) JINGJU in Chinese. For most listeners, even in China, the vocal quality of jingju is decidedly different Literally “capital city from what is normally encountered. All roles are sung with little or no vibrato, and many opera,” known as “Beijing” or sound rather nasal and quite high in range. Men playing female roles, a common practice “Peking” Opera. Jingxi (Beijing Opera) performance: a red-faced general is flanked by a painted face (jing) to his left and a young man (xiao sheng) to his right 203 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The jing hu (fiddle), the main instrument of the jingju opera Student musicians accompany a rehearsal performance of jingxi (Beijing Opera) at the Shandong Opera School, Jinan, China 204 E A S T A S I A 7 in jingju, use the falsetto (or “head”) voice. The jing (painted-face characters) tend to sing in a rough, declamatory style. The instrumental accompaniment is a combination of melodic and percussion instru- ments that play as two groups. The melodic group is divided into “civil” and “military” sections, the former led by the genre’s distinctive short, two-stringed bamboo fiddle, called jinghu, the latter by the loud double-reed called suona. Other melodic instruments include an erhu fiddle, the moon-shaped yue qin lute, and sometimes other lutes, such as the pipa. The military group, comprised entirely of percussion, is led by a “conductor” who plays a clapper (guban) held in the left hand, and uses a stick held in the right hand to beat on a distinctive small drum (bangu). He is accompanied by musicians playing both large and small gongs and cymbals. The conductor’s drum has a dry, hollow timbre, while the tone of the large gong (daluo) decays downward (i.e., its pitch drops as its volume falls), and that of the small gong (xiaoluo) decays upward (its pitch rises as the volume falls). Besides marking beats, these percussion instruments also provide sound effects that symbolize actions, emotions, or objects. Singers have to work closely with both the “conductor” and the jinghu player, because singing is improvised according to a host of variables, which comprise what is called a “modal system.” This practice is quite unlike that of many other regional opera traditions, which require lyricists simply to write poetry to fit pre-existing, named tunes. Simply put, the “modal system” that governs the creation of melody here consists of several variables that allow for a kind of composition simultaneous with performance. Among these are: (1) role type; (2) melodic mode; (3) metrical/rhythmic pattern; and (4) linguistic tone. Our example features an aria from the opera Mu Kezhai (named after the main character), which is sung by a female warrior, Mu Guiying, the daughter of an infamous outlaw from the Sung Dynasty. After an introductory section performed by the percussion, during which she performs militaristic stage actions, the female warrior begins singing in speech-like rhythms, accompanied by the melodic instruments. After another percussion interlude, she begins a section in a regular duple meter during which the conductor’s clapper is clearly heard. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.18 (3’24”) Chapter 7: Site 3 China: Beijing Opera ( Jingju ) Vocal: Single female (Dan) Instruments: Ban gu (wood clapper/drum), xiao luo (small, high-pitched gong), da luo (large, low-pitched gong), cymbals, jinghu (high-range bowed lute), erhu (middle-range bowed lute), yue qin (plucked lute) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Percussion introduction begins with the ban gu, followed by the gongs and cymbals. 0’01” Listen for the “rising” pitch of the small gong compared with the “falling” pitch of the larger gong. 205 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y 0’21” Short percussion break. Instruments resume in anticipation of the vocal solo. 0’32” Melodic ensemble enters. Note that the music is in free rhythm. 0’55” Vocalist enters. Listen for the jinghu (high-range bowed lute) supporting the vocal line. The music continues in free rhythm. 1’57” Percussion returns. 2’23” Melodic ensemble returns. Note that the music follows a regular beat. 2’47” Vocalist returns as music continues with a regular beat. 2’57” The tempo gradually decreases. 3’14” Vocalist drops out and the melodic ensemble returns to a faster tempo with a regular beat. Source: “Tao Ma Tan (role), aria from Mu Kezhai (opera),” from the recording titled The Chinese Opera: Arias from Eight Peking Opera, Lyrichord LLST 7212, n.d. Used by permission, Lyrichord Discs Inc. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.18): For theatrical performance such as this example, it is important to see the on stage activity. Watch a video recording of a Beijing Opera (Mu Kezhai, if possible) in its entirety. Cultural Considerations. Typically, Asian theater traditions strive for symbolic rather than realistic action, depict individual characters as universal types, make music an integral part of the performance, and generally stylize all aspects of performance. Jingju perhaps develops these tendencies to a greater degree than any of the other local theater traditions found throughout China. Most of those use realistic, if stylized, scenery, but jingju does not. The props are minimal, normally only a table and two chairs. As in most Chinese theater trad- itions, jingju actors use a special stage language, though the comedians speak in Beijing dialect to indicate their low class status. Although many of the local types of theater were— and continue to be—performed in a ritual context on a temporary stage within a temple facing the main god’s altar, jingju is mostly performed in formal theaters, the other context for Chinese opera. In most local operas, players receive informal training within a troupe, but jingju can be studied formally in government-supported schools. Indeed, jingju has come to be the preferred way to represent traditional Chinese culture to the outside world; other kinds of Chinese theater are rarely encountered outside of China except within the confines of an overseas Chinese community. The typical jingju performance places the music ensemble on stage left (the audience’s right). Actors and actresses enter and exit from and to the left or right, using the table and two chairs to represent everything from a throne scene to a mountain battle site. An actor holding a stick with a simulated mane is understood to be riding a horse, and an official flanked by young actors holding cloth flags with wheels painted on them is understood to be riding in a chariot. For many years, men had to play women’s roles, singing in falsetto (head) voice, because women were often banned from the stage as theater was seen as morally corrupting. Today, with such bans long gone, women not only play female roles but some- 206 E A S T A S I A 7 A performance of a military style play in Taipei’s Military Theater as seen from the lighting booth Military jing painted face character Imprisoned dan (female) character with Dan (female) preparing make-up in chou (comedian) keeper dressing room 207 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Military scene with numerous generals times play men’s roles as well, while some men continue to impersonate women. Regardless of his or her gender, each performer specializes in a role type. There are four major role types with numerous subdivisions: (1) sheng (male roles), subdivided into young man, old man, and military male; (2) dan (female roles), which are similarly subdivided; (3) jing (painted face roles), which feature a facial pattern that symbolizes the person’s character; and (4) chou (comedians), who are easily identified by the white patch in the middle of their faces. If you see a performance given in North America by a visiting troupe, chances are the singing portions will be shortened and the acrobatic sections lengthened, because it is com- monly believed that Western audiences cannot tolerate the musical aspects of jingju well. But within North America there are also jingju clubs that give performances for connoisseurs who do not need rapid stage action to maintain interest. YANGBANXI Site 4: Revolutionary Beijing Opera ( Yangbanxi ) Literally, “model revolutionary First Impressions. Were you able to see a live performance of what is translated as [Beijing] Opera,” the “Revolutionary Peking (Beijing) Opera,” (or yangbanxi in Chinese), you would be struck by Chinese term for a host of differences between this form and traditional jingju (Beijing Opera). First, in Beijing Operas yangbanxi the actors and actresses wear modern costumes, including military uniforms. infused with Second, the stage is much more realistic looking, because it features props and background communist and scenery. Third, frequently some or even all of the instruments used are Western, and even nationalist political messages during when the instruments are all or mostly Chinese, the music is arranged and often uses Western the Cultural harmony. Some of the elements of yangbanxi may be reminiscent of jingju, especially the Revolution use of percussion and the sound of most voices, but unlike the fanciful stories found in (1966–1976). jingju, in yangbanxi the story clearly has political ramifications. Indeed, even without 208 E A S T A S I A 7 knowing Chinese you can easily differentiate the “good guys” from the “bad guys.” The former stand nobly tall, have determined looks, and are well lighted with healthy-looking skin, while the latter are often hunched, even cowering, have unhealthy greenish-looking skin, and are dimly lit. Invariably, the “good guys” are the followers of Chairman Mao, while the “bad guys” are variously the nationalist Chinese led by General Chiang Kai-Shek, the Japanese, evil Chinese landowners, or even, in one opera, American soldiers. Scene from the Revolutionary Beijing Opera Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy (Peking: Foreign Languages Press) The hero character in the Revolutionary Beijing Opera Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy challenges his oppressor (Peking: Foreign Languages Press) 209 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Aural Analysis. During the ten years of the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), a number of “modernized” Peking Operas were made into political (i.e., “revolutionary”) works. Some of them, including our example, the 1967 work On the Docks, were held up as models to represent communist ideals. Although On the Docks was not the most satisfactory revo- lutionary opera in terms of its dramatic effectiveness, it was considered the most politically progressive of all. Mao’s wife insisted on a revision of the work in 1972, and this revised version is heard on the recording we have selected. Originally recorded by the “On the Docks” Group of the Peking Opera Troupe of Shanghai, the opera combines Western orches- tral instruments with certain traditional Chinese instruments, including the jinghu fiddle and the percussion section. The music of revolutionary opera, depending on the version, may preserve many or just a few sounds of traditional jingju; whatever the case, it is played from a completely written- out score. More like film music than old-style Chinese music, it creates dramatic shifts of mood. Those versions that were most modernized also use many Western orchestral instruments, and the scores include other Western features such as harmony, counterpoint, and orchestration. Excerpts from the one-page English synopsis included with the Chinese- language libretto give an idea of the opera’s political goals: “On the Docks” depicts the spirit of patriotism and internationalism of the Chinese working class. The time is early summer in 1963. The place, a dock in Shanghai. FH, secretary of the Communist Party branch of a dockers’ brigade, and KC, are communist team leaders, who are leading the dockers in a rush job before the coming of a typhoon. They have to finish the loading of a big batch of rice seeds for shipment to Africa so as to support the anti-imperialist struggle of the Asian, African and Latin American peoples. [Wheat sacks left out must also be moved.] During the rush young docker HH, who looks down on his work and is absent- minded, accidentally spills a sack of wheat. . . . Pretending to help sweep up the spilled wheat, C seizes the chance to pour the fiberglass in his dustbin into the wheat sack [and mixes it with the other sacks meant for export.] FH, working closely with her mates, discovers the incident of the spilled sack. What happened? With this problem in mind, she re-reads the Communiqué of the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. [Eventually] H awakens to his mistake and exposes C’s criminal activities. The enemy is completely revealed and the dockers fulfill their aid mission with flying colors. Red flags fly over the rippling waters and in the morning sun the Shanghai dockers march on with revolutionary militancy toward the great goal of communism.” Cultural Considerations. Music and politics have long been intertwined in China as they have sometimes been in the West as well. From the time of Kong Fuzi (Confucius, d. 479 B.C.E.), music was viewed as having ethical power—that is, the ability to influence people’s thinking. Right music led to right thinking and right behavior. Confucianism has continued to underlie much of Chinese culture to the present, requiring restraint, balance, and non- individuality. But China underwent severe disruption to its traditional society in the twentieth century. In the 1920s a civil war broke out between the communists under Mao Zedong and the nationalists under Chiang Kai-Shek, which led, after the defeat of Chiang 210 E A S T A S I A 7 L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 1.19 (2’35”) Chapter 7: Site 4 China: Revolutionary Beijing Opera ( Yangbanxi ) Vocal: Male lead and supporting male vocal ensemble Instruments: Jinghu (high-range bowed lute), erhu (mid-range bowed lute), Beijing opera percussion (cymbals, gongs, etc.). European-style orchestra (strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Orchestral opening. Listen for the variety of “Western” instruments, such as violins, trumpets, flutes, harp, and so on. 0’09” Whistle sounds in correspondence with on stage actor’s activities. 0’25” Actors shout. 0’32” Chinese melodic instruments enter along with the orchestra. 0’42” Spoken text followed by the vocal lead solo. Notice the full-bodied vocal timbre in contrast to the “pinched” nasal quality of the Beijing Opera vocal timbre. 1’14” Orchestral break. 1’19” Voice returns. Listen for the jinghu supporting the vocal line. 1’36” Orchestral break. 1’42” Voice returns. 1’51” Tempo slows and the orchestra follows the rhythmic phrasing of the vocal lead. 2’20” Actors shout again and Chinese percussion is heard prominently. 2’24” Spoken dialogue as example fades. Source: Scene 1, “A Rush Shipment,” from the recording titled On the Docks: Modern Revolutionary Peking Opera, performed by the “On the Docks” Group of the Peking Opera Troupe of Shanghai. China Record Company, M-958, n.d. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 1.19): As locating video recordings of complete Revolutionary Opera performances is difficult, do some library or Internet research to find photos and video excerpts from On the Docks and other Yangbanxi performances. 211 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y in 1949, to the founding of the People’s Republic of China, while the nationalists fled to Taiwan where the Republic of China continues to this day. Chairman Mao Zedong, leader of China’s Communist Party from 1920 to 1976, under- stood the power of music and theater and used them as his most potent weapons both to fight his enemies and to influence and control his subjects. It was actually one of Mao’s wives, former actress Jiang Qing, who supervised the politicization of jingju, primarily during the Cultural Revolution, a period of top-down revolution and chaos in China during which “traditional” culture, including Beijing Opera, was prohibited. During the years from 1966 to 1976 the Chinese people were subjected to non-stop propaganda, much of it in the form of artistic productions (including music, dance, spoken theater, opera, art, and literature). Jiang Qing oversaw the creation of the “Eight Model Works”: five Revolutionary Beijing Operas, two Revolutionary Ballets, and one Revolutionary Symphony. When President Richard Nixon surprised the world with his visit to China in 1972 at the height of the Cultural Revolution, he witnessed a performance of The Red Detachment of Women, one of the Revolutionary Ballets, an event that is central to John Adams’s 1987 opera Nixon in China. Besides the Revolutionary stage works, there was an abundance of new music written with socialist themes, mostly played by new sorts of ensembles (with or without vocalists), which used full orchestrations and harmony. These works varied from settings of Chairman Mao’s words to music (e.g., the song “A Revolution Is Not a Dinner Party”), to music praising Chairman Mao (e.g., “Chairman Mao’s Love for Us Is Deeper Than the Ocean”), to music calling for revolutionary action (e.g., “The People in Taiwan Long for Liberation”) or extolling the communist work ethic (e.g., “Driving Tractors in Dazhai-Type Fields”). Because Chinese people heard so much revolutionary music and opera during the Cultural Revolution, you might be surprised to learn that record companies have released karaoke versions of the operas, and new VCD (video compact disc) versions of the films have been reissued to feed a nostalgic appreciation for the music of that period. The younger generations of Chinese, however, were nearly all born after the Cultural Revolution and only know the economically liberalized nation of today. For them, popular music is virtually the only music that they are exposed to, and as the government releases its grip on culture, there is more and more of it. Forty years ago Chinese traditional artists had to struggle against government controls to be heard, but now they struggle against the near total dominance of popular music, both local and imported from the West as well as from nearby countries. Explore More Popular Music in East Asia Karaoke, Japanese anime, and martial arts films from Hong Kong, which have inspired modern-day action films in the Popular music in East Asia is steadily growing in its influence United States and abroad. Teenagers and young adults around the world. While few specific artists are known from this region are as familiar with the icons of Western to most people outside the region, pop culture generally mainstream pop, such as Lady Gaga, as their Western coun- has embraced many innovations from the region, such as terparts, but add to their iPods music from indigenous 212 E A S T A S I A 7 superstars, such as Hikaru Utada, Namie Amuro, Gackt, Ayu, associated with this early style was Zhou Xuan (1918–1957), Anita Mui, Faye Wong, and Jackie Chan, the latter being best a singer and movie actress who became popular during the known as an international movie star but also a pop music late 1930s. After the Chinese Civil War (1945–1949), how- icon in East Asia. The majority of pop stars from East Asia are ever, the new communist government restricted this music from Japan and Hong Kong, though others from Taiwan and as well as other outside influences coming from the West. Korea find regional fame as well. Famous popular artists, such as Elvis Presley and The Beatles, were largely unknown on mainland China until the Mainland China, however, has produced very few popular end of the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976). Elsewhere, music stars due primarily to the communist political climate however, the popularity of American and European music of the last half century, which largely discouraged popular idols thrived, inspiring the various modern music styles of styles as having a negative influence on society. The irony is J-Pop (Japanese Pop), K-Pop (Korean Pop), M-Pop (Mando that popular music throughout much of East Asia is con- (Mandarin)-Pop), and C-Pop (Canto-Pop), as well as other East sidered to have originated in Shanghai during the 1920s as a and Southeast Asian styles, including Luk Thung (Thailand) mix of Chinese traditional music and American jazz called and Dangdut (Indonesia). shidaiqu (“contemporary songs”). The most famous figure Arrival: Mongolia GOLI ON M A If there’s a place that deserves the title “Big Sky Country,” it would be landlocked Mongolia, tucked between China to the south and Russia to the north. Its open grassland landscapes— called steppe—and the great Gobi Desert, plus most days being cloudless, give visitors a feeling of great openness. With little arable land, sparse rainfall, and a short growing season, the Mongolians long ago learned to co-exist with their harsh climate, hot in the summer and extremely cold and windy in the winter. Originally a nomadic people dependent on their beloved horses, today only 30 per cent of the population of only 2.9 million maintain this life style. In spite of this tiny population, Mongolia is a country of great diversity, of numerous if little-known ethnic groups, and of religious complexity. While many Mongolians continue to practice their ancient form of shamanism—shamans being spe- cialists in “traveling” to the land of the spirits—they long ago also embraced the Tibetan form of Buddhism, as seen in magnificent temples in urban areas. A first-time visitor will be struck by Mongolia’s apparent emptiness. Although the capital city, Ulaanbaatar (also spelled Ulan Bator), appears large, its population is only slightly more than half a million—nonetheless, the city is home to nearly 40 per cent of the country’s population. With a land area nearly four times that of California and equal to that of Iran, Mongolia has one of the lowest density populations in the world. Mongolia’s neighbors include Chinese Turks to the southwest, Russia to the northeast, and the Republic of Tuva (properly, Tyva) to the northwest; the latter, a member of the Russian Federation, is home to thriving musical traditions similar to those found in Mongolia. Despite Mongolia’s historically small population, in the twelfth century the Mongol civilization became extremely powerful, and the armies of the Khans (emperors), particularly Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (d. 1227), subdued not only China during the Yuan Dynasty (1260–1227), but a vast area stretching from Korea to the Black Sea and including parts of Southeast Asia. When 213 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Mongolian round canvas homes (yurt) (Shutterstock) Italian adventurer Marco Polo visited China in the late thirteenth century, his host was the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan, grandson of Chinggis. The capital city of Mongolia is hardly a haven for traditional culture; instead, it reflects the Soviet influence Mongolia came under after achieving independence from China in 1921. The city’s architecture looks far more Soviet than Mongolian, and it was under Soviet influ- ence that Mongolians developed their “folkloric troupes” to represent Mongolian culture to the outside world, as well as visitors. Originally, much of Mongolia’s music had spiritual and religious significance, because music was often considered a form of communication between the worlds of humans and spirits. Under communism, however, most musical traditions were secularized and put on the stage. Music that had been—and mostly continues to be—passed down orally has also OVERTONE been harnessed by the European-style music conservatories. It is “overtone singing” that has One of the brought Mongolian music to world attention. While overtone singing is both important and ascending group of distinctive, the country’s most typical form of music is actually the urtïn duu, the “long tones that form the songs” accompanied by Mongolia’s most distinctive instrument, a trapezoid-bodied, long- harmonic series necked bowed lute called the morin khuur. Where the overtone singing lacks lyrics, the long derived from the fundamental pitch. songs retell the culture’s great stories and history as well as describe the natural environment; some say that these “sing the landscape.” Site 5: Mongolian Urt ï n Duu (Long Song) with Kh öö mei (Overtone or “Throat” Singing) First Impressions. It is not the instrument that attracts our attention—that is clearly a bowed lute—or the female’s singing but rather the other performer’s singing, if that is the right term. 214 E A S T A S I A 7 Some listeners describe these sounds as unearthly Mongolian and find them “haunting.” Some observers say it “throat” singer, Ts. Sengedorj, resembles whistling and wonder how such sounds are performs in full produced. Additionally many ask what might have costume (Jack inspired a culture to produce such sounds. Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) Aural Analysis. Traditional Mongolian life was and, for many, continues to be lived in nature and among one’s flocks of sheep and goats. Without horses, Mongolians would have no way to travel or herd their flocks, and thus it is not surprising that they would enshrine the horse on their principal bowed lute, the morin khuur which, because of the carved horse-head at the top is translated as “horse-head fiddle.” This long-necked fiddle, with two silk strings and a separate bow, is normally played by a seated male, with the body of the instrument resting on his knee and the neck resting against his shoulder. The song they are performing, Sünder Agula (Sünder Mountain), alludes to the sacred nature of mountains in old Mongolian society. It comes from a song genre called Urtïn duu or “long songs” and originated in western Mongolia. In addition to the “normal” singing by a female, a male performs regular singing while another sings with what sounds like a whistle. It is this kind of vocal production that has attracted so much attention to Mongolia over the past thirty or so years. Two Mongolian musicians play the morin khuur (two-stringed, “horse-head” fiddle) (Shutterstock) 215 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y KHÖÖMEI The Mongolian term for this type of singing is khöömei (also romanized as höömii), Throat or overtone while in English it is called throat-singing (a somewhat odd label, because all singing takes singing from place in the throat) or overtone singing. What makes this singing so distinctive is the way Mongolia. in which the singer manipulates what are called overtones. Any tone or pitch, except perhaps one generated electronically, consists of a fundamental and a series of harmonics, called overtones or partials. The timbre of a given tone is determined by which overtones are emphasized—a function of how the fundamental was produced (e.g., by a double reed, a vibrating string, buzzing lips, etc.)—and by the relative weakness or strength of the various overtones. A tone in which the lower overtones are emphasized will likely sound “warm,” whereas one in which the upper overtones are more prominent will sound “bright,” “harsh,” or perhaps “hollow.” In overtone singing, the performer—formerly only male, now female as well—produces, usually with significant pressure on the glottis (a part of the vocal cords), a fundamental and, by shaping the mouth cavity, brings out different patterns of overtones. A series of well- controlled, changing overtones produces an actual melody over a drone. Highly skilled singers can even produce both the lower melody and the overtone melody simultaneously, as heard in this track. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.1 (2’39”) Chapter 7: Site 5 Mongolia: Urt ï n duu (Long song) with khöömei (overtone or throat singing) Voices: Single female, single male, male also performing overtone singing Instrument: Morin khuur (horse-head fiddle) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Morin khuur begins. 0’07” Khöömei vocalist enters. Listen for the deep fundamental drone tone along with the overtone singing. Note that the overtone melody follows the melodic line of the fiddle. 0’20” Female vocalist enters as khöömei vocalist stops. Note that the singer and instrumentalist follow the same melodic line. 1’16” Khöömei vocalist joins the singer and instrumentalist. 1’30” Male vocalist enters as the khöömei and female vocalists stop. Note again the singer and instrumentalist follow the same melodic line. 2’27” Khöömei vocalist joins the singer and instrumentalist. Source: “Urtïn duu Sınder Mountain” from Mongolia: Living Music of the Steppes/ Instrumental Music and Song of Mongolia, Multicultural Media, MCM 3001 (1997). Used with permission. 216 E A S T A S I A 7 ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.1): Sing a deep drone pitch and change the shape of your mouth to create different timbres. Listen for the subtle changes in overtones and try to amplify these over the fundamental sung pitch. Cultural Considerations. Among “world music” enthusiasts little has garnered as much attention in recent years as “throat-singing,” also called “overtone singing.” While a similar form of singing found in the nearby Republic of Tuva has perhaps attracted a greater following in the West in recent years, Mongolian overtone singing is certainly just as striking. Singers in other areas of the world, including Altai, Khakassia, the Chukchi Peninsula, Tibet, Japan’s Hokkaido (now extinct), Sardinia in the Mediterranean as well as the Inuit of Alaska, practice various forms of overtone singing, but less prominently than in Mongolia. Few outsiders will have the opportunity to hear Mongolian overtone singing in its original context—performed in a yurt (round tent) with singers surrounded by family and friends. Nonetheless, many recordings of overtone singing exist, sometimes even combining it with various forms of art and popular music. American musician Bela Fleck, for example, has collaborated with Mongolian throat singer Kongar-Ol Ondar, and under the indirect influ- ence of German avant-garde composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, created an extended work titled Stimmung in 1968, which features overtone singing. In Mongolia this unique style of singing is closely tied to the shamanistic/animistic beliefs still held by many Mongolians. The voice is meant to imitate the sounds of nature, attempting to duplicate the rich timbres of natural phenomena such as the swirling wind or rushing water. Mountains, rivers, and animals are believed to contain a spiritual energy that is manifested not only physically but sonically as well. Echoes reflected from a cliff, for example, are said to be infused with spiritual power. Overtone singers believe they can assimilate this power by recreating such sounds. Some speculate that overtone singing orig- inated from the efforts of herders to imitate animal sounds when trying to rescue newborn animals when unable to nurse or when rejected by the mother. Sometimes herders soothed or coaxed their animals with their overtone singing. From these functions it is believed that herders honed their abilities until this form of singing became part of the musical traditions of Mongolia. Arrival: Korea REPUBLIC OF KOREA 28 JUN Although the Korean language is unrelated to the languages of its closest neighbors, China Te m p o rary v isito r and Japan, the fact that it is partially written in Chinese characters shows that early in its history Korea absorbed many aspects of China’s civilization. Korea also accepted Confucian teachings and philosophy, the emperor system, Chinese Buddhism and Daoism, and many of China’s instruments and musical types. Sandwiched between China and Japan, Korea has suffered repeatedly as each of these kingdoms expanded. From 1910 to 1945 Korea was a colony of Japan. Following World War II, Korea found itself as the battleground in a struggle between China and the West; this led to a kind of internationalized civil war, which ended with an armistice in 1952. Today, the Korean peninsula remains divided into two countries—North Korea and South Korea. 217 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Altogether, the Korean peninsula is only the size of the United Kingdom. While North Korea is the larger of the two countries, it has less than half of South Korea’s population. The two nations are unequal in many other ways as well: the South is a modern, developed, democratic nation that manufactures goods for the entire world, whereas in the North, currently under the strict control of a quixotic ruler Kim Jong-Il, malnutrition and starvation stemming both from government policies and natural disasters are common. Culturally speaking, both countries have departed from the old Korean traditions, the North because of its peculiar form of communism, the South because of modernization. Nonetheless, in some major cities, such as Seoul, the capital of South Korea, “traditional” culture continues to flourish in the “museums” of certain government-sponsored institutions. Just as Korean cuisine has attained little prominence in the West, Korean music has also struggled to be appreciated, even within Korea; for many Westerners both the food and the music can be described as “acquired tastes,” the spiciness of Korean food being likened to the sonic spiciness of Korean music. From the first century onward Korea absorbed much Chinese musical culture, especially court and ritual musics, much of which was essentially preserved through the centuries, even as music in China continued to change. As a con- sequence, Korea maintains one of the oldest continuously living music traditions in the world, the Confucian ritual music called a-ak. These hymns to the ancient Chinese philoso- pher, Confucius, are still sung once a year on his birthday (September 27). The Chinese originals first had to undergo change to accommodate Korean tastes. Similarly, Korean court music, preserved today by several cultural institutions, remains extremely archaic. In the face of the politically induced stresses of the last century, particularly the Japanese occupation (1910–1945), World War II, the Korean War, and the Korean Peninsula’s division into north and south, traditional forms of music have struggled to survive. South Korea has preserved some forms in educational and cultural institutions, where they are still taught and performed as museum pieces, while North Korea has discarded most vestiges of tradition in favor of newly created and highly politicized forms of music inspired by the old Soviet “Socialist Realism,” an approach that requires all art to have political ramifications and inspire the people to uphold state policies. South Korea nonetheless retains a rich repertory consisting of solo, semi-improvised instrumental music (called sanjo), ensemble music, narrative and lyrical song, theatrical music, “farmer’s band music,” and the now widely known folk-derived percussion music called samul-nori. Although there are exceptions, China’s instrumental timbres tend to be bright and clear, while those of Korea might be described as “rough,” “fuzzy,” and “waver- ing” because of the strong use of vibrato. While China’s music is clearly based on tunes, Korea’s does not generally sound tuneful to foreign ears; indeed, when Korean ensembles play together, some listener’s have trouble hearing the instrumental parts as even being related to each other. Finally, ornamentation in Korean music tends to come unevenly in sudden spurts. P’ANSORI Site 6: P’ansori Narrative Korean narrative First Impressions. P’ansori is a passionate music. The vocalist begins with a cathartic wail, vocal performance style, featuring so powerful that it strains the limits of the recording equipment. Accompanied by seemingly epic-length stories. random drumbeats, she employs a great variety of vocal techniques, from near whispers to 218 E A S T A S I A 7 Korean p’ansori (narrative) performers, the singer on the left, the puk barrel drummer on the right (Embassy of Korea) speaking to singing and raspy shouting. A noticeable wide vibrato heightens the emotion, encouraging a highly evocative and dramatic performance. Even while the language is a barrier to non-native speakers, the fierceness with which p’ansori performers display their craft attracts loyal followers around the world. Aural Analysis. P’ansori is one of Asia’s greatest narrative forms and certainly among the most dramatic. Although considered a form of “folk” music, p’ansori requires extensive training, a prodigious memory, and incredible physical strength and vocal endurance. Today singers perform only five stories, each potentially lasting several hours, but in the distant past there were as many as twelve. Our example provides an excerpt from one of the five, Ch’un-Hyang-Ka, the story of a young woman whose name means “Spring Fragrance.” As with many classical stories from East Asia, the plot revolves around a young student and his lover; in this case, the student is named Li Mongnyong and his lover is called Ch’un- Hyang. Ch’un-Hyang’s mother is a kisaeng—that is, a professional singer and entertainer— but does not want her daughter to follow in her footsteps. The two lovers are secretly married before Li Mongnyong departs for Seoul to begin the classical studies that will hopefully lead to a position of authority in the government. After many years as an official, he returns to his hometown disguised as a beggar to check on his wife and discovers that she and her mother have suffered greatly during his absence. He then reveals his true identity. Some have interpreted the story as a critique of feudalism and its abuses. The story is realized by two performers, a vocalist—in this case a respected and elderly female master—and a drummer. The drum used is the puk, a shallow barrel drum with two tacked heads. Held vertically by the drummer, he strikes the right head with a stick and the 219 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Drummer playing puk drum to accompany p’ansori (narrative) (Embassy of Korea) left head with his hand, occasionally calling out praise or encouragement to the singer. Both performers have a degree of freedom to improvise, limited within strict conventions. The vocalist’s performance is governed by a modal system that provides an appropriate scale, melodic motives, and conventional ways to express emotions. The drummer’s part is based on fixed cyclic patterns of drumbeats, but because the cycle is rather long in duration and the drumbeats are not continuous, the cycle may have a random feel to non-connoisseurs. The range of vocal timbres is exceptionally rich, as the vocalist varies from speaking to declamation to song, to raspy, tense bursts of sound. The vocal range is unusually wide. Different pitches (depending on the particular scale/mode) have different degrees and kinds of vibrato, a distinctive feature of p’ansori performance. Connoisseurs of this music recognize the distinctions in vibrato, which gives them a greater appreciation of the performer’s ability. The intensity of expression throughout a performance parallels the emotional intensity of the story. Indeed, emotional intensity is characteristic of p’ansori and of Korean music in general, despite the restraint and balance otherwise demanded by Confucian aesthetics. 220 E A S T A S I A 7 L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.2 (2’11”) Chapter 7: Site 6 Korea: P’ansori Narrative Vocal: Single female Instruments: Puk (shallow barrel drum) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Example fades in with vocalist and accompanying drum. 0’08” Listen for the quiet declamations of the percussionist. 0’16” Note how the descending melodic contour of the vocalist includes little vibrato in this phrase. 0’22” Now listen for the heavy use of vibrato in the voice to contrast with the preceding phrase. Pay attention to such variations in the vibrato throughout the performance. 0’39” Listen for the strong, raspy quality of the vocal timbre at the start of this phrase. 0’49” Listen for the timbre heard when the stick strikes the drum’s face, and compare this with the sound made when it strikes the drum’s side (0’55”) or strikes simultaneously with the hand (1’04”). 1’08” Vocalist sings with falsetto. 1’27” Vocalist shifts to spoken dialogue. 1’57” Vocalist transitions back to sung text. Source: “P’ansori, Ch’un-Hyang-Ka, Song of Spring Fragrance,” sung by Mme. Pak Chowol with drum accompaniment by Han Ilsup, and recorded by John Levy; from the recording titled Korean Social and Folk Music, Lyrichord LLST 7211, n.d. Used by permission, Lyrichord Discs Inc. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.2): Sing a comfortable pitch and attempt to vary the level of vibrato from none to very wide and back again. Cultural Considerations. Before 1910, when Korea was still a kingdom, certain music trad- itions were maintained by the court while others were practiced by ordinary people of the villages. A tremendous variety of instrumental and vocal music existed, performed in ritual contexts, on official occasions, during calendric festivals, and for entertainment. Many traditions were prohibited or lost during the twentieth century, because of the Japanese occupation and especially because of the Korean War and the consequent division of Korea. After 1952, as South Korea modernized into one of the “Asian Tigers” and North Korea slid into despair under Kim Il-Sung’s “cult of personality”-style rule, traditional music struggled 221 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y to survive. In the North, music was harnessed for state purposes under the banner of “socialist realism,” and was both “modernized” and turned into propaganda. In the South, the government made the decision to preserve rapidly dying cultural traditions by keeping them living aural museums. Traditional ways of life were “preserved”—really recon- structed—in designated “ethnographic” villages where time stands still both politically and technologically. Music, dance, and theater are similarly preserved in rather rigid forms within certain government-sponsored cultural institutions and the educational system. Independently, however, modern Korean artists have created completely new forms of expression derived from tradition, but for the most part, the traditional and the modern are kept separated. P’ansori is one of the types of music that has been preserved through government support. Its storytellers were once found amidst festival events, where their voices had to compete with other activities. These wandering bards traveled the countryside telling their tales. Some found favor with aristocratic audiences, who continually debated over the artistic value of these talented but lower-class performers. P’ansori performers were an “endangered species” by the middle years of the twentieth century, until 1964, when the Ministry of Culture and Information designated several performers as “holders of artistry of intangible cultural assets.” Since that time p’ansori has been found primarily on concert stages in an institutionalized setting along with other traditional Korean arts, such as sanjo. A visitor to South Korea can still hear and see the most formal of ritual musics, the most refined of vocal and instrumental genres, and even “folk song,” all alive but now unchanging. These are studied in many cases with designated masters—living national treasures—the nation’s most valued culture-bearers. Unusual as this practice of keeping archaic forms of music alive artificially may seem from a Western viewpoint, it reflects a decision that traditional Korean music is worth preserving as an expression of what is most essential and defining in the Korean soul. While much of Korean musical culture came originally from China, most of this imported Chinese culture was modified to suit the nature and personality of Korea. For example, the Chinese zither (zheng), formerly having sixteen strings but now expanded to twenty-one, is played with plectra (originally finger nails), giving it a crisp, clean timbre. The Korean equivalent, the kayagum, has only twelve strings, but they are thicker and played with the fleshy part of the fingers, giving the music a more diffused timbre. There are also, however, aspects of Korean musical practice that are not derived from China, such as the Korean preference for 6/8 and 9/8 meters, this being exceptional not just in East Asia but in all of Asia. These meters give Korean music a lilting rhythmic quality not heard elsewhere. Korean musicians have built new kinds of music while keeping the old alive. Today one finds orchestras of traditional instruments, the mixing of Korean and Western instru- ments, and various kinds of popular music that sound more or less Korean. Most striking of all, however, is a new genre that has received worldwide attention, samul-nori. Derived from the old-time “farmer’s band music,” samul-nori, which means “four instruments playing,” was created in 1978 by four musicians in Seoul who played large and small gongs (ching and kwaenggwari), an hourglass-shaped drum (changgo), and a barrel drum (puk), per- forming mostly fixed compositions with amazing agility and passion. During the 1980s and especially the 1990s, other groups expanded samul-nori to include more and larger drums, creating one of the most dramatic, energetic, and appealing new genres in the world. Because samul-nori has grabbed the attention of foreigners as no other Korean music had before, even 222 E A S T A S I A 7 the government is now promoting it as an expression of Korean identity in spite of the music’s newness. Arrival: Japan J A PA N I M M I G R AT I O N イッミ G ラ チ オ N 28 JUN Because Japan is an island nation, consisting of four main islands (from north to south, ジ ャパ ネセ isitor rary v Te m p o Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu), plus the Ryukyu chain, land and resources are severely limited. With nearly 80 percent of the land being too steep for housing and difficult for farming, the Japanese have been forced to use their land to extreme efficiency. In a country slightly smaller than California but with a population nearly four times as large, the Japanese also have to be tolerant of each other due to such crowded conditions. Additionally, Japan’s position on major geological faults brings devastating earthquakes. These the Japanese have learned to defeat structurally, but as the 9.0 earthquake of March 2011 showed, any resulting tsunamis can be far more devastating. Although profoundly influenced by Chinese civiliza- tion, Japan (like Korea) modified the culture imported from China to suit its own needs and to express its individualism. Also like Korea, Japan has tended to preserve its traditional music, theater, and dance separately from new developments, offering visitors the oppor- tunity to experience archaic forms much as they were hundreds of years ago. Just as Japan itself is compact, its traditional arts are few and well defined. Japan’s court music and court dance, called gagaku and bugaku respectively, are among the oldest GAGAKU continuously living musical genres on the earth; to be appreciated properly, they are best A Confucian-derived experienced live and in their original context. Three forms of traditional theater are par- ritual court ensemble from ticularly striking: the ancient noh, the more recent kabuki, and the incredible puppet theater Japan; literally, known as bunraku with each puppet’s three human manipulators in plain sight. Three “elegant music.” instruments—the koto (zither), the shakuhachi (flute), and shamisen (plucked lute)—are essential in Japanese music. When they play together with a vocalist, they comprise Japan’s best-known chamber music, called sankyoku, meaning “three instruments.” Other essential SANKYOKU types of traditional music include folksong, festival and dance music, and Buddhist chant, A Japanese as well as the globally popular taiko drum ensembles originally associated with Shinto ritual chamber ensemble, practices. consisting of voice, koto (zither), Japan’s music, like its arts generally, is best understood in terms of Japanese specialist shakuhachi (flute), William Malm’s well-known aphorism, “maximum effect from minimum means.” Whereas and shamisen (lute). much Chinese and some Korean musics can sound continuously “busy,” Japanese music prefers minimal activity and makes silence an integral part of the soundscape. This sparseness, together with the use of strongly articulated notes, requires calm and attentive listening on the listener’s part. In Japan, musical instruments are treated as extremely refined, artistic objects and remain unusually expensive, even student models. Indeed, most kinds of Japanese performance, including performances of folksongs or music for bon (festive) dancing, are quite formal, even ritualized. Whereas Chinese tunes are continually rearranged and are embellished freely, Japanese music tends to be played with greater consistency. Musical spontaneity is not characteristic; in fact, some Japanese instrumental music is notated exactly, even down to the orna- mentation. In short, whereas flexibility and casualness are characteristic of Chinese music, Japanese music is characterized more by fixedness and great refinement of detail. 223 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y (left) The Japanese koto zither with Site 7: Sankyoku Instrumental Chamber Music thirteen strings First Impressions. A small group of instruments—two plucked and sounding percussive, (right) The one blown and sounding sustained—begins in a deliberate tempo which expresses a Japanese calmness in contrast to modern urban lives, particularly those of crowded and bustling shamisen lute Tokyo, where the underground trains can become so overwhelmed as to require “pushers” to get all the people inside and allow the doors to close. This music has an even temperament and restraint that seems almost without emotion. While the instruments are clearly together, their relationships are anything but simple, one of them sometimes seeming to wander off the main path for brief periods. Aural Analysis. Sankyoku, which means “three instruments,” elegantly embodies everything that Japanese musicians value in their music. Each instrument is primary in Japanese culture: koto (zither), shamisen (lute), and shakuhachi (vertical flute). The shakuhachi, whose name expresses its length in a Japanese measurement system, is a vertically held bamboo flute of varying length—21 inches/54 cm being average. Traditional models have four topside finger holes and one rear thumb hole, but some models have seven or nine holes now. The upper end is cut at an angle, creating a sharp edge over which the player splits the air and sets the air column in vibration. Players can produce vibrato by moving their head. The koto is a board zither of paulownia wood 70 inches (178 cm) long with ivory or plastic moveable 224 E A S T A S I A 7 The Japanese shakuhachi with notation spread before him (Jack Vartoogian/FrontRowPhotos) bridges suppporting thirteen strings, formerly of twisted silk but now usually of nylon. Players pluck the strings using large ivory or plastic picks attached to the right hand’s thumb and first and second fingers with a leather band, and use the left hand to press strings to create pitches in addition to the pentatonic scale to which the strings are tuned. The shamisen is a plucked lute with a relatively long neck of varying length and a square wooden body covered with white catskin. A broad plastic or ivory bridge supports three strings of silk or nylon. The player holds the instrument at an angle (similar to a guitar) and plucks the strings with a large plastic or ivory plectrum resembling an ice scraper called a bachi. When these three instruments play together as an ensemble, with or without singing provided by either the koto or shamisen player, the result is sankyoku. During the earlier period of sankyoku history, the seventeeth and eighteenth centuries, the ensemble used a four-stringed bowed lute called kokyu that resembles a shamisen played with a bow, but during the nineteenth century the shakuhachi replaced the now-rare kokyu. Although sankyoku music may sound somewhat free, there is virtually no improvisation in Japanese music, and most music is fully notated in various systems peculiar to each instrument. All three players (and voice when present—which it is not in this example) perform the same basic melody, but each instrument’s idiomatic version is distinct, based on the characteristics of the instrument’s style. While the koto and shamisen are plucked and their sounds decay quickly, requiring many reiterations in order to sustain a pitch, the shakuhachi’s style is continuous and flowing. Although the two plucked instruments have similar timbres, you can hear the differences clearly in the “call-and-response” passages. 225 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The track’s title is Keshi no Hana meaning “The Poppy Flower,” a song originally composed in the early nineteenth century for shamisen by Kikuoka Kengyo (1792–1847), with the koto part added by Matsuzaki Kengyo (1824–1871), and the third part for shakuhachi by an unknown composer. The title alludes to the poetry associated with this instrumental version, which describes a poppy flower but as a simile for a beautiful courtesan: “How pretty is the poppy flower here in my hand. When plucked its fragrance is unworldly. But how pitiful once the petals have fallen.” L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.3 (4’32”) Chapter 7: Site 7 Japan: Sankyoku (Instrumental Chamber Music) Instrument: Shakuhachi (vertical flute), koto (plucked zither), shamisen (plucked lute) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Shakuhachi, koto then shamisen enter. Listen to alternation between koto (left channel) and shamisen (right channel) using stereo headphones. Note the relative slow tempo and use of a pentatonic scale. 0’07” Note the shamisen timbre playing a lower melodic range. 0’21” Melodic line alternates between the shakuhachi/koto pair and shamisen. 0’27” Note the increase in tempo. 0’50” Shamisen is highlighted followed by the melodic line alternating between shakuhachi/koto pair and shamisen. 1’14” Note a brief increase in rhythmic density to build tension. 1’53” Listen for the koto glissando (kararin). 2’01” Tempo slows briefly as form transitions to next section at previous tempo with increased rhythmic density. Listen for variations of melodic content heard in the previous section. 4’03” Tempo slows briefly as form transitions to final section. 4’09” Closing section begins with new melodic material at higher rhythmic density and faster tempo. 4’23” Tempo slows for final phrase. Source: “Keshi no hana” from Japanese Shamisen/Chamber Music (Jiuta) with Koto and Shakuhachi, Lyrichord Archive Series, LAS 7209, 2010. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.3): Determine the pitches of the scale used in this example using a keyboard/piano. Transcribe the melodic line of each instrument using either numeral or staff notation. 226 E A S T A S I A 7 Cultural Considerations. China’s “silk and bamboo” chamber ensembles are notable for their casual but “busy” sounding melodic decoration, but the obvious differences between, for example, Jiangnan “silk and bamboo” music (Chapter 7, Site 2) and this example of Japanese sankyoku chamber music demonstrates most of the fundamental differences between the Chinese and Japanese aesthetics. In contrast to dense number of notes in Chinese music, Japanese music minimizes the notes, but making each one count, an example of William Malm’s maxim quoted above. Where most Chinese ensemble music presents the melody in lock-step among the instruments, here the relationships are much less obvious, made complex by both differences in idiom and timing; it would be much more difficult here than in China to extract a “generic” form of the melody. Instead, it is better to think of each instrument’s part as a distinct manifestation of the same melody. Japanese chamber music is an art celebrated and enjoyed by small groups of con- noisseurs in small spaces rather than by crowds in a large hall. Sankyoku could perhaps be compared to other well-known Japanese arts such as calligraphy, bonsai (the art of growing trees in miniature form), kirigami (paper cutting and folding), and the wearing of the kimono (formal dress). Where Chinese chamber music is played casually by amateurs in a clublike setting, with friends sitting around smoking, drinking tea, and talking, Japanese chamber music performance is highly formal, even ritualistic in behavior, and the audience is equally formal. Where Chinese instruments are relatively inexpensive and handled casu- ally, Japanese instruments are highly refined in form and finish, expensive, and handled as revered art objects. Explore More Komuso Even in Japan the sight of someone wandering around town dressed in robes, wearing a basket over his head, and playing shakuhachi flute had to attract notice. That this person was a spy justifiably gives rise to an obvious question: how secret can a spy be with a basket over his head? Delving into the history of the komuso only deepens the mystery, starting with their oxymoronic descriptor as “lay-priest.” Far from being religious men, they were former samurai warriors who had lost their masters during the upheavals and civil wars of the late sixteenth century. Their duty was to roam the streets to observe what the citizens were doing and saying and report back to the authorities, but because their headquarters was at a former Buddhist temple, many believed they were somehow priests; hence, the idea of the “lay-priest.” The A Japanese Komuso playing the shakuhachi (Thomas shakuhachi was not just a large tube of sturdy bamboo but Holton/Getty Images) 227 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y its lower end was thick and rough from being part of the century, when the stigma of violence was separated from bamboo root. If need be, the komuso could defend them- the instrument, the komuso promoted what came to be selves by striking opponents with the instrument’s lower end. one of Japan’s most treasured repertories. After that it was When not having to fight however—most of the time—they embraced by sankyoku musicians and came to replace the actually played the shakuhachi, developing a growing body kokyu bowed lute. of compositions. After being disbanded in the mid-nineteenth One of the non-musical influences on sankyoku, as well as – most Japanese music, is Zen Buddhism, a form of Buddhism derived from the Chinese Chan and brought to Japan in the twelfth century. Where some Buddhist sects emphasized the study of the scriptures, resulting in much intellectualizing, Chan/Zen emphasized clearing one’s mind through meditation in order to reach enlightenment. Thus, in the Zen aesthetic, emptiness is valued over busyness, plain white space over decorated space, and in music, silence over contin- uous sound. Zen Buddhism and the music influenced by it were the inspirations for the so-called “Minimalist” movement in Western art, which rose to prominence during the late 1960s and early 1970s. During that time many European and American artists had a fasci- nation for Japanese art and music, one aspect of a period filled with a broad range of interests in the non-Western world. KABUKI Site 8: Kabuki Theater Popular music theater form First Impressions. In comparison to Western theatrical genres, the sound of kabuki is much developed for more subdued. Twangy plucked lutes, a single flute, and a collection of small drums Japan’s middle class accompany a solitary storyteller as the action unfolds on stage. No fiddles or brash trumpets in the seventeenth or reeds, no crashing cymbals or heavy drums—this music is refined and deliberate. Perhaps and eighteenth most easy to recognize are the “yo” and “ho” calls of the drummers at the transition from century. vocal to instrumental sections, a distinctive feature of kabuki and Japanese noh drama. Fight scene in a Japanese kabuki performance 228 E A S T A S I A 7 (left) Kabuki star Shoroki displaying his “mie” glance in the role of “The Spirit of the Earth Spider” in the kabuki play Tsuchigumo at the Metropolitan Opera House (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) (right) Famed onnagata kabuki star Bando Tamasaburo V dancing “Kanegamisaki” (“The Cape of the Temple Bell”) during a solo performance at the Japan Society, New York City (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) Two leading actors in a Japanese kabuki play 229 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Kabuki musicians who accompany nagauta songs: (back row left to right) singers, shamisen (lute) players; (front row) taiko (drum), o-tsuzumi (side-held drum), ko-tsuzumi (shoulder-held drum), and nokan (transverse flute) (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) Chobo narrators (left) and shamisen players accompany the story in a Japanese kabuki performance (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) Aural Analysis. When listening to an audio recording of a music theater work, it can be difficult to make sense of the music because one cannot see how it relates to the dramatic action. Kabuki, a theater type developed in Japan during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries as a newly rising middle class of business people coalesced in the city of Edo (now called Tokyo), has considerably more action and visual interest than Japan’s earlier and more reserved theater, noh. Noh features slow-moving actors behind masks playing eternal human types to the minimalist accompaniment of three drums and a horizontal flute. Kabuki kept the instruments used in noh but added plucked lutes, sound-effects instruments (such as wood blocks, cymbols, and scrapers), and a greater variety of vocal sounds. Our example features various forms of theatrical speech, and several types of instru- ments. First among the instruments heard is a group of long-necked plucked lutes called shamisen. The shamisen’s square resonator body is covered with catskin that supports a bridge carrying three strings from the bottom up the fretless neck to the top end. Because players use a large ivory (or plastic) pick, the resonator skin has an additional patch around the area where strings are plucked for its protection. The large picks give the instrument its strongly percussive timbre. Three drums then begin to punctuate the shamisens’ sound: an hourglass-shaped drum called o-tuzumi, which is held at the hip; a smaller version of the 230 E A S T A S I A 7 same drum, called ko-tuzumi, which is held on the shoulder; and a small barrel-shaped drum called taiko, which is played with two sticks. Next, a horizontal bamboo flute called nokan joins the ensemble. Lastly, one of the sound-effects instruments, a small metal gong, joins in. Throughout you hear occasional calls of “yo” and “ho.” These surprising elements are drummers’ calls and are considered part of the audible pattern of drumming. The total effect is one of diverse, unblended sounds that together make kabuki a unique sonic world. As with much Japanese music, tonal subtleties abound, especially because of the frequent tone-bending heard in the shamisen and nokan to a lesser degree. Although each part seems to operate in its own world, all work together to achieve a continually changing flow of tension, relaxation, movement, and meaning. Underpinning this are the standard drum patterns, but their minimal number of beats makes perception of a regular downbeat or meter a challenge. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.4 (1’42”) Chapter 7: Site 8 Japan: Kabuki Theater Vocals: Single male vocal lead, briefly heard male vocal ensemble Instruments: Shamisen (plucked lute), nokan (flute), o-tuzumi (hourglass-shaped drum), ko-tuzumi (smaller hourglass-shaped shoulder drum), taiko (barrel-shaped drum), atari-gane (small gong) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Shamisen (plucked lute) begins performance, followed by male vocalist. 0’19” Vocal group utters non-lexical declamation to anticipate instrumental section. 0’21” Remaining instruments enter. The nokan (flute) is the aural focus as the other instruments play supporting melody and rhythm. 1’02” Shamisen briefly becomes the aural focus. 1’12” Nokan reappears. 1’20” Vocalist returns. Note how the shamisen and voice follow the same melodic line. 1’22” Small gong enters. Source: “Excerpt from Dozyozi [Dojoji],” performed by the Kyoto Kabuki Orchestra and recorded by Jacob Feuerring; from the recording titled Japanese Kabuki Nagauta Music, Lyrichord LLST 7134, n.d. Used by permission, Lyrichord Discs Inc. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.4): With theatrical performances such as this, it is important to see the on stage activity. Locate and watch a video recording of a Kabuki performance in its entirety (Dozyozi, if possible). 231 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Cultural Considerations. Kabuki theater, like Japan’s other “classic” arts, is preserved in a living, but museum-like setting. In the heart of Tokyo’s fashionable shopping district, the Ginza, sits a major theater, the Kabuki-za, which is dedicated entirely to twice-daily per- formances of kabuki. Inside this otherwise modern building is a wide proscenium stage. Two aspects are exceptional, however. First, there is a long walkway leading through the audience to the front of the stage area over which actors enter and exit when required. Second, most of the musicians are plainly visible on stage (positioned at stage left). Most of the singing and all of the narration are performed by a single vocalist accompanied by a shamisen player; this pair is known as chobo. Unlike the noh stage, which has no props and only a painted pine tree as a backdrop, the kabuki stage has realistic scenery and props, including building facades. Performances begin in the morning and continue in the afternoon following a lunch break, which may be taken within the theater itself (patrons may bring box lunches and eat them in their seats). Because of this schedule, there tend to be more women, some drawn to their favorite actors, than men in attendance, because most men work during the day. Women actresses have been banned from public kabuki performance for centuries, and some of kabuki’s most famous actors actually specialize in women’s roles. In private contexts, geisha (female traditional artists) will sometimes perform kabuki for their exclusive patrons. The stories depict the lives of imaginary people from Japan’s feudal age, the age of the samurai warrior. The example here is taken from a play titled Dozyozi or Dojoji, about a Buddhist monk who refuses the advances of a beautiful woman who later turns herself into a monster. As with virtually all Asian theater traditions, the goal is not realism but a highly stylized depiction of archetypical human scenarios, behaviors, characters, and emotions. Explore More Taiko Other taiko (e.g., nagado-daiko) along with cymbals and other percussion paralleled the remainder of the kit. The result was Taiko (meaning “big drum” in Japanese) references one of an ensemble with a strongly traditional sound but a distinctly the most popular world music genres to draw international modern style. audiences in the past several decades. More correctly referred to as kumi-daiko, the first taiko drum ensemble was Oguchi’s idea was quickly appealing, and soon other created in 1951 by Daihachi Oguchi (1924–2008), a Japanese kumi-daiko troupes formed. New compositions and perfor- musician with a love for American jazz. He gathered a variety mance techniques were incorporated, inspired by Japanese of taiko drums associated individually with other traditions traditional arts. Choreography, drawn from martial arts and combined them into a single ensemble. His early compo- movements, became an essential feature of performance. sitions were rooted in the drumming patterns of Shinto ritual By 1964, this new style of taiko performance was popular music, but the organization was inspired by the structure enough to be featured in the opening ceremonies of the of a jazz drum kit. Large, low-pitched taiko (e.g., odaiko) Summer Olympics in Tokyo. By the end of the decade, taiko emulated the kick drum, while high-pitched taiko (e.g., shime- troupes were traveling and performing for audiences daiko) played more complex rhythms as would a snare drum. throughout Europe and the United States. The San Francisco 232 E A S T A S I A 7 Taiko Dojo (est. 1968) helped spawn amateur and profes- sional ensembles throughout the United States, which have flourished since the 1980s. Kumi-daiko ensembles are now a fixture of many music education programs in Japan and are commonly found throughout the world in association with Cherry Blossom Festivals, an annual Japanese celebration of flowers and the coming of Spring. Professional troupes, such as Kodo, are heralded by international audiences and have performed at many prestigious venues, such as Carnegie Hall (New York City, USA) and the Greek Acropolis. Taiko music is also often featured in Hollywood films and television commercials, as the style continues to thrive as part of a growing public interest in world music traditions. Japanese taiko drummer (Shutterstock) Arrival: Tibet Tibet is often referred to as “The Rooftop of the World” because it has the highest elevation TIBET of any inhabited region on the planet. The southern border of Tibet is formed by the Himalayas, which includes Mount Everest, the tallest mountain in the world at over 29,000 feet (8,800 meters). The northern and western borders are also surrounded by mountains, making the Tibetan plateau one of the world’s most isolated areas. Most Tibetans live between 4,000 and 17,000 feet (1,200 and 5,100 meters) above sea level. Generally, they live in rural areas practicing subsistence farming or raising small herds of Tibetan yaks, which provide milk and meat for nourishment as well as fur and leather for clothing and shelter. While nights in Tibet are typically bitter cold, daily temperatures vary widely. Early morning hours are often below freezing, while by midday the temperature can rise to more than 80 degrees Fahrenheit (26.6 Celsius). Sudden storms are common, and travelers must always be prepared to find shelter should a sudden dust or snow storm occur. The high elevation and lack of vegetation result in low oxygen levels. While outsiders visiting Tibet may find it difficult to breathe, centuries of living in the region have enabled Tibetans to develop increased lung capacity. Still, Tibetans are cautious not to sleep at high elevations while traveling for fear of death from lack of oxygen. Tibetans cope with such survival difficulties through a strong spiritual life. 233 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Tibetan Buddhism is practiced by the majority of the population, despite the region being considered a part of the People’s Republic of China. While Tibet’s relationship with China has ebbed and flowed for many centuries, Tibetans lived with relative autonomy under a theocratic government until 1959, when the communist Chinese government asserted its authority over the region and invaded. The Chinese placed severe restrictions on religious practice and in general attempted to Sinicize the region. The Dalai Lama, considered by most Tibetans to be a “living Buddha” as well as their secular and spiritual leader, fled to India to escape capture. Many monasteries were pillaged and numerous monks and other Tibetans were killed defending sacred sites and the Tibetan way of life. Relations remain strained between Tibetans and the Chinese authorities. The Dalai Lama remains in exile but has helped to establish many Tibetan communities in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and even in the United States. While restrictions against religious practices in Tibet have eased, many of the monasteries are today considered museums and are more frequented by visiting tourists than occupied by monks. Tibetan secular culture continues to survive, but the centuries-old spiritual practices of the Tibetans are best examined in monasteries and Tibetan communities outside of the region. Site 9: Tibetan Buddhist Ritual First Impressions. For most outsiders, Tibetan ritual music has a mysterious and eerie sound. Alternately blaring and foghorn-like sounds produced by trumpets come in slow waves, supported by the rumble of drums and punctuated by the sound of a single cymbal. The guttural chants of Buddhist monks seem to summon centuries of sacred spirits, pressing listeners in the modern era to expand our definitions of music. Aural Analysis. The music of Tibetan Buddhist ritual involves a limited number of instru- ments. The kang dung trumpet, traditionally made from a human thighbone but today made of metal, is most prominent with its widely wavering blare. Dung kar conch shell trumpets are played with a similar technique and are difficult to distinguish from the kang dung based on timbre alone. The kang dung and dung kar are played in pairs, with one performer over- lapping his sound with the other so that a continuous sound is produced. In our example the kang dung sounds first with a slightly brighter timbre and a higher pitch, while the dung DUNG CHEN kar echoes at almost a semitone lower. The other distinctive instrument is the dung chen, A long metal a metal trumpet that is usually between 5 and 12 feet (1.5 and 3.5 meters) long; the longer trumpet with low of these are usually played outdoors. Dung chen produce very low pitches and are also tones blown during frequently played in pairs. Tibetan ritual. The percussion instruments found in Tibetan Buddhist rituals usually include drums and cymbals. The most common drums, nga bom, are double-faced frame membranophones that hang vertically in a stand and are struck by a hook-shaped stick. They have a deep timbre and are struck with slow, solitary pulses that usually correspond to either the trumpets or chanting. Large cymbals, called rom, are common as well and are most often played to accompany chant. While our example includes only one cymbal, which is struck lightly with a wooden stick, the rom are usually quite loud and are used to punctuate the ends of chanted phrases. Throughout our example, the upper trumpets waver on their respective pitches a mere semitone apart, creating a very dissonant, unsettling sound. The dung chen begins with a 234 E A S T A S I A 7 low straight tone before rising to the pitch produced by the kang dung, which is the interval of a tritone (flatted fifth) above—an interval that Western theorists historically considered “uncomfortable.” The percussion instruments are heard as well, seemingly in free rhythm, but actually following a long metric cycle articulated primarily by the drum. After the open- ing instrumental section, the drum provides a steady pulsation that accompanies the chanting monks, who dwell on a single low pitch. The instruments then interrupt before the dung chen sounds with percussion accompaniment. Tibetan Buddhist monks of the Gyuto sect performing the dung-chen (long trumpets) (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) Tibetan Buddhist monk plays the gyaling (double reed aerophone) 235 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Tibetan Buddhist monks play a rom (pair of large cymbals) Bodhnath Stupa, a temple frequented by Tibetans living in exile near Kathmandu, Nepal. A man chants on the left while another turns a prayer wheel on the right L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.5 (2’03”) Chapter 7: Site 9 Tibet: Buddhist Ritual Vocals: Male vocal ensemble Instruments: Dribu (bell), dung chen (low-range trumpets), kang dung (mid-range trumpets), nga bom (drum), rom (cymbals) and woodblock TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Dribu (bell) sounds at start of example, followed by a kang dung (trumpet) and then a second kang dung. Listen for the “wavering” timbre and overlapping technique of the two trumpets. 0’02” Rom (cymbals), which play throughout the performance, enter. 0’04” Dung chen (long trumpets) enter. 236 E A S T A S I A 7 0’07” Nga bom (drum) enters. 0’10” The dung chen sounds a higher pitch. 0’31” Brief pause in the trumpet performance. 0’48” Kang dung stop. 0’50” Congregation of male vocalists chants along with more active performance on the nga bom and a woodblock. 0’55” Dung chen stop. 1’07” Dribu sounds again, followed by the kang dung, rom, and dung chen. 1’35” The kang dung stop and the dung chen play a series of low bursts along with the rom and nga bom. 1’54” Congregation of vocalists returns, accompanied by the nga bom and woodblock as the example fades. Source: “Genyen gi topa (‘In praise of Ge-nyen’),” performed by the monks of Thimphu and nuns of Punakha and recorded by John Levy; from the recording titled Tibetan Buddhist Rites from the Monasteries of Bhutan, Volume 1: Rituals of the Drukpa Order, Lyrichord LYRCD 7255, n.d. Used by permission, Lyrichord Discs Inc. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.5): Make a necklace of prayer beads—that is, a rosary (known as mâla) of 108 beads. Chant the sacred mantra, “Om Mani Peme Hung” (Om, Jewel of the Lotus) 108 times or, for a real challenge, one million times, as many Tibetans do for purification and to acquire spiritual merit. Cultural Considerations. In Tibet, the chants and instrumental performances that appear in Buddhist ritual are regarded more as spiritual sounds than as music. The primary intended audience for such performances is the various deities and spirits associated with Tibetan Buddhism. Buddhism is thought to have come to Tibet during the mid-eighth century with the arrival of Padmasambhava (717–762 C.E.), a legendary monk who was believed to have great magical powers that could drive away demons. Padmasambhava practiced a unique form of Buddhism known as Tantrism, which emphasized the use of symbols, ritual objects, and yoga practices in the quest for enlightenment. A primary goal of Tantric Buddhism, as Tibetan Buddhism is often called, is to overcome the fear of death and thus make death powerless to prevent a person from attaining enlightenment. Tibetans have long been preoccupied with death. The fragility of life in the harsh envi- ronment of the Tibetan plateau led, before the arrival of Buddhism, to the development of a spiritual belief system known as Bonism, which was centered on a group of dangerous and fearful demons. Because these demons could control the elements and take life unexpect- edly, Bonist priests performed rituals and gave offerings in order to appease them. Many of these priests were feared, as human sacrifices were among the methods used to win the demons’ favor. When Padmasambhava arrived with the assurance that Buddhism could 237 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y overcome death and drive away such demons, most Tibetans embraced the new religion and its non-sacrificial rites. One of the more interesting customs found in Tibetan Buddhism is the use of prayer wheels. While the ultimate goal of all Buddhists is to attain enlightenment, most accept that attaining a higher rebirth in the next life is a more practical spiritual goal. Chanting prayers is considered a way to earn spiritual merit, which in turn helps boost one’s chances of a higher rebirth. Prayer wheels can help with this accumulation of merit. Each wheel has a prayer written on the outside, as well as a prayer written on parchment inside. Tibetan Buddhists believe that each time the wheel is spun, the words are “written on the wind.” Musical performances are most important to rituals involving groups rather than individuals. The blaring sounds of the trumpets are meant either to drive away evil deities or to call benevolent ones. The deep sound of the dung chen is said to imitate the trumpeting of the elephant, which is considered a powerful animal. The dung kar, which are highly valued instruments because conch shells are rarely found so far from the sea, can call spirits as well but are also frequently used to make announcements or to sound warnings. The kang dung is ideally made from a human thighbone, to remind believers that physical life is impermanent. These trumpets often play a prominent role in calling the faithful, be they living or ancestral spirits. The percussion instruments function primarily to emphasize structural points, by marking the ends of both instrumental and chanted phrases. Chanting the sutras, or Buddhist prayers, is a primary activity among Tibetan Buddhist monks. The deep guttural utterances are said to represent the fundamental sound of the human body when all else is in complete silence. Complete awareness of one’s physical self is an important aspect of preparing for the body’s eventual demise. The body is, however, merely the cup that holds the spiritual nectar. When the body dies, the spirit is released and is housed in a new form. This consciousness of the impermanence of all things is fundamental to Tibetan theology. Certain Tibetan Buddhist sects practice a unique form of chant in which they sound two tones at once, a low fundamental tone and a high frequency overtone. This technique is believed to enable a monk’s spirit to travel to the spiritual plane. By visiting the spiritual plane, the monk is able to achieve “death without dying,” and he thereby gains knowledge of the afterlife, thus robbing death of some of its fearful sting. During this chanting, a monk’s heartbeat can slow dramatically and his breathing may become almost imperceptible. While only Tibetan monks perform these spiritual practices, the spiritual life of all Tibetan Buddhists is focused on overcoming death. Questions to Consider 1. How do attitudes toward traditionality and modernization affect music differently in China than they do in Japan and South Korea? 2. In China, how did the Cultural Revolution affect the development of music and theater? 3. How are the aesthetics of music in Japan shaped by both Confucianism and Buddhism? 238 E A S T A S I A 7 4. How are the types of East Asian theater different from theater and opera in the West? 5. What spiritual role does music play in Tibetan Buddhist ritual? 6. Discuss East Asian attitudes toward professional musicians and actors and explain why amateur music-making was held in such high esteem. w On Your Own Time ww Visit the textbook website to find these resources for further exploration on your own. China Book: Yung, Bell. The Last of China’s Literati: The Music, Poetry and Life of Tsar Teh-yun. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2008. http://www.washington.edu/uwpress/search/books/YUNBEL.html Website: North American Guqin Association http://www.guqin.org/ Website: Chinese Guqin Playing and Notation http://www.peiyouqin.com/ Website: Instruments of Sizhu Music http://www.cfmw.com.tw/eng/instruments.html Book: Thrasher, Alan. Chinese Musical Instruments. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Music/WorldMusicEthnomusicology/?view=usa&ci= 9780195907773 Book: Joshua Goldstein. Drama Kings Players and Publics in the Re-creation of Peking Opera, 1870-1937. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007. http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520247529 DVD: Farewell My Concubine. Dir. Kaige, Chen. Miramax, 1993. http://www.illuminatedlantern.com/cinema/review/archives/farewell_my_concubine.php Book: Lu, Xing. Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: The Impact on Chinese Thought, Culture, and Communication. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, 2004. http://www.sc.edu/uscpress/books/2004/3543.html Internet: Popular Artists from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan Jackie Chan Teresa Teng Faye Wong Anita Mui Cui Jian Mongolia (and Tuva) Book: Pegg, Carole. Mongolian Music, Dance and Oral Narrative: Performing Diverse Identities. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2001. http://www.washington.edu/uwpress/search/books/PEGMOC.html 239 7 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Book: Levin, Theodore. Where Rivers and Mountains Sing: Sound, Music, and Nomadism is Tuva and Beyond. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006. http://www.iupress.indiana.edu/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=1037_1160_1408&products_id=625621 Audio: Tuva: Voices from the Center of Asia. Smithsonian-Folkways, SF40017, 1990. http://www.folkways.si.edu/albumdetails.aspx?itemid=2058 http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/tuva-voices-from-center-asia/id95703572 DVD: Genghis Blues. Dir. Belic, Roko. Wadi Rum Productions, 1999. http://www.genghisblues.com/ Website: Mongolian Music Blog http://mongolianmusic.blogspot.com/ Internet: Popular Artists from Mongolia Kongar-ol Ondar Nominjin Korea DVD: Chunhyang. Dir. Im Kwon-taek. CJ Entertainment, 2000. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chunhyang_(2000_film) Book: Park, Chan E. Voices from the Straw Mat: Toward an Ethnography of Korean Story Singing. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2003. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/p-3195-9780824825119.aspx Audio: Korean Folk Music—Four Thousand Years. (Digitally Remastered.) Essential Media, 2009. http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/korean-folk-music-four-thousand/id292787678 Internet: Popular Music Artists from Korea Seo Taiji Shinwa SHINee Rain Girls’ Generation Japan Audio: Nonesuch Explorer Series: Japan http://www.nonesuch.com/store/explorer-series-east-asia/world-music Book: Malm, William. Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2000 (original, 1959). http://www.kodansha-intl.com/books/9784770023957/ Website: The International Shakuhachi Society http://komuso.com/top/index.pl Book: Blasdel, Christopher. The Shakuhachi: A Manual for Learning. Tokyo: Printed Matter Press (reprint), 2008. http://www.shakuhachi.com/PG-Blasdel.html Website: Shochiku Kabuki Official Website http://www.kabuki-bito.jp/eng/top.html Book: Brandon, James R., and Samuel L. Leiter. Masterpieces of Kabuki: Eighteen Plays on Stage. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/p-3195-9780824827885.aspx 240 E A S T A S I A 7 Book: Foreman, Kelly M. The Gei of Geisha: Music, Identity and Meaning. London: Ashgate, 2008. http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=6974&edition_id=9918 Website: Discovery Channel—Japan: Geisha Culture http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/discovery-atlas-japan-geisha-culture.html Website: San Francisco Taiko Dojo http://www.sftaiko.com/ Website: Kodo (Taiko Ensemble) Official Website http://www.kodo.or.jp/news/index_en.html Internet: Popular Artists from Japan Mr. Children Hikaru Utada Namie Amuro Gackt Ayumi Hamasaki (Ayu) Tibet Audio: Tibet Buddhist Rites from the Monasteries of Bhutan. (Four Volume Series) Lyrichord, LYR 7255, 1993. http://lyrichord.com/tibetanbuddhistritesfromthemonasteriesofbhutanvolumeiritualsofthedrukpaorder fromthimpuandpunakha-variousartists.aspx Book: Jansen, Eva Rudy. Singing Bowls, A Practical Handbook of Instruction and Use. Havelte, Holland: Binkey Kok Publications, 1992. http://www.altamira.nl/index.php?action=boek_detail&bid=352&cid=81 Website: International Tibet Network http://www.tibetnetwork.org/ Website: Gyuto Monasteries and Centers http://www.gyuto.org/ 241 Site 6 Sites 2 & 5 Site 1 Site 4 Site 3 The Middle East: Islam and the Arab World, Iran, Egypt, Sufism, Judaism 8 Background Preparation 244 Arrival: Egypt 262 Egypt’s great temple of Ramses An Inside Look: George Dimitri Sawa 246 Site 4: Takht Instrumental II at Abu Simbel Ensemble 263 Planning the Itinerary 247 moved to its Arrival: Sufism 268 present location Arrival: Islam and the Arabic World 247 when the Aswan Site 5: Sufi Dhikr Ceremony 269 High Dam was Site 1: Islamic Adhan, “Call to Prayer” 248 Arrival: Judaism 272 built in 1970 (Max T. Miller) Site 2: Arabic Taqasim for Ud and Site 6: Jewish Shofar and Buzuq 253 Liturgical Cantillation 274 Arrival: Iran 257 Questions to Consider 278 Site 3: Dastgah for Santur and On Your Own Time 278 Voice 258 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Background Preparation Geographically, the area covered in this chapter defies easy description. The designation Middle East is conventional and convenient—but it is also ethnocentric, as are Near East and Far East. After all, the regions these terms describe are only “near” or “far” from the perspective of the West. On the other hand, referring to the “Middle East” as “West Asia and North Africa” is clumsy. For this reason, we have chosen to adhere to the conventional term, whatever its drawbacks. A second problem is that the boundaries of this region are less clear cut than those of most other areas: potentially, they encompass everything from Morocco in the west (directly south of Europe) to China’s westernmost province, Xinjiang. The nations that can be said to comprise this area straddle three continents: part of Turkey is in Europe; five of the Middle Eastern nations are in Africa; and the rest are in Asia. However, some consider the former republics of the Soviet Union, such as Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan, to be part of “Central Asia” rather than of the Middle East, but few books, including this one, can afford the luxury of a Central Asian chapter. It has been customary to subdivide the Middle East into sectors. The major units are: MAGHRIB (1) the Maghrib or North Africa, consisting of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; (2) the Literally, “the time Mashriq, consisting of Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq; and (3) the Arabian or place of the sunset.” The Arabic Peninsula, consisting of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, and the various smaller nations on name designating the Persian Gulf. Turkey, Iran, and Central Asia are usually treated as separate areas, and the region from culturally speaking Israel and Armenia are considered as special cases. present-day Libya It is tempting to describe this vast region as the “world of Islam” because its nations west through and peoples are predominantly Muslim, but there are important exceptions such as Christian Morocco. Armenia and Georgia, and Jewish Israel. Islam, while certainly the predominant faith, is no more a unified monolith than, say, Christianity is in the West, or Buddhism is in Asia. MASHRIQ Linguistically, while several mutually unintelligible language families are present, a certain Literally, “the time or place of sunrise— unity has been created through the use of classical written Arabic, allowing learned people the east.” The over a vast area to communicate, much as Latin once unified Europe and Sanskrit (or Pali) Arabic name parts of Asia. Arabic belongs to the Afro-Asiatic family of languages, which includes all designating the Semitic languages, Hebrew and Egyptian among them. The Indo-European languages are parts of Asia (and represented in the region by the Indo-Iranian subfamily, which includes Persian and Egypt) conquered Kurdish. Armenian is a stand-alone language, while Turkic languages, which stretch from and populated by Turkey to China’s Xinjiang, are part of the Altaic family and are related both to Mongolian the Arabs. in the east and to Hungarian in the west. While language similarity might be expected to ARABIC create greater unity, that is not always the case; for example, Arabs and Hebrew-speaking A Semitic language Jews have related languages but have been at odds for decades. Similarly, while Islam would originating with the seem to unify the region, it also can be the basis for division, because Islam has numerous Arab ethnic group; factions that can be as different from one another as Christianity’s multitude of sects. also, the holy When the Middle East is mentioned, many outside the region likely envision deserts, language of Islam, camels, nomads, pyramids, and simple villages where people are surviving at a subsistence and a musical tradition whose level. While it is true that much of the Middle East is desert, other parts are quite lush, history is intricately especially along the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers. and there are even regions filled with linked with the green fields, forests, and mountain streams. Parts of the Middle East also get quite cold and spread of the experience snow in the winter. While some Middle Eastern nations have major oil deposits, language. others have none and must import all the oil they use. 244 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 The exquisite Patio de los Leones (Courtyard of the Lions) is the most famous place in Granada’s fourteenth-century Moorish palace, the Alhambra The Middle East is home to some of the world’s earliest and most important civil- izations. Indeed, the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, once called Mesopotamia and now largely within Iraq, is sometimes called the “Cradle of Civilization.” The ancient Egyptians developed a great civilization along the Nile, leaving the world with incredible monuments, the pyramids among them. And Alexander the Great, a Greek-Macedonian, con- quered much of the Middle East, leaving a strong imprint of his civilization throughout the region. The Middle East is dotted with extensive Greek and Roman ruins, testaments to the early spread of Greek learning and culture and the development of sophisticated urban areas. During Europe’s Middle Ages following the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire and the splintering of Europe into small, disorganized entities, classical learning flourished among the Arabs. Alexandria, Egypt, was home to what was perhaps the world’s greatest library until 642, when its contents were burned on the orders of the city’s conqueror, Omar, Caliph of Baghdad. Arabic scholars, such as al-Kindi (790–874) and al-Farabi (872–950), preserved and developed Ancient Greek music theory, which later influenced European theory. Today’s Middle East continues to produce highly sophisticated music, often in combination with some of the world’s most fluid and sensuous poetry. In the midst of war and internecine violence, the Middle East remains home to unusually attractive music in spite of much of Islam’s traditional distaste for such a sensuous art. 245 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y George Dimitri Sawa A N I N S I D E L O O K I was born in Alexandria, Egypt. For socio-economic and George Dimitri political reasons, my music career began with Western rather Sawa, Egyptian musician and than Arabic music. Before European colonization, an ud (lute) historian was often part of an Egyptian bridal dowry, but afterward middle-class wealth combined with the Arab inferiority complex toward the West caused us to replace it with the more expensive and “technologically advanced” piano. My father, who provided for his yet unmarried sister, and who always planned ahead, bought a piano as part of her dowry. My aunt never married, and lived with us, so the piano became part of our household. I began my musical career by playing Egyptian popular songs by ear on the piano. My father, eager for me to develop good technical habits, took me at the age of ten to a private teacher, the eccentric and highly talented violinist and pianist After completing degrees in piano, qanun, and yes, electrical Madame Irene Drakides. She had been a student of Alfred engineering, I emigrated to Canada to study musicology and Cortot and had many stories to tell about her acquaintances ethnomusicology. Arabic music was to be my career, and with famous French composers Maurice Ravel and Gabriel there was no turning away from it. I was most interested in Fauré, some of whose works she had premiered. She trained its performance history, which led me to research the me well, and I later contemplated a career as a concert medieval sources on theory and ethnography. No music pianist. However, when I was in Sweden as an exchange program in North America could provide the training for this student in electrical engineering, and played both Arabic and type of work, so I created my own program by doing a Ph.D. Western music on the piano to my hosts, they asked me the in two departments, Music and Middle Eastern studies. The obvious question that I had never asked myself: “Why don’t latter gave me the necessary training in socio-cultural history you play an Arabic instrument?” So I resolved to learn the and the bibliographical tools to research my subject. The qanun (zither), an instrument that had fascinated me from medieval Arabic world that unraveled before my eyes was early childhood. stunning. There was a fusion of musical styles, Arabic, At the Higher Institute for Arabic Music in Alexandria, the Persian, and Byzantine; court patronage that generously teachers were all touched that an Egyptian skilled at the piano maintained practitioners and scholars; a scholarship that would turn to the qanun! I had a lot to learn, such as oral combined the writings of the practitioners with Greek music learning and the art of improvisation, but more to unlearn, theory and Middle Eastern humanities. In short, it was because Arabic pre-composed pieces were not frozen a discipline that predates modern ethnomusicology by a entities, but instead improvised ornaments, tastefully thousand years. I was hooked for life. executed, that made every performance unique. 246 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Arabic influence on Europe goes far beyond the ancient Greco-Arabic music theory that formed the theoretical systems of Europe’s first millennium. The city known consecutively as Byzantium, Constantinople, and Istanbul served a historic role as a bridge between Asia and Europe over which culture passed in both directions. The vast Ottoman Empire that OTTOMAN incorporated much of Southeast Europe for hundreds of years—in some places even into EMPIRE the early twentieth century—left those areas with many Turkish instruments and musical A powerful Turkish dynasty that ruled influences. In fact, most of Europe’s instruments can ultimately be traced to Arab sources. over various parts of These instruments entered Europe both through Turkey and from North Africa, especially West Asia, Eastern via Spain. For a thousand years or more before the expulsion of the Moors and Jews from Europe, and Spain in 1492, both North Africa and Southern Europe were part of a unified Mediterranean northern Africa from culture. Europe—and European music in particular—would be unthinkable without Arab the thirteenth to the influence. early twentieth century. Planning the Itinerary For readers whose curiosity remains unsatisfied by this necessarily brief survey, there are still more areas to explore. This is especially so of the Central Asian nations, whose music remains little known in the West. Beyond that is distant Xinjiang, the westernmost province of China, where Turkic peoples create music with close ties to the music of Turkey itself. At the other end of the Middle East, there is Morocco, where the remnants of Moorish- Andalusian music survive from Spain’s Middle Ages. While three major language groups are found in the Middle East—Arabic, Turkic, and Persian—Turkic and Arabic musical traditions are similar enough that we can combine them and discuss Middle Eastern music through two broad traditions: Arabic and Persian music. Because Islam is of central importance throughout the entire region, we must of necessity give some consideration to the relationship between music and mosque. But because Israel is the world center of Judaism, we must also consider the role of music in the synagogue. In fact, because of the significance of religion in the region, we have departed somewhat from the structure of the book’s other chapters: our last two “Arrivals” are not centered on places per se but on religious faiths, namely Sufism and Judaism. Arrival: Islam and the Arabic World With more than 1.5 billion adherents, or 23 percent of the world’s population, Islam is not ISLAM just a major religion but a profound influence on culture—both generally and musically— around the globe. Though there is a close connection between the Middle East and Islam, both historically and demographically, Islam is also a major force in numerous countries beyond the Middle East, especially in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Looking eastward, northern India is predominantly Muslim along with Pakistan and Bangladesh. Afghanistan, straddling both South Asia and the Middle East, is Muslim. In Southeast Asia two countries are predominantly Muslim: Malaysia and Indonesia, the latter being the most populous Muslim country in the world. In addition, the southern Philippines is Muslim. Muslims are also found in Thailand, Vietnam, and in smaller numbers in most countries of Southeast Asia. Western China, especially Xinjiang province, is Muslim, and most nations 247 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y of Central Asia (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) are predominantly Muslim. In Africa, besides the northern tier countries— considered part of the Middle East at least culturally—Islam is prevalent in many countries, especially Nigeria. Because of the earlier expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe, much of Southeast Europe includes Muslim communities, while three nations—Kosovo, Albania, and Bosnia-Herzegovina—are predominantly Muslim. In the rest of Europe there are increasing numbers of Muslims stemming from the many “guest workers” brought to places such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, as well as from refugees and political dissidents. Islam also flourishes in the United States, with the greatest concentration found in Dearborn, Michigan. Most Muslims—estimated at 80–90 percent—belong to the Sunni branch. What sets Sunnis apart is their adherence to the Qur’an (also Koran), Islam’s most sacred writings, and the Sunnah, which is the record of Muhammad’s life. Sunni believe that Muhammad specified no particular leaders to follow after him, and therefore Sunni Muslims have no hierarchy of ecclesiastical leaders. The Shia, however, believe that Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, was his designated successor, and they consider Ali to have been the first imam, who are the religious leaders of Shia Islam. The Shia constitute only about 10–20 percent of the world’s Muslims, but they have been exceptionally prominent politically because of conflicts in Iraq with Sunnis and because Iran is primarily Shia. Beyond these two major branches, there are numerous smaller branches, the most prominent being the Sufis, who are discussed in detail in Site 5. Site 1: Islamic Adhan , “Call to Prayer” First Impressions. In our example, which features a man calling the faithful to prayer, the vocalist performs a single melodic line, adding fairly extensive and technically demanding ornamentation. This performance seems to meet most definitions of “music,” as it has definite pitch, rhythm, and contour. Yet, in an Islamic context, this would not be considered as “singing”; it would be thought of, rather, as heightened speech or “holy” speech, delivered in a style requiring both declamation and the spinning out of syllables. Aural Analysis. Anyone who has visited a Muslim nation has likely heard the “Call to ADHAN Prayer”—in Arabic, the adhan—which is uttered five times daily. In most places today, The Islamic Call to considering the size of modern cities and the amount of noise from traffic, adhan are now Prayer. transmitted through loudspeakers mounted on a tower at a local mosque. Because the pur- pose of the call is to communicate a specific message and because Islam discourages the use of the sensual arts, the call consists essentially of spoken words, but the manner of delivery MUHAMMAD takes on characteristics of melody. Indeed, some versions of the adhan are highly virtuosic Muslim prophet and and melismatic. The set of pitches used is normally characteristic of a musical mode, a term Arab leader who denoting not just a scale but typical melodic patterns as well. Adhhan are melodically during his lifetime improvised to a certain degree and are also in free rhythm, being a series of declaimed (570–632 C.E.) phrases each separated by a pause. The words used are declaimed in classical Arabic and spread the religion of Islam and unified are virtually the same throughout Islam—the only exceptions being that the line “Prayer is a great deal of the better than sleep” is only chanted during the predawn call, and that Shia Muslims add the Arabian Peninsula. line “Ali is his successor” after affirming that Muhammad is the prophet of God: 248 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar God is great, God is great, Ashhadu an lail aha illa ll ah I testify that there is no god but God. Ashhadu anna Muhammadan I testify that Muhammad is the prophet of God. ras ul Allah Hayya ‘al a’l-sal at Come to prayer. Hayya ‘al a ‘l-fal ah Come to salvation. (Al-Salat khayr min al-nawn) (Prayer is better than sleep.) Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar God is great, God is great. Lail aha ill all ah There is no god but God. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.6 (1’49”) Chapter 8: Site 1 Islam: “Call to Prayer” Vocals: Single male (muezzin) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Vocalist calls in free rhythm. The text setting is syllabic. Note that throughout the example, each initial line is primarily syllabic and then repeated with increased melisma. Line 1: Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar (“God is great, God is great”). 0’07” Line 1 is repeated with increased melisma. 0’17 Line 2: Ashhadu an lail aha illa ll ah (“I testify that there is no god but God”). 0’25” Line 2 repeated with increased melisma. 0’35” Line 3: Ashhadu anna Muhammadan ras ul Allah (“I testify that Muhammad is the prophet of God”). 0’45” Line 3 repeated with increased melisma. 0’58” Line 4: Hayya ‘al a’l-sal at (“Come to prayer”). 1’05” Line 4 repeated with increased melisma. 1’14” Line 5: Hayya ‘al a ‘l-fal ah (“Come to salvation”). 1’22” Line 5 repeated with increased melisma. Note line 6 (see above) is not heard in this example. 1’30” Line 7: Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar (“God is great, God is great”). 1’40” Line 8: Lail aha ill all ah (“There is no god but God”). Source: Islamic “Azan” (“Call to Prayer”) by Saifullajan Musaev from the recording Bukhara, Musical Crossroads of Asia/Recorded, compiled and annotated by Ted Levin and Otanazar Matykubov, provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Smithsonian/Folkways CD SF40050, © 1991. Used with permission. 249 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.6): Visit a local mosque (with permission) and observe a service such as Friday prayers. Cultural Considerations. Islam has a great deal in common with Judaism and Christianity, despite the misunderstandings and conflicts that have arisen among adherents of these three religions. All three are monotheistic—in fact, they worship the same god, who is called Allah by Muslims, Yahweh or Jehovah (also known as Adonai, meaning “Lord”) by Jews, and God by (English-speaking) Christians. All trace their lineage to Abraham and recognize the biblical prophets. While Jesus of Nazareth, the man who is the basis of Christianity, is considered by many to have been a prophet as well as messiah, most Jews see Jesus as a “false messiah” or pay little heed to his presence, since Judaism does not place individual humans at the center of their faith. For Muslims, Muhammad (570–632) was not just a prophet, but the central prophet. Born in the Arabian Peninsula, Muhammad lived in Mecca and Medina and founded Islam there. While all Muslims accept the teaching of Muhammad, divisions arose after Muhammad’s death. As a consequence, there are “denominational” differences in Islam, SUNNI especially between the more dominant Sunni and the minority Shia branches of the religion. The mainstream or (Note, however, that Shia Muslims are the majority in Iran and Iraq.) Shia Muslims differ majority branch of from Sunni because of their belief that Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, Ali, was the Islam. rightful successor, in contrast to the Sunni who do not accept Ali’s legitimacy. Also, Shia designate spiritual leaders as imam, Ali having been the first of them. In addition to these SHIA The minority branch main sects, there are many smaller sects, including the Sufi. Because Sufis seek union with of Islam that follows Muhammad’s cousin, Ali. SUFI The mystical branch of Islam. The Beyazit Camii (Mosque), built in 1504, is Istanbul’s oldest standing mosque 250 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 God through trance, often induced through a whirling dance accompanied by music, some Muslims view Sufis as being so unorthodox that they are not considered mainstream Muslims. Muhammad designated Mecca as Islam’s holy city and built a great mosque there containing Islam’s holiest shrine, the Ka’ba. Since that time, every Muslim capable of doing so is expected to make a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca; pilgrims are honored as hajji upon their return home. Muslims are also expected to pray five times a day, facing in the direction of Mecca. The Call to Prayer developed as a reminder to the faithful to fulfill this obligation. In English the term mosque denotes any building used for Islamic worship but the Arabic term is masjid. There is no typical architectural form associated with mosques; indeed, many early mosques were converted Christian churches. In Istanbul the oldest mosques, those built in the sixteenth century, follow the same basic design as the city’s much older Byzantine churches: both feature a central dome surrounded by smaller half-domes. Each mosque, however, has a mihrab, a semi-circular niche in a wall that helps orient worshippers toward Mecca for their daily prayers. Mosques are relatively empty compared to churches, because worshippers pray on the (usually carpeted) floor. While Friday is the day for hearing sermons in the mosque, Muslims are expected to pray seven days a week. Two minarets of Istanbul’s famous Sultanahmet Camii, better known as the “Blue Mosque,” built in 1616. A muezzin calls the faithful to prayer from the minaret five times a day 251 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Worshippers praying at Imam Mosque, Isfahan, Iran (Shutterstock) One architectural feature that distinguishes all but the earliest mosques from churches is the presence of one or more tall, thin towers called minarets. An essential function of the minaret is to provide a place from which to sound the Call to Prayer. The person who gives the call is commonly called a muezzin (properly a mu’adhdhin in Arabic). When Muslims hear the call, they are expected to stop what they are doing and either pray or be still and silent. This applies to traffic as well as to television programs in many countries, although this degree of observance occurs more frequently in Islam-dominated states, such as Yemen, than in secular states such as Turkey. Although Islam is primarily associated with the Middle East, it is a major religion in other areas as well, including much of the central third of Africa, northern India, parts of southeastern Europe (especially Albania and Bosnia), and parts of Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, Indonesia, and the southern Philippines; indeed, Indonesia has a greater popu- lation of Muslims than any other country. Consequently, one hears the Call to Prayer in places outside the Middle East such as Singapore; Bangkok, Thailand; Manila, The Philippines; New Delhi, India; and Lagos, Nigeria, not to mention the United States. For overseas Muslims out of hearing range of a mosque, two substitute methods have been devised. Some believers tune into a radio station that broadcasts the Call to Prayer, while others rely on computer applications and clocks programmed to emit a recorded Call to Prayer five times a day. Most branches of Islam are suspicious of music, which they view as overly sensual. In Islamic aesthetic theory, expressions that combine pitch and rhythm—all of which would usually be classified as “music” in Western culture—are divided into a higher-level category called non-musiqa (non-music) and a lower-level category called musiqa (music). All categories of non-musiqa, including the Call to Prayer, are considered “legitimate.” These include readings from Islam’s holy book, the Qur’an (or Koran), which are delivered in heightened speech, as well as chanted poetry. Some musiqa is also legitimate, including 252 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 familial and celebratory songs, occupational music, and military band music, but the clas- sical genres of musiqa as well as local types of “folk music” are considered “controversial,” meaning that more fundamentalist Muslims generally discourage these traditions. At the bottom of this hierarchical scale is “sensuous music,” such as American popular music, which is branded “illegitimate.” However melodic, musical, or sensuous you may find the Call to Prayer, it is considered by Muslims to be “non-music” and unsensuous, and therefore legitimate. These views clearly illustrate that definitions of “music” are culture-based and not universal. Site 2: Arabic Taqasim for Ud and Buzuq First Impressions. The timbre of the opening instrument sounds very much like a guitar. The timbre of the following lute has a much brighter quality, the two together suggesting perhaps “belly dance” music, though with a much dreamier atmosphere. The melodic line seems spontaneous without a regular rhythm, the two instruments alternating the lead role. This kind of music is heard throughout the Arab world, including Turkey. We could be in Beirut (Lebanon), Damascus (Syria), Baghdad (Iraq), Cairo (Egypt), Tripoli (Libya), Amman (Jordan), Istanbul (Turkey) or any number of other places throughout the Middle East. Aural Analysis. The deeper sounding instrument first heard in the example is the ud, a large UD (Also, AL ‘UD) pear-shaped lute with a short fretless neck. The ud is found throughout much of the Middle A fretless, plucked East and is associated mostly with the “classical” tradition rather than village styles. With pear-shaped lute that is found in a history going back to the eighth century C.E., the ud has undergone numerous changes over Arabic music time in terms of size and number of strings. Today the instrument most typically has five traditions and is the origin of certain lutes of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Ali Jihad Racy, originally from Lebanon and now of the United States, plays the Arab buzuq (lute) (Linda Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) 253 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Close-up of the face of an ud (lute) (see full picture Chapter 3, page 58). “courses” of strings, a course being a pair tuned in unison, but ud with four, six, or even seven courses exist today. The musician can stop the strings anywhere on the neck, because there are no frets; this allows for fine gradations of intonation. The player uses a plectrum, or sometimes the fingers or fingernails of the right hand, to pluck the strings over the middle of the instrument’s body. The Middle Eastern ud is considered the original form of an instrument that traveled to Asia—where it became the Chinese pipa, the Japanese biwa, and the Vietnamese tyba—and to Europe, where it became the European lute, which reached its greatest popularity during the Renaissance, then gradually fell from favor during the eighteenth century. Indeed, the word lute derives from the word ud, typically referred to as “al’ud,” that is, the ud. The brighter sounding instrument that appears second in the example is called the buzuq and is different in many ways from the ud. It is used in both classical and non-classical music and has a rounded body, nylon frets wrapped around its neck, and three double courses of strings played with a plectrum. One of the three double courses plays the melody, while the other two are primarily strummed to create intermittent drones. The buzuq probably derives from a similar instrument that the Turks call saz, and a form of it is found in Greece where it is known as the bouzouki. MAQAM The music in our example may sound improvised, because it is unmetered and the (Also, MAKAM) melodic line seems to spin out spontaneously. Middle Eastern “improvisation,” however, Arabic/Turkish mode should not be understood as a license for the players to do whatever they want. Rather, it or system of rules and expectations for provides an opportunity for the performer to compose, within strict boundaries, while composition and playing. The usual Arabic term for the system within which improvisation occurs is maqam improvisation. (makam in Turkish), a word loosely translated as “mode.” As with the broad sense of the 254 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 term mode (e.g., as when it is applied to the Indian raga), each maqam (pl., maqamat) consists not only of a scale but also of specific melodic forms, moods, and other non-musical associations; they are perhaps best viewed as “composition kits.” In fact, there are many fully written ensemble compositions that include no improvisation but still follow the conventions of maqam. Each maqam has a name and is characterized by a specific starting and ending note— as well as a set of specific pitches organized into two groups of four pitches, each called a tetrachord in English. Describing these pitches is difficult, however, because many differ in intonation from all twelve pitches of the Western equal-tempered chromatic scale. Arabic theorists have devised a system—which may vary slightly in actual practice—of twenty-four pitches in an octave, with each measuring fifty cents (i.e., a half semitone or quartertone). CENTS The basic seven steps of individual scales consist of combinations of two, three, four, or six A way to measure quartertones. Two of these quartertones equal one Western semitone and four equal a sound intervals with 1200 cents in an Western whole tone, but three comprise an interval that is between a Western semitone and octave and a whole tone and six form an augmented (raised) second interval. If that sounds complex, semitone measuring indeed, it is. 100 cents. To add to the complexity, a given performance may shift from one maqam to another. The complete track from which our excerpt comes begins in maqam kurd, with the pitches D, E♭, F, G, A♭, B♭ and octave C, but then shifts to maqam rast (F, G, A♭, B♭, C, D, E♭), to maqam ‘ajam (F, G, A, B♭, C, D, E), to maqam nahawand (F, G, A♭, B♭, C, D♭, E♭), and, finally, to maqam bayyati (C, D♭, E♭, F, G, A♭, B♭). Theorists disagree on the number of maqamat: some claim there are up to seventy or more. There is also disagreement on the categorization of maqamat, which are divided into three families by some theorists. In our excerpted example, two musicians realize the maqam through improvisation—that is, they explore the characteristic intervals and melodic fragments gradually and spontaneously, alternating between ud and buzuq. When one musician is prominent, the other strums lightly, playing drone effects or modestly mimicking the phrases of the other. Any resulting simultaneity of notes is incidental and does not constitute harmony of any sort because the music is conceived monophonically. These improvisations may occur alone or as part of a longer suite that also includes fixed compositions in meter. An unmetered movement featuring improvisation is called a taqasim (or taqsim) when performed by instrumentalists, and layali or mawwal when performed by vocalists. Whereas musicians of nearly any skill level can play metered compositions, only the most skilled can play taqasim with any authority. Cultural Considerations. In addition to being suspicious of the sensual aspects of music, Islamic aesthetics frowns on realistic representation in art, especially of the human form, to avoid the temptation toward idol worship. But as with sound, it may not always be obvious to outsiders what is considered art and what is not. Important mosques boast interiors covered with beautiful ceramic tiles, which certainly appear “artistic” to the Western eye, even if their designs are non-representational. Indeed, even Arabic calligraphy lends itself to incorporation into decorative design and can be considered artistic. Such designs are appreciated as expressions of spirituality and respect toward Allah, rather than secular indulgences in artistic splendor. Within various cultures, an apparent correlation often exists between the degree of decoration found in art and architecture on the one hand and music on the other. In the case of Arabic music, this correlation is fairly compelling. Mosques characteristically have little 255 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.7 (1’57”) Chapter 8: Site 2 Arabic Taqasim Improvisation for Ud and Buzuq Instruments: Ud (fretless plucked lute), buzuq (fretted plucked lute) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” The ud begins the performance. Listen for the mellower timbre and lower range of this instrument compared with the brighter timbre of the buzuq. Also, note that the performance is in free rhythm throughout. 0’02” The tonality of the improvisation is established with this sustained pitch. 0’31” Buzuq enters, overlapping with the concluding phrases of the ud. Listen for the ud returning to the tonal center, but an octave lower than what was originally established. Note also that the ud does not drop out entirely, but just lowers its volume and melodic activity as the aural focus shifts to the buzuq. 0’51” The aural focus shifts again to the ud. Note that the buzuq continues to play at a quieter volume and with less melodic activity. 1’15” The aural focus shifts yet again to the buzuq. New tonalities are briefly established, but the phrase returns to the original tonal center at its conclusion. Source: “Maqam Kurd,” performed by Ali Jihad Racy, buzuq, and Simon Shaheen, ud, from Taqasim: Improvisation in Arab Music, Lyrichord LYRCD 7374, n.d. Used by permission, Lyrichord Discs Inc. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.7): The first phrase of this example (played on the ud) makes heavy use of a tremolo plucking technique (very fast on a single string). If not a musician yourself, locate a guitarist to show you the plucking technique and match the rhythmic density of this tremolo. Note how Western-trained musicians tend to pluck lutes by moving their forearm up and down, while Asian musicians pluck the instrument by rotating their forearm with a bent wrist. undecorated space within them, and this is paralleled by the busy character of much Arabic music, in which the distinction between main notes and ornamentation is frequently blurred. Interestingly, whereas the ornamentation of classical musiqa is clearly categorized as “controversial,” the same thing in a Call to Prayer is “legitimate” because the adhan is non- musiqa. From the eighteenth century onward, Arabic decoration made a strong impression on Europeans. The French term arabesque came to denote European architectural embellish- ments featuring floral or curling patterns. In music the term denotes elaborately embellished melodies or countermelodies, such as Claude Debussy’s Deux arabesques for piano. Few of these compositions, however, have any further relationship to Arabic music per se. Some 256 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Though not considered to be artwork, the intense decoration of a mosque is analogous to the ornamentation of Arabic music. The recess in the center (mihrab) orients worshippers toward Mecca, Saudi Arabia, as seen in Istanbul’s Beyazit Cammii (Mosque) of 1504 composers and musicians, particularly pianists, at Middle Eastern conservatories otherwise devoted to European music have sought to assert something of their roots by composing or improvising their own “arabesques” as well. Arrival: Iran IMMIGRATION Little visited these days by Western travelers, Iran, a country the size of Alaska or Quebec, IRAN is home to nearly seventy million people. Because much of the country is mountainous and rainfall is scanty except along the Gulf of Oman coast, Iran’s large population often has to IMMIGRATION cope with difficult and dangerous conditions. Earthquakes are a constant concern in many areas, and when one occurs, typically large numbers of people die. Iran, known as Persia until the twentieth century, is different from most of its neighbors on several accounts. The vast majority of its inhabitants share a non-Arab origin and speak Farsi, an Indo-European language related to that of the Kurds, who live at the juncture of Iran, Turkey, and Iraq. Most of Iran’s population is Shia Muslim, Shia being the division of Islam that in many places is associated with the lower economic classes and that tends 257 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y to express itself more emotionally and militantly than Sunni Islam, which has become the mainstream form of Islam in most Middle Eastern countries. Shia Islam has a more developed clergy, the lower-ranking members being called mullahs and the higher-ranking ones ayatollahs. At various times, the more radical manifestations of the group’s fundamentalist tendencies, such as the 1979 Iranian hostage crisis, have strained political relations between people and governments not only in the West but also among non-Shia Muslims and neighboring countries as well. Persia has a long history, from its first flourishing in the sixth century B.C.E. under Cyrus the Great, through its periods of subjugation by Alexander the Great, the Parthians, the Turks, and the Mongols, to independence in the eighteenth century. Some consider its greatest period to have been during the rule of the Sasanian dynasty (third to seventh centuries C.E.). Modern Iran was created in the early twentieth century, along with a hereditary line of rulers called shahs, the last being Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlevi, who ruled until deposed by a revolution in 1979. Since 1979 Iran has been a theocratic democracy, ruled by an uneasy union of semi-official ayatollahs and official secular leaders. Site 3: Dastgah for Santur and Voice First Impressions. Iranian classical music often has a melancholy mood. Both the instru- mentalist and vocalist in this example express this quality through pitch, rhythm, and dynamics. Even the vocal timbre is heartfelt, encouraging an intimate atmosphere that is typical of Persian classical performance. On first hearing, this Iranian example may sound rather similar to the Arabic example heard earlier. It begins with a stringed instrument Dome of mosque and two minarets in Isfahan, Iran, one of the country’s centers of Islam (Rex Shahriari) 258 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 playing a rhythmically free melody in an improvisatory manner. This section then gives way to a section featuring an unaccompanied female singer, who continues the rhythmically free approach. Despite the apparent similarities between Arabic and Iranian music (or, more properly, Persian music), however, the two systems are conceptually quite different. Aural Analysis. Although the instrument that introduces our example is a chordophone, a careful listener will detect a percussiveness that distinguishes it from the plucked instru- ments heard earlier in the Arabic ud and buzuq duet. Indeed, the player is using two small wooden hammers to strike the strings. Organologically, such an instrument is called a “dulcimer” or a “hammered zither,” because the strings are parallel to a soundboard without a neck, and struck by mallets. The instrument is a Persian santur, Iran’s most distinctive SANTUR and centrally important instrument. It is also considered by academics as the predecessor A hammered zither of the rest of the world’s dulcimers, which are distributed as far as China and Korea in the from the Persian classical tradition. east, Thailand and Vietnam in Southeast Asia, and Europe and the United States in the West. Indeed, some scholars even consider the European piano to be inspired in part by the santur, because pianos work on the same principle of sound production, except that keys flip the hammers against the strings. The santur is constructed of a hardwood, trapezoidal-shaped body with a lower side around 3 feet (91 cm) in length and an upper side only around 14 inches (35 cm) across. Courses—groups—of four strings each stretch from tuning pins on the right over two rows of moveable bridges, in rows of thirteen and twelve respectively, to tunable anchor pins on the left. Players hammer the strings near the bridges on either side of the left row and on the left side only of the right row of bridges. If plain wooden hammers are used, the tone is more percussive than when players cover the mallet tips with felt or cloth, as is the case in our example. The santur, in slightly different forms, is also played in other Middle Eastern countries, though elsewhere it is not the centrally important instrument it is in Iran. Iconographical evidence dates the santur at least to the Babylonian period (1600–911 B.C.E.). The vocal soloist who enters following the introductory section sings verses from the Masnavi, a book of mystical poetry written by the thirteenth-century poet Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, who also founded the Mevlevi order of Sufi Islam, famed for its “whirling dervishes” (see Chapter 8, Site 5). Written in rhythmically free verse, the sung text begins with the following lines: “The grieving of the heart announces the state of love / And there is no illness like that of the heart.” Persian music, like Arabic music, is based on an elaborate modal system (recall that the term mode refers to a “composition kit” used in improvisation), which in Persian music is called dastgah (plural, dastgah-ha). Officially there are twelve DASTGAH dastgah, each having seven pitches, plus a number of sub-modes called avaz. The track Persian mode or heard here is in Dastgah shur (also spelled shour), which uses the pitches C, D♭ (flat one system of rules and expectations for quarter step), E♭, F, G, A♭, B♭, and C. composition and There are, however, essential differences between the Arabic maqam and Persian improvisation. dastgah systems. Unlike Arab musicians, who rely on an oral tradition of melodic phrases appropriate to a specific mode, Persian musicians have created a vast body of “composed” melodic phrases that amount to short compositions; these are called gusheh. Each dastgah, then, is learned by memorizing a variable number of these short gusheh compositions that can then be strung together to create a longer and more complete performance/composition. Groups of gusheh are organized around specific pitches of the dastgah, allowing the player to progress from the lowest (or home) note, called the ist, to higher pitches, where the musical 259 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The Persian santur (dulcimer) tension becomes greater. The number of gusheh employed in any particular performance depends on the performer’s knowledge and needs, while the specifics of the gusheh used vary according to the player’s “school” (or tradition). For pedagogical purposes, as well as to set a kind of national standard, scholars have collected and printed all the gusheh for all the dastgah in a book called the radif. Therefore, a student can memorize as many gusheh as might be needed for performance, but the radif itself differs from “school” to “school” (“school” being the tradition of a single master). A complete performance of a dastgah typically unfolds in several sections and requires a substantial amount of time, because the sections can be quite different from each other. A typical performance’s opening movement, called the daramad, is rhythmically free and emphasizes the lower-pitched gusheh. Following this is the tahrir, another section in free rhythm emphasizing melismatic melodic work. Then follow two metered pieces called kereshmeh and chahar-mezrab respectively, which are followed in turn by a repetition of the rhythmically free daramad. The track included here features only the first two of these sections. Cultural Considerations. The classical dastgah-ha of Iran form a vast and flexible system, which allows musicians to create both fixed compositions and improvisations by stringing together numerous short compositional blocks. Naturally, this system also calls for an element of individual creativity, because Persian music-making is about far more than building Lego- like performances. The art comes in how the gusheh are joined to each other and in how they are subtly changed and elaborated. Because musicians belong to various “schools” and 260 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.8 (2’55”) Chapter 8: Site 3 Iran: Dastgah for Santur and Voice Vocals: Single female Instruments: Santur (hammered zither) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Santur begins in free rhythm. Listen for the creative use of variations in volume. Also, note the free-flowing tonality, challenging the listener to hear a tonal center, which is only finally solidified on the last pitch in octaves heard just before the voice enters (0’59”). 0’04” Tonality focuses on G (fourth scale degree). 0’13” Tonality focuses on F (third scale degree). 0’24” Tonality focuses on D (tonal center). 0’50” Tonality focuses on C (seventh scale degree). 0’59” Tonality centers on D (tonal center) to anticipate the entrance of the vocalist. 1’02” Vocalist enters, confirming the tonal center. Listen for her melismatic ornamentations that diverge from the tonal center briefly and then return. 1’38” Santur plays solo break. 2’11” Vocalist returns. Listen for the santur reinforcing the basic pitches of the melodic line. Source: “Dastgah of Shour” by Mohamed Heydari, santour, and Khatereh Parvaneh, voice, from the recording entitled Classical Music of Iran: The Dastgah Systems, SF 40039, provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. © 1991. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.8): Use an electronic tuner to determine how many cents “flat” the named scale degrees (C, D, F and G) are in this example compared with standard Western tuning (A = 440 Hz). Sing the fundamental pitch (D— quarter tone) throughout the vocal section to hear how the singer ornaments around this pitch. consequently have learned different approaches to the dastgah, specific gusheh generally sound different from one performance to another. The use of measured rhythm in metrical cycles is no longer as significant in Persian music as it once was, and the metered pieces found in suites, such as the chahar-mezrab, employ fairly simple rhythmic patterns. While foreign audiences generally prefer the metered compositions because of their use of one or more drums and their steady beat, Persian musicians and connoisseurs value rhythmically free improvisations most highly for the display of refined musicianship they allow. 261 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y The Persian tar, a distinctively shaped lute with six strings Although the santur is probably Iran’s most distinctive instrument, other kinds of instruments are important as well. These include two plucked lutes, the sehtar and the tar. The latter’s skin-covered body has a distinctive shape, resembling the number “8.” Also important is the round-bodied bowed lute called kemancheh. One aerophone, the ney, an end-blown notch flute found throughout the Middle East, is commonly heard. The main percussion instrument is a goblet-shaped, single-headed drum called the dombak or zarb, which resembles the Arabic darabuka. Arrival: Egypt EGYPT If any nation typifies the Middle East, it is Egypt. Her ancient civilization, nearly as old as civilization itself, seems to live on through incredible relics—the pyramids, the Sphinx, great temples, hieroglyphics, wall paintings, and mummies—and is symbolized by the River Nile, which flows thousands of miles northward out of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. This nation, which constitutes the northeast corner of Africa, is smaller than Canada’s Ontario province, but has a population of eighty-three million. That the land can support so many is surprising considering how much of Egypt is desert. Most of the fertile land is found along the Nile, where many crops, including great quantities of cotton, are grown. The Suez Canal, opened in 1869, connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea and separates the main part of Egypt from the Sinai Peninsula. Although ancient paintings depict musicians playing harps, lyres, lutes, flutes, double reeds, and other kinds of instruments, little is known about the sound of Egyptian music 262 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Egypt’s Great Sphinx of Giza, which along with the pyramids, is a symbol of ancient Egypt (Denise A. Seachrist) until long after contact with Islam. However, coastal Egypt, particularly Alexandria, was part of the ancient Mediterranean civilization, where Islamic-period Arab music theory was brought to an intellectual zenith during the first millennium of the Christian era. Music in modern-day Egypt reflects a welter of more recent influences, including European art music, which has made Egypt—at least urban Egypt—a center of European musical culture outside Europe. For example, Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Aida, whose music is European but whose locale is set in Egypt, was commissioned by Khedive Ismail of Egypt in 1869 for the opening of the Cairo Opera House. Site 4: Takht Instrumental Ensemble First Impressions. With its catchy beat and sinuous melody, this piece may bring to mind the image of a veiled belly dancer swaying gracefully before an audience. Some of the instruments might seem familiar, including one that sounds like a tambourine, but the tuning of a number of the intervals heard sound “off,” one in particular. Aural Analysis. Songs accompanied by instrumental ensembles pervade Egyptian musical life. They run the gamut from religious songs—as heard in this case—to folk songs, wedding songs, and love songs. Egyptian instrumental ensembles may also, however, perform on their own, without a vocalist. The musical systems found among Egyptians generally contrast slower-paced and unmetered music played by a single musician with clearly metered music played by a group, with or without a vocal part. In contrast to the improvisatory approach that is such an important part of solo performance, instrumental groups play fixed com- positions. In Egypt the typical ensemble is called a takht and consists of three to five players, though more are possible. In modern times these ensembles have often been enlarged through TAKHT the addition of new instruments, some borrowed from Europe, what some Middle Easterners An Arabic music jokingly call the “Near North”. ensemble including zithers, bowed and Most of the melodic instruments found in takht ensembles are chordophones, such as plucked lutes, bowed lutes, plucked lutes, and zithers, but at least one aerophone, the end-blown cane flute drums, aerophones, (ney), is nearly always present as well. Among the most prominent of the plucked lutes is a and sometimes non- pear-shaped ud lute. Of the bowed lutes, the kemanja, an unfretted spike fiddle, is most traditional prevalent, but today takht ensembles may also incorporate violins, ’cellos, and even string instruments. 263 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y A small takht ensemble. Front row: Ebrahim Eleish: ud, lute; George Sawa: qanun, zither; Suzanne Meyers Sawa: darabuka, drum. Back row: Dahlia Obadia: Middle Eastern dancer, and Sonia Belkacem, singer. (George Sawa) QANUN (ALSO, basses. The most important zither is the qanun, an unusually shaped, four-sided instrument KANUN) resembling an autoharp that has an amazing number of tuning mechanisms to allow for A plucked zither various tunings (see photo on page 26). Our recorded example features ud (plucked lute), used in Turkish violin (bowed lute), ney (end-blown flute), qanun (plucked zither), riqq (tambourine), and and Arabic music tablah (goblet drum). The melodic instruments perform the same melody but with slight traditions, prominent in takht variations, resulting in a slightly heterophonic structure. ensembles. Three types of drums may be found in takht ensembles: the duff, the riqq, and the tabla. The duff is a small, single-headed drum sometimes having snares; the riqq is similar but has pairs of small cymbals inserted into the frame that jingle when the head is struck (i.e., it is a tambourine). The tabla is a small, goblet-shaped single-headed drum similar to others with different names found throughout the Middle East but is not related to the Indian pair of drums of the same name. Arabic drumming is highly organized, and much of it is conceived as being in closed cycles of beats. The standard, named patterns realized by drummers are known in Arabic as iqa (plural, iqa-at), best translated as rhythmic modes in English. Using named drum strokes, drummers continuously play a given mode or cycle, with greater or lesser degrees of elaboration and ornamentation, to reinforce the metrical organization of a composition’s melodic parts. Even when Egyptian composers create fixed pieces, they work within the Arab modal system called maqam, which governs the choice of pitches and intervals and offers standard 264 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Collection of Middle Eastern hand drums: (clockwise from left) Moroccan bendir with snares inside, Persian daf with internal ring chains, Nubian tar from southern Egypt and northern Sudan, and Arab riqq or def; (center) Egyptian tabla goblet drum, called darbuka in Turkey (N. Scott Robinson) melodic patterns as well. Compositions are also divided into certain well-known set forms, with names such as dulab, tahmlla, and bashraf. Our recording is an example of the last form, which originated during the Turkish Ottoman Empire, and features the alternation of a recurring theme (tasllm)—called a “rondo” or “ritornello” in European music—and new melodic material. This form is often used, as in this case, for light music. In a bashraf composition, the change from one section to the next is sometimes signaled by a change in the mode being used. The main mode used in this bashraf has a prominent augmented second interval right above the home pitch and could be expressed as C, D, E, F, G, A♭, B, C. Certain of the pitches, especially the F, sound out of tune to Western ears, as their intonation differs from the Western equal-tempered scale. A second scale could be expressed as C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C and sounds more familiar as far as tuning goes. During the mid-twentieth century, an orchestra-sized variant of the takht ensemble appeared. Known as firqa, these larger ensembles sometimes include a chorus in addition to the principal vocalist. As with the smaller ensembles, the instruments used are mostly chordophones and aerophones, the former including most Arab possibilities plus members of the Western violin family, and the latter being mostly end-blown flutes of the ney variety. While traditional ensembles play heterophonically, performances by modernized firqa ensembles are usually highly arranged, with varied orchestration and occasional harmony. 265 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.9 (9’41”) Chapter 8: Site 4 Egypt: Takht Instrumental Ensemble Note: The below description was contributed by Scott Marcus, the lead member of the ensemble in this recording. Instruments: ud (plucked lute), violin (bowed lute), ney (end-blown flute), qanun (plucked zither), riqq (tambourine), and tablah (goblet drum) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” The set starts (with ud) in maqam nahawand on G, similar to the Western minor (G A B♭ c d e♭ f♯ g) except that the minor third is significantly lower in pitch than the piano’s equal-tempered minor third. Many (theorists) understand this third to be a Pythagorean minor third (294 cents as opposed to 300 cents), although performers do not think in terms of cents. 0’58” Next, we play a dulab in maqam nahawand on G. Dulab is an instrumental genre. The compositions are very short. Dulabs serve to set the maqam of the following pieces; in this sense, they serve the function of a prelude, although note that ‘prelude’ is a Western term that is not used in Arab music. Dulabs are generally older compositions, understood to come from an unknown past: no known composer, they were part of the tradition in the late nineteenth century, but we do not know when the genre or these specific compositions appeared. As in our example, dulabs commonly move between two different rhythmic modes, the first called wahdah, and the second called maqsum. The pattern for wahdah is D – MT – KT – (i.e., dum – ma tak – ka takk –). The pattern for maqsum is DT – TD – T – (dumm takk – takk dumm – takk –). Both of these patterns take the same amount of time. In staff notation, they are written as 4/4. In our dulab, there are six repetitions (six measures) of wahdah, then seven repetitions of maqsum, then a return to wahdah. 1’40 Next we have a violin taqasim on a wahdah ostinato in maqam nahawand on G. 2’42” Full ensemble returns. 3’23” Next a ney (end-blown reed flute) taqasim in maqam nahawand on G on a G drone (no ostinato). 4’28” Then a qanun (plucked zither) taqasim on a ciftetelli ostinato. This ostinato is twice as long as the wahdah or maqsum rhythms, and thus could be understood as an 8/4: (D – MT – K T – D – D – T –). The first half is similar to the wahdah pattern. The qanun includes a modulation to maqam nawa athar on G: G A B♭ c♯ d e♭ f♯ g. 5’37” (Pause) Then we play a high energy instrumental composition composed by Muhammad ’Abd al-Wahhab (c.1900–1991). This composition occurs in the middle of a lengthy song that ’Abd al- Wahhab composed for the singer Umm Kulthum (c.1900–1975). The song is called “Fakkaruni.” (Note each instrument is highlighted with brief solo passages.) 266 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 7’38” In the middle of this instrumental piece, we feature a drum solo. The drum, called tablah, in Egypt, is metal with a plastic head (the norm since the old-style clay drums with skin heads lost out in the mid- to late 1980s). 8’36” We conclude after the drum solo by returning briefly to the Fakkaruni composition. Source: A short waslah performance in maqam nahawand and maqam nawa athar, performed by members of the University of California, Santa Barbara Middle East Ensemble, Dr. Scott Marcus, director, 2011. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.9): Find and record a song by a local musician or group. Play the recording back to them and ask for a description of the piece from an “insider” view. Create a Listening Guide, such as that above, based on their commentary. Cultural Considerations. In addition to accompanying singers, takht ensembles also accom- pany dance. From the perspective of most Westerners, Middle Eastern dance is synonymous with “belly dance,” which is often assumed to be erotic because of the undulating pelvic movements that are so stereotypical. In fact, this dancing is a highly skilled activity that is often appreciated for its technical merits. Traditionally, the dancers who mastered the most rapid hip movements were called ghawazi, a term derived from the name of the Ottoman coins that adorned their costumes. The nearest equivalent to the Western conception of belly dance is the raqs sharqi, which varies from performances by fully clothed artistic dancers RAQS SHARQI to stripteases. Interestingly, the latter were historically performed by foreigners rather than The Arabic name for Arab women, because Arab women could never hope to be married if they had been what is commonly referred to by associated with erotic displays. Another distinctive form is the sham’idan (candelabrum outsiders as “belly dance), so called because the dancer performs with a large, heavy candelabrum with lighted dance.” candles balanced on her head. Some theorize that these dances once symbolized fertility for Egyptians, but others claim that they came from the Halab and the Ghajar, two Rom tribes from India who entered Egypt most likely with the Ottoman Turkish armies in 1517. Dance in Egypt is also closely associated with religious expression, particularly among members of the more mystically inclined sects. Dance in a religious context can bring participants to great spiritual heights, including states of ecstasy and even possession. Ali Jihad Racy, a noted scholar and performer of Arabic music heard on CD 2.7—Arabic Taqasim, asserts that the essential difference between European music and Middle Eastern music is that the former strives for the representation of images and concepts (including structural patterns), and the latter strives to evoke intense emotions in both the performers and the listeners. These emotions can affect people in both positive and negative ways, a concept known as ethos to the Greeks and ta’thir to the Arabs. Indeed, for Arabs, music has the power to heal and to bring people closer to union with God. As Racy remarks in his book TARAB Making Music in the Arab World, “In Arab culture, the merger between music and emotional Arabic word for a transformation is epitomized by the Arab concept of tarab” (p. 5). Although much Arabic state of emotional music can be described in purely technical terms (e.g., the modal system), the goal of Arab transformation or music-making is not so much to create clever structures as to bring listeners into a state ecstasy achieved of ecstasy. Although this ecstasy can have a religious dimension—by bringing the hearer through music. 267 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Belly dance performance accompanied only by violin and darabuka (behind dancer) (Andrew Shahriari) into spiritually heightened states—music’s sensual aspect is still viewed as suspicious by Islamic theologians, and consequently, as we have read, musiqa is proscribed from the mosque. Arrival: Sufism UFISM S Sufism is frequently described as the “mystical” branch of Islam. While Sufis regard them- selves as being part of the Sunni tradition and as having the same core religious values as all branches of Islam—namely, belief in Muhammad as the last prophet of Allah—their interpretation of the Qur’an allows for activities, especially with regards to music, that are discouraged or prohibited by most other Muslims. A fundamental philosophy of Sufism is that a person can become one with Allah through the elimination of the ego, a belief rejected by orthodox Islam. This controversial belief results in varied opinions of Sufi practices. Many Muslims consider Sufis devoted followers of Allah, but others view them as heretics whose ritual practices are sacrilegious. In Turkey, Sufis have been held in high esteem for centuries. The Mevlevi sect, one of the best-known Sufi orders, was founded there in the thirteenth century and exerted great influence on rulers of the region for several centuries. The term Sufi is derived from the Arabic word suf, meaning “wool,” in reference to the woolen robes worn by devotees. Sufi brotherhoods are numerous, each having its own rules and rituals. Many Sufis seclude themselves in monasteries, called tekke or khanegah, in order to focus exclusively on their spiritual quest to know Allah. Others practice trades in the secular world and perform the sacred rites of their brotherhood only on specific 268 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 occasions. Still others commit themselves to an itinerant existence. This latter lifestyle earned Sufis a secondary title, dervish, which loosely translates as “beggar,” as the wandering clerics rely on alms from the general public for their survival. Dervish is the term most frequently used in the Western world for those Sufi orders that present public performances of sacred music and dance as a means of disseminating knowledge about their religion. Site 5: Sufi Dhikr Ceremony DHIKR (Also, ZIKR) A Sufi devotional act First Impressions. Unlike most Islamic worship, with its solemn mood, Sufi music is often in which believers upbeat, though with an undertone of seriousness. This performance, a hymn recorded in chant the name of Turkey, is almost like a spinning top: it seems repeatedly to slip and then straighten itself, God with the goal of until it finally slows and comes to rest. Accompanied by several instruments, the voices entering an ecstatic state. swirl round and round and up and down. This exuberant celebration of love for Allah then gives way to a more solemn mood as a single voice cries out over the hearty chant of fellow worshippers. Aural Analysis. Sufi hymns, known as ilahi, vary in mood and instrumentation. The ud, qanun, kamance (also spelled kemanja and kamence; a spiked bowed fiddle), ney, and bandir (a frame drum) are the most common instruments, although the tanbur (a fretted plucked lute), riqq (tambourine), and occasionally the kudum (a kettle drum) and halile (cymbals) are sometimes included as well. The ney is particularly important in Sufi cere- monies and is often used for extended solos. Vocal performance in Sufi music belongs to one of three categories. The most prominent type is associated with the male vocal specialists known as zakirler, who perform metered passages in unison. This type of singing is heard in the first section of the track. The melodic contour of this vocal performance continually rises and falls, supported by the melodic instruments, while the bandir provides a steady duple-metered pulse. The tonal center shifts frequently, keeping the music always slightly off-balance. While the text setting is primarily syllabic, melismatic descents occur at the peaks of concluding phrases. After this “swirling” singing, the tempo slows and the other two vocal categories are heard simultaneously. In the foreground, the vocal soloist chants rhythmically free melis- matic passages akin to the muezzin’s Call to Prayer. This style of singing is known as kaside. Some instruments accompany the voice, providing key melodic pitches for the vocalist’s reference rather than complete melodic passages. This allows the vocalist to improvise his melodic phrases without being bound to a specific melody or rhythm. Other instruments do, however, follow a pulse, which is articulated by the remaining dervishes, whose per- formance is an example of the third vocal category. The chorus sings a deep, raspy chant, consisting of repetitions of the phrase “Hu, hu,” meaning “It is He” (“He” being Allah). 269 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.10 (1’54”) Chapter 8: Site 5 Turkey: Sufi Dhikr Ceremony Vocals: Male vocal ensemble. Single male vocal with male group chant. Instruments: Ney (end-blown flute), kemanja (bowed lute), ud (plucked lute), kanun (plucked zither), bandir (frame drum). TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Listen for the “swirling” ascending–descending vocal line and matching melodic instruments following a steady duple meter. Note the reference to “Allah” in the text that corresponds to an ascending melodic contour. 0’06” Text changes and several voices drop out. 0’21” Tonality shifts, but note the continued use of a “swirling” melodic line that now emphasizes a descending contour. 0’35” Tonality shifts again, but continues with the descending melodic phrases. 0’50” “Allah, Allah” refrain returns. 1’05” Vocal ensemble drops out and tempo slows. 1’09” Listen for the regular pulsation of the ensemble’s hearty chanting. The instruments continue to be heard, but the melodic instruments are minimally active. 1’16” A single male vocalist chants a freely rhythmic and melismatic text setting. 1’28” The ney (flute) can be heard briefly, supporting the lead vocalist’s melodic line. Source: “Sufi Hymn (Turkish),” performed by the Jarrahi Dervishes and recorded by J. During, Konya, Turkey, 1982, from the recording entitled The Silk Road: A Musical Caravan, SF 40438, provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. © 2002. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.10): Perform the “whirling” dance of the Sufis by spinning continuously throughout this example. As you spin, experiment with moving your hands away from your body and tilting your head to the side. Note what body positions encourage a “disconnected” feeling more quickly. Cultural Considerations. For Sufis, chants provide the believer with the opportunity to attain union with Allah. Indeed, they believe that music is a primary way of reaching this ultimate goal. Sound is thought to be a vital link between the spiritual and physical realms. Whereas orthodox Islam, as we have seen, generally discourages musical performance, especially in the context of worship, Sufis emphasize its use as a means of heightening spirituality. Rather 270 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 than believing that music tempts the soul away from Allah, Sufis assert that music merely strengthens a person’s inclinations and temperament. Thus, music performed in religious contexts with the intention of uplifting the soul is acceptable and often necessary, whereas music played in the context of sensual indulgence only reinforces the sinful nature of the flesh. One of the most important contexts for Sufi musical performances is the sema ritual, where the devotional act known as dhikr (also called zikr), a name that translates as “remembrance” is performed. The practice of dhikr differs among Sufi orders, but the best- known form of the ceremony is associated with the Mevlevi sect founded by Jalal al-Din JALAL AL-DIN Muhammad Rumi (1207–1273 C.E.). In this version of the ceremony—which is particularly MUHAMMAD RUMI associated with the December 17 memorial celebrations held in Rumi’s honor in Konya, Sufi saint of Islamic Turkey—music and dance are often performed for the public. The Western notion of Sufis mysticism known as “Whirling Dervishes” is derived from this and similar ceremonies because the dances for his poems and require performers to spin in a circle on one foot for an extended period at varying speeds. as the founder of When a dancer is spinning at his fastest, his white robes become a blur, much like an ice the Mevlevi skater doing a final spin at the Olympics. religious order. A Sufi devotee uses music and dance in these ceremonies to progress through the evo- lutionary stages of the soul toward the ultimate goal of experiencing the absolute reality of Allah. By chanting the names of the ninety-nine divine attributes of Allah while performing specific ritualistic movements, Sufis enter a trance-like state in which they become spiritually ecstatic. Sufis describe this feeling as “soaring.” Many Sufi ritual performances are hidden from the public and involve such amazing feats as piercing the body with swords, chewing on glass, or walking on hot coals to demonstrate the power of Allah working through the individual believer. Our recorded example is typical of the music found in private ceremonies. The “whirling” dances of the Mevlevi sect are also intended to help believers achieve a spiritually ecstatic state. As the musicians play, the dancer rises and removes his black Sufi Muslims of the Mevlevi (‘Whirling’) sect, perform the sema ritual on stage in New York (Jack Vartoogian/ FrontRowPhotos) 271 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y outer garment, which symbolizes the darkness of the secular world. Beneath this outer garment are inner white robes that symbolize the purity of Allah. As the dancer spins, he raises his right hand toward the sky and lowers his left hand toward the earth. This action represents Allah handing down his divine grace to all humanity. The spinning motion symbolizes the movement of the heavenly bodies—that is, the earth and moon—and helps the dancer to detach himself from the material plane and achieve a heightened sense of spiritual awareness. Arrival: Judaism AISM JUD While Judaism is practiced by more than fifteen million adherents throughout North Africa, Western Asia, Europe, and the Americas, its “homeland,” the state of Israel, is in the Middle East. A nation half the size of Switzerland, Israel was created on May 14, 1948, from an area formerly known as Palestine. Sometimes called “The Holy Land,” Israel is of great religious significance for Jews, Christians, and Muslims, as it has what are perhaps the most revered historical sites or monuments for each group: the Wailing Wall for the Jews, the Church of the Nativity for Christians, and the Dome of the Rock mosque for Muslims and Jews. As a result this land has been fought over for more than one thousand years, going back to the time before the medieval Crusades. Traditionally, people of all three religions lived together in the region—and they still do—but since 1948 there has been continuous tension over land, water, and religious and political rights and privileges. Israel is a nation with both “traditional” (i.e., Asian/North African) and immigrant populations (European, American, Asian, and African). Historically, most Jews lived in the The Temple Mount in Jerusalem, including the Western Wall and the Dome of the Rock (Shutterstock) 272 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Jerusalem’s Dome of the Rock, called Qubbat As-Sakhrah in Arabic and built between 687 and 691, is a revered shrine (mashhad) for Muslims “Diaspora”—that is, the countries outside the Middle East to which they spread—often suffering discrimination and marginalization. In Europe, Jews were long kept at arm’s length from the mainstream populations but allowed to establish themselves in certain occupations, music being one of them. Over the centuries, in many times and places, Jews were made scapegoats for Europe’s problems. Following the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, the Nazi Germans began a policy designed to exterminate the Jewish population, not just in Germany but also throughout Europe, and during the 1940s, before the liberation in 1945 by the Allies, the Nazis murdered some six million Jews in what came to be called The Holocaust. In reaction to this history of oppression, Zionism, a Jewish political movement begun in central Europe in 1897, advocated the founding of a Jewish state that would be a refuge for Jews worldwide. The establishment of Israel in 1948 realized that goal, though European Jews had already been migrating to Palestine for many years. Jews in the Diaspora belong to several distinct communities. The term Sephardic originally referred to Jews forced out of Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella at the end of the fifteenth century but has come to be applied to any Jew of North African or Asian origin. Jews from Europe are called Ashkenazi Jews, and because they were the primary advocates for the establishment of Israel, they tend to dominate modern Israeli politics. The musical traditions of the two communities are quite different, and among Sephardic Jews KLEZMER there are many distinct local traditions, such as that of Jews from Yemen. A European-derived The terms Jewish music and Israeli music are difficult to define. The former refers not dance music commonly only to music (both chanting and singing) heard in tabernacle ritual but also to non-liturgical associated with songs of many sorts having Jewish content. Israeli music can only be defined as the sum of Jewish celebrations, its parts, because Israeli society is partially secular and comprises people from all over the influenced by jazz world. Perhaps the best-known representative of “Israeli music” is klezmer, a kind of and other non- European-derived dance music mostly developed in the United States and influenced by Jewish styles. 273 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y jazz and other non-Jewish styles. We have chosen to represent the religious side of Jewish identity through a genre from the synagogue, liturgical cantillation. Site 6: Jewish Shofar and Liturgical Cantillation First Impressions. This unaccompanied male singing seems rather random and hardly tuneful, suggesting that the text itself might be more important than the performance’s musical qualities. Not being able to understand the words is a serious obstacle in this case. There is one scale interval in particular that sounds Middle Eastern. Aural Analysis. The musical elements present in our example are mostly functional, that is, they serve primarily to give the text prominence. If you listen carefully, you’ll detect eight pitches spanning slightly more than one octave. In notation, from low to high, they are D, E, F, G♯, A, B, C, E. Two of them seem more important than the others, the A and lower E. These are the reciting pitches, with E being the resting point that gives a feeling of finality. The G♯ is what gives the chant its Middle Eastern flavor, because G♯ down to F natural is an augmented second. Descending from G♯ to F also produces an incomplete feeling only relieved by hitting the lower E. There is no regular meter; rather, the words are delivered in “speech rhythm.” While the text setting is generally syllabic, there are also some melismas present. Toledo, Spain, once the home for a large Jewish community, preserves the Synagogue of Santa Maria la Blanca, a twelfth- century building with Moorish arches. It was later converted into a church in 1411 when the Jews were driven from Toledo 274 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Jewish cantillation, called nusach, is an oral tradition, though some scholars have attempted to notate the chants of particular singers. We say “attempted” because notating a freely sung text is an inexact science. The version performed here is attributed to a European singer named Zev Weinman and has been notated in a collection of service music in tran- scription. Tabernacle singers (called cantors) construct melodies from a body of traditional modes and melodic formulas that can be freely interpreted. The text chanted in the audio example is “L’dor vador nagid godlecha” and is sung in Hebrew, the sacred language of Judaism as well as the national language of Israel. The words, taken from a Sabbath morning service, are: L’dor vador nagid godlecha From generation to generation we will declare Thy greatness, u l’neitzach n’tzachim and to all eternity k’dushatcha nakdish. we will proclaim Thy holiness. V’shivchacha, eloheinu, And Thy praise, O our God, mipinu lo yamush l’olam va’ed, shall never depart from our mouths, Ki el melekh gadol v’kadosh ata. Because Thou art a great and holy God and King. Baruch atah adonai, Blessed art Thou, O Lord, ha-el hakadosh. our holy God. While the above text is exactly as printed in the prayer book, the performer, Peter Laki, added the following comments: 1. I sang using an Ashkenazi pronunciation, which is like an Eastern European dialect. The transliteration follows official Israeli Hebrew, which is the Sephardic pronunciation. 2. Twice I sang “kel” instead of “el” (third line from bottom and last line). This is because “El” is the name of G-d, which the Orthodox don’t pronounce unless they are actually at the synagogue. They add a “K” to “disguise” the name. L I S T E N I N G G U I D E CD 2.11 (1’01”) Chapter 8: Site 6 Judaism: Jewish Shofar and Liturgical Cantillation Vocal: Single male Instrument: Shofar (trumpet) TIME LISTENING FOCUS 0’00” Shofar sounds on two pitches followed by cantor. 0’27” L’dor vador nagid godlecha (“From generation to generation we will declare Thy greatness,”) 0’31” u l’neitzach n’tzachim k’dushatcha nakdish (“and to all eternity we will proclaim Thy holiness”). 275 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y 0’36” V’shivchacha, eloheinu, mipinu lo yamush l’olam va’ed (“And Thy praise, O our God, shall never depart from our mouths,”) 0’42” Ki el melekh gadol v’kadosh ata. (“Because Thou art a great and holy God and King”). 0’46” Baruch atah adonai, (“Blessed art Thou, O Lord,”) 0’51” ha-el hakadosh. (“our holy God”). Source: “Cycle of 10 Calls During Additional Service” by David Hausdorff, from the recording entitled Kol Háshofar (Call of the Shofar), Folkways Records FW8922, provided courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1957. Used by permission. “L’dor vador” sung by Dr. Peter Laki, recorded by Terry E. Miller, Kent, Ohio, 2005. Used by permission. ETHNO-CHALLENGE (CD 2.11): Visit a local synagogue and observe a service. Cultural Considerations. The term cantillation is used to denote a kind of heightened speech that is between speaking and singing. Most religions of the world employ some kind of can- tillation, because full-fledged singing is often forbidden or discouraged for various reasons, its sensuality being the common objection. In some cases, religious ritualists are forbidden to sing; thus, even if the cantillation they perform is quite melodic, it is still not referred to as “singing.” It appears to be true throughout the world that sacred texts or holy words are thought to have more authority and mystery, and to be more clearly understood, if delivered in some form of heightened speech. The human relationship with the spirit or spiritual world requires an extraordinary form of dialogue, one that takes it outside the realm of ordinary speech or song. Jews worship the same god as Christians and Muslims, but Judaism traces continuous communication with that god during their more than 4,000-year history through a line of prophets beginning with Abraham. Judaism is especially distinguished by its careful atten- tion to sacred law, which requires Jews to observe greater or lesser numbers of specific requirements depending on their position in the continuum from Ultra-Orthodox to Reformed. The audio example comes from the Orthodox tradition, though Conservative and Reformed Jews may also chant in this style. The sacred texts of Judaism, written in Hebrew, constitute what is called the Old TORAH Testament by Christians. Of these books, the first five, called the Torah or Pentateuch, are In Judaism the most important. Sacred writings, both biblical and non-biblical (as in the present example) first five books are read in heightened speech, or cantillation. Such readings may occur either in a synagogue (Pentateuch) of the or in a home. The term service describes liturgical rituals that can be held several times each Bible or more day, though those held at the beginning of the Sabbath (also called Shabbat, Friday evening generally, all sacred literature. after sundown) and during the Sabbath (Saturday, before sundown) are most important. Jews also celebrate their religion through an annual cycle of festivals, as well as through more private rites of passage such as circumcision, bar mitzvah or bat mitzvah (held when, SHOFAR respectively, a young man or woman comes of age), and marriage. In Orthodox Judaism only A Jewish ritual males may recite the scriptures and liturgy. The use of musical instruments is generally trumpet made of a avoided, but there are exceptions. Jews traditionally have used a ram’s horn, called a shofar, ram’s horn. as a ritual trumpet blown to mark divisions in a service. 276 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 A Jewish ram’s horn trumpet or shofar played by a rabbi in Yemen (Shutterstock) An Orthodox Jew praying at the Western (or Wailing) Wall in Jerusalem (Shutterstock) 277 8 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y After the Jews failed in their revolt against their Roman conquerors in 70 C.E., the great temple at Jerusalem was destroyed, leaving only the “Wailing Wall,” and the Jews were dispersed to many parts of the world. Jewish congregations today tend to be either Sephardic or Ashkenazi, though mixed tabernacles exist. Sephardic congregations preserve musical practices derived from the maqamat tradition of Arabic modal music. Ashkenazi congre- gations practice what is called the “Jerusalem-Lithuanian” style characteristic of Eastern European Jews. The audio example represents the tradition common to Eastern Europe, especially Poland, German, and Hungary. In Ashkenazi tabernacles the main ritualist who intones the sacred texts—the cantor—sings in a European style and may be accompanied by an organ in contexts where instruments are permitted, especially in Reformed congregations. While cantors in both traditions are not considered singers per se because what they do is technically “cantillation,” many cantors are in fact fine singers and have turned their cantillation into a performance art rather than merely a way to declaim texts. Indeed, some, such as Robert Merrill, were also renowned opera virtuosi. Questions to Consider 1. How has Islam shaped conceptions of music for the peoples of the Middle East? 2. What is modal improvisation? Is it primarily a compositional or a freely expressive form of performance? 3. Because the Islamic Call to Prayer and Jewish biblical cantillation clearly have musical characteristics, why are they not considered “music” or “singing”? 4. What are the key factors that make Persian classical music different from Arabic music? 5. How do Sufi attitudes toward music differ from attitudes found in the other branches of Islam? 6. Taking into consideration the material discussed in Chapters 3 and 10, what are some of the musical relationships between the Middle East and Europe, especially in terms of instruments and musical styles? w ww On Your Own Time Visit the textbook website to find these resources for further exploration on your own. Middle East DVD/Website: Empire of Faith. Dir. Robert H. Gardner. PBS Documentary, 2005. http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/ Book: Regev, Motti, and Edwin Seroussi. Popular Music and National Culture in Israel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. http://www.ucpress.edu/ebook.php?isbn=9780520936881 278 T H E M I D D L E E A S T 8 Iran Book: Farhat, Hormoz. The Dastgah Concept in Persian Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1151289/?site_locale=en_GB Audio: Classical Music of Iran: The Dastgah Systems. Smithsonian-Folkways: SF40039, 1991. http://www.folkways.si.edu/albumdetails.aspx?itemid=2294 Website: Iran Music http://www.iranmusic.eu/ Arabic Music Book: Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Milwaukee, WI: Amadeus Press, 2003. http://www.halleonardbooks.com/product/viewproduct.do?itemid=331635&lid=0&keywords=arabs& menuid=10303&subsiteid=165& Book: Racy, A.J. Making Music in the Arab World: The Culture and Artistry of Tarab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1132943/?site_locale=en_GB DVD: Umm Kulthum: A Voice Like Egypt. Dir. Goldman, Michal. Arab Film Distribution, 1996. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90326836 Sufism Book: Shah, Idries. The Sufis. New York: Anchor Books, 1964. http://www.randomhouse.com/book/164623/the-sufis-by-idries-shah Website: The Threshold Society http://www.sufism.org/ DVD: Sufi Soul: The Mystic Music of Islam. Dir. Simon Broughton. Riverboat, 2008. http://movies.netflix.com/WiMovie/Sufi_Soul_The_Mystic_Music_of_Islam/70105236?trkid=2361637#h eight1547 Book: Olsson, Tord, Elisabeth Ozdalga, and Anders Hammarlund, eds. Sufism, Music and Society in Turkey and the Middle East. New York: Routledge, 2005. http://www.amazon.com/Society-Research-Institute-Istanbul-Transactions/dp/07007/1481 Judaism Website: Jewish Music Research Center http://www.jewish-music.huji.ac.il/ Book: Horowitz, Amy. Mediterranean Israeli Music and the Politics of the Aesthetic. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2010. http://wsupress.wayne.edu/books/1149/Mediterranean-Israeli-Music-and-the-Politics-of-the-Aesthetic Website: Jewish Music.com http://www.jewishmusic.com/ Internet: Popular Artists from Middle East Umm Kulthum Cheb Mami Amr Diab Googoosh Ofra Haza Soap Kills Khaled 279 Site 4 Site 6 Site 3 Site 7 Site 5 Site 2 Site 1 Europe: Greece, Spain, Russia, Scotland, Ireland, Hungary, Bulgaria 9 Background Preparation 282 An Inside Look: Morag MacLeod 302 Lübeck, center of the fourteenth “Classical” versus “Folk” 285 Site 4: Highland Bagpipes 303 century Hanseatic Planning the Itinerary 287 Arrival: Ireland 308 League, is traditionally Arrival: Greece 287 Site 5: Uilleann Bagpipes 309 entered through Site 1: Greek Orthodox Arrival: Hungary 314 the Holstentor, a (Byzantine) Chant 288 mid-fifteenth Site 6: Tekerölant (Hurdy Gurdy) 314 century double Arrival: Spain 291 tower Arrival: Bulgaria 318 Site 2: Flamenco 292 Site 7: Bulgarian Women’s Chorus 319 Arrival: Russia 297 Questions to Consider 322 Site 3: Balalaika Ensemble 298 On Your Own Time 323 Arrival: Scotland 301 9 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y Background Preparation Exactly what do we mean when we say “Europe”? If a friend were to tell you, “I’m going to Europe this summer,” he or she would probably mean “Western” Europe, especially the United Kingdom (casually called Britain), France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and perhaps Switzerland and Austria. When a news reporter uses the term European Union, he or she refers not to all European nations but to a specific group of countries (which might come to include Turkey, a country not considered geographically part of Europe). In music history courses, when we refer to “European music,” we mostly mean the “classical” tradition of “Western Europe.” What, then, is Europe: a political entity, a geographical unit, a cultural area, or all of these things? There are today some forty-one nation-states that constitute Europe, ranging from Russia, the world’s largest country, to miniature city-states such as Monaco and Luxembourg. While forty-one may seem like a high number, before many of the modern nations such as Germany and Italy were created in the nineteenth century, Europe consisted of scores, if not hundreds, of tiny states headed variously by kings, princes, dukes, and so forth. Many of the territories that are now part of nation-states were also successively part of the Roman, Holy Roman, and Austro-Hungarian Empires—though the “unity” of these empires was tenuous at best. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many nation-states were cobbled together out of linguistically, culturally, and ethnically distinct regions, some following a war (e.g., World War I). This process has recently begun to reverse itself: over the past twenty years or so, many small nations, particularly in central and southeast Europe, have formed after breaking away from larger ones. Even so, there are numerous other ethnic groups that would claim their own nations if they could, including the Basque, the Russyns, and the Vlachs. In Telgart, Slovakia, the musicians are of Gypsy (Rom) descent, but they continue to play local music similar to that collected by Béla Bartók in the early twentieth century 282 E U R O P E 9 Europe is also home to several groups who are not associated with any one region but are spread throughout the continent. One such group is the Rom—also called “Gypsies”— a traditionally migrant people who originated in India. In those countries where the Rom have settled, whether they live in their own communities or are integrated into the main- stream, they have become an important part of the indigenous musical culture. Historically at least, the position of Jews in European society was similar; like the Rom, they were simultaneously insiders and outsiders but were nonetheless important to Europe’s musical life. Both Roman and Orthodox Christianity along with Islam co-existed in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, once part of unified Yugoslavia, until the Balkan Wars of the early 1990s, when the famous Turkish bridge (Stari Most) over the Neretva River was destroyed; now it is rebuilt 283 9 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y A Croat musician in the historic walled city of Dubrovnik plays the lirica (fiddle), an instrument type found throughout the former Ottoman Empire in southeastern Europe as well as in modern Turkey Sorting out Europe’s peoples is challenging, but one possible way to group them is by language family. While most Europeans speak languages that belong to the overarching Indo- European family, some, such as the Finns, Hungarians, and Estonians (members of the Altaic family) and the Basque as well, speak non-Indo-European languages. Most Indo-European languages are members of one of four families: Germanic, Italic (or Romance), Balto-Slavic, and Celtic. In addition, there are at least three Indo-European languages that do not belong to any of these families: Greek, Albanian, and Rom. The table opposite classifies nations according to their primary language; some nations, such as Switzerland and Belgium, have more than one official language, however. While Ireland is listed in the Celtic category, relatively few Irish people still speak Gaelic. Celtic languages are also spoken (or were until recently) in the highlands and islands of Scotland, French Brittany, Wales, Cornwall in England, and in small pockets elsewhere. While categorizing European peoples into language groups does help us to understand certain broad strands in European music, it is also essential to understand that none of these strands is isolated. As Hungarian composer and ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók (1881–1945) discovered early in the twentieth century, national musics cannot realistically be considered 284 E U R O P E 9 Table 9.1 European Countries by Language Group Germanic Italic Slavic Slavic Celtic Independent (Romance) (continued) Germany France Russia Macedonia Ireland Greece Austria Belgium Latvia Serbia (in part) Albania Switzerland Italy Lithuania Montenegro Wales (UK) Denmark Spain Belarus Slovenia Scotland (UK, Sweden Portugal Poland Croatia in part) Norway Romania Czech Republic Bosnia- Cornwall (UK) United Kingdom Andorra Slovakia Herzegovina Netherlands Monaco Moldova Georgia Iceland Ukraine Luxembourg Bulgaria self-contained and unique unto themselves. Bartók, an ethnomusicologist before he became a composer, came to understand that Hungarian music, though distinctive, only existed in relationship to the musics of rival neighbors such as the Serbs, Romanians, Bulgarians, and even the Turks, with whom Hungary had long-standing hostilities. National boundaries within Europe have changed so many times over the years that it is all but impossible to think of any area as culturally “pure.” On the other hand, it is also difficult to think of all these overlapping regions as comprising one “culture.” Bearing this in mind, is it ever reasonable to use the term “European music”? The short answer is, probably not. “Classical” versus “Folk” As with music everywhere else in the world, music in Europe is closely connected with notions of nation, region, ethnicity, and social class. The all-too-freely used terms classical, folk, and popular derive from European conceptions of how music exists in society. It is important to realize that these categories exist only in peoples’ minds and imply value judgments and hierarchical ways of thinking. The term classical refers to what is considered the highest class of music. This music is judged by standards that privilege complexity and “sophistication,” and that usually rate a long composition for a large ensemble as a “greater” achievement than a short piece for a small ensemble. Because music scholarship has primarily focused on “classical” music, and music scholars primarily work in universities, music students in universities, colleges, and conservatories worldwide study “classical” music almost exclusively. Consequently, for them “classical music” is European music— and, by the same token, European music is “classical music.” Because classical music only flourished where there were wealthy patrons, courts, and aristocracies, much less originated in southeastern Europe or much of eastern Europe or in other places where such support systems and contexts were often missing, such as Ireland, Finland, Portugal, and Greece. The areas formerly under Ottoman Turkish control, some until the early twentieth century, naturally could not develop a “classical” music in the European tradition until they had established their independence. 285 9 W O R L D M U S I C : A G L O B A L J O U R N E Y What the field of ethnomusicology adds to the study of European music is a focus on what is usually designated “folk music,” as well as an “outside” perspective on classical music. Folk is a demographic concept based on the assumption that there are “folk” and “non-folk.” What is implicit is an evaluative hierarchy that places “folk music” in a humble position relative to “classical music.” The notion of a “folk”—and by extension of “folk music”—is an outgrowth of Romanticism, an aesthetic orientation that flourished in the latter part of the eighteenth century and throughout much of the nineteenth century. Romanticism originated in the northern sectors of Europe, especially German-speaking areas, and was viewed as an antidote to the domination of “classical” French and Italian culture. Most spoken drama at the time, for example, was in French and most opera was in Italian, even in places such as England and “Germany” (in quotes because Germany as a unified nation did not yet exist). Germanic peoples were made to feel that their culture and languages were inferior to Mediterranean culture and languages—but with the rise of Romanticism they began to assert their cultural independence. The term folksong (Volkslied in the original German) was coined by the philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803), who believed that the essence of a culture was in its peasants—whose pure souls were uncorrupted by the Industrial Revolution that had created poverty, pollution, and the destruction of traditional patterns of life. The “folk” were the antidote to the ills of the modern world. This notion stimulated a great deal of field research into northern roots, especially seen in the collecting of folk tales and folk songs. Many of these tales and songs were published in influential collections, such as Grimm’s Fairy Tales and Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Youth’s Magic Horn), the latter a compilation of songs collected from the “folk” by Arnim von Achim and Clemens Brentano early in the nineteenth century. Folk, then, is a category that existed only in the minds of “non-folk” advocates such as Herder. Our view, however, is that European music cannot really be divided into discrete “folk” and “non-folk” categories—there is, rather, a continuum from the music of the “lowliest” villager in Slovakia, for example, to the most sophisticated music of the aristocracy in Paris. Indeed, some of the historical music studied in music history classes as part of the “classical” evolution was originally the music of non-aristocrats. Likewise, in Europe much “classical music” was everyone’s music: reed bands orga- France’s Chartres nized by factory workers played excerpts Cathedral, built by from symphonies, amateur choruses sang an unknown architect between excerpts from operas, and player pianos 1194 and 1260, and other automated musical instruments has mismatched included classical excerpts on their rolls towers and barrels. 286 E U R O P E 9 When its regions are considered together and all layers of its music are explored, the musics of Europe are revealed to be incredibly rich. Extensive as the classical orchestral instruments are, their number pales in comparison to the variety of instruments seen at the village level, from medieval survivals to the many exotic instruments that came to Europe from the Middle East via the Ottoman Empire and Moorish Spain. Collectively, the various vocal styles found throughout Europe feature most of the sounds humans are capable of uttering. “European music,” then, encompasses everything from lullabies to operas, and its so