List of rulers of Bavaria

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The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria. Bavaria was ruled by several dukes and kings, partitioned and reunited, under several dynasties. Since 1949, Bavaria has been a democratic state in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Rulers of Bavaria[edit]

Ducal Bavaria (also known as the "Old Stem duchy")[edit]

Agilolfing Dynasty[edit]

Around 548 the kings of the Franks placed the border region of Bavaria under the administration of a duke — possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families — who was supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king. The first duke we know of, and likely the first, was Gariwald, or Garibald I, a member of the powerful Agilolfing family. This was the beginning of a series of Agilolfing dukes that was to last until 788.

Name Image Title Start term End term Part Note
Garibald I Duke of Bavaria 555 (c.) 591 Some sources call him "King of the Bavarians".[1]
Tassilo I Duke of Bavaria 591 (c.) 610 Named rex (king) at his ascension.
Garibald II Duke of Bavaria 610 (c.) 630
Theodo Duke of Bavaria 680 (c.) 716 (?) By the time of Theodo, who died in 716 or 717, the Bavarian duchy had achieved complete independence from the Frankish kings. Theodo's sons divided the duchy, but by 719 the rule had returned to Grimoald.
Theodbert Duke 702 (c.) 719 Salzburg Son of Theodo.
Theobald Duke 711 (c.) 719 Parts of Bavaria Son of Theodo.
Tassilo II Duke 716 (c.) 719 Passau Son of Theodo.
Grimoald Duke 716 (c.) 725 Freising Son of Theodo, later ruling all of Bavaria.
Hugbert Duke 725 737 Son of Theudbert. In 725(?), Charles Martel, ruler in fact though not in name of the Frankish realm, reasserted royal supremacy over Bavaria, defeating and killing Grimoald and annexing portions of Bavaria during the rule of Hugbert.
Odilo 737 748 Son of Gotfrid.
Grifo 748 748 Carolingian Usurper.
Tassilo III Duke of Bavaria 748 788 In 757 Tassilo III recognized the suzerainty of the Frankish kings Pippin III and did homage to Charlemagne in 781, and again in 787, while pursued an independent policy. In 788, Charlemagne had Tassilo sentenced to death on a charge of treason. Tassilo, granted pardon, entered a monastery and formally renounced his duchy at Frankfurt am Main in 794.

Carolingian Dynasty and Dominion from the Holy Roman Empire[edit]

The Kings (later Emperors) of the Franks now assumed complete control, placing Bavaria under the rule of non-hereditary governors and civil servants. They were not Dukes but rather Kings of Bavaria. The Emperor Louis the Pious divided control of the Empire among his sons, and the divisions became permanent in the decades following his death in 840. The Frankish rulers controlled Bavaria as part of their possessions.

Name Image Title Start term End term Part Note
Charlemagne Charlemagne Emperor 788 814 Prefects of Bavaria: Gerold (794–799) and Audulf (799–818)
Louis I the Pious Louis the Pious Emperor 814 826 In 814, Louis appointed his eldest son Lothair I as governor of Bavaria. In 817, Louis bestowed Bavaria upon his other son, Louis the German, who took charge of the province in 826, as King of Bavaria.
Louis II the German Louis the German King of Bavaria 826 865 In 826, Louis started to rule as King of Bavaria, subordinate to his father, until the latter's death in 840. From 843, Bavaria was merged in Louis the German's Kingdom of East Francia. In 864, Louis the German gave control of Bavaria to his son Carloman, and died in 876. Louis' two younger sons, Louis and Charles — the latter of whom briefly recovered control of all the Frankish possessions — ruled Bavaria in succession after Carloman.
Carloman Carloman of Bavaria King of Bavaria 864 880 Eldest son of Louis the German.
Louis III the Younger Louis the Younger King of Bavaria 880 882 Son of Louis the German.
Charles the Fat Charles III King of Bavaria 882 887 Youngest son of Louis the German.

Carloman's bastard son, Arnulf of Carinthia, rebelled against Charles and took power in eastern Francia shortly before Charles' death.

Arnulf of Carinthia Seal of Arnulph of Carinthia (896).jpg King of Bavaria 887 899 Son of Carloman.
Louis IV the Child Louis the Child.jpg King of Bavaria 899 911 Son of Arnulf of Carinthia.
Engeldeo Margrave of Bavaria 890 895 Non-dynastic. Deprived of his title marchio Baioariorum and replaced by Luitpold.

Ducal Bavaria (also known as the "Younger Stem duchy")[edit]

Ruled by an array of dukes from an array of rivaling houses, individually appointed to office

Luitpolding dynasty, 911–947[edit]

  Luitpolding dynasty

Luitpold, founder of the Luitpolding dynasty, was not a Duke of Bavaria but a Margrave of Carinthia under the rule of Louis the Child. Frankish power had waned in the region due to Hungarian attacks, allowing the local rulers greater independence. Luitpold's son, Arnulf, claimed the title of Duke (implying full autonomy) in 911 and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler in 920.

German kings, 947–1070[edit]

  Ottonian dynasty   Salian dynasty

From 947 until the 11th century, the kings of Germany repeatedly transferred Bavaria into different hands (including their own), never allowing any one family to establish itself. Bavaria was ruled by a series of short-lasting, mostly unrelated dynasties.

Houses of Welf and Babenberg, 1070–1180[edit]

  Houses of Welf and Babenberg

In 1070, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed duke Otto, granting the duchy instead to Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, a member of the Italo-Bavarian family of Este. Welf I subsequently quarreled with King Henry and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown. Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096, and was succeeded by his sons Welf II and Henry IX — the latter was succeeded by his son Henry X, who also became Duke of Saxony.

Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note
Luitpold Margrave of Bavaria 895 907 Luitpolding
Arnulf the Bad Arnulf II. Pfalzgraf von Bayern.jpg Duke of Bavaria 907 920 Luitpolding Son of Luitpold.

Arnulf the Bad claimed the title of Duke — implying full autonomy — in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler, in 920.

Eberhard Duke of Bavaria 937 938 Luitpolding
Berthold Berthold duke of Bavaria.jpg Duke of Bavaria 938 947 Luitpolding Younger son of Luitpold.

The German King Otto I reasserted central authority, banishing Arnulf's son Eberhard and re-granting the title to Berthold, a younger son of Luitpold.

Henry I Henry II Duke of Bavaria 947 955 Ottonian Son of Henry the Fowler.

On Berthold's death, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, gave the duchy to his own brother Henry (I), who was also Arnulf the Bad's son-in-law.

Henry II the Quarrelsome Henry II Duke of Bavaria 955 976 Ottonian Henry II made war upon his cousin, Emperor Otto II, and was deprived of his duchy in 976 in favor of his cousin Otto, Duke of Swabia (who now acquired two dukedoms).
Otto I Otto I Duke of Bavaria 976 982 Ottonian
Henry III the Younger Duke of Bavaria 983 985 Luitpolding Bavaria was given to Berthold's son Henry III, briefly restoring the Luitpolding dynasty. Henry III exchanged Bavaria for Carinthia, and Henry II received Bavaria again.
Henry II the Quarrelsome Henry II Duke of Bavaria 985 995 Ottonian Restored
Henry IV Henry IV Duke of Bavaria 995 1004 Ottonian Son of Henry II the Quarrelsome.

Henry IV was elected as Holy Roman Emperor Henry II, who gave Bavaria to his brother-in-law Henry V, Count of Luxemburg in 1004.

Henry V Duke of Bavaria 1004 1009 Luxemburg Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg.
Henry IV Kronung Heinrich II.jpg Duke of Bavaria 1009 1017 Ottonian Henry IV reasserted direct control.
Henry V Duke of Bavaria 1017 1026 Luxemburg Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg.

Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, gave Bavaria to his son Henry VI after the death of Henry V in 1026.

Henry VI the Black Henry the Black Duke of Bavaria 1026 1042 Salian Son of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Later Henry was elected as Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, and became King of Germany in 1039.

Henry VII Henry VII Duke of Bavaria 1042 1047 Luxemburg Son of Frederick of Luxembourg.

In 1042, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, granted the duchy to Henry VII, Count of Luxemburg, nephew of Henry V.

Conrad I (Kuno) Duke of Bavaria 1049 1053 Ezzonen Son of Liudolf of Lotharingia.

After Henry VII's death, the dukedom was vacant for a couple of years. Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, then gave the duchy to Kuno, Count of Zütphen, in 1049. Kuno was deposed in 1053.

Henry VIII Henry IV Duke of Bavaria 1053 1054 Salian Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.

During his reign in Bavaria Henry VIII was a minor (born 1050). In 1056 he became King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor as Henry IV in 1084.

Conrad II Duke of Bavaria 1054 1055 Salian (minor, born 1052, died 1055) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VIII Henry IV Duke of Bavaria 1055 1061 Salian (minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084.
Otto II Duke of Bavaria 1061 1070 Nordheim In 1061 Empress Agnes — the 11-year-old King Henry IV's mother and regent — entrusted the duchy to Otto of Nordheim.
Welf I Welf I Duke of Bavaria 1070 1077 Welf Welf I subsequently quarreled with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown.
Henry VIII Henry IV Duke of Bavaria 1077 1096 Salian (minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084.
Welf I Welf I Duke of Bavaria 1096 1101 Welf Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096.
Welf II Welf II Duke of Bavaria 1101 1120 Welf Son of Welf I
Henry IX the Black Henry IX Duke of Bavaria 1120 1126 Welf Son of Welf I.

Abdicated.

Henry X the Proud Henry IX Duke of Bavaria 1126 1138 Welf Son of Henry IX the Black.

In a power struggle with King Conrad III of Germany, Henry X lost his duchy to the King, who granted it to his follower Leopold Margrave of Austria.

Leopold I Leopold IV Duke of Bavaria 1139 1141 Babenberg When Leopold died, Conrad III of Germany resumed the duchy and granted it to Leopold's brother Henry XI.
Henry XI Jasomirgott Henry XI Duke of Bavaria 1143 1156 Babenberg Brother of Leopold.
Henry XII the Lion Henry XII Duke of Bavaria 1156 1180 Welf When Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Germany, he restored Bavaria to the Welf line in the person of Henry X's son, Henry XII the Lion, Duke of Saxony.

Ducal Bavaria (Hereditary dukes)[edit]

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria

In 1180, Henry XII the Lion and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, fell out. The emperor consequently dispossessed the duke and gave his territory to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach. From now on, Bavaria remained in the possession of various branches of the family for 738 years until the end of the First World War.

First partition, 1253–1340[edit]

In 1253, on Otto II's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers, making the Dukes difficult to list.

In Lower Bavaria, Henry XIII was succeeded by his three sons, Otto III, Louis III, and Stephen I ruling jointly. Otto III's successor in the joint dukedom was his son Henry XV. Stephen's successors were his sons Otto IV and Henry XIV. Henry XIV's son was John I.

In Upper Bavaria, Louis II was succeeded by his sons Rudolf I and Louis IV. The latter was elected King of Germany in 1314. After John I's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.

The dukes of Upper Bavaria served also as Counts Palatinate of the Rhine. In 1329 Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. The Upper Palatinate would be reunited with Bavaria in 1623, the Lower Palatinate in 1777.

Second partition 1349–1503[edit]

From 1349 until 1503 the second partition of Bavaria took place. In 1349, the six sons of Louis IV partitioned Bavaria into Upper and Lower Bavaria again. In 1353, Lower Bavaria was partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing. Upper Bavaria was partitioned between Bavaria-Straubing and Bavaria-Landshut in 1363. After the death of Stephan II in 1392, Bavaria-Landshut was broken into three duchies, John II gained Bavaria-Munich, Frederick, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut received a smaller Bavaria-Landshut, and in Bavaria-Ingolstadt ruled Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria.

Following the Landshut War (1503–1505), the Duke of Bavaria-Munich Albert IV the Wise became ruler of Bavaria. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture.

In 1623 Maximilian I was granted the title Prince-elector (German: Kurfürst) of the Rhenish Palatinate.

House of Wittelsbach[edit]

Partitions of Bavaria under Wittelsbach rule[edit]

Duchy of Bavaria
(1180–1253)
Lower Bavaria
(1st creation)
(1253–1340)
Upper Bavaria
(1st creation)
(1253–1340)
Duchy of Bavaria
(Upper line)
(1340–1349)
Lower Bavaria
(2nd creation)
(1349–1353)
Upper Bavaria
(2nd creation)
(1349–1363)
(divided among the other duchies)
Landshut
(1353–1503)
      
Straubing
(1353–1432)
(divided among the other duchies)
Munich
(1392–1503)
Ingolstadt
(1392–1445)
      
      
      
Dachau
(1467–1501)
             
             
Duchy of Bavaria
(Munich line)
(1503–1623)

Table of rulers[edit]

(Note: Here the numbering of the dukes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Bavaria, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. The dukes are numbered by the year of their succession.)

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Otto III the Redhead Otton I Wittelsbach.jpg 1117 1180–1183 11 July 1183 Bavaria Agnes of Loon
1169
eleven children
In 1180 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor gave Bavaria to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach.
Agnes of Loon
(regent)
Joseph Anton Zimmermann Agnes van Loon kopergravure uit 1733 - 1000 jaar Loon in Alden Biesen 16-02-2019.jpg 1150 1183–1189 1191 Bavaria Otto III the Redhead
1169
eleven children
Regent on behalf of her son, Louis I. She managed to secure the inheritance of her son.
Louis I the Kelheimer Louis I, duke of Bavaria.jpg 23 December 1173 1189–1231 15 September 1231 Bavaria Ludmilla of Bohemia
1204
one child
Son of Otto III. Louis obtained the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1214. So Louis I served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. He was assassinated 1231.
Otto IV the Illustrious Otto II Wittelsbach.jpg 7 April 1206 1231–1253 29 November 1253 Bavaria Agnes of the Palatinate
1222
Worms
eleven children
Otto IV served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. On Otto IV's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers.
Henry XIII Heinrich XIII. (Bayern).png 19 November 1235 1253–1290 3 February 1290 Lower Bavaria Elizabeth of Hungary
1250
ten children
Son of Otto IV. After the partition of 1253, received Lower Bavaria.
Louis II the Strict Fürstenfeldbruck-Klosterkirche 8.jpg 13 April 1229 1253–1294 2 February 1294 Upper Bavaria Maria of Brabant
2 August 1254
(executed)
no children

Anna of Głogów
1260
two children

Matilda of Austria
24 October 1273
four children
Son of Otto IV. After the partition of 1253, received Upper Bavaria.
Otto V Ota3 Thurocsi.jpg 11 February 1261 1290–1312 9 November 1312 Lower Bavaria Catherine of Austria
January 1279
two children

Anna of Głogów
18 May 1309
two children
Sons of Henry XIII, ruled jointly. In 1305 Otto became also King of Hungary and Croatia, as grandson of Béla IV of Hungary.
Louis III 9 October 1269 1290–1296 9 October 1296 Lower Bavaria Isabella of Lorraine
1287
no children
Stephen I 14 March 1271 1290–1310 10 December 1310 Lower Bavaria Judith of Świdnica-Jawor
1299
eight children
Matilda of Austria (regent) Matilda of Austria Duchess of Bavaria.jpg 1253 1294–1296 23 December 1304 Upper Bavaria Louis II the Strict
24 October 1273
four children
Widow of Louis II. Regent on behalf of her sons.
Rudolph I the Stammerer Ausschnitt Codex Balduini Trevi.jpg 4 October 1274 1296–1317 12 August 1319 Upper Bavaria Matilda of Nassau
1 September 1294
Nuremberg
six children
Ruled jointly with his brother Louis IV. In 1317 Rudolph abdicated of his rights to his brother, who in 1328 was elected Holy Roman Emperor, and in 1340 reunited Bavaria.
Henry XIV the Elder 29 September 1305 1312–1339 1 September 1339 Lower Bavaria Margaret of Bohemia
12 August 1328
two children
Sons of Stephen I (Henry XIV and Otto VI) and Otto V (Henry XV), ruled jointly.
Otto VI 3 January 1307 1312–1334 14 December 1334 Lower Bavaria Richardis of Jülich
1330
one child
Henry XV the Natternberger 28 August 1312 1312–1333 18 June 1333 Lower Bavaria Anna of Austria
between 1326 and 1328
no children
John I the Child 29 November 1329 1339–1340 20 December 1340 Lower Bavaria Anna of Upper Bavaria
18 April 1339
Munich
no children
Left no male heirs, which allowed his cousin (and brother-in-law) Louis to reunite the Bavarian lands.
Louis IV the Bavarian Ludwig der Bayer.jpg 5 April 1282 1296–1340 11 October 1347 Upper Bavaria Beatrice of Świdnica-Jawor
14 October 1308
six children

Margaret II, Countess of Holland-Hainaut
26 February 1324
Cologne
ten children
Co-ruled with his brother Rudolf I until 1317 — then alone. Louis IV was elected King of Germany in 1314. In the Treaty of Pavia (1329) Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. After John I the Child's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.
1340–1347 Bavaria
Louis V the Brandenburger LudwigI Wittelsbach Siegesallee.JPG May 1315 1347–1349 18 September 1361 Bavaria Margaret of Denmark
1324
no children

Margaret, Countess of Tyrol
10 February 1342
Meran
four children
The six sons of Louis IV, ruled jointly until 1349, when they divided the land: Louis V, Louis VI and Otto VII kept Upper Bavaria; William, Albert and Stephen Lower Bavaria. In 1351 Louis VI and Otto gave up their inheritance in Bavaria, in exchange of the Electoral dignity in Brandenburg. Having lost the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1373, Otto returned to Bavaria to claim new inheritance, and shared the part of Stephen II's sons (his nephews) in Landshut.

In Lower Bavaria, the three brothers divided the land again in 1353: Stephen kept Landshut, William and Albert shared Straubing, and from 1389 the two shared Straubing also with Albert I's son, Albert II.

1349–1361 Upper Bavaria
Louis VI the Roman Ludwigvi.jpg 7 May 1328 1347–1349 17 May 1365 Bavaria Cunigunde of Poland
before 1349
no children

Ingeborg of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1360
no children
1349–1351 Upper Bavaria
Otto VII the Lazy OttoV Faule Siegesallee.JPG 1340/42 1347–1349 15 November 1379 Bavaria Catherine of Bohemia
19 March 1366
no children
1349–1351 Upper Bavaria
1375–1379 Bavaria-Landshut
Stephen II the Representative Zimmermann - Stephen II of Bavaria.jpg 1319 1347–1349 13 May 1375 Bavaria Elisabeth of Sicily
27 June 1328
four children

Margaret of Nuremberg
14 February 1359
three children
1349–1353 Lower Bavaria
1353–1375 Bavaria-Landshut
William I the Mad Guillaume III de Hainaut.png 12 May 1330 1347–1349 15 April 1389 Bavaria Matilda of England
1352
London
no children
1349–1353 Lower Bavaria
1353–1389 Bavaria-Straubing
Albert I Albert de Bavière.png 25 July 1336 1347–1349 13 December 1404 Bavaria Margaret of Brzeg
after 19 July 1353
Passau
seven children

Margaret of Clèves
1394
Heusden
no children
1349–1353 Lower Bavaria
1353–1404 Bavaria-Straubing
Albert II Straubing-Karmelitenkirche-Grabmal-Albrecht-II-Detail.JPG 1368 1389–1397 21 January 1397 Bavaria-Straubing Unmarried
Meinhard I Meinhard III. von Tirol.jpg 9 February 1344 1361–1363 13 January 1363 Upper Bavaria Margaret of Austria
4 September 1359
Passau
no children
Left no male descendants. After his death Upper Bavaria was divided between Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing.
Definitively annexed by Bavaria-Landshut (1/2) and Bavaria-Straubing (1/2)
Frederick I the Wise 1339 1375–1393 4 December 1393 Bavaria-Landshut Anna of Neuffen
1360
one child

Maddalena Visconti
2 September 1381
five children
Ruled jointly. Shared rule, until 1379, with their uncle Otto VII. In 1392 the brothers divided the land once more. Frederick retained Landshut, Stephen kept Ingolstadt and John received Munich.
Stephen III the Magnificent 1337 1375–1392 26 September 1413 Bavaria-Landshut Taddea Visconti
13 October 1364
two children

Anna of Neuffen
16 January 1401
Cologne
no children
1392–1413 Bavaria-Landshut-Ingolstadt
John II 1341 1375–1392 14 June/1 July 1397 Bavaria-Landshut Catherine of Gorizia
1372
three children
1392–1397 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich
Henry XVI the Rich Henry XVI of Bavaria.jpg 1386 1393–1450 30 July 1450 Bavaria-Landshut Margaret of Austria
25 November 1412
Landshut
six children
Annexed Ingolstadt in 1445.
Ernest Jaumann Ernst Rat.jpg 1373 1397–1438 14 June/1 July 1397 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Elisabetta Visconti
26 January 1395
Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm
four children
Ruled jointly.
William III Jaumann Albrecht Wilhelm.jpg 1375 1397–1435 12 September 1435 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Margaret of Cleves
1433
two children
William II Guillaume IV de Hainaut.png 5 April 1365 1404–1417 31 May 1417 Bavaria-Straubing Margaret of Burgundy
12 April 1385
Cambrai
one child
Eldest son of Albert I.
Louis VII the Bearded Ludbar.jpg 1368 1413–1443 1 May 1447 Bavaria-Landshut-Ingolstadt Anne de Bourbon-La Marche
1 October 1402
two children

Catherine of Alençon
1413
two children
Imprisoned by his son, who was allied with Henry XVI. Died in prison.
Jacqueline Jacoba van Beieren door Hollandse school ca 1600.jpg 15 July 1401 1417–1432 8 October 1436 Bavaria-Straubing John, Dauphin of France
6 August 1415
The Hague
no children

John IV, Duke of Brabant
10 March 1418
The Hague
(dubious annullment in 1422)
no children

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
7 March 1423
Hadleigh
(secretly; dubious annullment in 1428)
no children

Frank van Borssele
1434
no children
Contested by her uncle, John III in 1432 abdicated of all her titles and lands. Straubing therefore was divided between its neighbours.
John III the Pitiless (opponent) John III Duke of Bavaria-Straubing.png 1374 1417–1425 6 January 1425 Bavaria-Straubing Elizabeth I, Duchess of Luxembourg
11418
no children
Son of Albert I. Contested Jacqueline until his death 1425.
Definitively annexed by the remaining Bavarian duchies
Albert III Albrecht III von Bayern lehnt Königskrone ab.jpg 27 March 1401 1438–1460 29 February 1460 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Agnes Bernauer
c. 1432?
(morganatic)
no children

Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
22 January 1437
Munich
ten children
Son of Ernest.
Louis VIII the Hunchback 1 September 1403 1443–1445 7 April 1445 Bavaria-Landshut-Ingolstadt Unmarried After his death Ingolstadt was annexed by Landshut.
Definitively annexed by Bavaria-Landshut
Louis IX the Rich Ludwig der Reiche.jpg 23 February 1417 1450–1479 18 January 1479 Bavaria-Landshut Amalia of Saxony
21 March 1452
Landshut
four children
John IV 4 October 1437 1460–1463 18 November 1463 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Unmarried Son of Albert III, ruled jointly with his brothers Sigismund and Albert IV.
Sigismund Sigismund von Bayern-München.jpg 26 July 1439 1460–1467 1 February 1501 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Unmarried In 1467, Sigismund created a smaller duchy with its center in Dachau, but left no descendants, and this duchy was merged again in Bavaria-Munich after his death.
1467–1501 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich-Dachau
Definitively annexed by Bavaria-Munich
George I the Rich Herzog Georgs des Reichen von Paul Gertner.jpg 15 August 1455 1479–1503 1 December 1503 Bavaria-Landshut Hedwig of Poland
14 November 1475
Landshut
five children
Left no male descendants at his death. His duchy was annexed to Bavaria-Munich, which reunited the Bavarian duchy.
Albert IV the Wise Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria, portrait by Barthel Beham.jpg 15 December 1447 1460–1503 18 March 1508 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Kunigunde of Austria
3 January 1487
Munich
seven children
Co-ruled with his brothers John IV and Sigismund. Reunited the duchy in 1503. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture.
1503–1508 Bavaria
William IV the Steadfast DH-Wilhelm von Bayern.jpg 13 November 1493 1508–1550 7 March 1550 Bavaria Jakobaea of Baden
5 October 1522
Munich
four children
Sons of Albert IV, the last Bavarian pair of brothers ruling together.
Louis X Christoph Amberger - Louis X, Duke of Bavaria - Kunsthistorisches Museum.jpg 18 September 1495 1516–1545 22 April 1545 Bavaria Unmarried
Albert V the Magnanimous Albert V 29 February 1528 1550–1579 24 October 1579 Bavaria Anna of Austria
4 July 1546
Regensburg
seven children
William V the Pious William V 29 September 1548 1579–1597 7 February 1626 Bavaria Renata of Lorraine
22 February 1568
Munich
ten children
Maximilian I the Great Maximilian I 17 April 1573 1597–1623 27 September 1651 Bavaria Elisabeth of Lorraine
9 February 1595
Nancy
no children

Maria Anna of Austria
15 July 1635
Vienna
two children
Son of William V. Maximilian I, was an ally of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War. When the Elector of the Palatinate, Frederick V, head of a senior branch of the Wittelsbachs, became involved in the war against the Emperor, he was stripped of his Imperial offices and the Prince-elector title. Maximilian I was granted the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1623.

Electorate of Bavaria[edit]

Name Image Title Start term End term House Note
Maximilian I Maximilian I Prince-elector of Bavaria 25 February 1623 27 September 1651 Wittelsbach In 1648, Frederick of the Palatinate's heir was restored to his Rhenish territory — but not to the Oberpfalz ceded to Bavaria — together with a new Electorate; Maximilian retained the Electorate granted him in 1623.
Ferdinand Maria Ferdinand Maria Prince-elector of Bavaria 27 September 1651 26 May 1679 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian I. 1651–1654 under regency of his uncle Albert VI of Bavaria.
Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel Prince-elector of Bavaria 26 May 1679 26 February 1726 Wittelsbach Son of Ferdinand Maria and Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy.
Maximilian II took part in the War of the Spanish Succession on the side of France, against the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. He was accordingly forced to flee Bavaria following the Battle of Blenheim and deprived of his Electorate on 29 April 1706. He regained his Electorate in 1714 by the Peace of Baden and ruled until 1726.
Charles Albert
Karl Albrecht
Charles Albert Prince-elector of Bavaria 26 February 1726 20 January 1745 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II Emanuel.

Charles Albert once again took on the House of Habsburg in the War of the Austrian Succession, again in combination with France, succeeding so far as to be elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1742 (as Charles VII). However, the Austrians occupied Bavaria (1742–1744), and the Emperor died shortly after returning to Munich.

Maximilian III Joseph Maximillian III Prince-elector of Bavaria 20 January 1745 30 December 1777 Wittelsbach Son of Charles Albert.
Maximilian III, who had no children, was the last of the direct Bavarian Wittelsbach line descended from Louis IV. He was succeeded by the Elector of the Palatinate, Charles Theodore, who thereby regained their old titles for the senior Wittelsbach line — descended from Louis IV's older brother Rudolf I.
Charles Theodore
Karl Theodor
Kurfürst Karl Theodor (Bayern).jpg Elector of the Palatinate 30 December 1777 16 February 1799 Wittelsbach Son of John Christian, Count of Palatinate-Sulzbach and Marie Anne Henriëtte Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne.
Distant cousin of Maximilian III; Elector Palatine from 1743.
Charles Theodore was also childless, and was succeeded by a distant cousin, the Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Maximilian IV Joseph — later King Maximilian I.
Maximilian IV Joseph Maximillian I Elector of the Palatinate 16 February 1799 6 August 1806 Wittelsbach Son of Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken.
Distant cousin of Charles Theodore; Count Palatine of Zweibrücken from 1795.

In the chaos of the wars of the French Revolution, the old order of the Holy Roman Empire collapsed. In the course of these events, Bavaria became once again the ally of France, and Maximilian IV Joseph became King Maximilian I of Bavaria — whilst remaining Prince-Elector and Arch-steward of the Holy Roman Empire until 6 August 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire was abolished.

Kingdom of Bavaria[edit]

In 1805 under the Peace of Pressburg between the Napoleonic France and the Holy Roman Empire several duchies were elevated to kingdoms. The Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria held the title King of Bavaria from 1806 until 1918. The prince-elector of Bavaria, Maximilian IV Joseph formally assumed the title King Maximilian I of Bavaria on 1 January 1806. The well-known so called Märchenkönig (Fairy tale king) Ludwig II constructed Neuschwanstein Castle, Herrenchiemsee, and Linderhof Palace during his reign (1864–1886), threatening not only to go bankrupt in person, but also to bankrupt the country in the process. In 1918 Ludwig III lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919.

Name Image Title Start term End term House Note
Maximilian I Maximillian I King of Bavaria 1 January 1806 13 October 1825 Wittelsbach see above
Ludwig I Ludwig I King of Bavaria 13 October 1825 20 March 1848 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian I Joseph.

Abdicated in the Revolutions of 1848

Maximilian II Maximillian II King of Bavaria 20 March 1848 10 March 1864 Wittelsbach Son of Ludwig I
Ludwig II Ludwig II King of Bavaria 10 March 1864 13 June 1886 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II

Ludwig II was called the Märchenkönig (Fairy tale king). He grudgingly acceded to Bavaria becoming a component of the German Empire in 1871, was declared insane in 1886.[2]

Otto Otto King of Bavaria 13 June 1886 5 November 1913 Wittelsbach Brother of Ludwig II and son of Maximilian II.

From a mathematical, calendrical point of view, his marked the longest "reign" amongst the Kings of Bavaria. However, Otto was mentally ill since teenhood and throughout all of his later life, hence the royal functions had to be carried out by the following princes regent:

Ludwig III Ludwig III King of Bavaria 5 November 1913 13 November 1918 Wittelsbach Cousin of Otto, son of Prince Luitpold and grandson of Ludwig I.

Prince regent from 1912 until 1913. Declared King of Bavaria following a controversial change of the constitution, discharging his cousin Otto from "office". Lost the throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 at the end of World War I. Marks the end of 738 years of uninterrupted Wittelsbach rule over Bavaria.

Post-monarchy[edit]

In 1918 — at the end of the First World War in the German Revolution of 1918–1919  Bavaria became a democratic republic within the Weimar Republic; the name for the period of Germany from 1919 to 1933. Since then the rulers of Bavaria are minister presidents.

Family Tree[edit]

Note that Dukes called Louis are usually numbered from Louis the Kelheimer (r. 1189–1231), although four Dukes of Bavaria had been called Louis before that. The same applies to Dukes called Otto, who are sometimes renumbered starting with Otto III, the first Wittelsbach Duke of Bavaria. The highest number has been used in this chart to minimise confusion, with one exception: Ludwig is the German for Louis, but Kings Ludwig I, II and III are not numbered XV, XVI and XVII.

The colours denote the Dukes, Electors and Kings over the following regions of Bavaria and under the following circumstances:

  – Dukes of Bavaria

  – Regents and pretenders to the Bavarian throne

  – Dukes of Lower Bavaria

  – Dukes of Upper Bavaria

  – Dukes of Bavaria-Lanshut

  – Dukes of Bavaria-Ingolstadt

  – Dukes of Bavaria-Munich

  – Dukes of Bavaria-Munich-Dachau

  – Dukes of Bavaria-Straubing

  – Dukes of Bavaria-Straubing, disputed

|
AGILOLFING
Garibald I
540–555–591
Waldrada
of Neustria

531–572
Tassilo I
560–591–610
Romilda
of Friuli

died 611
Gisulf II
of Friuli

545–611
Garibald II
565–610–625
Geila
of Friuli
Irmina
of Ören

died c. 707
Pfalzgraf
Hugobert

died 697
CAROLINGIAN
Bertrada
of Prüm

670–721
Theodo I
uncertain
Alpaida
c. 654 – 714
Pepin of
Herstal

635–714
Plectrude
died 718
Caribert
of Laon

died c. 762
Theodo II
625–680–716
AHALOLFING
unknown
daughter
Godfrey of
Alemannia

c. 650 – 709
Grimoald
?–716–725
Biltrude
fl. 725
Theobald
?–711–717
Tassilo II
?–716–719
Theodebert
685–702–719
Regintrud
c. 663 – 735
Huoching of
Alemannia

c. 675 – 744
Desiderius
of the Lombards

died 786
Rotrude
of Hesbaye

died 724
Charles
Mertel

688–741
Swanachild
fl. 726
Hugbert
r. 725–736
Hnabi of
Alemannia

710–789
Odilo
?–736–748
Hiltrude of
the Franks

716–754
Bertrada
of Laon

c. 718 – 783
Pepin
the Short

714–768
Grifo
726–748–748–753
UDALRICHING
Emma of
Alemannia
died c.789
Gerold
725–794–799
Tassilo III
741–748–
788–796
Liutberga of
the Lombards

fl. 763
Hildegard
of Vinzgau

754–783
Charles I
the Great

748–788–
794–799–814
Desiderata
of the Lombards

fl. 770
Welf the
Elder

died c. 825
Ermengarde
of Hesbaye

778–818
Louis I
the Pious

778–817–
829–840
Judith
of Bavaria

797–843
Eticho of
Ammergau
Counrad I
of Auxerre

died 864
Lothair
795–814–
817–855
Louis II
the German

810–817–
865–876
Emma of
Altdorf

803–876
Gisela of
the Franks

c. 821 – 870
Eberhard
of Friuli

815–867
Charles
the Bald

823–877
Ermentrude
of Orléans

823–869
Engeldeo
r. 890–895
Henry of the
Golden Wagon
Conrad II of
Transjurane
Burgundy

died 876
Louis III
the Younger

835–880–882
Charles II
the Fat

839–882–
887–888
Carloman
828–864–880
LiutswindErnest of
the Nordgau
Gisela
of Swabia
Uruoch III
of Friuli

840–874
Ansgarde of
Burgundy

died c. 881
Louis II
of France

836–879
Adelaide
of Paris

853–901
Berengar I
of Italy

845–924
Rudolf I
of Altdorf
LUITPOLDING
Rudolf I of
Burgundy

859–912
Guilla of
Provence

died c. 924
Ota of the
Hessengau

c. 874 – 901
Arnulf I
850–887–899
Leopold I
r. 899–907
Cunigunde
of Swabia

878–918
Eberhard of
the Sülichgau
died c. 889
Ermentrude
of France

born c. 875
Charles
the Simple

879–929
Matilda of
Ringelheim

892–988
Gisela
of Friuli

876–913
Albert I
of Ivrea

died c. 829
Rudolf II
of Altdorf

died c. 990
OTTONIANARDENNE
Rudolf II of
Burgundy

880–937
Bertha
of Swabia

907–966
Henry the
Fowler

876–936
Louis IV
the Child

893–899–911
Judith
of Friuli
born c. 888
Arnulf II
the Bad

r. 907–937
Berthold
900–938–947
Wiltrude
of Bergen
Cunigunde
of France

c. 893 – 923
Wigeric of
Lotharingia

died c. 923
Berengar II
of Italy

died 966
Louis IV
of France

921–954
Gerberga
of Saxony

913–968
Welf II of
Altdorf

died 1030
Adelaide
of Italy

931–999
Otto I,
Holy Roman
Emperor

912–973
Edith of
England

910–946
Henry I
919–948–955
Judith of
Bavaria

925–985
Eberhard
r. 937–938
Henry III
the Younger

940–983–985–989
Hedwig of
the Nordgau

922–993
Sigfried of
the Ardennes

922–998
Adelaide
of Bellay
Conrad I of
Burgundy

925–993
Matilda
of France

943–982
SALIANESTE
Liudolf
of Swabia

930–957
Liutgarde
of Saxony

932–953
Conrad of
Lorraine

922–955
Henry II
the Quarreller

951–955–
976–985–995
Gisela of
Burgundy

955–1007
Adalbert
of Italy

932–971
Hermann II
of Swabia

died 1003
Gerberga of
Burgundy

966–1018
Albert Azzo II
of Milan

1009–1097
Cunigunde
of Altdorf

c. 1020 – 1054
Otto I
954–976–982
Otto of
Carinthia

died 1004
Henry IV
973–995–1004–
1009–1017–1024
Cunigunde of
Luxembourg

975–1040
Henry V
?–1004–1009–
1017–1026
Sigfried I
of Nordheim
Frederick of
Luxembourg

965–1019
Ermentrude
of Gielberg
Liutgarde of
Luxembourg

955-c. 1005
Theophano
of Rome

955–991
Otto II,
Holy Roman
Emperor

955–983
Henry of
Speyer

died c. 992
Adelaide
of Metz

970–1046
Otto–
William of
Burgundy

958–1026
Bernard I
of Nordheim
Henry VII
r. 1042–1047
Dirk III
of Holland

982–1039
Judith of
Flanders

c. 1033 – 1095
Welf I
c. 1037 –
1070–1077–
1096–1101
EZZONEN
Matilda of
Germany

979–1025
Ezzo of
Lotharingia

955–1034
Conrad II,
Holy Roman
Emperor

990–1032
Gisela
of Swabia

990–1043
William V of
Aquitaine

969–1030
Agnes of
Burgundy

died 1068
Otto II
of Nordheim

1020–1061–
1070–1083
Richenza
of Swabia

c. 1025–1083
Swanhilde
of Holland
Matilda
of Tuscany

1046–1115
Liudolf of
Lotharingia

1000–1031
Henry VI
the Black

1016–1026–
1042–1056
Agnes of
Poitou

1025–1077
Henry of
Frisia

c. 1055 – 1101
Gertrude of
Brunswick

c. 1060 – 1117
Arnold I
of Loon

c. 1050-c. 1130
Wulfhilde
of Saxony

1072–1116
Henry IX
the Black

1075–1120–1126
Welf II
the Fat

1072–1101–1120
Conrad I
c. 1020 – 1049 –
1053–1055
Conrad II
1052–1054–1055
Henry VIII
1050–1053–
1054–1055–
1061–1077–
1096–1106
Bertha
of Savoy

1051–1087
Arnold II
of Loon

died 1146
Richenza
of Nordheim

c. 1088 – 1141
Lothair III,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1075–1137
Babenberg
Frederick I
of Swabia

c. 1050 – 1105
Agnes of
Waiblingen

c. 1072 – 1143
Leopold III
of Austria

1073–1136
Agnes of
Saarbrücken
Frederick II
of Swabia

1090–1147
Frederick III
of Pettendorf
Heilika
of Swabia
Leopold II
the Generous

1108–1139–1141
Henry XI
Jasomirgott

1112–1141–
1156–1177
Gertrude of
Süpplingenburg

1115–1143
Henry X
the Proud

1108–1126–
1138–1139
WITTELSBACH
Heilika of
Pettendorf-
Lengenfeld

c. 1103 – 1170
Otto IV of
Wittelsbach

1083–1156
Agnes
of Metz
c. 1114 – 1177
Louis I
of Loon

c. 1107 – 1171
Conrad of the
Palatinate

c. 1135 – 1195
Matilda
of England

1156–1189
Henry XII
the Lion

1129–1156–
1180–1195
Berthold I
of Istria

c. 1116 – 1188
Otto III
the Redhead

1117–1180–1183
Agnes
of Loon

1150–1191
regent
1183–1191
Agnes of
Hohenstaufen

1176–1204
Henry V of the
Palatinate

1173–1127
Hedwig of
Wittelsbach
Louis V
the Kelheimer

1173–1189–1231
Ludmilla
of Bohemia

died 1240
HABSBURG
Richardis
of Bavaria
Cunigunde
of Andechs-
Merania
Gertrude
of Merania

1185–1213
Andrew II
of Hungary

1177–1235
Otto IV
the Illustrious

1206–1231–1253
Agnes of the
Palatinate

1201–1267
Rudolf I,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1218–1291
Gertrude of
Hohenburg

c. 1225 – 1281
Matilda of
Guelders
Hildegunde
of Eberstein
Béla IV of
Hungary

1206–1270
Maria
Laskarina

c. 1206 – 1270
Louis VI
1229–1253–1294
Matilda of
Habsburg

1253–1304
regent
1294–1296
Judith of
Habsburg

1271–1297
Albert I
of Germany

1255–1308
Walram II
of Nassau

c. 1220 – 1276
Adelheid of
Katzenelnbogen
Elizabeth
of Hungary

1236–1271
Henry XIII
1235–1253–1290
Elizabeth
of Bohemia

1292–1330
Albert II
of Austria

1298–1358
Adolf of
Germany

c. 1255 – 1208
Agnes
Piast
Otto V
1261–1290–1312
Louis VII
1269–1290–1296
Judith of
Jawor and
Schweidnitz
1287–1320
Stephen I
1271–1290–1310
Beatrice
of Jawor and
Schweidnitz
Louis VIII
1282–1340–1347
Upper Bavaria
1301–1340
Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut
1290–1322
Margaret
of Bohemia

1296–1322
Albert III
of Austria

1349–1395
Mechtild
of Nassau

c. 1280 – 1323
Rudolf
the Stammerer

1274–1294–1317–1319
Henry XV
of Nattenberg

1312–1312–1331
Otto VI
1307–1312–1334
Henry XIV
the Elder

1305–1312–1339
Margaret
of Bohemia

1313–1341
William I
the Mad

1330–1353–1389
Lower Bavaria
1347–1353
Otto VII
the Lazy

1341–1375–1379
Upper Bavaria
1347–1351
Louis I
of Brzeg

1321–1398
Adolf of the
Palatinate

1300–1327
Margaret
Maultasch
of Tyrol

1318–1369
Louis IX
of Brandenburg

1315–1347–1361
Barnabò
Visconti

1321–1385
Stephen II
1319–1353–1375
Lower Bavaria
1347–1353
Elisabeth
of Sicily

1309–1349
John I
the Child

1329–1339–1340
Anna of
Bavaria

1326–1361
Louis X
the Roman

1328–1347–1353–1365
Albert I
1336–1353–1404
Lower Bavaria
1347–1353
Margaret
of Brzeg

1342–1386
Albert IV
of Austria

1377–1404
Rupert II of the
Palatinate

1325–1398
Meinhard
1344–1361–1363
Taddea
Visconti

1351–1381
Stephen III
1337–1392–1413
Landshut
1375–1392
John II
1341–1392–1397
Landshut
1375–1392
Catherine
of Gorizia

died 1391
Frederick
1339–1375–1393
Maddalena
Visconti

1366–1404
John III
the Pitiless

disputed
1374–1417–1425
William II
1365–1404–1417
Margaret
of Burgundy

1374–1441
Viridis
Visconti

1352–1414
Leopold III
of Austria

1351–1386
Stephen of
Simmern-
Zweibrücken

1385–1459
Anna of the
Palatinate
1346–1415
Rupert of the
Palatinate

1352–1410
Anne of
Bourbon and
La Marche

1380–1408
Louis XI
the Bearded

1368–1413–
1443–1447
Elisabeth
Visconti

1372–1432
Ernest
1373–1397–1438
William III
1375–1397–1435
Henry XVI
the Rich

1386–1393–1450
Margaret
of Austria

1395–1447
Jacqueline
disputed
1401–1417–
1432–1436
Ernest
the Iron

of Austria
1377–1424
Louis I of
Zweibrücken

1424–1489
Jeanne
of Croÿ

1435–1504
Louis III of the
Palatinate

1378–1436
Louis XII
the Hunchback

1403–1443–1445
Anna of
Brunswick-
Grubenhagen

1414–1474
Albert III
the Pious

1401–1438–1460
Eleanor of
Portugal

1434–1467
Frederick III,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1415–1493
Margaret
of Austria

1416–1486
Alexander of
Zweibrücken

1462–1514
Philip I
of Hesse

1504–1567
Louis IV of the
Palatinate

1424–1449
Margaret
of Bavaria

1442–1479
John IV
1437–1460–1463
Sigismund
1439–1467–1501
Munich
1460–1467
Albert IV
1447–1503–1508
Munich
1467–1503
Kunigunde
of Austria

1465–1520
Louis XIII
the Rich

1417–1450–1479
Amalia
of Saxony

1436–1501
Louis II of
Zweibrücken

1502–1532
Elisabeth
of Hesse

1503–1563
Clara
Gonzaga

1464–1503
Philip of the
Palatinate

1448–1508
Louis XIV
1495–1508–1545
Maximilian I,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1459–1519
George
the Rich

1455–1479–1503
Wolfgang of
Zweibrücken

1526–1569
Anna of
Hesse

1529–1591
Renée of
Bourbon

1494–1593
Antoine
of Lorraine

1489–1–1544
Elisabeth of
the Palatinate

1483–1522
Philip I
of Castile

1478–1506
Isabella
of Austria

1501–1526
Maria Jacobea
of Baden-
Sponheim

1507–1580
William IV
the Steadfast

1493–1508–1550
Ferdinand I,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1503–1564
Charles V,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1500–1558
William I
of Jülich-
Cleves-Berg

1516–1592
Maria of
Austria

1531–1581
Francis I
of Lorraine

1517–1545
Christina
of Denmark

1521–1590
Albert V
the Magnanimous

1528–1550–1579
Anna of
Austria

1528–1590
Joanna
of Austria

1547–1578
Philip II
of Spain

1527–1598
John I of
Zweibrücken

1550–1604
Magdalene
of Jülich-
Cleves-Berg

1533–1633
Philip Louis
of Neuburg

1547–1614
Anna of
Jülich-
Cleves-Berg

1552–1632
Charles III
of Lorraine

1543–1608
Claude of
France

1547–1575
Renata of
Lorraine

1544–1602
William V
the Pious

1548–1579–
1597–1628
Maria Anna
of Bavaria

1551–1608
Charles II
of Austria

1540–1590
Maria Anna
of Bavaria

1551–1608
Catherine
Michaela
of Spain

1567–1597
John II of
Zweibrücken

1584–1635
Charles I of
Zweibrücken-
Birkenfeld

1560–1600
Wolfgang
William of
Neuburg

1578–1653
Magdalene
of Bavaria

1587–1628
John William
of Jülich-
Cleves-Berg

1562–1609
Antonia of
Lorraine

1568–1610
Maria Anna
of Bavaria

1574–1616
Ferdinand II,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1578–1637
Christine
of France

1606–1663
Victor
Amadeus I
of Savoy

1587–1637
Philip III
of Spain

1578–1621
Margaret
of Austria

1584–1611
Magdalene
Catherine
of Zweibrücken

1607–1648
Christian I of
Birkenfeld-
Bischweiler

1598–1654
Philip
William
of Neuburg

1615–1690
Elisabeth
Amaile of
Hesse-
Darmstadt

1635–1709
John III
Sobieski
of Poland

1629–1696
Elisabeth
of Lorraine

1574–1635
Maximilian I
the Great

1573–1597–1651
Maria Anna
of Austria

1610–1665
Ferdinand III,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1608–1657
Maria Anna
of Spain

1606–1646
Christian II
of Zweibrücken

1637–1717
Augustus
of Sulzbach

1582–1632
Hedwig
Elisabeth
of Neuburg

1673–1722
James Louis
Sobieski

1667–1737
Ludwika
Karolina
Radziwiłł

1667–1696
Charles III
Philip of
Neuburg

1661–1742
Ferdinand
Maria

1636–1651–1679
Henriette
Adelaide
of Savoy

1636–1676
Maria Anna
of Austria

1634–1696
Philip IV
of Spain

1605–1665
Christian
Augustus
of Sulzbach

1622–1708
Eleonor
Magdalene
of Neuburg

1655–1720
Leopold I,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1640–1705
Margaret
Theresa
of Spain

1651–1673
Christian III
of Zweibrücken

1674–1735
Theodore
Eustace of
Sulzbach

1659–1732
Theresa
Cunigunde
Sobieska
of Poland

1676–1730
Maximilian II
Emanuel

1662–1679–1726
Maria
Antonia
of Austria

1669–1692
Joseph I,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1678–1711
Wilhelmine
Amaila of
Brunswick-
Lüneburg

1673–1742
Caroline of
Zweibrücken

1721–1774
Joseph
Charles of
Sulzbach

1694–1726
Elisabeth
Augusta
Sofia of
Neuburg

1693–1728
John
Christian
of Sulzbach

1700–1733
Maria
Henrietta
de la Tour
d'Auvergne

1708–1728
Charles
Albert

1697–1726–1745
Maria Amalia
of Brunswick-
Lüneburg

1701–1756
Augustus III
of Poland

1696–1763
Maria
Josepha
of Saxony

1699–1757
Frederick
Michael of
Zweibrücken

1724–1767
Maria
Franziska
of Sulzbach

1724–1794
Frederick
William II
of Prussia

1744–1797
Elisabeth
Augusta of
Sulzbach

1721–1794
Charles
Theodore

1724–1777–1799
Francis I,
Holy Romann
Emperor

1708–1765
Maria
Theresa
of Austria

1717–1780
Maximilian III
Joseph

1727–1745–1777
Maria Anna
Sophia of
Saxony

1728–1797
Amalie of
Hesse-
Darmstadt

1754–1832
Charles
Louis of
Baden

1755–1801
Frederick
William III
of Prussia

1770–1840
Leopold II,
Holy Roman
Emperor

1747–1790
Maria Luisa
of Spain

1745–1792
Ferdinand I
of the Two
Sicilies

1751–1825
Maria
Carolina
of Austria

1752–1814
Ferdinand
Charles of
Austria-Este

1754–1806
Maria
Beatrice
of Este

1750–1829
Caroline
of Baden

1776–1841
Maximilian IV
Joseph

1756–1799–1825
Augusta
Wilhemine
of Hesse-
Darmstadt

1765–1796
Wilhelm
of Prussia

1783–1851
Ferdinand III
of Tuscany

1769–1824
Luisa of
Naples
and Sicily

1773–1802
Joseph
of Hungary

1776–1847
Francis IV
of Modena

1779–1846
Frederick
William IV
of Prussia

1795–1861
Elisabeth
Ludovika
of Bavaria

1801–1873
Ludwig I
1786–1825–1848–1868
Theresa
of Saxe-
Hildburghausen

1792–1854
Maria Anna
of Saxony

1799–1832
Leopold II
of Tuscany

1797–1870
Ludovika
of Bavaria

1808–1892
Elisbath
Franziska
of Austria

1831–1903
Charles
Victor of
Austria-Este

1821–1849
Amalia
Augusta of
Bavaria

1801–1877
Maximilian V
1811–1848–1864
Marie of
Prussia

1825–1889
Luitpold
1821–1912
regent
1886–1912
Augusta
Ferdinande
of Austria

1825–1864
Charles
Theodore
of Bavaria

1839–1909
Sophie
of Saxony

1845–1867
Ludwig II
the Fairy
Tale King

1845–1864–1886
Otto (VIII)
1848–1886–
1913–1916
Ludwig III
1845–1913–
1918–1921
regent
1912–1913
in pretence
1918–1921
Maria
Theresa of
Austria-Este

1849–1919
Rupert
1869–1955
in pretence
1921–1955
Marie
Gabrielle
of Bavaria

1876–1912
Maria
Draskovich
of Trakostjan

1904–1969
Albert VI
1905–1996
in pretence
1955–1996
Franz
1933–
in pretence
1996–

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul the Deacon (1907), History of the Langobards (Historia Langobardorum) Archived 24 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, William Dudley Foulke, trans. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania), III, x Archived 25 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, calls him "king of the Bavarians". The mid-thirteenth-century Series Ducum Bavariæ calls him Garibaldus rex, see FMG.
  2. ^ King, Greg (1996), The Mad King: The Life and Times of Ludwig II of Bavaria., ISBN 978-1-55972-362-6

External links[edit]