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Imperial Russian Army

Index Imperial Russian Army

The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. [1]

1880 relations: Abbasgulu Bakikhanov, Abdulhamid bey Gaytabashi, Abolition of serfdom in Poland, Abraham Krotoshinsky, Abram Dragomirov, Abram Petrovich Gannibal, Abram Slutsky, Abschwangen massacre, Adam Georg von Agthe, Adam Otto von Bistram, Adam Petrovich Ozharovsky, Adam Rzhevusky, Adjutant general, Adolf Taimi, Adrianov compass, Afrikan P. Bogaewsky, Aglay Dmitriyevich Kuzmin-Korovaev, Akiyama Yoshifuru, Albanian Battalion, Alecu Filipescu-Vulpea, Aleksander Bychowiec, Aleksander Jeljaszewicz, Aleksander Prystor, Aleksander Romanowicz, Aleksander Tõnisson, Aleksandr Baryatinsky, Aleksandr Bezak, Aleksandr Burago, Aleksandr Cherepanov (general), Aleksandr Gerngross, Aleksandr Krymov, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Bezobrazov, Aleksandr Nikolayev (Usto Mumin), Aleksandr Roediger, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Aleksei Aleksandrovich Grechkin, Aleksei Antonov, Aleksei Baiov, Aleksei Brusilov, Aleksei Evert, Aleksey Kuropatkin, Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov, Aleksey Tillo, Alexander Albrecht (general), Alexander Alexandrovich Dushkevich, Alexander Andreyevich Svechin, Alexander Atabekian, Alexander Bagration-Imeretinsky (1796–1862), Alexander Barclay de Tolly-Weymarn, Alexander Bazhbeuk-Melikyan, ..., Alexander Bek, Alexander Bilderling, Alexander Bozheryanov, Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Alexander Davidovich Nakashidze, Alexander Fok, Alexander Gildenshtubbe, Alexander Gorbatov, Alexander Imeretinsky, Alexander Iosafovich Ievreinov, Alexander J. Kravtsov, Alexander Kapitokhin, Alexander Kazakov, Alexander Kutepov, Alexander Litvinov, Alexander Lukomsky, Alexander Lvovich Davydov, Alexander Meller-Zakomelsky, Alexander Mikhailovich Lermontov, Alexander N. Rossolimo, Alexander Nikolaevich Manvelov, Alexander Nikonov, Alexander Orlov (Soviet defector), Alexander Prozorovsky, Alexander Ragoza, Alexander Rodzyanko, Alexander Samoylo, Alexander Samsonov, Alexander Sedyakin, Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov, Alexander Sirotkin, Alexander Suvorov, Alexander Todorsky, Alexander Tukhachevsky, Alexander Tumansky, Alexander V. Golubintzev, Alexander Vasilyevich Belyakov, Alexander von Kaulbars, Alexander von Lüders, Alexander von Moller, Alexander von Taube, Alexander Yegorov (soldier), Alexandr Yakovlevich Tal, Alexandre Colonna-Walewski, Alexandre Michaud de Beauretour, Alexandros Kantakouzinos, Alexandru Plagino, Alexei Arbuzov (general), Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, Alexei Polivanov, Alexey Brodovitch, Alexey Kaledin, Alexey Nikolayevich Krutikov, Alexey Tereshkov, Alexey V. Kravtsov, Alfred Knox, Alfred Redl, Ali Aaltonen, Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Allan Jaffe, Allan Mallinson, Allan Staffans, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Allies of World War I, Alopaeus, Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763–1794), Anagnostaras, Anastasy Vonsiatsky, Anatolie Popa, Anatoliy Gekker, Anatoly Rogozhin, Anatoly Stessel, Andranik, Andrei Akimov (footballer), Andrei Gromyko, Andrei Sazontov, Andrei Shkuro, Andrei Zayonchkovski, Andrejs Auzāns, Andrey Fedorovich Budberg, Andrey Glebov, Andrey Korf, Andrey Selivanov, Andrey Yeryomenko, Andria Dadiani, Andronik (Nikolsky), Andrzej Grzegorczyk, Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, Anthony Veselovsky, Antisemitism in Ukraine, Anton Denikin, Anton Irv, Anton Saltz, Anton Skalon, Antoni Mroczkowski, Ants Kurvits, Apostol Kostanda, April 1915, Archibald Lucius Douglas, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Arisaka, Arkady Dmitrievich Stolypin, Arkady Nikanorovich Nishenkov, Arkady Skugarevsky, Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, Armenia, Armenian battalions, Armenian Genocide denial, Armenian national liberation movement, Armenian volunteer units, Army, Army Group Archduke Karl, Arnold Majewski, Arshak Ter-Gukasov, Arthur Aspelin, Arveds Bergs, Ashgabat, Athanasios Pipis, August 1914, August 1914 (novel), August 1915, August 1918, August Kork, August Torma, August von Mackensen, Austin Armoured Car, Australia–Russia relations, Austria-Hungary, AVUS, Ğabdulla Tuqay, Żurawiejka, Žanis Bahs, Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Bahmani family, Bahram bey Nabibekov, Balakishi Arablinski, Balder Tomasberg, Baltic Germans, Baltiysk, Bar Confederation, Bashkirs, Bashlyk, Basil Nikitin, Batman (military), Battenberg family, Battle cry, Battle of Antrea, Battle of Austerlitz, Battle of Łomża (1939), Battle of Białołęka, Battle of Białystok, Battle of Birże, Battle of Bitlis, Battle of Bobruysk (1918), Battle of Borowe Młyny, Battle of Buda Zaborowska, Battle of Chroberz, Battle of Depułtycze, Battle of Dobra (1863), Battle of Dobrich, Battle of Dragashani, Battle of Dunajetz, Battle of Erzurum (1877), Battle of Eylau, Battle of Fajsławice, Battle of Friedland, Battle of Ginietyny, Battle of Gnila Lipa, Battle of Horki, Battle of Hsimucheng, Battle of Huta Krzeszowska, Battle of Iłża (1864), Battle of Igołomia, Battle of Jastków, Battle of Jerusalem, Battle of Kaniów, Battle of Kay, Battle of Kazan (1774), Battle of Kobylanka, Battle of Komorów, Battle of Konary, Battle of Korsakov, Battle of Kostiuchnówka, Battle of Krasnobród (1863), Battle of Krechowce, Battle of Krzywopłoty, Battle of Krzywosądz, Battle of Laski and Anielin, Battle of Liaoyang, Battle of Limanowa, Battle of Lubartów (1863), Battle of Lututów, Battle of Möckern, Battle of Mełchów, Battle of Miropol, Battle of Mołotków, Battle of Motovilivka, Battle of Mrzygłód, Battle of Mukden, Battle of Nagoszewo, Battle of Nanshan, Battle of Opatów (1863), Battle of Opatów (1864), Battle of Ossa, Battle of Pakosław, Battle of Pieskowa Skała, Battle of Praszka, Battle of Pyzdry (1863), Battle of Rafajlowa, Battle of Rawa (1863), Battle of Rybnica, Battle of Salicha, Battle of Sandepu, Battle of Sędziejowice, Battle of Słupcza, Battle of Skała, Battle of Sosnowiec, Battle of Sowia Góra, Battle of Stok, Battle of Szydłowiec, Battle of Tarłów, Battle of Tápióbicske, Battle of Te-li-Ssu, Battle of the Alma, Battle of the Valerik River, Battle of the Yalu River (1904), Battle of Złoczew, Battle of Zieleńce, Battledress, Bayan-class cruiser, Bedel Pass, Bekir Sami Kunduh, Belarusian People's Republic, Belgian Expeditionary Corps in Russia, Bell of Chersonesos, Benedikt Livshits, Berdan rifle, Bereket, Biała Podlaska, Black-necked cranes in Bhutan, Bloody Wednesday (Poland), Bolesław Kontrym, Bolesław Masłowski, Bolesław Mościcki, Bolimów, Bolsheviks, Boris Donskoy, Boris Gorbachyov, Boris Gyllenbögel, Boris L. Tageev, Boris Legran, Boris Shaposhnikov, Boris Shelkovnikov, Boris Sheremetev, Boris Shteifon, Boris Smyslovsky, Boris Stürmer, Boris Vasilyev (writer), Boris Zakhava, Borjomi (water), Borys Karnicki, Bršadin, Briey, Bronisław Bohatyrewicz, Bronislav Grombchevsky, Bronze Horseman, Brusilov Offensive, Bulgarians, Bumbarash, Burkhard Christoph von Münnich, Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland (1919–24), Canon de 155 L modèle 1877/14 Schneider, Canon de 155 L modèle 1918 Schneider, Canon de 155 L Modele 1917 Schneider, Cantonist, Carabinier, Carl Enckell, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Carl von Clausewitz, Caucasus Cavalry Division (Russian Empire), Caucasus Front (Russian Republic), Caucasus Grenadier Division (Russian Empire), Caucasus Military District, César Cui, Central Agricultural Zone (Russia), Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland, Charge of Rokitna, Charles Edward Stuart, Count Roehenstart, Charles Frederick Williams, Charles Hesse, Charles Michael, Duke of 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Parsky, Dmitry Bagration-Imeretinsky, Dmitry Fesenko, Dmitry Ivanovich Sviatopolk-Mirsky, Dmitry Karbyshev, Dmitry Milyutin, Dmitry Nikolayevich Nadyozhny, Dmitry Petrovich Dokhturov, Dmitry Putyata, Dmitry Shcherbachev, Dmitry Shmidt, Dmitry Shuvayev, Dmitry von Fölkersam, Dmitry Zuyev, Dobrovolsk, Doctor Zhivago (film), Doctor Zhivago (novel), Dominik Semashko, Don Cossacks, Down and Out in Paris and London, Downary-Plac, Dragoon, Dragoon helmet, Drelów, Duchess Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg, Duke Alexander of Württemberg (1771–1833), Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857), Dukla, Dziecinów, Kozienice County, East Prussia, Eastern Front (World War I), Eastern Orthodoxy in the Republic of Ireland, Eduard Totleben, Elena Apreleva, Elena Guro, Eliezer Steinman, Eliziejus Draugelis, Emanuel Moravec, Emilia Plater, Emilija Vileišienė, Engineer Battalion (Estonia), Epaulette, Epidemic typhus, Ernst Gideon von Laudon, Ernst Löfström, Ernst Põdder, Erzurum Offensive, Estonia–Russia relations, Estonian Air Force, Estonian Knighthood House, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Etropole, Eugen Iskritsky, Eugen Maximilianovich, 5th Duke of Leuchtenberg, Eugeniusz Pławski, Evgeny Chirikov, Evgeny Messner, Evgraf Davydov, Fabian Steinheil, Facial hair in the military, Fatali Khan, Father Akaki, February Revolution, Feldwebel, Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski, Feliksas Baltušis-Žemaitis, Feodor Stepanovich Rojankovsky, Feofil Egorovich Meyendorff, Ferdinand von Wintzingerode, Fermor (Russian nobility), Field officer, Filip Konowal, Filipp Alyabushev, Filipp Parusinov, Filipp Rudkin, Filipp Zhevakhov, Finnish Civil War, Finnish Civil War prison camps, Finnish Guards' Rifle Battalion, First Battle of Chruślina, First Battle of Ignacewo, First Battle of Nowa Wieś (1863), First Battle of the Masurian Lakes, First Western Army, Florian Znaniecki, Forcade, Foreign policy of the Russian Empire, Foresters' Corps, Fort Friedrichsburg, Francis McCullagh, Franciszek Żwirko, Franciszek Młokosiewicz, Frankfurt (Oder), Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Lefort, Franz Perkhorovich, Frederick Heiden, Free City of Danzig (Napoleonic), French invasion of Russia, Freydun Atturaya, Friedrich Caspar von Geismar, Friedrich Heinrich Ferdinand Leopold von Forcade de Biaix, Friedrich Karl von Tettenborn, Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, Friedrich Parrot, Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Ernst Heinrich von Forcade de Biaix, Friedrich Wilhelm Leopold Konstantin Quirin Freiherr von Forcade de Biaix, Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg, Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden, Fritz Rumey, Fyodor Bakunin, Fyodor Chernozubov, Fyodor Drizen, Fyodor Gogel, Fyodor Keller, Fyodor Kolchuk, Fyodor Korol, Fyodor Kostenko, Fyodor Kostyayev, Fyodor Kuznetsov, Fyodor Ogorodnikov, Fyodor Palitzin, Fyodor Pirotsky, Fyodor Radetsky, Fyodor Shubin, Fyodor van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Gamliel Rabinowitz, Gaspar Voskanyan, Gatchina, Gates of Tashkent, Gavriil Ignatyev, Günther Blumentritt, Gefreiter, General of the Artillery (Imperial Russia), General of the branch, General of the cavalry, General of the Infantry (Imperial Russia), General officer, General Staff Academy (Imperial Russia), Generalissimo, Generalissimus of the Soviet Union, Genrich Eiche, Georg Wilhelm de Gennin, George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, George Gershwin, George Grebenstchikoff, George Kisevalter, George Kovalenko, George Mikhailovich, Count Brasov, George Shevelov, George Trofimoff, Georgi Yungvald-Khilkevich, Georgian Armed Forces, Georgian Hussar Regiment, Georgii Stackelberg, Georgy Bazilevich, Georgy Bobrikov, Georgy Bondar, Georgy Bulatsel, Georgy Malenkov, Georgy Orbeliani, Georgy Rodin, Georgy Sofronov, Georgy Tumanov, Georgy Vasmund, Georgy Zhukov, Gerhard Benkowitz, German Empire, German Quarter, Germany–Russia relations, Geysar Kashiyeva, Gheorghe Rosnovanu, Gherman Pântea, Ghukasyan, Giorgi Kazbegi, Giorgi Mazniashvili, Gleb Plaksin, Gomes Freire de Andrade, Gorna Oryahovitsa, Gostan Zarian, Gotthard August von Helffreich, Gourgen Yanikian, Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929), Great Retreat (Russian), Greek Battalion of Balaklava, Grigorij Fedorovitch Tchernozubov, Grigory Ivanovich Choglokov, Grigory Karizhsky, Grigory Khakhanyan, Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, Grigory Verzhbitsky, Guard of honour, Guards Tape, Gusev, Kaliningrad Oblast, Gustaw Orlicz-Dreszer, Gustaw Paszkiewicz, Gymnastyorka, Gyumri, Haberberg Church, Habib Bey Salimov, Hamina Cadet School, Hans Kalm, Harold Williams (linguist), Hayk Bzhishkyan, Heimito von Doderer, Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, Helen Mirren, Henry Lloyd (soldier), Henryk Siemiradzki, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Herbert Brede, Hermann Paul Reißhaus, Hibiya incendiary incident, History of Christianity in Ukraine, History of European exploration in Tibet, History of Galicia (Eastern Europe), History of Kazakhstan, History of Lviv, History of Poland (1795–1918), History of Poland during World War I, History of Russia (1892–1917), History of Russian military ranks, History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–27), History of Taganrog, History of Tarnobrzeg, History of the Jews in Finland, History of the Poles in the United States, History of Vilnius, Hmayak Babayan, HMS Glory (1899), HMS President (1829), Howard Vincent, Hugo W. Koehler, Hungarian State (1849), Hurva Synagogue, Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski, Ibrahim bey Usubov, Ibrahim Heski, Ice March, Ieronim Uborevich, Ignacy Oziewicz, Igor Sikorsky, Iivo Ahava, Ilia Ivanovitch Alekseyev, Ilie Cătărău, Illarion Illarionovich Vasilchikov, Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov, Ilya Alekseevich Shatrov, Ilya Garkavyi, Ilya Repin, Ilya Smirnov, Imperial Army, Imperial Russian Air Service, Imperial Russian Army formations and units (1914), Imperial Russian Navy, Incorporation of Polish children into the Imperial Russian Army (1831-1832), Infiltration tactics, Inner Mongolian Army, Inochentism, Inozemsky Prikaz, Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan), International relations, 1648–1814, International Squadron (Cretan intervention, 1897–1898), Invasion of Sakhalin, Ioan C. Filitti, Ion Buzdugan, Ion Cămărășescu, Iosif Apanasenko, Iosif Gurko, Irish Legion, Irish Russians, Islam in Latvia, Islamic Republic of Iran Army Ground Forces, Ivan Andreyevich Argamakov, Ivan Bagramyan, Ivan Belov (commander), Ivan Bogdanov, Ivan Boldin, Ivan Davidovich Lazarev, Ivan Fedko, Ivan Fullon, Ivan Fyodorovich Emme, Ivan Ganetsky, Ivan Gudovich, Ivan Guryelov, Ivan Ivanovich Michelson, Ivan Ivanovich Shamshev, Ivan Khludenev, Ivan Konev, Ivan Kotliarevsky, Ivan Krasnov, Ivan Ksenofontov, Ivan Lesovoy, Ivan Lorents, Ivan Makarovich Orbeliani, Ivan Mosjoukine, Ivan Naumovich Dubovoy, Ivan Nikitich Konev, Ivan Orlov (aviator), Ivan Panfilov, Ivan Paskevich, Ivan Pokrovsky, Ivan Ratiev, Ivan Rubanyuk, Ivan Samosenko, Ivan Sidorovich Lazarenko, Ivan Smolin, Ivan Strod, Ivan Turchin, Ivan Tyulenev, Ivan Vasilievich Argamakov, Ivan Zaplatin, Ivan Zhevakhov, Ivane Abkhazi, Ivane Amilakhvari, Ivane Andronikashvili, Izmaylovsky Regiment, Jaan Maide, Jack London, Jacob Brafman, Jacob Elshin, Jacob Shaw's Regiment, Jacques Gershkovitch, Jacques Tati, Jafargulu agha Javanshir, Jaime, Duke of Madrid, Jakub Wygodzki, James Bruce (1732–1791), James Wolfe Murray, Jamshid Nakhchivanski, Jan Czerski, Jan Jelínek (legionary), Jan Latsis, Jan Lorentowicz, Jan Rogowski, Jan Rządkowski, January 1917, January Uprising, Jarosław Dąbrowski, Javanshir clan, Józef Łobodowski, Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki, Józef Haller, Józef Poniatowski, Józef Zajączek, Jānis Balodis, Jānis Buivids, Jānis Francis, Jāzeps Grosvalds, Jean de Forcade de Biaix, Jean Rémy, Jeronimas Plečkaitis, Jerzy Świrski, Jerzy Bordziłowski, Johan Laidoner, Johan Pitka, Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky, Johann Georg von Browne, Johann Hermann von Fersen, Johann Jakob Pistor, Johann Ludwig Alexius von Loudon, Johann Martin von Elmpt, Johann Mickl, Johannes Raudmets, Johannes Soodla, John Casimir Ehrnrooth, John Moberly (Royal Navy officer), Joint Base McGuire–Dix–Lakehurst, Jonas Acus-Acukas, Jonas Steponavičius, José de Ribas, Josef (film), Josef Schnitter, Joseph Achron, Joseph Carl von Anrep, Joseph Galatte, Joshua ben Aaron Zeitlin, Joshua L. 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Abbasgulu Bakikhanov

Abbasgulu Bakikhanov (Abbasqulu ağa Bakıxanov Qüdsi) (21 June 1794, Amirjan – 31 May 1847, Wadi Fatima, near Jeddah), Abbas Qoli Bakikhanov, or Abbas-Qoli ibn Mirza Mohammad (Taghi) Khan Badkubi was an Azerbaijani writer, historian, journalist, linguist, poet and philosopher.

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Abdulhamid bey Gaytabashi

Abdulhamid Bey Sharif Bey oglu Gaytabashi (Əbdülhəmid bəy Şərif bəy oğlu Qaytabaşı; 1884 - June, 1920) was the last Chief of General Staff of Azerbaijani Armed Forces of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic before its occupation by the Red Army in April 1920.

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Abolition of serfdom in Poland

Abolition of serfdom in Poland occurred over a period of time.

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Abraham Krotoshinsky

Abraham Krotoshinsky (1892–1953) was a United States Army soldier who received the Distinguished Service Cross in recognition of his actions as part of The Lost Battalion.

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Abram Dragomirov

Abram Mikhailovich Dragomirov (21 April 1868 – 9 December 1955) was a General in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Abram Petrovich Gannibal

Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, or Abram Hannibal or Abram Petrov (Абра́м Петро́вич Ганниба́л; 1696 – 14 May 1781), was a Russian military engineer, general, and nobleman of African origin.

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Abram Slutsky

Abram Aronovich Slutsky (Абра́м Аро́нович Слу́цкий) (July 1898 - 17 February 1938, Moscow) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service (INO), then part of the NKVD, from May 1935 to February 1938.

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Abschwangen massacre

Abschwangen (now Tishino, in Bagrationovsky District) was a small village near Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia some 30 km south of Königsberg, today Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia and the scene of a massacre of German civilians in August 1914.

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Adam Georg von Agthe

Adam Georg von Agthe (12 August 1777, Ahrensburg, now Kuressaare in Estonia – 26 August 1826, Kremenchuk, now in Ukraine) was a major general in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Adam Otto von Bistram

Baron Adam Otto Wilhelm von Bistram or Adam Ivanovitch Bistrom (Russian: Адам Иванович Бистром, 23 October 1774, Märjamaa, Governorate of Estonia - 17 October 1828, Dresden) was a commander in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Adam Petrovich Ozharovsky

Count Adam Petrovich Ozharovsky (Adam Ożarowski) (1776 – 30 November 1855, Warsaw) was a Russian general of Polish descent who distinguished himself during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Adam Rzhevusky

Adam Rzhevusky (1801 – April 17, 1888) was an Imperial Russian general.

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Adjutant general

An adjutant general is a military chief administrative officer.

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Adolf Taimi

Adolf Taimi (1881 – 1955) was a Finnish-Russian Bolshevik and a member of the People's Delegation during the Finnish Civil War.

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Adrianov compass

The Adrianov compass (Компас Адрианова) is a military compass designed by Russian Imperial Army topographist Vladimir Adrianov in 1907.

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Afrikan P. Bogaewsky

Afrikan Petrovich Bogaewsky (Африка́н Петро́вич Богае́вский), 8 January 1873, stanitsa Kamenskaya – October 1934 Paris), from the Don Cossacks family of Bogaewskich. He was a Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counterrevolutionary White movement on Don Host. Ataman of Don Republic.

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Aglay Dmitriyevich Kuzmin-Korovaev

Aglay (Aleksey) Dmitriyevich Kuzmin-Korovaev (May 23, 1864 – 1918) was an Imperial Russian lieutenant general and division commander.

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Akiyama Yoshifuru

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and is considered the father of modern Japanese cavalry.

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Albanian Battalion

The Albanian Battalions (1775-1859) were a series of mostly Albanian battalions under the Russian Imperial army which fought against the Ottoman Empire.

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Alecu Filipescu-Vulpea

Alecu Filipescu-Vulpea, also known as Aleco Filipescul, Alecsandru R. Filipescu or Alexandru Răducanu Filipescu (1775 – November 1856), was a Wallachian administrator and high-ranking boyar, who played an important part in the politics of the late Phanariote era and of the Regulamentul Organic regime.

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Aleksander Bychowiec

Aleksander Bychowiec of Mogiła (Александр Иосифович Биховец) was a Russian-Polish noble and an amateur historian of the Russian Empire from the Grodno Governorate.

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Aleksander Jeljaszewicz

Aleksander Jeljaszewicz, known as "Sasza" (pronounced "Sasha") - probably because of the family tradition of service in the Russian military (22 March 1902 – 18 August 1978).

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Aleksander Prystor

Aleksander Błażej Prystor (2 January 1874–11 August 1941) was a Polish politician, soldier and activist who served as 23rd Prime Minister of Poland from 1931 to 1933.

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Aleksander Romanowicz

Aleksander Romanowicz was a general of cavalry in both Russian Imperial Army and Polish Army.

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Aleksander Tõnisson

Aleksander Tõnisson VR I/1 (April 17, 1875 – June 30, 1941) was an Estonian military commander (Major General) during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Aleksandr Baryatinsky

Aleksandr Ivanovich Baryatinsky (Александр Иванович Барятинский; –) was a Russian General and Field Marshal (from 1859), Prince, governor of the Caucasus.

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Aleksandr Bezak

Aleksandr P Bezak (Russian, Александр Павлович Безак, 1800 – December 30, 1868) was an Imperial Russian colonel general.

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Aleksandr Burago

Aleksandr Petrovich Burago (Александр Петрович Бураго) was an officer of the Russian Imperial army.

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Aleksandr Cherepanov (general)

Aleksandr Ivanovich Cherepanov (– 6 July 1984) was a Soviet military leader. A peasant's son, Cherepanov served as a junior officer in the Russian Army in World War I and took part in the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War with the Red Army. A 1923 graduate of the Red Army Military Academy, Cherepanov first came to China as a military adviser to Sun Yat-sen's National Revolutionary Army in 1923–1927. He returned as chief military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang China during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938–1939. Appointed a senior instructor at the General Staff Academy after returning from China, he was named commander of the 23rd Army in 1941 and promoted to lieutenant-general in 1943. A member of the Allied Control Commission in Bulgaria in 1944–1947 and the commission's chairman in 1947, he returned to the Soviet Union to become deputy chief in the Department of Military Colleges of the USSR Ministry of Defense in 1948–1955.

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Aleksandr Gerngross

Baron Alexandr Gerngross (Александр Алексеевич Гернгросс) (August 4, 1851 – March 17, 1925) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Aleksandr Krymov

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Krymov (October 23, 1871—August 31, 1917, Крымов Александр Михайлович) was a Russian Imperial Lieutenant General, a military commander of Russo-Japanese War, World War I, and Russian Revolution times.

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Aleksandr Mikhailovich Bezobrazov

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Bezobrazov (Александр Михайлович Безобразов (1855-1931) was a Russian businessman and political adventurer who exerted a major influence on the foreign policies of the Russian Empire in the years prior to the Russo-Japanese War.

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Aleksandr Nikolayev (Usto Mumin)

Aleksandr Nikolayev (Usto Mumin) was a Soviet painter of Russian origin, who lived and worked in Uzbek SSR.

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Aleksandr Roediger

Aleksandr Fedorovich Roediger (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ре́дигер;, Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod Governorate, Russian Empire – 26 January 1920, Sevastopol, Crimean ASSR, Russian SFSR) was a Russian General of Infantry who fought in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, served as a member of the Imperial Russian State Council, and was the Minister of War of the Russian Empire (1905–1909).

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Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.

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Aleksei Aleksandrovich Grechkin

Aleksei Aleksandrovich Grechkin (Алексей Александрович Гречкин, 26 March 1893 – 30 August 1964) was a Soviet army commander.

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Aleksei Antonov

Aleksei Innokentievich Antonov (Алексе́й Инноке́нтьевич Анто́нов) (9 September 1896 – 16 June 1962) was a General of the Soviet Army, awarded the Order of Victory for his efforts in World War II.

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Aleksei Baiov

Aleksei Baiov (February 8, 1871 – May 8, 1935) was an Imperial Russian division, corps and army commander.

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Aleksei Brusilov

Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.

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Aleksei Evert

Aleksei Ermolaevich Evert (Алексей Ермолаевич Эверт; Alexei Ewert; 4 March 185712 November 1918 or 10 May 1926) was an Imperial Russian General of Orthodox German extraction.

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Aleksey Kuropatkin

Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Куропа́ткин; March 29, 1848January 16, 1925) was the Russian Imperial Minister of War from 1898 to 1904, and often held responsible for major Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Mukden and the Battle of Liaoyang.

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Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov

Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov (p; &ndash) was a Russian Imperial general of the 19th century who commanded Russian troops in the Caucasian War.

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Aleksey Tillo

Aleksey Tillo (Алексей Андреевич Тилло; Alexei Andreyevitch Tillo) (November 25 (O.S. November 13), 1839, Kiev Governorate – January 11 (O.S. December 30), 1900, Saint Petersburg) was a prominent Russian geographer, cartographer, land surveyor, lieutenant general of the Russian Imperial Army (1894).

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Alexander Albrecht (general)

Alexander Ivanovitch Albrecht (Russian: Александр Иванович Альбрехт; 3 November 1788 - 15 August 1828) was a commander of the Imperial Russian Army during the French invasion of Russia.

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Alexander Alexandrovich Dushkevich

Alexander Alexandrovich Dushkevich (September 20, 1853 – 1918) was an Imperial Russian division and corps commander.

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Alexander Andreyevich Svechin

Alexander Andreyevich Svechin (Александр Андреевич Свечин; 17 August 1878, Odessa – 28 July 1938) was a Russian and Soviet military leader, military writer, educator and theorist, and author of the military classic Strategy.

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Alexander Atabekian

Alexander Movsesi Atabekian (Ալեքսանդր Մովսեսի Աթաբեկյան; 2 February 1868 - 4 December 1933) was a prominent ethnic Armenian anarchist, author and publisher of anarchist literature in Russian.

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Alexander Bagration-Imeretinsky (1796–1862)

Alexander Bagration-Imeretinsky (ალექსანდრე ბაგრატიონ-იმერეტინსკი, Alek'sandre Bagration-Imeretinski; Александр Георгиевич Багратион-Имеретинский, Aleksandr Georgyevich Bagration-Imeretinsky; 1796 — 5 February 1862) was a Georgian royal prince of the Bagrationi dynasty of Imereti and a general in Imperial Russian service.

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Alexander Barclay de Tolly-Weymarn

Alexander Petrovich Barklai de-Tolli-Veimarn (December 22, 1824 – May 8, 1905) was an Imperial Russian regiment commander, division commander and corps commander.

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Alexander Bazhbeuk-Melikyan

Alexander Bazhbeuk-Melikyan (Ալեքսանդր Բաժբեուկ-Մելիքյան, ალექსანდრე ბაჟბეუქ-მელიქიანი, Александр Александрович Бажбеук-Меликов; 11 September 1891 – 20 July 1966) was a Soviet Georgian artist, graphic designer and sculptor of Armenian origin.

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Alexander Bek

Alexander Alfredovich Bek (Алекса́ндр Альфре́дович Бек; 2 November 1972), sometimes transliterated from the Russian Cyrillic as Aleksandr Bek or Anglicized to Alexander Beck, was a Soviet novelist and writer.

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Alexander Bilderling

Baron Alexander Alexandrovich (von) Bilderling (Александр Александрович (Фон) Бильдерлинг.; Alexander Freiherr von Bilderling or von Büldring-Bilterling) (–) was a Russian general of Baltic-German Ancestry, noted for this role in the Russo-Japanese War and an artist and monument designer.

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Alexander Bozheryanov

Alexander Bozheryanov (1825–) was an Imperial Russian regiment, brigade and division commander.

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Alexander Danilovich Menshikov

Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; –) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel.

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Alexander Davidovich Nakashidze

Prince Alexander Davidovich Nakashidze (ალექსანდრე ნაკაშიძე (Alexandre Nakashidze), Александр Давидович Накашидзе) (1837 – 25 September 1905) was a Georgian nobleman and Russian imperial general who was responsible for several decisive victories against rebellious factions during the Caucasus war.

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Alexander Fok

Alexander Viktorovich Fok (also Foch) '''Александр Викторович Фок'''.; September 6, 1843 – 1926) was a lieutenant general of the Imperial Russian Army during the Russo-Japanese War.

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Alexander Gildenshtubbe

Alexander Gildenshtubbe (1801–1884) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Alexander Gorbatov

Alexander Vasilyevich Gorbatov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Горба́тов) (21 March 1891 – 7 December 1973) was a Russian and Soviet officer who served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War and as a Colonel-General in the Red Army during the Second World War.

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Alexander Imeretinsky

Alexander Konstantinovich Bagration-Imeretinsky (ალექსანდრე კონსტანტინეს ძე ბაგრატიონ-იმერეტინსკი (Aleksandre konstantines dze bagration-imeretinski), Алекса́ндр Константи́нович Имере́тинский, Aleksandr Imeretyński) (24 September 1837 - 17 November 1900) was a Georgian royal prince (batonishvili) and a General of the Russian Imperial Army.

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Alexander Iosafovich Ievreinov

Alexander Iosafovich Ievreinov (Алекса́ндр Иоаса́фович Иевреинов, August 28, 1851 – 1929) was an Imperial Russian brigade, division and corps commander.

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Alexander J. Kravtsov

Alexander J. Kravtsov (October 11, 1893 – 1920) was a Russian Imperial Army Yesaul during the First World War and a Commander of the North Groupe of Orenburg Army in White movement during the Ataman Alexander Dutovs revolt against the Soviet authorities in Orenburg in 1918.

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Alexander Kapitokhin

Alexander Grigoryevich Kapitokhin (Russian: Александр Григорьевич Капитохин; 6 June 1892 – 13 August 1958) was a Red Army Lieutenant general.

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Alexander Kazakov

Alexander Alexandrovich Kazakov (Kozakov, Kosakoff) (Александр Александрович Казаков) (2 January 1889 – 1 August 1919) (British Distinguished Service Order and Military Cross and the French Légion d'honneur) was the most successful Russian flying ace and fighter pilot during the First World War.

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Alexander Kutepov

Alexander Pavlovich Kutepov (Александр Павлович Кутепов; 28 September 1882 in Cherepovets, Vologda Governorate, Russian Empire – 26 January 1930 in Paris, France) was the leader of the anti-communist Volunteer Army during the Russian Civil War.

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Alexander Litvinov

Alexander Ivanovich Litvinov (Александр Иванович Литвинов; August 22, 1853 – 1932) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Alexander Lukomsky

Alexander Sergeyevich Lukomsky (10 July 1868 – 25 January 1939 in Paris) was a Russian military commander, General Staff, Lieutenant-General (April 1916).

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Alexander Lvovich Davydov

Alexander Lvovich Davydov (Александр Львович Давыдов; b. 1773 - 1833) was a major-general of the Russian Empire, who served in the era of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Alexander Meller-Zakomelsky

Alexander Nikolayevich Meller-Zakomelsky (Александр Николаевич Меллер-Закомельский; Alexander Nikolajewitsch Möller-Sakomelski; in St. Petersburg — 15 April 1928 in Nice) was a Russian Governor-General in the Imperial Russian Army and of the Russian Empire.

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Alexander Mikhailovich Lermontov

Alexander Mikhailovich Lermontov (27 February 1838 – 26 December 1906) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Alexander N. Rossolimo

Alexander N. Rossolimo is an American think tank executive, entrepreneur, and corporate director.

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Alexander Nikolaevich Manvelov

Alexander Nikolaevich Manvelov (ალექსანდრე მანველიშვილი Alexandre Manvelishvili. Манвелов, Александр Николаевич) (6 April 1824 – 2 April 1906) was a general of imperial Russia, Active Privy Councillor and a patron to several Russian civilian institutions.

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Alexander Nikonov

Alexander Nikonov (August 31, 1893 – October 26, 1937) was a Soviet komdiv (division commander).

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Alexander Orlov (Soviet defector)

Alexander Mikhailovich Orlov (Александр Михайлович Орлов) (born Leiba Lazarevich Feldbin; 21 August 1895 – 25 March 1973), was Major in the Soviet secret police and NKVD Rezident in the Second Spanish Republic.

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Alexander Prozorovsky

Prince Alexander Alexandrovich Prozorovsky (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Прозоро́вский; 1733 – 21 August 1809) was the only Field Marshal from the Prozorovsky family.

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Alexander Ragoza

Alexander Frantsevich Ragoza (Александр Францевич Рагоза) (8 June 1858 – 29 June 1919) was a Minister of Defense of the Ukrainian State.

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Alexander Rodzyanko

Alexander Pavlovich Rodzyanko (Александр Павлович Родзянко; 18 August 1879 – 6 May 1970) was a lieutenant-general and a corps commander of the White Army during the Russian Civil War.

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Alexander Samoylo

Alexander Alexandrovich Samoylo (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Само́йло; October 23 (November 4) 1869 – November 8, 1963) was a commander in the Imperial Russian Army and Red Army during World War I and the Russian Civil War.

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Alexander Samsonov

Aleksandr Vasilyevich Samsonov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Самсо́нов) was a career officer in the cavalry of the Imperial Russian Army and a general during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I.

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Alexander Sedyakin

Alexander Ignatyevich Sedyakin (November 26, 1893 – July 29, 1938) was a Soviet division commander and Komandarm 2nd rank.

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Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov

Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Ме́ншиков; 26 August 17872 May 1869) was a Finno-Russian nobleman, military commander and statesman.

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Alexander Sirotkin

Alexander Sirotkin (August 6, 1890 – January 17, 1965) was a Soviet lieutenant general and division commander.

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Alexander Suvorov

Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; or 1730 –) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero.

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Alexander Todorsky

Alexander Ivanovich Todorsky (September 8, 1894 – August 27, 1965) was a Soviet general and corps commander.

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Alexander Tukhachevsky

Alexander Tukhachevsky (1793-1831) was a Russian military officer and a Colonel of Imperial Russian Army.

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Alexander Tumansky

Tumanskiy, Aleksandr Grigor’evich (Russian: Туманский, Александр Григорьевич) (1861–1920) was a Russian orientalist, military interpreter, and Major General of the Imperial Russian Army, belonging to an ancient aristocratic family which had originated from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Alexander V. Golubintzev

Alexander Vassilievich Golubintzev (Александр Васильевич Голубинцев) (February 28, 1882, Don Host Oblast - April 19, 1963 Cleveland, Ohio) was member of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Alexander Vasilyevich Belyakov

Alexander Vasilyevich Belyakov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Беляко́в; – 28 November 1982) was a Soviet flight navigator who, together with command pilot Valery Chkalov and co-pilot Georgy Baydukov, set a record for the longest uninterrupted flight in 1936 and made the first non-stop flight across the North Pole, flying from Moscow to Vancouver, Washington.

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Alexander von Kaulbars

Alexander Wilhelm Andreas Freiherr von Kaulbars (Russified into Александр Васильевич (фон) Каульбарс, Alexander Vasilyevich von Kaulbars; January 25, 1925) was a Baltic-German military leader, General of the Cavalry (1901), who served in the Imperial Russian Army during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and a noted explorer of Central Asia.

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Alexander von Lüders

Count Alexander Nikolajewitsch von Lüders (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич фон Ли́дерс; 14 January 1790 – 2 February 1874) was a Russian general and Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland.

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Alexander von Moller

Alexander Fedorovich von Moller (1796–1862) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Alexander von Taube

Baron Alexander Alexandrovich von Taube (August 21, 1864 – January 1919) was an Imperial Russian general.He fought in the war of Russia against the Empire of Japan.

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Alexander Yegorov (soldier)

Alexander Ilyich Yegorov or Egorov (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Его́ров, Alexandr Iljič Jegorov) (– February 23, 1939), was a Soviet military leader during the Russian Civil War, when he commanded the Red Army's Southern Front and played an important part in defeating the White forces in Ukraine.

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Alexandr Yakovlevich Tal

Alexandr Yakovlevich Tal (July 18, 1840 – October 16, 1911) was an Imperial Russian corps commander.

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Alexandre Colonna-Walewski

Alexandre Florian Joseph, Count Colonna-Walewski (Aleksander Florian Józef Colonna-Walewski; 4 May 181027 September 1868), was a Polish and French politician and diplomat.

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Alexandre Michaud de Beauretour

Alexandre Michaud, count of Beauretour (Russia: Александр Францевич Мишо; 19 January 1771, Nice, Kingdom of Sardinia – 22 July 1841, Palermo, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) was a Piedmontese general who served in the Imperial Russian Army as aide de camp to the tsar and as a military commander.

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Alexandros Kantakouzinos

Alexandru Cantacuzino-Deleanu or Alexandros Kantakouzinos (Αλέξανδρος Καντακουζηνός: 1787 in Iași, Moldavia – 1841 in Athens, Greece) was a Phanariote Romanian-Greek magnate and politician.

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Alexandru Plagino

Alexandru C. Plagino, or Plajino (August 21, 1821–October 4, 1894), was a Wallachian-born Romanian politician.

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Alexei Arbuzov (general)

Alexei Arbuzov (1792–1861) was an Imperial Russian general and division commander.

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Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov

Count Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov (Алексей Григорьевич Орлов; –) was a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.

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Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia

Alexei Nikolaevich (Алексе́й Никола́евич) (12 August 1904 – 17 July 1918) of the House of Romanov, was the Tsarevich and heir apparent to the throne of the Russian Empire.

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Alexei Polivanov

Alexei Andreyevich Polivanov (Алексей Андреевич Поливанов) (March 16, 1855 – September 25, 1920) was a Russian military figure, infantry general (1915).

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Alexey Brodovitch

Alexey Vyacheslavovich Brodovitch (also Brodovich; Алексе́й Вячесла́вович Бродо́вич, Аляксей Брадовіч; 1898 – April 15, 1971) was a Russian-born photographer, designer and instructor who is most famous for his art direction of fashion magazine Harper's Bazaar from 1934 to 1958.

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Alexey Kaledin

Aleksei Maximovich Kaledin (Алексе́й Макси́мович Каледи́н; 24 October 1861 – 11 February 1918) was a Don Cossack Cavalry General who led the Don Cossack White movement in the opening stages of the Russian Civil War.

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Alexey Nikolayevich Krutikov

Alexey Nikolayevich Krutikov (20 July 1895 - 23 April 1949) was a Soviet military leader.

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Alexey Tereshkov

Alexey Dmitrievich Tereshkov (17 March 189318 March 1960) was a Belarusian Soviet Army Lieutenant general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Alexey V. Kravtsov

Alexei V. Kravtzov (1879 – December 30, 1918), was a Colonel of the Imperial Russian Army and Don Republic officer, killed in the Battle of Loznoye during the Russian Civil War.

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Alfred Knox

Major-General Sir Alfred William Fortescue Knox (30 October 1870 – 9 March 1964) was a career British military officer and later a Conservative Party politician.

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Alfred Redl

Alfred Redl (14 March 1864 – 25 May 1913) was a Ukrainian military officer who rose to head the Evidenzbureau, the counter-intelligence wing of the Austro-Hungarian Army General Staff.

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Ali Aaltonen

Aleksi "Ali" Aaltonen (2 August 1884 – May 1918) was a Finnish journalist and former lieutenant of the Russian Imperial Army, who served as the first commander-in-chief of the Finnish Red Guards from November 1917 to the end of January 1918.

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Ali-Agha Shikhlinski

Ali-Agha Ismail-Agha oglu Shikhlinski (Əliağa İsmayılağa oğlu Şıxlinski), sometimes anglicized as Ali-Agha Shikhlinsky (Али-Ага Шихлинский; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Allan Jaffe

\ Allan Phillip Jaffe (April 24, 1935, Pottsville, Pennsylvania - March 9, 1987, New Orleans) was an American jazz tubist and the entrepreneur who developed Preservation Hall into a New Orleans jazz tradition.

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Allan Mallinson

Brigadier Allan Lawrence Mallinson (born 6 February 1949) is an English author and retired British Army officer.

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Allan Staffans

Allan Walfrid Staffans (13 February 1880 – 19 October 1946) was a Finnish technician, vuorineuvos and shipbuilder.

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Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Alopaeus

Alopaeus (sometimes transliterated as Alopeus) is a Finnish family, originating from Vyborg.

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Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763–1794)

Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland–Lithuania in the years 1763–1794 were among the most important characters in the politics of Poland.

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Anagnostaras

Anagnostaras (Αναγνωσταράς; 1760 in Poliani – May 8, 1825 in Sphacteria) was a Greek revolutionary, a leading member of the Filiki Etaireia, and later a general and War Minister of the Greek War of Independence.

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Anastasy Vonsiatsky

Anastasy Andreyevich Vonsyatsky (Анаста́сий Андре́евич Вонся́цкий, Anastazy Wąsacki; June 12, 1898 – February 5, 1965), better known in the United States as Anastase Andreivitch Vonsiatsky, was a Russian anti-Bolshevik émigré and fascist leader based in the United States from the 1920s.

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Anatolie Popa

Anatolie Popa (Анатолий Васильевич Попа, Anatoliy Vasilievich Popa; March 15, 1896 – June 25, 1920) was a Bessarabian-born military commander active during World War I and the Russian Revolution and Civil War, one of the organisers of the Moldavian armed resistance against the advancing Romanian troops in January 1918.

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Anatoliy Gekker

Anatoli Ilyich Gekker (Анатолий Ильич Геккер) (August 25, 1888 – July 1, 1937) was a Soviet military commander (Komkor) involved in the Russian Civil War.

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Anatoly Rogozhin

Anatoli Ivanovich Rogozhin was a Russian officer who served in the Imperial Russian Army, the White Army, and was the last commander of the Russian Corps in Serbia during World War II.

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Anatoly Stessel

Anatoly Mikhaylovich Stessel (Анато́лий Миха́йлович Сте́ссель), last name also Germanized Stoessel or Stößel (–) was a Russian baron of German descent, military leader, and general responsible for the fall of Port Arthur to the Japanese on January 2, 1905.

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Andranik

Andranik Ozanian, commonly known as Andranik (Անդրանիկ; 25 February 186531 August 1927) was an Armenian military commander and statesman, the best known fedayi and a key figure of the Armenian national liberation movement.

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Andrei Akimov (footballer)

Andrei Aleksandrovich Akimov (Андрей Александрович Акимов) (b. 1888, Nikolskoye, Vladimir Governorate — d. 1916) was a Russian football player who died during World War I.

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Andrei Gromyko

Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко; Андрэ́й Андрэ́евіч Грамы́ка; – 2 July 1989) was a Soviet communist politician during the Cold War.

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Andrei Sazontov

Andrei Sazontov (1894 – August 26, 1938) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Andrei Shkuro

Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro (Russian: Андрей Григорьевич Шкуро; Ukrainian: Андрій Григорович Шкуро) (19 January 1887 (O.S.: 7 January) – 17 January 1947) was a Lieutenant General (1919) of the White Army.

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Andrei Zayonchkovski

Andrei Medardovich Zayonchkovski or Zaionchkovski (Андре́й Меда́рдович Зайончко́вский) (- Moscow, Russia, March 22, 1926) commanded the defence of the Romanian-Bulgarian border in Dobruja upon Romania's entry into World War I in August 1916.

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Andrejs Auzāns

Andrejs Auzāns (1871–1953) was a Latvian general and topographer.

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Andrey Fedorovich Budberg

Andrey Feodorovich Budberg, also known as Baron Andreas Ludwig Karl Theodor von Budberg-Bönninghausen (born Riga, 1 January 1817 – died St Petersburg, 28 January 1881) was a Russian Empire diplomat.

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Andrey Glebov

Andrey Saviichevich Glebov (Андрей Савиичевич Глебов; 1770 in Berezna – 24 September 1854) was a colonel of the Russian Empire.

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Andrey Korf

Baron Andrey Nikolayevich Korf or Korff (Андрей Николаевич Корф; 1831–1893) was the first Viceroy (Governor General) of the Russian Far East (1884–93).

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Andrey Selivanov

Andrey Nikolayevich Selivanov (5 August 1847 – 15 July 1917) was a Russian politician and general notable for capturing Przemyśl during World War I.

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Andrey Yeryomenko

Andrey (Andrei) Ivanovich Yeryomenko (or Yeremenko, Eremenko; Андре́й Ива́нович Ерёменко; Андрій Іванович Єрьоменко; November 19, 1970) was a Soviet general during World War II and, subsequently, a Marshal of the Soviet Union.

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Andria Dadiani

Prince Andria Dadiani (ანდრია დადიანი.; 1850–1910), known in Russia as Andrey Davidovich Dadian-Mingrelsky (Андрей Давидович Дадиани), was a Georgian nobleman and a chess player.

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Andronik (Nikolsky)

Archbishop Andronik (also spelled Andronic; Архиепископ Андроник, secular name Vladimir Alexandrovich Nikolsky, Владимир Александрович Никольский; August 1, 1870 – July 7, 1918), was a bishop in the Russian Orthodox Church and a saint, glorified as Hieromartyr Andronik, Archbishop Of Perm in 2000.

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Andrzej Grzegorczyk

Andrzej Grzegorczyk (22 August 1922 – 20 March 2014) was a Polish logician, mathematician, philosopher, and ethicist noted for his work in computability, mathematical logic, and the foundations of mathematics.

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Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland

The Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland (or Anglo-Russian expedition to Holland, or Helder Expedition) was a military campaign from 27 August to 19 November 1799 during the War of the Second Coalition, in which an expeditionary force of British and Russian troops invaded the North Holland peninsula in the Batavian Republic.

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Anthony Veselovsky

Anthony Veselovsky (7 March 1865 – 1939) was an Imperial Russian division, corps and army commander.

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Antisemitism in Ukraine

Haidamakas hang a Jew. Ukrainian folk art, XIX century Antisemitism in Ukraine has been a historical issue in the country, but became even more widespread in the twentieth century.

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Anton Denikin

Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.

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Anton Irv

Anton Irv VR I/2, VR II/2, VR II/3 (17 September 1886 – 27 April 1919) was a highly decorated Estonian combat soldier and military officer during World War I and in the Estonian War of Independence.

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Anton Saltz

Baron Anton Egorovich Saltz (Anton FreiherrThe knighthood title of Freiherr was a hereditary title of the Saltza Family, not given.;; October 22, 1843February 9, 1916) was a Russian General of Baltic-German origin, he was the commander of the Kazan Military District, he was also one of the commanders of the Russian Army during the early stages of First World War.

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Anton Skalon

Anton Antonovich Skalon (Russian - Антон Антонович Скалон; 6 September 1767, Biysk fortress – 1812) was a Russian commander during the Napoleonic Wars, rising to the rank of major general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Antoni Mroczkowski

Antoni Mroczkowski was a Polish ace pilot in the Imperial Russian Air Force during the World War I with 5 confirmed kills.

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Ants Kurvits

Ants Kurvits or Hans Kurvits (14 May 1887 – 27 December 1943) was an Estonian military commander, reaching rank of major general.

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Apostol Kostanda

Apostol S Kostanda (December 24, 1817 – December 5, 1898) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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April 1915

The following events occurred in April 1915.

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Archibald Lucius Douglas

Admiral Sir Archibald Lucius Douglas, (8 February 1842 – 12 March 1913) was a Royal Navy officer of the 19th century.

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Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell

Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.

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Arisaka

The Arisaka rifle (有坂銃 Arisaka-jū) is a family of Japanese military bolt-action service rifles, in production and use since approximately 1897, when it replaced the Murata rifle (村田銃 Murata-jū) family, until the end of World War II in 1945.

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Arkady Dmitrievich Stolypin

Arkady Dmitrievich Stolypin (1822–1899) was an Imperial Russian general of artillery, governor of Eastern Rumelia and commandant of the Kremlin Palace guard.

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Arkady Nikanorovich Nishenkov

Arkady Nikanorovich Nishenkov (1855–1940) was an Imperial Russian corps commander.

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Arkady Skugarevsky

Arkady Platonovich Skugarevsky (Russian, Аркадий Платонович Скугаревский, January 17, 1847 -) was an Imperial Russian division and corps commander.

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Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu

Armand-Emmanuel Sophie Septimanie de Vignerot du Plessis, 5th Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (25 September 176617 May 1822), was a prominent French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian battalions

Armenian battalions refer to military units formed by Armenian volunteer conscripts, mostly fighting against the Ottoman forces.

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Armenian Genocide denial

Armenian Genocide denial is the act of denying the planned systematic genocide of 1.5 million Armenians during World War I, conducted by the Ottoman government.

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Armenian national liberation movement

The Armenian national liberation movement (Հայ ազգային-ազատագրական շարժում Hay azgayin-azatagrakan sharzhum) aimed at the establishment of an Armenian state. It included social, cultural, but primarily political and military movements that reached their height during World War I and the following years. Influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, the Armenian national movement developed in the early 1860s. Its emergence was similar to that of movements in the Balkan nations, especially the Greek revolutionaries who fought the Greek War of Independence. The Armenian élite and various militant groups sought to defend the mostly rural Armenian population of the eastern Ottoman Empire from the Muslims, being Christian, but the ultimate goal was to push for reforms in the Six vilayets at first and after this failed, the creation of an Armenian state in the Armenian-populated areas controlled at the time by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire. Since the late 1880s, the movement engaged in guerrilla warfare with the Ottoman government and the Kurdish irregulars in the eastern regions of the empire, led by the three Armenian political parties named the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, the Armenakan Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Armenians generally saw Russia as their natural ally in the fight against Turks although Russia maintained an oppressive policy in the Caucasus. Only after losing its presence in Europe after the Balkan Wars, the Ottoman government was forced to sign the Armenian reform package in early 1914, however it was disrupted by World War I. During World War I, the Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated by the government in the Armenian Genocide. According to some estimates, from 1894 to 1923, about 1,500,000—2,000,000 Armenians were killed by the Ottoman Empire. After the decision to exterminate the Armenians was taken by the Ottoman Ministry of Interior and first implemented with the Directive 8682 on February 25, 1915, tens of thousands of Russian Armenians joined the Russian army as Armenian volunteer units with a Russian promise for autonomy. By 1917, Russia controlled many Armenian-populated areas of the Ottoman Empire. After the October Revolution, however, the Russian troops retreated and left the Armenians irregulars one on one with the Turks. The Armenian National Council proclaimed the Republic of Armenia on May 28, 1918, thus establishing an Armenian state in the Armenian-populated parts of the Southern Caucasus. By 1920, the Bolshevik Government in Russia and Ankara Government had successfully came to power in their respective countries. The Turkish revolutionaries successfully occupied western half of Armenia, while the Red Army invaded and annexed the Republic of Armenia in December 1920. A friendship treaty was signed between Bolshevik Russia and Kemalist Turkey in 1921. The formerly Russian-controlled parts of Armenia were mostly annexed by the Soviet Union, in parts of which the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic was established. Hundreds of thousands of genocide refugees found themselves in the Middle East, Greece, France and the US giving start to a new era of the Armenian diaspora. Soviet Armenia existed until 1991, when the Soviet Union disintegrated and the current (Third) Republic of Armenia was established.

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Armenian volunteer units

The Armenian volunteer units (Հայ կամավորական ջոկատներ Hay kamavorakan jokatner) were units composed of Armenians within the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. Composed of several groups at battalion strength, its ranks were primarily made up of Armenians from the Russian Empire, though there were also a number of Armenians from the Ottoman Empire.

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Army

An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.

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Army Group Archduke Karl

Army Group Archduke Karl (Heeresgruppe "Erzherzog Karl") was an army group of Austria-Hungary during World War I, established in June 1916 to fight against the Russian Empire on the Eastern Front and later in the campaign against the Kingdom of Romania.

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Arnold Majewski

Arnold Majewski (29 November 1892, Tallinn – 10 October 1942, Rukajärvi) was a legendary Finnish cavalry officer of Polish origin.

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Arshak Ter-Gukasov

Arshak Ter-Gukasov (Արշակ Տեր-Ղուկասով; 1819 – 8 January 1881) was a Lieutenant-General of the Russian Empire.

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Arthur Aspelin

Lieutenant Colonel Gustaf Arthur Aspelin (2 February 1868, Lestijärvi - 22 September 1949) was an officer in the Military of the Grand Duchy of Finland, in the Imperial Russian Army and in the Finnish Defence Forces, a lawyer and a politician.

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Arveds Bergs

Arveds Bergs, full name Arveds Kārlis Kristaps Bergs, (born September 13, 1875 Riga, Russian Empire – died December 19, 1941, Chkalov, Soviet Union) was a Latvian lawyer, newspaper editor and politician actively advocating establishing of an independent Latvian state and later, as the leader of National Union, member of Saeima.

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Ashgabat

Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.

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Athanasios Pipis

Athanasios Pipis (died 1821) was a Greek priest and the Greek Orthodox revolutionary commander in the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830).

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August 1914

The following events occurred in August 1914.

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August 1914 (novel)

August 1914 is a Russian novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn about the defeat of the Imperial Russian Army at the Battle of Tannenberg in East Prussia.

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August 1915

The following events occurred in August 1915.

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August 1918

The following events occurred in August 1918.

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August Kork

August Kork (also Аугуст Яанович Корк; 11 June 1937) was an Estonian Red Army commander (Komandarm 2nd rank) who was tried and executed during the Great Purge in 1937.

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August Torma

August Torma (born August Schmidt; 19 February 1895 – 12 March 1971) was an Estonian military officer, minister and diplomat.

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August von Mackensen

Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen (6 December 1849 – 8 November 1945), born August Mackensen, was a German field marshal.

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Austin Armoured Car

The Austin Armoured Car was a British armoured car produced during the First World War.

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Australia–Russia relations

Australia–Russia relations (Российско-австралийские отношения) date back to 1807, when the Russian warship ''Neva'' arrived in Sydney as part of its circumnavigation of the globe.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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AVUS

The Automobil-Verkehrs- und Übungsstraße ('Automobile traffic and training road'), known as AVUS, is a public road in Berlin, Germany.

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Ğabdulla Tuqay

Ğabdulla Tuqay (-) was a Tatar poet, a classic of the Tatar literature, a critic and a publisher.

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Żurawiejka

Żurawiejka was a short, two-line facetious couplet, written specifically for cavalry regiments of the Polish Army in the interbellum period.

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Žanis Bahs

Žanis Bahs (also Žanis Bachs; 1885-1941) was a Latvian general.

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Bad Sooden-Allendorf

Bad Sooden-Allendorf is a town in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis in Hesse, Germany.

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Bahmani family

The Bahmani family, also Bahmani-Qajar is an aristocratic Persian family belonging to one of the princely families of the Qajar dynasty, the ruling house that reigned Iran 1785–1925.

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Bahram bey Nabibekov

Bahram bey Nabibekov (Bəhram bəy Nəbibəyov, Бахрам-бек Набибеков; December 6, 1884 - July 1930) was an Azerbaijani colonel in the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic army and one of the leaders of Sheki uprising in 1930.

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Balakishi Arablinski

Balakishi Arablinski Alibey oglu (Balakişi Ərəblinski Əlibəy oğlu; 1828 – 2 January 1902) was an Avar general in the Russian Imperial Army.

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Balder Tomasberg

Balder Tomasberg (1897, Paldiski – 1919, near Saint Petersburg) was an Estonian artist.

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Baltic Germans

The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltiysk

Baltiysk (Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Piława; Piliava; Yiddish: פּילאַווע, Pilave), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay.

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Bar Confederation

The Bar Confederation (Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates.

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Bashkirs

The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.

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Bashlyk

A bashlyk, also spelled Bashlik (Shkharkhon, Başlıq, Başlıq, Turkish: Başlık; "baş" - head, "-lıq" (Tatar) / "-lık" (Turkish) - derivative suffix), is a traditional Circassian, Turkic and Cossack cone-shaped headdress hood, usually of leather, felt or wool, an ancient round topped felt bonnet with lappets for wrapping around the neck.

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Basil Nikitin

Basil Nikitin (1885 – 7 June 1960) was a Russian orientalist and diplomat.

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Batman (military)

A batman is a soldier or airman assigned to a commissioned officer as a personal servant.

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Battenberg family

The Battenberg family was formally a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, rulers of the Grand Duchy of Hesse in Germany.

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Battle cry

A battle cry is a yell or chant taken up in battle, usually by members of the same combatant group.

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Battle of Antrea

Battle of Antrea was a Finnish Civil War battle, fought in Antrea (now Kamennogorsk, Russia) and Jääski (now Lesogorsky, Russia), Finland in 11 February – 25 April 1918 between the Finnish Whites against the Finnish Reds.

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Battle of Austerlitz

The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Battle of Łomża (1939)

Battle of Łomża (7–10 September 1939) was a series of armed engagements during the Nazi German and Soviet Invasion of Poland.

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Battle of Białołęka

The Battle of Białołęka was fought from February 24 to February 25, 1831, in the village of Białołęka, Poland, during the November Uprising.

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Battle of Białystok

The Battle of Białystok was a battle of the Polish–Soviet War that took place near and within Białystok, Poland on August 22, 1920.

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Battle of Birże

The Battle of Biržai was a series of skirmishes during the January Uprising.

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Battle of Bitlis

The Battle of Bitlis refers to a series of engagements in the summer of 1916 for the town of Bitlis and to a lesser extent nearby Moush, between Russian Imperial forces and their Ottoman counterparts.

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Battle of Bobruysk (1918)

The Battle of Bobrujsk took place between February 2 – March 11, 1918.

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Battle of Borowe Młyny

The Battle of Borowe Mlyny, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on April 16, 1863, near the village of Borowe Mlyny in southeastern part of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Buda Zaborowska

The Battle of Buda Zaborowska, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on April 14, 1863, near the village of Buda Zaborowska in central part of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Chroberz

The Battle of Chroberz, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on March 17, 1863, near the village of Chroberz in southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Depułtycze

The Battle of Depultycze, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on August 5, 1863, near the village of Depultycze Krolewskie, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Dobra (1863)

The Battle of Dobra took place on February 24, 1863 near the village of Dobra, Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Dobrich

The battle of Dobrich, also known as the Battle of Bazargic or the Dobrich epopee (Добричка епопея), took place between 5 and 7 September 1916 between the armies of Bulgaria and Romania, Serbia and the Russian Empire.

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Battle of Dragashani

The Battle of Dragashani (or Battle of Drăgășani) was fought on 19 June 1821 in Drăgășani, Wallachia, between the Ottoman forces of Sultan Mahmud II and the Greek Filiki Etaireia insurgents.

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Battle of Dunajetz

The Battles of Dunajetz occurred in May 1915 as part of the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive during World War I. They were fought between the Russians (who were camped out along the line of the Dunajec river, the right tributary of the Vistula) and a force led by German General August von Mackensen to push the Russians out of Galicia and Vistula land (what is now Poland).

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Battle of Erzurum (1877)

The Battle of Erzurum was a military engagement fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.

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Battle of Eylau

The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia.

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Battle of Fajsławice

The Battle of Fajslawice, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on August 24, 1863, near the village of Fajslawice, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Friedland

The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.

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Battle of Ginietyny

The Battle of Ginietyny, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on April 21, 1863, near Lithuanian village of Ginietyny (Genėtiniai), located about west of Raguva.

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Battle of Gnila Lipa

The Battle of Gnila Lipa took place early in the World War I on 29–30 August 1914, when the Imperial Russian Army invaded Galicia and engaged the defending Austro-Hungarian Army.

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Battle of Horki

The Battle of Horki was a series of three clashes between Polish-Lithuanian insurgent forces and units of the Imperial Russian Army during the January Uprising.

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Battle of Hsimucheng

The Battle of Hsimucheng (Бой у Симучена) was a minor land engagement of the Russo-Japanese War.

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Battle of Huta Krzeszowska

The Battle of Huta Krzeszowska was one of many clashes of the January Uprising.

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Battle of Iłża (1864)

The Battle of Iłża, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on January 17, 1864, near the town of Iłża, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Igołomia

The Battle of Igolomia, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on March 21, 1863, near the village of Igolomia in southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Jastków

The Battle of Jastków was a World War I battle that took place July 31–August 3, 1915, near the village of Jastków, then part of the Russian Empire.

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Battle of Jerusalem

The Battle of Jerusalem occurred during the British Empire's "Jerusalem Operations" against the Ottoman Empire, when fighting for the city developed from 17 November, continuing after the surrender until 30 December 1917, to secure the final objective of the Southern Palestine Offensive during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Before Jerusalem could be secured, two battles were recognised by the British as being fought in the Judean Hills to the north and east of the Hebron–Junction Station line.

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Battle of Kaniów

Battle of Kaniv, or Battle of Kaniów took place during World War I on the night of 10–11 May 1918, near Kaniv, Ukraine (Канів, Kaniów) between Polish and German army troops.

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Battle of Kay

The Battle of Kay (Schlacht bei Kay), also referred to as the Battle of Sulechów, Battle of Züllichau, or Battle of Paltzig, was an engagement fought on 23 July 1759 during the Seven Years' War.

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Battle of Kazan (1774)

The Battle of Kazan (1774) was a major battle during the Pugachev Rebellion.

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Battle of Kobylanka

The Battle of Kobylanka, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on May 1 and May 6, 1863, in the Kobylanka Forest, located near the village of Borowiec, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Komorów

The Battle of Komorow, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on June 20, 1863, near the village of Komorow (now Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship), which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Konary

The battle of Konary took place during the Great War, in May and June 1915 in the Sandomierz Uplands, near the town of Klimontów, Poland, between the Russian Army and the forces of Józef Piłsudski's Polish Legions.

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Battle of Korsakov

The Battle of Korsakov, a naval engagement of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought on 20 August 1904.

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Battle of Kostiuchnówka

The Battle of Kostiuchnówka was a World War I battle that took place July 4–6, 1916, near the village of Kostiuchnówka (Kostyukhnivka) and the Styr River in the Volhynia region of modern Ukraine, then part of the Russian Empire.

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Battle of Krasnobród (1863)

The Battle of Krasnobrod was one of the many battles of the January Uprising against the Russian control over Poland.

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Battle of Krechowce

The Battle of Krechowce (Polish: Bitwa pod Krechowcami) took place on 24 July 1917, during World War I. Polish uhlans, who fought in the Imperial Russian Army, were ordered to halt the advance of German Army, which tried to capture the city of Stanisławów, located at that time in Austrian Galicia.

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Battle of Krzywopłoty

The Battle of Krzywoploty took place on November 17 - 18, 1914, near the village of Krzywoploty, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland, and was located near the border with Austrian Galicia.

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Battle of Krzywosądz

The Battle of Krzywosadz was one of battles of the January Uprising.

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Battle of Laski and Anielin

The Battle of Laski and Anielin took place on October 22–26, 1914, during World War I. 1st Brigade, Polish Legions, a unit of the Austro-Hungarian Army commanded by Józef Piłsudski, clashed with the Imperial Russian Army near Anielin and Laski.

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Battle of Liaoyang

The (Сражение при Ляояне) was the first major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, on the outskirts of the city of Liaoyang in present-day Liaoning Province, China.

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Battle of Limanowa

The Battle of Limanowa took place from 1 December to 13 December 1914, between the Austro-Hungarian Army and the Russian Army near the town of Limanowa (south-east of Kraków).

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Battle of Lubartów (1863)

The Battle of Lubartow, which took place in the night of January 22/23, 1863, was one of the first battles of the January Uprising.

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Battle of Lututów

The Battle of Lututow was a clash between Polish rebel forces and units of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Battle of Möckern

The Battle of Möckern was a series of heavy clashes between allied Prusso-Russian troops and Napoleonic French forces south of Möckern.

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Battle of Mełchów

The Battle of Melchow, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on September 30, 1863, in the village of Melchow (near Lelow), which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Miropol

The Battle of Miropol took place on May 16–17, 1863, near the town of Miropol, Volhynia, Russian Empire, during the January Uprising.

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Battle of Mołotków

The Battle of Mołotków (Polish: Bitwa pod Mołotkowem) took place on October 29, 1914, near the village of Mołotków (Molotkiv), Austrian Galicia (current Ukraine).

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Battle of Motovilivka

The Battle of Motovilivka was a military engagement fought between forces of the Ukrainian State and the Directorate of Ukraine.

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Battle of Mrzygłód

The Battle of Mrzyglod took place on March 1, 1863 near the village of Mrzyglod (now a district of Myszkow), Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Mukden

The, one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria.

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Battle of Nagoszewo

The Battle of Nagoszewo was a clash between Polish rebel forces and units of the Imperial Russian Army during the January Uprising.

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Battle of Nanshan

The was one of many vicious land battles of the Russo-Japanese War.

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Battle of Opatów (1863)

The First Battle of Opatow, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on November 25, 1863, in the town of Opatow, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Opatów (1864)

The Second Battle of Opatow, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on February 21, 1864, near the town of Opatow, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Ossa

The Battle of Ossa, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on July 10, 1863, near the village of Ossa, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Pakosław

The Battle of Pakoslaw took place in the night of May 19–20, 1915, near the village of Pakoslaw, Congress Poland.

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Battle of Pieskowa Skała

The Battle of Pieskowa Skala, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on March 4, 1863, near Pieskowa Skala in southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Praszka

The Battle of Praszka, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on April 11, 1863, near Praszka in southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Pyzdry (1863)

The Battle of Pyzdry, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on April 29, 1863, near the town of Pyzdry, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Rafajlowa

The Battle of Rafajlowa took place in the night of January 23–24, 1915, during World War I. The 2nd Brigade, Polish Legions, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Army repelled a night raid of the Russian Imperial Army, which was aimed at blocking all passes through Gorgany mountain range in Eastern Carpathians.

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Battle of Rawa (1863)

Battle of Rawa The Battle of Rawa was one of skirmishes of the Polish January Uprising.

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Battle of Rybnica

The Battle of Rybnica, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on October 20, 1863, near the village of Rybnica, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Salicha

The Battle of Salicha was a clash between Polish insurgent forces and units of the Imperial Russian Army during the January Uprising.

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Battle of Sandepu

The Battle of Sandepu (also known as the Battle of Heikoutai) (黒溝台会戦 (Kokkōdai no kaisen), Сражение при Сандепу) was a major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.

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Battle of Sędziejowice

The Battle of Sejdziejowice, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on September 6, 1863, near the village of Sedziejowice, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Słupcza

The Battle of Slupcza took place on February 8, 1863, near the village of Slupcza, Congress Poland, during the January Uprising.

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Battle of Skała

The Battle of Skala, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on 5 March 1863 near the town of Skała in the southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Sosnowiec

The Battle of Sosnowiec was one of battles of the January Uprising.

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Battle of Sowia Góra

The Battle of Batorz of September 6, 1863, also known as the Battle of Sowia Góra hill near the village of Batorz, was one of many battles of the January Uprising against the tsarist oppression.

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Battle of Stok

The Battle of Stok, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place in the night of May 4/5, 1863, near the village of Stok, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Szydłowiec

The Battle of Szydlowiec took place in the night of January 23/24, 1863, during the January Uprising.

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Battle of Tarłów

The Battle of Tarlow took place on June 30 – July 2, 1915, near the town of Tarlow, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Tápióbicske

The Battle of Tápióbicske was a battle in the Spring Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence (1848–1849), fought on 4April 1849 between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.

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Battle of Te-li-Ssu

The Battle of Te-li-ssu (得利寺の戦い), also called Battle of Wafangou (Бой у Вафангоу) after the nearby railway station, was a land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.

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Battle of the Alma

The Battle of the Alma was a battle in the Crimean War between an allied expeditionary force made up of French, British and Turkish forces and Russian forces defending the Crimean Peninsula on 20September 1854.

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Battle of the Valerik River

The Battle of the Valerik River on July 11, 1840 was fought as part of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus.

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Battle of the Yalu River (1904)

The Battle of the Yalu River lasted from 30 April to 1 May 1904, and was the first major land battle during the Russo-Japanese War.

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Battle of Złoczew

The Battle of Zloczew, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on August 22, 1863, near the town of Zloczew, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Battle of Zieleńce

The Battle of Zieleńce was a battle in the Polish–Russian War of 1792, in defence of the Polish Constitution of 3 May 1791.

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Battledress

A battledress is a type of uniform used as combat uniforms, as opposed to dress uniforms or formal uniform worn at parades and functions.

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Bayan-class cruiser

The Bayan class was a group of four armored cruisers built for the Imperial Russian Navy around the beginning of the 20th century.

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Bedel Pass

Bedel Pass (Kyrgyz: Бедел ашуусу) is a mountain pass in the Tian-Shan mountain range between Kyrgyzstan and China's Xinjiang province.

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Bekir Sami Kunduh

Bekir Sami Kunduh (Къуындыхаты Муссæйы фырт Бечыр; 1867 – January 16, 1933) was a Turkish politician of Ossetian origin.

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Belarusian People's Republic

The Belarusian People's Republic (Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка,, transliterated as Bielarúskaja Naródnaja Respúblika, BNR), (Белорусская народная республика) (transliterated as Belorusskaya narodnaya respublika), historically referred to as the White Ruthenian Democratic Republic (Weißruthenische Volksrepublik) was a failed attempt to create a Belarusian state on the territory controlled by the German Imperial Army during World War I. The BNR existed from 1918 to 1919.

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Belgian Expeditionary Corps in Russia

The Belgian Expeditionary Corps of Armoured Cars in Russia (Corps Expeditionnaire des Autos-Canons-Mitrailleuses Belges en Russie) was a Belgian military formation during the First World War which was sent to Russia to fight the German Army on the Eastern Front.

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Bell of Chersonesos

The Bell of Chersonesos, located close to the ruins of Chersonesos Taurica, Crimea, is the symbol of Chersonesos and one of the main sights of Sevastopol.

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Benedikt Livshits

Benedikt Konstantinovich Livshits (Бенеди́кт Константи́нович Ли́вшиц, 24 December 1886 (Old Style)/6 January 1887 (New Style) – 21 September 1938) was a poet and writer of the Silver Age of Russian Poetry, a French–Russian poetry translator.

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Berdan rifle

The Berdan rifle (винтовка Бердана/vintovka Berdana in Russian) is a Russian rifle created by famous American firearms expert and inventor Hiram Berdan in 1868.

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Bereket

Bereket, formerly Gazandjyk or Kazandzhik (Казанджик or Газанджык gɑˈzɑnd͡ʒik), is a city in Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan.

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Biała Podlaska

Biała Podlaska (Біла Bila, Alba Ducalis), is a city in eastern Poland with 58,047 inhabitants (2005).

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Black-necked cranes in Bhutan

Black-necked cranes in Bhutan (Grus nigricollis) are winter visitors during late October to mid February to the Phobjikha Valley as well as Ladakh, India, and Arunachal Pradesh, India.

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Bloody Wednesday (Poland)

Bloody Wednesday (Krwawa środa) refers to the events of 15 August 1906 in the (Congress) Kingdom of Poland, where the Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party (OB PPS) carried out a series of attacks on Russians, primarily police officers and informants.

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Bolesław Kontrym

Lieutenant Bolesław Kontrym (Zatruka, Russian Empire, 27 August 1898 – 20 January 1953, Warsaw, Poland), also known by codenames Żmudzin, Biały, Bielski and Cichocki, was a Polish Army officer, a Home Army soldier, participant in the Warsaw Uprising and organizer of underground secret-police force Cichociemni.

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Bolesław Masłowski

Bolesław Masłowski was a Polish chemist born in 1851 in Włodawa.

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Bolesław Mościcki

Bolesław Euzebiusz Mościcki was a Colonel of both Imperial Russian Army and Polish Army.

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Bolimów

Bolimów is a village in Skierniewice County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Boris Donskoy

Boris Mikhailovich Donskoy (Борис Михайлович Донской) (1894 – 10 August 1918) was a Russian terrorist-revolutionary.

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Boris Gorbachyov

Boris Sergeevich Gorbachyov (August 19, 1892 – July 3, 1937) was a Soviet komkor.

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Boris Gyllenbögel

Karl Volter Boris Gyllenbögel (30 March 1884 Kauhajoki – 22 June 1948 Helsinki) was a Finnish Colonel, a Diplomat and a principal.

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Boris L. Tageev

Boris Leonidovich Tageev (Борис Леонидович Тагеев) (1871–1938) was a Russian Orientalist, explorer, and writer.

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Boris Legran

Boris Vasilyevich Legran or Legrand (Russian: Борис Васильевич Легран, 18841936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet official who represented the interests of the Russian SFSR in Armenia and Transcaucasia, during the 1920s and worked as a consular official in China during the 1920s.

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Boris Shaposhnikov

Boris Mikhailovitch Shaposhnikov (Бори́с Миха́йлович Ша́пошников) (– March 26, 1945) was a Soviet military commander, Chief of the Staff of the Red Army, and Marshal of the Soviet Union.

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Boris Shelkovnikov

Boris Martynovich Shelkovnikov (Борис Мартынович Шелковников; 1837 – 10 February 1878), was a Russian general of the imperial army.

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Boris Sheremetev

Boris Petrovich Sheremetev (Бори́с Петро́вич Шереме́тев; –) was a Russian diplomat and general field marshal during the Great Northern War.

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Boris Shteifon

Boris Aleksandrovich Shteifon (6 December 1881 – 30 April 1945) (Борис Александрович Штейфон) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army, who subsequently served as a general in the Russian anti-communist White army, and as the leader of the Nazi-allied Russian Corps in Serbia during World War II.

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Boris Smyslovsky

Boris Alexeyevich Smyslovsky (also Smyslovsky-Holmston and Holmston-Smyslovsky) (3 December 1897 – 5 September 1988) was a Russian general, émigré, and anti-communist.

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Boris Stürmer

Baron Boris Vladimirovich Stürmer (Бори́с Влади́мирович Штю́рмер, Boris Vladimirovich Shtyurmer) (27 July 1848 – 9 September 1917) was a Russian lawyer, a Master of Ceremonies at the Russian Court, and a district governor.

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Boris Vasilyev (writer)

Boris Lvovich Vasilyev (Бори́с Льво́вич Васи́льев; 21 May 1924 – 11 March 2013) was a Russian writer and screenwriter.

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Boris Zakhava

Boris Evgenyevich Zakhava (1896–1976; Борис Евгеньевич Захава) was a Russian theatre director, actor and acting coach.

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Borjomi (water)

Borjomi (ბორჯომი, often russified as Боржом, Borzhom) is a brand of naturally carbonated mineral water from springs in the Borjomi Gorge of central Georgia.

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Borys Karnicki

Borys Karnicki (September 25, 1907 – February 15, 1985) was a submarine commander of the Polish Navy during World War II.

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Bršadin

Bršadin (Бршадин) is a village in Trpinja municipality, Vukovar-Srijem County, Croatia.

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Briey

Briey is a former commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in northeastern France.

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Bronisław Bohatyrewicz

Bronisław Bohatyrewicz of Ostoja (1870–1940) was a Polish military commander and a general of the Polish Army.

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Bronislav Grombchevsky

Bronislav Grombchevsky (Бронислав Людвигович Громбчевский; Bronisław Grąbczewski, 1855–1926) was an ethnic Polish officer in the Imperial Russian Army and an explorer/spy, famed for his participation in The Great Game.

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Bronze Horseman

The Bronze Horseman (Медный всадник, literally "copper horseman") is an equestrian statue of Peter the Great in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Brusilov Offensive

The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.

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Bulgarians

Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.

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Bumbarash

Bumbarash (Бумбараш) is a 1971 Soviet adventure film, a musical comedy in two episodes loosely based on some early works and the novel Bumbarash by Arkady Gaidar.

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Burkhard Christoph von Münnich

Count Burkhard Christoph von Münnich (9 May 1683 – 16 October 1767) (Христофо́р Анто́нович Миних) was a German soldier-engineer who became a field marshal and political figure in the Russian Empire.

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Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland (1919–24)

Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland that existed during 1919–1924 housed two main categories of detainees: the personnel of the Imperial Russian Army and civilians, captured by Germany during World War I and left on Polish territory after the end of the war; and the Soviet military personnel captured during the Polish–Soviet War, the vast majority of them captured as a result of the battles of 1920.

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Canon de 155 L modèle 1877/14 Schneider

The Canon de 155 L modèle 1877/14 Schneider was a French heavy artillery piece designed before and produced during the First World War.

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Canon de 155 L modèle 1918 Schneider

The Canon de 155 L modèle 1918 Schneider was a French heavy artillery piece designed and produced during the First World War.

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Canon de 155 L Modele 1917 Schneider

The Canon de 155 L Modele 1917 Schneider was a French heavy artillery piece designed and produced during the First World War.

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Cantonist

Cantonists (Russian language: кантонисты; more properly: военные кантонисты, "military cantonists") were underage sons of Russian conscripts who from 1721 were educated in special "canton schools" (Кантонистские школы) for future military service (the schools were called garrison schools in the 18th century).

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Carabinier

A carabinier (also sometimes spelled carabineer or carbineer) is in principle a soldier armed with a carbine.

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Carl Enckell

Carl Johan Alexis Enckell (7 June 1876 — 26 March 1959) was a Finnish politician, diplomat, officer and businessman.

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Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.

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Carl von Clausewitz

Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).

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Caucasus Cavalry Division (Russian Empire)

The Caucasus Cavalry Division (Кавказская кавалерийская дивизия, Kavkazskaya Kavaleriiskaya Diviziya) was an cavalry formation of the Russian Imperial Army.

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Caucasus Front (Russian Republic)

The Caucasus Front (Кавказский фронт) was a major formation of the army of the Russian Republic (the successor to the Imperial Russian Army) during the First World War.

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Caucasus Grenadier Division (Russian Empire)

No description.

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Caucasus Military District

The Caucasus Military District (Кавказский военный округ, Kavkazskiy voenniy okrug) was a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army.

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César Cui

César Antonovich Cui (Це́зарь Анто́нович Кюи́; 13 March 1918) was a Russian composer and music critic of French, Polish and Lithuanian descent.

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Central Agricultural Zone (Russia)

The Central Agricultural Zone is a traditional region of Russia.

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Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland

The Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Kancelaria Prezesa Rady Ministrów), or KPRM, is the executive office for the Prime Minister of Poland.

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Charge of Rokitna

The Charge of Rokitna (Szarża pod Rokitną) was a charge of a cavalry squadron of the 2nd Brigade of Polish Legions, fighting for the Austro-Hungarian Army.

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Charles Edward Stuart, Count Roehenstart

Charles Edward Augustus Maximilian Stuart, Baron Korff, Count Roehenstart (– 28 October 1854) was the natural son of Prince Ferdinand of Rohan (1738–1813), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cambrai, by Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, herself the natural but legitimised daughter of Charles Edward Stuart, "The Young Pretender" or "Bonnie Prince Charlie".

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Charles Frederick Williams

Charles Frederick Williams (4 May 1838 – 9 February 1904), was a Scottish-Irish writer, journalist, and war correspondent.

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Charles Hesse

Charles Hesse (c. 1791 – 24 February 1832) was a Prussian-born officer of the British Army, notable for his liaison with the young Princess Charlotte of Wales.

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Charles Michael, Duke of Mecklenburg

Charles Michael, Duke of Mecklenburg (Carl Michael Herzog zu Mecklenburg; (Михаил Георгиевич; – 6 December 1934) was an officer in the Imperial Russian Army, heir presumptive to the throne of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and from 1918 head of the Grand Ducal House.

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Chełm

Chełm (Kulm, Холм) is a city in eastern Poland with 63,949 inhabitants (2015).

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Chemical weapons in World War I

The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I. They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.

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Chernyakhovsk

Chernyakhovsk (Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name (Įsrutis; Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya.

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Christian Louis Casimir of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg

Count Christian Louis Casimir of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg (Graf Christian Ludwig Casimir zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg in Ludwigsburg) (13 July 1725, Berleburg – 6 May 1797, Rheda) was a Count of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg in 1750–1796.

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Christmas Battles

The Christmas Battles (Latvian:Ziemassvētku kaujas; German:Aa-Schlachten; Russian:Митавская операция) were offensive operations of the Russian army and Latvian units during World War I in the area of Jelgava, Latvia, by the Russian 12th Army of the Northern Front.

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Christopher Roop

Christopher Khristoforovich Roop (Russian, Христофор Христофорович Рооп, May 1, 1831 - 1917) was an Imperial Russian army officer.

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Chung Il-kwon

Chung Il-kwon (정일권; Hanja: 丁一權, November 21, 1917 – January 17, 1994) was a South Korean politician, diplomat and soldier.

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Circassian genocide

The Circassian genocide was the Russian Empire's ethnic cleansing, killing, forced migration, and expulsion of the majority of the Circassians from their historical homeland Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea.

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Colonel Thomas Hoyer Monstery

Thomas Hoyer Monstery (born: Thomas Hoyer Mönster) (April 21, 1824 - December 31, 1901) was a Danish-American fencing and boxing instructor, duelist and soldier-of-fortune who fought in a number of Central and South American conflicts during the mid-19th century.

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Commissariat

A commissariat is a department or organization commanded by a commissary or by a corps of commissaries.

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Comparative officer ranks of World War I

The following table shows comparative officer ranks of several Allied and Central powers during World War I. Not all combatant countries are shown in the table.

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Conscription in Russia

Conscription in Russia (in Russia is known as or "universal military obligation" or "liability for military service") is a 12-month draft, mandatory for all male citizens age 18–27, with a number of exceptions.

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Conscription in the Russian Empire

Conscription in the Russian Empire was introduced by Peter I of Russia.

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Constantine Kromiadi

Constantine Gregorievich Kromiadi (Константин Григориевич Кромиади) (1893 - 1990) was a Caucasus Greek-born military officer and anti-communist who served in the Imperial Russian Army, the White Army, he headed Russian National People's Army and finally he commanded the headquarters of Nazi collaborator Russian Liberation Army.

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Constitution of 3 May 1791

The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Convention of Tauroggen

The Convention of Tauroggen was an armistice signed 30 December 1812 at Tauroggen (now Tauragė, Lithuania) between General Ludwig Yorck on behalf of his Prussian troops and General Hans Karl von Diebitsch of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Corps of Topographs (Russian Empire)

The Corps of Topographs of the Imperial Russian Army has a long history dating back to the mid-18th century.

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Cossack host

A Cossack host (Козаче військо, kozache viysko; каза́чье во́йско, kazachye voysko), sometimes translated as Cossack army, was an administrative subdivision of Cossacks in the Russian Empire.

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Cossacks

Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.

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Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689

The Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 (Крымские походы, Krymskiye pokhody) were two military campaigns of the Tsardom of Russia against the Crimean Khanate.

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Croatia–Russia relations

Croatia–Russia relations (Российско-хорватские отношения, Rusko-hrvatski odnosi) refer to bilateral foreign relations between Croatia and Russia.

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Curtain forces

Curtain forces (Отряды завесы, войска завесы, завеса) were military forces created soon after signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by Soviet Russia in 1918 to withstand the inner regions of the state and initially served as border troops.

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Cyprian Kreutz

Baron Cyprian Antonovich von Kreutz (Киприан Антонович Крейц; 10 July 1777 - 13 July 1850) was a general of the Russian Imperial Army known for his service in the Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising.

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Częstochowa

Częstochowa,, is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009.

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Czechoslovak Legion

The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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Daniel Bek-Pirumian

Daniel Bek-Pirumyan (Դանիել Բեկ-Փիրումյան; 22 November 1861 – 1921) was an Armenian military commander.

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David Gurieli

David Gurieli (დავით გურიელი, Davit' Gurieli; Давид Мамиевич Гуриель, David Mamiyevich Guriel; 1818 – 23 August 1839) was a Georgian nobleman of the House of Gurieli.

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David Ivanovich Orlov

David Ivanovich Orlov (6 July 1840 – 24 August 1916) was an Imperial Russian lieutenant general and division commander.

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David Mikhailovich Machavariani

Machavariani David Mikhailovich, (Russian: Мачавариани Давид Михайлович) (born 08.30.1886) Colonel, The Commander of the 490th Infantry Rzhevsky Regiment in Russian Imperial Army from 04.26.1916 Awarded the Order of St. George 4th Class.

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De Bange 155 mm cannon

The de Bange 155 mm long cannon mle.

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Death squad

A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.

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December 1914

The following events occurred in December 1914.

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December 1916

The following events occurred in December 1916.

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December 1917

The following events occurred in December 1917.

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Decembrist revolt

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.

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Decolonization

Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.

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Defense of Van (1915)

The Defense of Van (also known as the Siege of Van or Van Resistance to the Armenians (Վանի հերոսամարտ Vani herosamart) was a self-defensive measure by the Armenian population of Van against the Ottoman Empire. Armenian forces fought against the attempts to massacre the Armenian population in the Van Vilayet. The resistance broke out during the Caucasus Campaign, in which the Dashnak militias were supported by the Imperial Russian army to defend the Ottoman Armenian population. Such measures had not been intended or planned by the Armenians.Herbert Adams Gibbons, Armenia in the World War, 1926.. Several contemporaneous observers and later historians have concluded that the Ottoman government deliberately instigated the armed Armenian resistance by enforcing the conditions on their subjects and then used this insurgency as a main pretext to justify the forced deportations of Armenians from all over the empire. However, the decisions of deportation and extermination were made before the Van resistance. The assessment of witness reports maintained that the Armenian posture at Van was defensive and an act of resistance to massacre. Based mostly in the city of Van, it was one of the few instances during the Armenian Genocide when Armenians fought against the Ottoman Empire's armed forces.

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Demetrios Ypsilantis

Demetrios Ypsilantis (also spelt using Dimitrios, Demetrius and/or Ypsilanti; Δημήτριος Υψηλάντης; Dumitru Ipsilanti; 1793August 16, 1832) was a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family Ypsilantis, a dragoman of the Ottoman Empire, served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army and played an important role in the Greek War of Independence.

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Designations of Russian artillery

The official designations of Russian and Soviet artillery consists of three sequential parts – weapon caliber, weapon type, and finally a unique identifier for each variant.

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Dimitar Petkov

Dimitar Nikolov Petkov (2 November 1858, Tulcea – 11 March 1907, Sofia) was a leading member of the Bulgarian People's Liberal Party and the country's Prime Minister from November 5, 1906 until he was assassinated in Sofia the following year.

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Dimitri Mikhailovich Youzefovitch

Dimitri Mikhailovich Youzefovitch (1777–1821) was a Russian nobleman from the Poltava region.

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Dionizy Czachowski

Dionizy Feliks Czachowski (born April 6, 1810 in Niedabyl, died November 6, 1863 in Jawor Solecki) was a Polish general and commander of the Sandomierz Voivodeship during the January Uprising in Congress Poland.

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Dmitri Baltermants

Dmitri Baltermants (Дмитрий Николаевич Бальтерманц, May 13, 1912 – 1990) was a prominent Soviet photojournalist.

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Dmitri Parsky

Dmitri Pavlovich Parsky (Дмитрий Павлович Парский) (17 (26) October, 1866 – 20 December, 1921) was a Russian general of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I, who fought on the Eastern Front.

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Dmitry Bagration-Imeretinsky

Prince Dmitry Bagration-Imeretinsky (დიმიტრი გიორგის ძე ბაგრატიონ-იმერეტინსკი) (1799–1845) was a Georgian royal prince (batonishvili) of the royal Bagrationi dynasty of Imereti.

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Dmitry Fesenko

Dmitry Fesenko (September 1895 – October 15, 1937) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Dmitry Ivanovich Sviatopolk-Mirsky

Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (Дмитрий Иванович Святополк-Мирский, 1825–1899) was a Imperial Russian Army general, a politician and a member of the princely Svyatopolk-Mirsky family.

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Dmitry Karbyshev

Dmitry Mikhaylovich Karbyshev (Дмитрий Михайлович Карбышев) (Omsk — February 18, 1945, Mauthausen, Austria) was an officer of the Russian Imperial Army, a Red Army general, professor of the Soviet General Staff Academy (Doctor of Military Sciences), and Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumously).

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Dmitry Milyutin

Count Dmitry Alekseyevich Milyutin (Дмитрий Алексеевич Милютин; 28 June 1816, Moscow – 25 January 1912, Simeiz near Yalta) was Minister of War (1861–81) and the last Field Marshal of Imperial Russia (1898).

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Dmitry Nikolayevich Nadyozhny

Dmitry Nikolayevich Nadyozhny (Дмитрий Николаевич Надёжный;, Nizhny Novgorod - 22 February 1945, Moscow) was a commander in the Russian Imperial Army who later joined the Red Army.

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Dmitry Petrovich Dokhturov

Dmitry Petrovich Dokhturov (May 25, 1838 – March 25, 1905) was an Imperial Russian brigade, division and corps commander.

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Dmitry Putyata

Dmitry Vasilyevich Putyata (Дмитрий Васильевич Путята) was a Captain of the Imperial Russian Army and a Russian explorer of the Pamir Mountains.

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Dmitry Shcherbachev

Dmitry Grigoryevich Shcherbachev (Дми́трий Григо́рьевич Щербачёв; 18 January 1932) was a general in the Russian Army during World War I and a prominent leader of the White Movement during the Russian Civil War.

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Dmitry Shmidt

Dmitry Arkadievich Shmidt (born David Aronovich Gutman (August or 19 December 189619 June 1937) was a Jewish Red Army Komdiv. Shmidt became a revolutionary before World War I and was imprisoned. He was drafted into the Imperial Russian Army at the beginning of 1915 and fought in World War I. Shmidt became a Full Cavalier of the Cross of St. George and an officer. After the February Revolution he led the Bolsheviks in his divisional committee. Shmidt joined the Red Army and fought in the Russian Civil War, initially as a partisan. He was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for his actions. After the end of the war he held command positions in cavalry units. He became commander of the 8th Mechanized Brigade in 1934. In 1936, Shmidt was one of the first Red Army officers to be arrested in the Great Purge, and was executed a year later. He was posthumously rehabilitated in 1957.

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Dmitry Shuvayev

Dmitry Savelyevich Shuvayev (Дмитрий Савельевич Шуваев in Russian) (10.(24).12.1854 — 19 December 1937) was a Russian military leader, Infantry General (1912) and Minister of War (1916).

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Dmitry von Fölkersam

Baron Dmitry Gustavovich von Fölkersam (Дмитрий Густавович фон Фелькерзам) (29 April 1846 – 24 May 1905) was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy.

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Dmitry Zuyev

Dmitry Zuyev (June 11, 1854 – September 4, 1917) was an Imperial Russian Army general.

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Dobrovolsk

Dobrovolsk (Добровольск, lit. "Voluntary Town".; Pillkallen. or Schloßberg.; Pilkalnis.; Pilkały.), formerly Pillkallen (1510-1938) and Schloßberg (1938-1947) is a village in Krasnoznamensky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Doctor Zhivago (film)

Doctor Zhivago is a 1965 British-Italian epic romantic drama film directed by David Lean.

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Doctor Zhivago (novel)

Doctor Zhivagois a novel by Boris Pasternak, first published in 1957 in Italy.

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Dominik Semashko

Dominik Semashko (Дамінік Сямашка; 16 August 1878 – 27 November 1932) was a Belarusian activist.

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Don Cossacks

Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.

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Down and Out in Paris and London

Down and Out in Paris and London is the first full-length work by the English author George Orwell, published in 1933.

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Downary-Plac

Downary-Plac is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Goniądz, within Mońki County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland.

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Dragoon

Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.

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Dragoon helmet

A dragoon helmet was an ornate style of metal combat helmet featuring a tall crest; they were initially used by dragoons, but later by other types of heavy cavalry and some other military units.

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Drelów

Drelów is a village in Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.

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Duchess Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg

Grand Duchess Alexandra Petrovna of Russia (Russian: Александра Петровна; 2 June 1838 – 25 April 1900) was a great-granddaughter of Emperor Paul I of Russia and the wife of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia, the elder.

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Duke Alexander of Württemberg (1771–1833)

Duke Alexander of Württemberg (Mömpelgard/Montbéliard, then Württemberg (now France), 5 May 1771 – Gotha, Thuringia, Germany, 4 July 1833)p.448, Mikaberidze was a Duke of Württemberg.

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Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857)

Duke Eugen of Württemberg (Herzog Friedrich Eugen Carl Paul Ludwig von Württemberg; 8 January 1788 – 16 September 1857) was a German prince and a General of Infantry in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Dukla

Dukla is a town and an eponymous municipality in southeastern Poland, in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship.

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Dziecinów, Kozienice County

Dziecinów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Grabów nad Pilicą, within Kozienice County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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Eastern Front (World War I)

The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.

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Eastern Orthodoxy in the Republic of Ireland

Orthodox Christianity in Ireland (Ceartchreideamh in Éirinn) consists of parishes belonging to several self-governing ecclesiastical bodies, primarily the Russian Orthodox Church, the Ecumenical Patriarchate, and the Romanian Orthodox Church.

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Eduard Totleben

Eduard Ivanovich Totleben (Эдуа́рд Ива́нович Тотле́бен, sometimes transliterated as Todleben; &ndash) was a Baltic German military engineer and Imperial Russian Army general.

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Elena Apreleva

Elena Ivanovna Apréleva (Елена Ивановна Апрелева, Blaramberg; 24 February 1846 — 4 December 1923), also known by her pseudonym E. Ardov, was a Russian prose writer, memoirist, playwright, and children's writer.

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Elena Guro

Elena Genrikhovna Guro (a; in marriage Matyushina (a; January 10, 1877 – May 6, 1913) was a Russian Futurist painter, playwright, poet, and fiction writer.

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Eliezer Steinman

Eliezer Steinman (אליעזר שטיינמן; born 1892, died 7 August 1970) was a Russian-born Israeli writer, journalist and editor.

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Eliziejus Draugelis

Eliziejus Draugelis (11 April 1888 – 8 October 1961 in São Paulo) was a Lithuanian physician and politician.

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Emanuel Moravec

Emanuel Moravec (17 April 1893 – 5 May 1945) was a colonel in the Czechoslovak Army who served as the collaborationist minister of education of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

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Emilia Plater

Countess Emilia Plater (Broel-Plater, Emilija Pliaterytė; 13 November 1806 – 23 December 1831) was a noblewoman and revolutionary from the lands of the partitioned Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Emilija Vileišienė

Emilija Vileišienė née Jasmantaitė (1861–1935) was a Lithuanian activist.

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Engineer Battalion (Estonia)

Engineer Battalion (Pioneeripataljon) is a combat engineering battalion of the Estonian Defence Forces, based out of Tapa Army Base.

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Epaulette

Epaulette (also spelled epaulet) is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations.

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Epidemic typhus

Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.

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Ernst Gideon von Laudon

Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon (German: Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon (originally Laudohn or Loudon) (13 February 1717 – 14 July 1790) was an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of Habsburg Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković.

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Ernst Löfström

Ernst Löfström (31 May 1865 – 5 January 1937) was a Finnish general in World War I and the Finnish Civil War.

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Ernst Põdder

Ernst Põdder VR I/1 (10 February 1879 - 24 June 1932) was a famous Estonian military commander in the Estonian War of Independence.

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Erzurum Offensive

The Erzurum Offensive (Эрзурумское сражение Erzurumskoe srazhenie;Turkish: Erzurum Taarruzu) or Battle of Erzurum (Turkish: Erzurum Muharebesi) was a major winter offensive by the Imperial Russian Army on the Caucasus Campaign, during the First World War, that led to the capture of the strategic city of Erzurum.

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Estonia–Russia relations

Estonia–Russia relations (Российско-эстонские отношения, Eesti-Vene suhted) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Estonia and Russia.

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Estonian Air Force

The Estonian Air Force (Eesti Õhuvägi) is the aviation branch of the Estonian Defence Forces.

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Estonian Knighthood House

The Estonian Knighthood House (Estonian: Eestimaa rüütelkonna hoone, German: Haus der Estländischen Ritterschaft) is a building in Toompea, the upper part of Vanalinn, the historic inner town of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

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Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Etropole

Etropole (Етрополе) is a town in western Bulgaria, part of Sofia Province.

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Eugen Iskritsky

Eugen A. Iskritsky (August 15, 1874 – July 27, 1949) was Russian military commander, author, teacher, a hero of the First world war, Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian army, who fell in with the winning side in the Russian Civil War yet was still a victim of Stalin's purges.

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Eugen Maximilianovich, 5th Duke of Leuchtenberg

Eugen Maximilianovich Romanowsky, 5th Duke of Leuchtenberg, Prince Romanowsky (8 February 1847 - 31 August 1901) was a son of Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg and Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia Duke of Leuchtenberg.

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Eugeniusz Pławski

Eugeniusz Józef Stanisław Pławski (March 26, 1895 – May 23, 1972) was a Polish Navy officer who served in World War I and World War II.

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Evgeny Chirikov

Evgeny Nikolayevich Chirikov (Евге́ний Никола́евич Чи́риков), 5 August 1864 – 18 January 1932, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, and publicist.

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Evgeny Messner

Evgeny Messner (Евгений Эдуардович Месснер, Eugen Messner; 1891–1974) was a Russian professional soldier and military theorist.

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Evgraf Davydov

Evgraf Vladimirovich Davydov (Евгра́ф Влади́мирович Давы́дов; b. 1775 - 20 December 1823) was a major-general of the Russian Empire, who served in the era of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Fabian Steinheil

Count Fabian Gotthard von Steinheil (Фадде́й Фёдорович Ште́йнгель, Faddei Fjodorovitš Šteingel; 14 October 1762 – 23 February 1831) was a Russian military officer, and the Governor-General of Finland between 1810 and 1824.

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Facial hair in the military

Facial hair in the military has been at various times common, prohibited, or an integral part of the uniform.

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Fatali Khan

Fatali Khan of Quba or Fath Ali-Khan of Quba (فتحعلی‌خان قبه‌ای; Fətəli xan Qubalı or Fətx Əli-xan Qubalı; 1736 - March 29, 1789) – was a khan of the Quba Khanate (1758–1789).

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Father Akaki

Father Akaki, civil name Andrei Kuznetsov (October 27, 1873 – January 30, 1984 Heinävesi) was a Russian Orthodox monk who died as the oldest person of Nordic countries and Finland's oldest man ever before Aarne Arvonen.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.

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Feldwebel

Feldwebel (Fw or F), literally "field usher", is a non-commissioned officer (NCO) rank in several countries.

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Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski

Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski (9 June 1885,http://www.generals.dk/general/S%C5%82awoj-Sk%C5%82adkowski/Felicjan/Poland.html Gąbin – 31 August 1962) was a Polish physician,Waclaw Jedrzejewicz Piłsudski: A Life for Poland Hippocrene, 1982 Page 246 general and politician who served as Minister of Internal Affairs and is 28th Prime Minister of Poland before World War II.

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Feliksas Baltušis-Žemaitis

Feliksas Baltušis-Žemaitis (Феликс Рафаилович Балтушис-Жемайтис, November 30, 1897 – June 1, 1957) was a Lithuanian Red Army major general.

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Feodor Stepanovich Rojankovsky

Feodor Stepanovich Rojankovsky (Фёдор Степанович Рожанковский) (December 24, 1891 – October 12, 1970), also known as Rojan, was a Russian émigré illustrator.

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Feofil Egorovich Meyendorff

Feofil Egorovich Meyendorff (August 4, 1838 – October 18, 1919) was an Imperial Russian corps commander.

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Ferdinand von Wintzingerode

Ferdinand, Freiherr of Wintzingerode (15 February 1770, Allendorf – 16 June 1818, Wiesbaden) was a German nobleman and officer in several different armies of the Napoleonic Wars, finally ending up as a general in the Imperial Russian army and fighting in the War of the Sixth Coalition against the French invasion of Russia and the subsequent campaigns in Germany and France.

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Fermor (Russian nobility)

Fermor is the name of noble family of Scottish origin.

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Field officer

A field officer, field-grade officer, or senior officer is an army, Marine, or air force commissioned officer senior in rank to a company officer but junior to a general officer.

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Filip Konowal

Filip Konowal VC (Пили́п Миронович Конова́л; Pylyp Myronovych Konoval; 15 September 1888 – 3 June 1959) was a highly decorated Ukrainian Canadian soldier.

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Filipp Alyabushev

Filipp Fyodorovich Alyabushev (November 13, 1893 – June 25, 1941) was a Soviet major general in World War II.

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Filipp Parusinov

Fillip Alekseevich Parusinov (November 27, 1893 – October 25, 1973) was a Soviet army group commander.

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Filipp Rudkin

Filipp Nikitovich Rudkin (27 November 1893 12 October 1954) was a Belarusian Soviet Army major general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Filipp Zhevakhov

Filipp Semyonovich Zhevakhov (Филипп Семенович Жевахов) (1752 – c. 1817) was a Georgian nobleman and a general of the Imperial Russian Army noted for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars.

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Finnish Civil War

The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.

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Finnish Civil War prison camps

Finnish Civil War prison camps were operated by the White side of the 1918 Finnish Civil War.

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Finnish Guards' Rifle Battalion

Finnish Guards' Rifle Battalion (Henkikaartin 3., Livgardets 3:e finska skarpskyttebataljon, Leib-gvardii 3-j strelkovyi Finski bataljon), colloquially known as Guard of Finland (Suomen kaarti, Finska gardet) was a Finnish military unit during 1829-1905 based in Helsinki.

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First Battle of Chruślina

The First Battle of Chruslina was a clash between Polish insurgent forces and units of the Imperial Russian Army during the January Uprising.

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First Battle of Ignacewo

The First Battle of Ignacewo was one of many clashes of the January Uprising.

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First Battle of Nowa Wieś (1863)

The First Battle of Nowa Wies took place on February 21, 1863, near the village of Nowa Wies, Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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First Battle of the Masurian Lakes

The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It pushed the Russian First Army back across its entire front, eventually ejecting it from Germany.

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First Western Army

The First Western Army was created in 1810 as part of the reorganisation of the Imperial Russian Army, and was intended as a defense against the north-western part of the Empire from the expected invasion by Napoleon.

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Florian Znaniecki

Florian Witold Znaniecki (15 January 1882 – 23 March 1958) was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and in the United States.

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Forcade

Forcade (de), also written Fourcade (de), Forcada (de), Forquade (de), Forquada (de), Forcade (de la), Fourcade (de la), Laforcade (de) and Lafourcade (de) belongs to the nobility of GuyenneChaix d'Est-Ange (1922), Tome 18, p. 310 and Gascony,Chaix d'Est-Ange (1922), Tome 18, p. 313 in France, and of the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Foreign policy of the Russian Empire

The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.

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Foresters' Corps

The Foresters' Corps (Корпус лесничих) was a special corps in the Land Forces of the Russian Empire, and from 1869, part of the Forests Department of the Ministry of State Property.

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Fort Friedrichsburg

Friedrichsburg is situated in the western Pregel in this map of Königsberg from 1905. Fort Friedrichsburg in modern Kaliningrad Fort Friedrichsburg or Feste Friedrichsburg was a fort in Königsberg, Germany.

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Francis McCullagh

Francis McCullagh (1874 – 26 November 1956) was a British journalist, war correspondent, and author.

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Franciszek Żwirko

Franciszek Żwirko (16 September 1895 – 11 September 1932) was a prominent Polish sport and military aviator.

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Franciszek Młokosiewicz

Franciszek Młokosiewicz (May 5, 1769, Koźminek – March 23, 1845, Warsaw) was a Polish officer who served during the Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising.

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Frankfurt (Oder)

Frankfurt (Oder) (also Frankfurt an der Oder, abbreviated Frankfurt a. d. Oder, Frankfurt a. d. O., Frankf., 'Frankfurt on the Oder') is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice, which was part of Frankfurt until 1945.

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Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf

K.u.k. Feldmarschall Franz Xaver Joseph Conrad Graf von Hötzendorf Franz Xaver Josef Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf (11 November 1852 – 25 August 1925), sometimes anglicised as Hoetzendorf, was an Austrian Field Marshal and Chief of the General Staff of the military of the Austro-Hungarian Army and Navy 1906–1917.

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Franz Lefort

Franz Jakob Lefort (Франц Яковлевич Лефорт; December 23, 1655 – March 2(12), 1699) was a Russian military figure of Genevan Huguenot origin, general admiral (1695), and close associate of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Franz Perkhorovich

Franz Iosifovich Perkhorovich (27 May 1894 11 October 1961) was a Belarusian Soviet Army lieutenant general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Frederick Heiden

Count Frederick Maurice van Heiden (Фёдор Ло́гинович/Логгинович Ге́йден; 15 September 1821 – 18 January 1900) was a general of infantry in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Free City of Danzig (Napoleonic)

The Free City of Danzig, sometimes referred to as the Republic of Danzig, was a semi-independent city-state established by Napoleon on 9 September 1807, during the time of the Napoleonic Wars following the capture of the city in the Siege of Danzig in May.

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French invasion of Russia

The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

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Freydun Atturaya

Freydon Bet-Abram Atoraya (ܦ̮ܪܝܕܢ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ; Freydon the Assyrian) (1891 – 1926) was an Assyrian physician born in the town of Charbash in the district of Urmia in Iran.

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Friedrich Caspar von Geismar

Friedrich Caspar von Geismar (also known as Fyodor Geismar, Фёдор Клементьевич Гейсмар; 1783-1848) was an Austrian-German military officer who spent the best part of his career in the service of Imperial Russian Army.

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Friedrich Heinrich Ferdinand Leopold von Forcade de Biaix

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Friedrich Karl von Tettenborn

Baron Friedrich Karl of Tettenborn (19 February 1778, in what was then the Baden part of the County of Sponheim - 9 December 1845, Vienna) was a famous cavalry commander in the Austrian and Russian armies during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Friedrich Maximilian Klinger

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger (17 February 1752 – 25 February 1831) was a German dramatist and novelist.

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Friedrich Parrot

Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot (25 October 179115 January 1841) was a Baltic German naturalist, explorer, and mountaineer, who lived and worked in Dorpat (today Tartu, Estonia) in what was then the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Ernst Heinrich von Forcade de Biaix

Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Ernst Heinrich von Forcade de Biaix,Schlesische Provinzialblätter, Nov.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Leopold Konstantin Quirin Freiherr von Forcade de Biaix

Friedrich Wilhelm Leopold Konstantin Quirin Freiherr von Forcade de Biaix, aka Friedrich Wilhelm Leopold Konstantin Quirin von Forcade de Biaix,Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 4, Page 391 Blažek, Part 3, pp.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg

Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf von Berg (Frederick William Rembert, Count Berg; Russified into Граф Фёдор Фёдорович фон Берг, Graf Feodor Feodorovich von Berg) was an Baltic-German nobleman, statesman, diplomat and military leader who served in the Imperial Russian Army, the count of Austria (from 9.1849) and Finland (from 26.8.1856), and was the 5th last Field Marshal (promoted in 1866) in the history of the Russian Empire.

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Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden

Friedrich Wilhelm Count von Buxhoevden (Фёдор Фёдорович Буксгевден, Fyodor Fyodorovich Buksgevden; other spellings: Feodor Buxhoeveden, Buxhœwden, Buxhöwden) (September 14, 1750 Võlla, Governorate of Livonia – August 23, 1811 near Kullamaa) was a Russian infantry general and government official.

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Fritz Rumey

Fritz Rumey (March 3, 1891 – September 27, 1918) Pour le Mérite, Golden Military Merit Cross was a German fighter pilot in the First World War, credited with 45 victories.

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Fyodor Bakunin

Fyodor Alexeyevich Bakunin (2 March 189822 January 1984) was a Soviet Army major general.

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Fyodor Chernozubov

Fyodor Grigoryevich Chernozubov (14 September 1863 – 14 November 1919; sometimes seen as Theodore G. Chernozubov) was a Russian Imperial Army officer who became lieutenant general on 20 February 1915.

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Fyodor Drizen

Baron Fyodor Vasilyevich Drizen (10 August 1781 – 30 September 1851) was a General Officer of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Fyodor Gogel

Fyodor Grigorevich Gogel (Фёдор Григорьевич Гогель; born 1775 - died 1827) was a lieutenant-general of the Russian Empire, principally known for his service during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Fyodor Keller

Count Fyodor Keller (1850 – 31 July 1904) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army, noted for his role in the Battle of Motien Pass during the Russo-Japanese War.

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Fyodor Kolchuk

Fyodor Samuilovich Kolchuk (Фёдор Самуилович (Самойлович) Колчук;, – January 3, 1972) was a soldier of the Imperial Russian Army in World War I who rose to the rank of major general of the Red Army during the Second World War.

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Fyodor Korol

Fyodor Petrovich Korol (23 November 1894 29 September 1942) was a Red Army major general.

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Fyodor Kostenko

Fyodor Ya.

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Fyodor Kostyayev

Fyodor Vasilyevich Kostyayev (Фёдор Васи́льевич Костя́ев; 20 February 1878 – 27 September 1925) was a military officer in the Russian Imperial Army and following the October Revolution in the Red Army.

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Fyodor Kuznetsov

Fyodor Isidorovich Kuznetsov (Фёдор Исидо́рович Кузнецо́в; 29 September 1898 – 22 March 1961) was a Colonel General and military commander in the Soviet Union.

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Fyodor Ogorodnikov

Fyodor Evlampievich Ogorodnikov (June 16, 1867 – March 3, 1939) was a Russian and Soviet military activist and historian.

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Fyodor Palitzin

Fyodor Fyodorovich Palitzin (Фёдор Фёдорович Палицын; – 20 February 1923) (also known as Palitsyn) was a Russian General who commanded the Russian Expeditionary Force in France.

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Fyodor Pirotsky

Fyodor Apollonovich Pirotsky (Фёдор Аполлонович Пироцкий; -) was a Russian engineer of Ukrainian origin and inventor of the world's first railway electrification system and electric tram.

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Fyodor Radetsky

Fyodor Fyodorovich Radetsky (1820–1890) was a Russian general.

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Fyodor Shubin

Fyodor Kuzmich Shubin II (Федор Кузьмич Шубин-второй; 1783 – ?) was a military intelligence officer, explorer, and Colonel in the Imperial Russian Army during Napoleonic Wars.

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Fyodor van Tuyll van Serooskerken

Fyodor van Tuyll van Serooskerken (Russian: Фёдор Васильевич Тейль ван Сераскеркен), born Diederik Jacob van Tuyll van Serooskerken, was a Dutch nobleman who became a Russian major general and ambassador.

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Gamliel Rabinowitz

Gamliel HaKohen Rabinowitz (Rappaport) is a rosh yeshiva of Shaar Hashamayim Yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel.

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Gaspar Voskanyan

Gaspar Voskanyan (January 22, 1887 – September 20, 1937) was an ethnic Armenian Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Gatchina

Gatchina (Га́тчина) is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Gates of Tashkent

The Gates of Tashkent, in present-day Uzbekistan, were built around the town at the close of the 10th century, but did not survive to the present.

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Gavriil Ignatyev

Gavriil Alexandrovich Ignatyev (1786 - 24 March 1852) was an Imperial Russian Army general of the artillery who led the defence of the Babruysk fortress and the city of Babruysk from Napoleon's forces in 1812.

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Günther Blumentritt

Günther Blumentritt (10 February 1892 – 12 October 1967) was an officer in World War I, who became a Staff Officer under the Weimar Republic and went on to serve as a general for Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Gefreiter

Gefreiter (abbr. Gefr.) is a German, Swiss and Austrian military rank that has existed since the 16th century.

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General of the Artillery (Imperial Russia)

In the Imperial Russian army, General of the Artillery was the second-highest possible rank, below Generalissimo of Russia or General-Fieldmarshal, produced by splitting General-in-Chief into service branches.

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General of the branch

A "general of the branch" or "general of the branch of service" is a rank equivalent to a three-star lieutenant general or four-star general.

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General of the cavalry

General of the Cavalry (General der Kavallerie) was a General officer rank in the cavalry in various states of which the modern states of German and Austria are successors or in other armies which used the German model.

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General of the Infantry (Imperial Russia)

General of the Infantry (Генера́л от инфанте́рии) was an Imperial Russian Army military rank.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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General Staff Academy (Imperial Russia)

The General Staff Academy was a Russian military academy, established in 1832 in St.Petersburg.

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Generalissimo

Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.

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Generalissimus of the Soviet Union

Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (Генералиссимус Советского Союза; Generalissimus Sovyétskogo Soyuza) was a proposed military rank created on 27 June 1945, following the tradition of the Imperial Russian Army (the rank in question only ever having been held by Count Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Suvorov who served during the reign of Catherine II the Great.). It was granted to Joseph Stalin following World War II; however, Stalin refused to officially approve the rank and died with the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.

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Genrich Eiche

Henrich Christoforovich Eiche (Latvian. Indriķis Eiche; September 29 (October 12) 1893, Riga — June 25, 1968, Jūrmala) — served in World War I as an officer in the Russian Imperial Army, and in 1917 was elected Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of his regiment.

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Georg Wilhelm de Gennin

Georg Wilhelm de Gennin (Георг Вильгельм де Геннин) or Vilim Ivanovich de Gennin (Вилим Иванович де Геннин) (October 11, 1665 — April 12, 1750) was a German-born Russian military officer and engineer who specialized in mining and metallurgy.

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George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan

Field Marshal George Charles Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, (16 April 1800 – 10 November 1888), styled Lord Bingham before 1839, was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat and British Army officer.

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George Gershwin

George Jacob Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.

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George Grebenstchikoff

George Dmitrievich Grebenstchikoff (Георгий Дмитриевич Гребенщиков; 6 May 1883 – 11 January 1964) was a writer and professor of Russian literature.

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George Kisevalter

George Kisevalter (4 April 1910 – October 1997) was an American operations officer of the CIA, who handled Major Pyotr Popov, the first Soviet GRU officer run by the CIA, and Colonel Oleg Penkovsky.

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George Kovalenko

George Kovalenko, SJ (born in 1900, Russian Empire - died on 5 November 1975, Rome, Italy) was a Russian Jesuit, a priest of the Catholic Church and a member of Russian apostolate.

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George Mikhailovich, Count Brasov

George Mikhailovich, Count Brasov (Георгий Михайлович, граф Брасов; – 21 July 1931) was a Russian noble and a descendant of the House of Romanov through a morganatic line.

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George Shevelov

George Yurii Shevelov (Schneider) (Юрий Владимирович Шевелёв, Юрій Володимирович Шевельов) (pseud: Yurii Sherekh, Hryhory Shevchuk, Šerech, Sherekh, Sher; Гр. Ш., Ю. Ш. and others) (December 17, 1908 – April 12, 2002) was a Ukrainian-American professor, linguist, philologist, essayist, literary historian, and literary critic.

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George Trofimoff

Colonel George Trofimoff (March 9, 1927 – September 19, 2014) was a former United States military intelligence officer of Russian descent.

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Georgi Yungvald-Khilkevich

Georgi Yungvald-Khilkevich (22 October 1934 – 11 November 2015) was a Soviet and Russian film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, theatre director and set designer.

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Georgian Armed Forces

The Georgian Armed Forces (tr) is the name of the unified armed forces of Georgia.

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Georgian Hussar Regiment

The Georgian Hussar Regiment (Грузинский гусарский полк; Gruzinskiy Hussarskiy Polk) was a military unit of the Russian Imperial Army which predominantly consisted by Moscow's Georgian community.

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Georgii Stackelberg

Baron Georgii Karlovich Stackelberg (Георгий Карлович Штакельберг) (July 30, 1851 – 1913) was a cavalry general in the Imperial Russian Army during the late 19th century and early 20th century.

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Georgy Bazilevich

Georgy Dmitrievich Bazilevich (January 26, 1889 – March 3, 1939) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Georgy Bobrikov

Georgy Ivanovich Bobrikov (Russian, Георгий Иванович Бобриков, 1840 - 1924) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Georgy Bondar

Georgy I Bondar (1893 – March 10, 1939) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Georgy Bulatsel

Georgy Viktorovich Bulatsel (187528 April 1918), was a lieutenant colonel in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Georgy Malenkov

Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (– 14 January 1988) was a Soviet politician who succeeded Joseph Stalin as Premier of the Soviet Union, holding this position from 1953 to 1955.

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Georgy Orbeliani

Prince Georgy Ilyich Orbeliani (გიორგი ილიას ძე ორბელიანი; Гео́ргий Ильи́ч Орбелиа́ни; 1853–1924) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.

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Georgy Rodin

Georgy Semyonovich Rodin (Russian: Георгий Семёнович Родин; 19 November 1897 – 6 January 1976) was a Red Army lieutenant general.

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Georgy Sofronov

Georgy Pavlovich Sofronov (19 April 1893 – 17 March 1973) was a Soviet general.

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Georgy Tumanov

Georgy Tumanov (Туманов, Георгий Евсеевич, გიორგი თუმანიშვილი (Giorgi Tumanishvili), Գեորգի Թումանով) (16 March 1839 – 30 May 1901) was member of the Georgian-Armenian royal house of Tumanishvili.

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Georgy Vasmund

Georgy Robertovich Vasmund (Russian, Георгий Робертович Васмунд, December 25, 1840 - May 30, 1904) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Georgy Zhukov

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.

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Gerhard Benkowitz

Gerhard Benkowitz (2 June 1923 – 29 June 1955) was a school teacher and a resistance activist against the one party dictatorship of the German Democratic Republic.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German Quarter

German Quarter (Неме́цкая слобода́, Nemetskaya sloboda), also known as the Kukuy Quarter (слобода Кукуй), was a neighborhood in the northeast of Moscow, located on the right bank of the Yauza River east of Kukuy Creek (hence the name Kukuy Quarter), within the present-day Basmanny District of Moscow.

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Germany–Russia relations

Germany–Russia relations display cyclical patterns, moving back and forth from cooperation and alliance to strain and to total warfare.

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Geysar Kashiyeva

Geysar Seyfulla qizi Kashiyeva (Azeri: Qeysər Kaşıyeva; 7 June 1893, Tiflis – 17 April 1972, Baku) was an Azerbaijani painter.

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Gheorghe Rosnovanu

Gheorghe Rosnovanu (March 1, 1832–October 2, 1904) was a Moldavian-born Romanian soldier and politician.

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Gherman Pântea

Gherman V. Pântea (surname also spelled Pîntea; Герман Васильевич Пынтя, German Vasilievich Pyntya; Герман Васильович Пинтя, Herman Vasilyovich Pyntya or Pintia; May 13, 1894 – February 1, 1968) was a Bessarabian-born soldier, civil servant and political figure, active in the Russian Empire and Romania.

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Ghukasyan

Ghukasyan (Ղուկասյան)) is an Armenian surname, meaning 'son of Ghukas', the Armenian equivalent of Luke. In Russia, Azerbaijan and other countries some holders of this surname changed to Gukasov (ɡʊˈkasəf). Known people with the name Ghukasyan.

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Giorgi Kazbegi

Giorgi Kazbegi (გიორგი ყაზბეგი; Георгий Николаевич Казбек, Georgy Nikolayevich Kazbek) (November 3, 1840 – April 14, 1921) was a Georgian nobleman and general in the Imperial Russian service.

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Giorgi Mazniashvili

Giorgi Mazniashvili (გიორგი მაზნიაშვილი) (6 April, 1870 – 16 December, 1937) was a Georgian general and one of the most prominent military figures in the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921).

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Gleb Plaksin

Gleb Vasilyevich Plaksin (Глеб Васильевич Плаксин; 16 August 192521 November 2008) was a French-born Soviet and Russian film actor and musician.

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Gomes Freire de Andrade

Gomes Freire de Andrade, ComC (27 January 1757, in Vienna – 18 October 1817) was a field marshal and distinguished officer of the Portuguese army who served France at the end of his military career.

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Gorna Oryahovitsa

Gorna Oryahovitsa (Горна Оряховица) is a town in northern Bulgaria, situated in Veliko Tarnovo Province, from Veliko Tarnovo.

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Gostan Zarian

Gostan, Constant, or Kostan Zarian (Կոստան Զարեան, Shamakhi,February 2, 1885 – Yerevan, December 11, 1969) was an Armenian writer who produced short lyric poems, long narrative poems of an epic cast, manifestos, essays, travel impressions, criticism, and fiction.

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Gotthard August von Helffreich

Gotthard August von Helffreich or Bogdan Borisovich Gelfreich (Russian - Богда́н Бори́сович Гельфре́йх 1-й or Готтгард Август фон Гельфрейх; 27 January 1776, Purgel province, Estonia – 24 November 1843, Revel) was a commander of the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Gourgen Yanikian

Gourgen Mkrtich Yanikian or in Western Armenian Kourken Mgrditch Yanigian (Գուրգէն Մկրտիչ Եանիկեան, December 24, 1895 – February 27, 1984) was an Armenian American engineer, Armenian Genocide survivor, best known for the assassination of two Turkish consular officials, Los Angeles Consul General Mehmet Baydar and Consul Bahadır Demir, in California in 1973.

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Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia

Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (О́льга Алекса́ндровна; – 24 November 1960) was the youngest child of Emperor Alexander III of Russia and younger sister of Emperor Nicholas II.

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Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929)

Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 18 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus.

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Great Retreat (Russian)

The Great Retreat was a strategic withdrawal from the Galicia-Poland salient conducted by the Imperial Russian Army during September 1915 in World War I. The Russians' critically under-equipped and (at the points of engagement) outnumbered forces suffered great losses in the Central Powers' July–September summer offensive operations, this leading to the Stavka ordering a withdrawal to shorten the front lines and avoid the potential encirclement of large Russian forces in the salient.

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Greek Battalion of Balaklava

The Greek Battalion of Balaklava was a military unit of the Imperial Russian Army which participated in the Russo-Turkish wars of 1768–1774, 1787–1792 and 1806–1812.

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Grigorij Fedorovitch Tchernozubov

Grigorij Fedorovitch Tchernozubov (January 30, 1835 – ?) was an Imperial Russian brigade commander.

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Grigory Ivanovich Choglokov

Grigory Ivanovich Choglokov (November 4, 1867 – June 27, 1921) was a division commander of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Grigory Karizhsky

Grigory Ivanovich Karizhsky (Russian: Григорий Иванович Карижский; 21 November 1895 – 5 February 1971) was a Soviet Army Major general and Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Grigory Khakhanyan

Grigory Davidovich Khakhanyan (January 10, 1896 – February 22, 1939) was a Georgian-born ethnic Armenian Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov

Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, or Semenov (Григо́рий Миха́йлович Семёнов; September 13 (25), 1890 – August 30, 1946), was a Japanese-supported leader of the White movement in Transbaikal and beyond from December 1917 to November 1920, Lieutenant General and Ataman of Baikal Cossacks (1919).

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Grigory Verzhbitsky

Grigory Afanasyevich Verzhbitsky (Григорий Афанасьевич Вержбицкий) (born January 25, 1875, Letychiv, Podolia Governorate — died December 20, 1942 Tianjin, China) was one of the leaders of the White movement in Transbaikal and Primoriye during the Russian Civil War, Lieutenant-General (1918).

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Guard of honour

A guard of honour (en-GB), guard of honor (en-US), also honour guard (en-GB), honor guard (en-US), also ceremonial guard, is a guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals.

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Guards Tape

The Guards Tape, (Гвардейская лента), is a military decoration awarded in the Soviet Union in 1942 for the elite soviet Guards unit, during the Great Patriotic War.

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Gusev, Kaliningrad Oblast

Gusev (Гу́сев), previously known by its German name Gumbinnen (Gumbinė; Gąbin), is a town and the administrative center of Gusevsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Pissa and Krasnaya Rivers, near the border with Poland and Lithuania, east of Chernyakhovsk.

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Gustaw Orlicz-Dreszer

Gustaw Konstanty Orlicz-Dreszer (October 2, 1889 − July 16, 1936) was a Polish general, and a political and social activist.

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Gustaw Paszkiewicz

Gustaw Paszkiewicz (1 April 1892 – 27 February 1955) was a soldier of the Imperial Russian Army, and officer of the Polish Army.

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Gymnastyorka

Gymnastyorka (usually translated in English as Gimnasterka; also spelled Gymnastiorka; p) was a Russian military shirt-tunic comprising a pullover-style garment with a standing collar having double button closure.

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Gyumri

Gyumri (Գյումրի), is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.

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Haberberg Church

Haberberg Church (Haberberger Kirche) or Holy Trinity Church (St.) was a Protestant church in the Haberberg quarter of Königsberg, Germany.

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Habib Bey Salimov

Habib bey Haji Yusif oglu Salimov (Həbib bəy Səlimov Hacı Yusif oğlu; February 8, 1881 - December 30, 1920) was the first Chief of General Staff of Azerbaijani Armed Forces of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

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Hamina Cadet School

Finland Cadet school was the common name for the Fredrikshamn cadet school during the period 1819–1901.

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Hans Kalm

Hans Kalm (21 April 1889 – 1 February 1981) was an Estonian soldier who served in the armies of Russian Empire, Finland and Estonia.

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Harold Williams (linguist)

Harold Whitmore Williams (6 April 1876 – 18 November 1928) was a New Zealand journalist, foreign editor of The Times and polyglot who is considered to have been one of the most accomplished polyglots in history.

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Hayk Bzhishkyan

Hayk Bzhishkyan (Հայկ Բժշկյան, Persian هایک پزشکیان, Russian: Гайк Бжишкян, also known as Guy Dmitrievich Guy, Gai Dmitrievich Gai (Гай Дмитриевич Гай), Gaya Gai (Гая Гай), or Bzhishkyan, – 11 December 1937), was a Soviet military commander of the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War.

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Heimito von Doderer

Franz Carl Heimito, Ritter von Doderer; known as Heimito von Doderer (5 September 1896, Weidlingau (now part of, Penzing, the 14th District of Vienna) 23 December 1966, Vienna) was an Austrian writer.

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Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein

Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (14 August 1916 – 21 January 1944) was a German night fighter pilot and flying ace during World War II.

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Helen Mirren

Dame Helen Lydia Mirren, (born 26 July 1945) is an English actor.

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Henry Lloyd (soldier)

Henry Humphrey Evans Lloyd (c.1718 – 19 June 1783) was a Welsh army officer and military writer.

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Henryk Siemiradzki

Henryk Hektor Siemiradzki (24 October 1843 – 23 August 1902) was a Polish Rome-based painter, best remembered for his monumental Academic art.

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Henryk Sienkiewicz

Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.

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Herbert Brede

Herbert Lorentz Brede (25 April 1888 in Püssi – 6 October 1942 in Norilsk) was an Estonian soldier and general.

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Hermann Paul Reißhaus

Paul Reißhaus (29 September 1855 - 5 September 1921) was a pioneering German politician.

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Hibiya incendiary incident

The was a major citywide riot which erupted in Tokyo on 5 September 1905 in protest of the terms of the Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.

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History of Christianity in Ukraine

The history of Christianity in Ukraine dates back to the earliest centuries of the apostolic church and according to Radziwiłł Chronicle Saint Andrew has ascended on hills of the future city of Kiev.

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History of European exploration in Tibet

Tibet has attracted European missionaries and explorers for over 500 years.

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History of Galicia (Eastern Europe)

With the arrival of the Hungarians into the heart of the Central European Plain around 899, Slavic tribes of Vistulans, White Croats, and Lendians found themselves under Hungarian rule.

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History of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan, the largest country of the Eurasian Steppe, has been a historical "crossroads" and home to numerous different peoples, states and empires throughout history.

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History of Lviv

Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv; Lwów; Lemberg; לעמבערג; Lvov, see also other names) is an administrative center in western Ukraine with more than a millennium of history as a settlement, and over seven centuries as a city.

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History of Poland (1795–1918)

In 1795 the third and the last of the three 18th-century partitions of Poland ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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History of Poland during World War I

While Poland did not exist as an independent state during World War I, its geographical position between the fighting powers meant that much fighting and terrific human and material losses occurred on the Polish lands between 1914 and 1918.

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History of Russia (1892–1917)

Under Tsar Nicholas II (reigned 1894–1917), the Russian Empire slowly industrialized while repressing opposition in the political center and on the far left.

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History of Russian military ranks

Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great.

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History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–27)

The history of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.

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History of Taganrog

The southern Russian city of Taganrog began as one of Russia's first planned cities under Peter the Great.

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History of Tarnobrzeg

History of Tarnobrzeg - In the late 16th century, the area of current Tarnobrzeg, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland emerged as a local center of industry, with several bloomeries mentioned here in 1565.

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History of the Jews in Finland

Finnish Jews are Jews who are citizens of Finland.

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History of the Poles in the United States

The history of Poles in the United States dates to the American Colonial era.

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History of Vilnius

This article is about the history of Vilnius, the capital and largest city of Lithuania.

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Hmayak Babayan

Hmayak Grigoryevich Babayan (15 August 1901 21 April 1945) was an Armenian Red Army major general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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HMS Glory (1899)

HMS Glory was a pre-dreadnought battleship of the British Royal Navy and a member of the.

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HMS President (1829)

HMS President was a large frigate in the British Royal Navy (RN).

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Howard Vincent

Colonel Sir Charles Edward Howard Vincent (31 May 1849 – 7 April 1908), known as Howard Vincent or C. E. Howard Vincent, was a British soldier, barrister, police official and Conservative Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1908.

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Hugo W. Koehler

Hugo William Koehler (July 19, 1886 – June 17, 1941) (pronounced KAY-ler) was a United States Navy commander, secret agent and socialite.

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Hungarian State (1849)

The Hungarian State (Magyar Álladalom) was a short-lived state that existed for 4 months in the last phase of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–49.

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Hurva Synagogue

The Hurva Synagogue, (בית הכנסת החורבה, translit: Beit ha-Knesset ha-Hurva, lit. "The Ruin Synagogue"), also known as Hurvat Rabbi Yehudah he-Hasid ("Ruin of Rabbi Judah the Pious"), is a historic synagogue located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski

Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski, or Nakhichevansky, francised spelling: Hussein Nahitchevansky (Hüseyn xan Naxçıvanski; Гусейн-хан Нахичеванский or Хан-Гуссейн Нахичеванский) (28 July 1863 in Nakhchivan City – January 1919 in St. Petersburg), was a Russian Cavalry General of Azerbaijani origin.

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Ibrahim bey Usubov

Ibrahim bey Usubov Musa Agha oglu (Ibrahim bəy Usubov Musa Ağa oğlu; March 6, 1872 - June 16, 1920) was an Azerbaijani Major General in Russian Imperial Army and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

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Ibrahim Heski

Ibrahim Heski or Ibrahim Pasha Haski TelloDana Adams Schmidt, Journey among brave men, Little, Brown, 1964, (Kurdish: Biroyê Heskê Têlî; ? - July 25, 1931, Siah Cheshmeh, West Azarbaijan province, Iran), was a Kurdish Jalali tribesman, soldier and politician.

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Ice March

The Ice March (Russian: Ледяной походъ), also called the First Kuban Campaign (Russian: Первый кубанскій походъ), a military withdrawal lasting from February to May 1918, was one of the defining moments in the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1921.

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Ieronim Uborevich

Ieronim Petrovich Uborevich (Jeronimas Uborevičius; January 14, 1896 – June 12, 1937) was a Soviet military commander of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War.

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Ignacy Oziewicz

Ignacy Oziewicz (pseudonyms: Czesław, Czesławski, Netta, Jenczewski;7 May 1887 – 10 January 1966) was a Polish military colonel.

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Igor Sikorsky

Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (a, tr. Ígor' Ivánovič Sikórskij; May 25, 1889 – October 26, 1972),Fortier, Rénald.

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Iivo Ahava

Iivo Ahava (born Afanasev, 19 February 1896, died 16 April 1919) was a Karelian-born Finnish military officer and nationalist who supported the idea of an independent East Karelia.

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Ilia Ivanovitch Alekseyev

Ilya Ivanovich Alexeyev (Russian: Илья Иванович Алексеев), born July 18, 1772 and died October 3, 1830 is one of the commanders of the Russian Imperial Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Ilie Cătărău

Ilie V. Cătărău (reportedly born Katarov, last name also Cătărău-Orhei; Bogdan Florin Popovici,,; retrieved October 20, 2011 1888 – ca. 1952) was a Bessarabian-born political adventurer, soldier and spy, who spent parts of his life in Romania.

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Illarion Illarionovich Vasilchikov

Illarion Illarionovich Vasilchikov (1805 – 12 November 1862) was an Imperial Russian general.

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Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov

Count Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov Илларион Иванович Воронцов-Дашков (27 May 1837 – 15 January 1916) was a notable representative of the Vorontsov family.

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Ilya Alekseevich Shatrov

Ilya Alekseevich Shatrov (April 1, 1879 (or 1885) - May 2, 1952) was a Russian military musician, conductor and composer, known for composing the waltz On the Hills of Manchuria in 1906, recounting his experiences at the Battle of Mukden during the Russo-Japanese War, which he dedicated to one of his comrades fallen at the battle.

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Ilya Garkavyi

Ilya Ivanovich Garkavyi (1888–1937) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander) and organizer of Red Guards detachments in Tiraspol.

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Ilya Repin

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.

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Ilya Smirnov

Ilia K Smirnov (July 30, 1887 – June 28, 1964) was a Soviet army commander.

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Imperial Army

An Imperial Army is literally an army of any empire.

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Imperial Russian Air Service

The Imperial Russian Air Service (Императорскiй военно-воздушный флотъ, literally Emperor's Military Air Fleet) was an air force founded in 1912 for Imperial Russia.

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Imperial Russian Army formations and units (1914)

This article lists Imperial Russian Army formations and units in 1914 prior to World War I mobilisation for the Russian invasion of Prussia and liberation Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia.

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Imperial Russian Navy

The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.

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Incorporation of Polish children into the Imperial Russian Army (1831-1832)

Incorporation of Polish children into the Imperial Russian Army occurred during and after the defeat of the November Uprising (1830–1831), when penalised Polish adolescents were incorporated into the Imperial Army of the Russian Empire.

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Infiltration tactics

In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.

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Inner Mongolian Army

The Inner Mongolian Army, also sometimes called the Mengjiang National Army, referred to the Inner Mongolian military units in service of Imperial Japan and its puppet state of Mengjiang during the Second Sino-Japanese War, particularly those led by Prince Demchugdongrub.

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Inochentism

Inochentism (occasionally translated as Innocentism or the Inochentist church; Russian: Иннокентьевцы, Innokentevtsy) is a millennialist and Charismatic Christian sect, split from mainstream Eastern Orthodoxy in the early 20th century.

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Inozemsky Prikaz

Inozemsky Prikaz (Иноземский приказ, lit. Office for the Affairs of the Foreigners) was a central government agency in the 17th-century Russia, which dealt with the affairs of the foreigners, including those hired by the Russian military.

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Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan)

The Intelligence Bureau (سراغرسانی کا دفتر; Reporting name: IB), is a civilian intelligence agency in Pakistan.

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International relations, 1648–1814

International relations from 1648–1814 covers the major interactions of the nations of Europe, as well as the other continents, with emphasis on diplomacy, warfare, migration, and cultural interactions, from the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna.

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International Squadron (Cretan intervention, 1897–1898)

The International Squadron was a naval squadron formed in early 1897 by a number of Great Powers just before the outbreak of the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 to intervene in a native Greek rebellion on Crete against rule by the Ottoman Empire.

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Invasion of Sakhalin

The Invasion of Sakhalin was the last land battle of the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War.

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Ioan C. Filitti

Ioan Constantin Filitti (first name also Ion; Francized Jean C. Filitti; May 8, 1879 – September 21, 1945) was a Romanian historian, diplomat and conservative theorist, best remembered for his contribution to social history, legal history, genealogy and heraldry.

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Ion Buzdugan

Ion Alion Buzdugan (Romanian Cyrillic and Ион Буздуган, born Ivan Alexandrovici Buzdâga;Onisifor Ghibu, "Trei luni din viața Basarabiei", in Societatea de Mâine, Nr. 13/1924, p. 283Constantin Poenaru, "Viața bucovineană în Rîmnicu-Vâlcea postbelic (II)", in Revista Română (ASTRA), Nr. 4/2009, p. 14 March 9, 1887 – January 29, 1967) was a Bessarabian-Romanian poet, folklorist, and politician.

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Ion Cămărășescu

Ion Cămărășescu (January 27, 1882 – March 25, 1953) was a Romanian politician.

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Iosif Apanasenko

Iosif Rodionovich Apanasenko (April 15, 1890 – August 5, 1943) was a Soviet division commander.

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Iosif Gurko

Count Iosif Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gurko (Ио́сиф Влади́мирович Роме́йко-Гурко́; —), also known as Joseph or Ossip Gourko, was a prominent Russian field marshal during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).

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Irish Legion

Napoleon's Irish Legion (Légion irlandaise) was a French light infantry battalion established in 1803 for an anticipated invasion of Ireland.

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Irish Russians

Irish Russians are Russian nationals whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Ireland.

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Islam in Latvia

The presence of Muslims in Latvia was first recorded in the early 19th century.

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Islamic Republic of Iran Army Ground Forces

The Islamic Republic of Iran Army Ground Forces (نیروی زمینی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed NEZAJA (نزاجا) is the ground forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army.

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Ivan Andreyevich Argamakov

Ivan Andreyevich Argamakov (Russian: Иван Андреевич Аргамаков; 15 December 1775, Osokino, Kostroma - 9 March 1820) was a commander of the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Ivan Bagramyan

Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan (Հովհաննես Քրիստափորի Բաղրամյան; Ива́н Христофо́рович Баграмя́н), also known as Hovhannes Khachaturi Baghramyan (Հովհաննես Խաչատուրի (alternatively, Քրիստափորի, Kristapori) Բաղրամյան; Оване́с Хачату́рович Баграмя́н) (– 21 September 1982), was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union of Armenian origin.

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Ivan Belov (commander)

Ivan Panfilovich Belov (June 27, 1893 – June 29, 1938) was a Soviet Komandarm 1st rank.

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Ivan Bogdanov

Ivan Aleksandrovich Bogdanov (6 November 1897 – 22 July 1942) was a Soviet general and army commander.

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Ivan Boldin

Ivan Vasilievich Boldin (Иван Васильевич Болдин;, Vysokaya – March 28, 1965, Kiev) was a senior Red Army general during the Second World War.

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Ivan Davidovich Lazarev

Ivan Davidovich Lazarev (Հովհաննես Դավթի Լազարյան, Hovhannes Davti Lazarian; Иван Давыдович Лазарев; 17 October 1820 – 14 August 1879) was an Imperial Russian Army general of Armenian origin.

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Ivan Fedko

Ivan Fedko (July 6, 1897 – February 26, 1939) was a Soviet Komandarm 1st rank and army commander.

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Ivan Fullon

Ivan Alexandrovich Fullon (July 23 (Aug. 4), 1844 – 1920) was an Imperial Russian division and corps commander.

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Ivan Fyodorovich Emme

Ivan Fyodorovich Emme (Иван Фёдорович Эмме; 1763–1839) was a Russian lieutenant general in the Napoleonic Wars.

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Ivan Ganetsky

Ivan Ganetsky (October 8, 1810 – 1887) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Ivan Gudovich

Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich (Russian: Иван Васильевич Гудович; 1741–1820) was a Russian noble and military leader of Ukrainian descent.

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Ivan Guryelov

Prince (knyaz) Ivan Stepanovich Gurielov (Иван Степанович Гурьелов) also known as Guryalov (Гурьялов) or Gurieli (Гуриэли; გურიელი) (1770–1818) was a Russian general of Georgian origin who fought in several campaigns, most notably in the 1812-14 wars against Napoleon I of France.

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Ivan Ivanovich Michelson

Ivan Ivanovich Michelson (sometimes transliterated as Mikhelson; Ива́н Ива́нович Михельсо́н; Johann von Michelsohnen; 3 May 1740 – 17 August 1807) was a Baltic-German military commander who served in the Russian Imperial Army.

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Ivan Ivanovich Shamshev

Ivan Ivanovich Shamshev (May 4, 1819 – April 21, 1892) was an Imperial Russian lieutenant general, adjutant general and division commander.

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Ivan Khludenev

Ivan Guryanovich Khludenev (Иван Гурьянович Хлуденев) was a Russian military officer and a Colonel of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Ivan Konev

Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Ива́н Степа́нович Ко́нев; – 21 May 1973) was a Soviet military commander who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin.

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Ivan Kotliarevsky

Ivan Petrovych Kotliarevsky (Іван Петрович Котляревський) (in Poltava – in Poltava, Russian Empire, now Ukraine), was a Ukrainian writer, poet and playwright, social activist, regarded as the pioneer of modern Ukrainian literature.

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Ivan Krasnov

Ivan Ivanovich Krasnov Краснов, Иван Иванович (1802–1871) was a Russian general and author.

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Ivan Ksenofontov

Ivan Ksenofontovich Ksenofontov (August 29, 1884 – March 23, 1926) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and one of the founding fathers and leaders of the Soviet secret police and state security agency (Cheka, GPU and OGPU).

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Ivan Lesovoy

Ivan Martynovich Lesovoy (Иван Мартынович Лесовой, 22 November 1835 – ?) was a Russian Imperial Army general who fought in the Russo-Turkish War and served as the Minister of War of the Principality of Bulgaria.

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Ivan Lorents

Ivan Leopoldovich Lorents (Иван Леопольдович Лоренц) (2 October 1890 – 28 July 1941) was a Polish-born Soviet diplomat.

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Ivan Makarovich Orbeliani

Prince Ivan Makarovich Dzhambakurian-Orbeliani (ივანე მამუკას ძე ორბელიანი Ivane Mamukas dze Orbeliani. Ива́н Мака́рович Орбелиа́ни) (9 September 1844 – 13 November 1919) was a Russian imperial general, governor of Kutaisi and Georgian prince.

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Ivan Mosjoukine

Ivan Ilyich Mozzhukhin (p; —18 January 1939), usually billed using the French transliteration Ivan Mosjoukine, was a Russian silent film actor.

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Ivan Naumovich Dubovoy

Ivan Naumovich Dubovoy (September 24, 1896 – July 29, 1938) was a Ukrainian-born Soviet army commander.

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Ivan Nikitich Konev

Ivan Nikitich Konev (5 January 1899 – 19 November 1983) was a Soviet major general during World War II and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Ivan Orlov (aviator)

Podporuchik Ivan Aleksandrovich Orlov (19 January 1895 – 4 July 1917) was a Russian flying ace during World War I. He was a prewar flier, having built both gliders and an airplane, and having earned pilot's license no.

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Ivan Panfilov

Ivan Vasilyevich Panfilov (Иван Васильевич Панфилов; – 18 November 1941) was a Soviet general and a posthumous Hero of the Soviet Union, known for his command of the 316th Rifle Division during the defense of Moscow at the Second World War.

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Ivan Paskevich

Prince (1831) Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Ива́н Фёдорович Паске́вич; &ndash) was an imperial Russian military leader.

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Ivan Pokrovsky

Ivan Kornil'yevich Pokrovsky (known in the Duma as Pokrovsky 1st; Иван Корнильевич Покровский; 1845, Chelyabinsk — after 1912) was a podporuchik of Imperial Russian Army, provincial secretary, entrepreneur, a deputy of Chelyabinsk City Duma, a party "agent" of the Constitutional Democratic Party in Chelyabinsk and a deputy of the Third Imperial Duma from 1907 to 1912.

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Ivan Ratiev

Ivan Dimitrievich Ratiev (Иван Дмитриевич Ратиев), also known as Ivane Dimitris dze Ratishvili (ივანე რატიშვილი) (July 17, 1868 – April 26, 1958) was a Georgian prince and a prominent officer of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Ivan Rubanyuk

Ivan A. Rubanyuk (August 29, 1896 – October 3, 1959) was a Soviet colonel general.

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Ivan Samosenko

Ivan Samosenko (Іван Семосенко, 1894–1920) was a Ukrainian military leader and a war criminal who was involved in anti-Jewish pogroms in Ukraine and for which he was executed.

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Ivan Sidorovich Lazarenko

Ivan Sidorovich Lazarenko (Иван Сидорович Лазаренко; 8 October 1895 – 26 June 1944) was a Red Army major general and a posthumous Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Ivan Smolin

Ivan Ivanovich Smolin (5 July 1895 – 20 September 1937) was a Soviet army commander.

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Ivan Strod

Ivan Yakovlevich Strod (Jānis Strods, Иван Яковлевич Строд) (April 10, 1894 – February 4, 1938) was a Red Army officer during the Russian Civil War in the Russian Far East from 1918 to 1923.

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Ivan Turchin

Ivan Vasyliovych Turchyn; December 24, 1822 – June 18, 1901) better known by his Anglicised name of John Basil Turchin, was a Union army brigadier general in the American Civil War. He led two critical charges that saved the day at Chickamauga and was among the first to lead soldiers up Missionary Ridge.

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Ivan Tyulenev

Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (28 January 189215 August 1978) was a Soviet military commander, one of the first to be promoted to the rank of General of the Army in 1940.

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Ivan Vasilievich Argamakov

Ivan Vasilievich Argamakov (Russian: Иван Васильевич Аргамаков; 1763 – 1834) was a commander of the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Ivan Zaplatin

Ivan Vasilyevich Zaplatin (Иван Васильевич Заплатин; January 21, 1872, Orenburg Governorate — after 1919) was a major (voyskovoy starshina) of Imperial Russian Army, a bakery butter producer, a deputy of the Second Imperial Duma from the Orenburg Governorate in 1907, who had "moderately progressive" political position.

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Ivan Zhevakhov

Ivan Semyonovich Zhevakhov (Иван Семенович Жевахов.), also known as Ivane Simonis dze Javakhishvili (ივანე ჯავახიშვილი.) (1762 – July 24, 1837) was a Georgian nobleman and a general of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Ivane Abkhazi

Ivane Abkhazi (ივანე აფხაზი) or Ivan Nikolayevich Abkhazov (Иван Николаевич Абхазов) (1764 or 1786 – 1831) was a nobleman from Georgia, who served in the Imperial Russian military and rose to the rank of major-general during the Caucasus War.

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Ivane Amilakhvari

Ivane Amilakhvari (ივანე ამილახვარი, Иван Гивич Амилахвари; January 26, 1829 – August 27, 1905) was a Georgian nobleman and a military commander in Imperial Russian service.

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Ivane Andronikashvili

Prince Ivane Andronikashvili (ივანე ანდრონიკაშვილი), also known as Knyaz Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (Иван Малхазович Андронников) (1798 – November 19, 1868) was a Georgian nobleman and general in the Imperial Russian service.

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Izmaylovsky Regiment

The Izmaylovsky Regiment (Izmáylovskiy leyb-gvárdii polk) was one of the oldest regiments of the Russian army, a subdivision of the 1st Guards Infantry Division of the Imperial Russian Guard.

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Jaan Maide

Jaan Maide, VR II/3 (30 May 1896 – 10 August 1945) was a senior Estonian Army officer who fought in World War I, the Estonian War of Independence and World War II.

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Jack London

John Griffith "Jack" London (born John Griffith Chaney; January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916) was an American novelist, journalist, and social activist.

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Jacob Brafman

Iakov Aleksandrovich Brafman (1825—28 December 1879), commonly known as Jacob Brafman, was a Russian Jew from near Minsk, who became notable for converting first to Lutheranism and then the Russian Orthodox Church.

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Jacob Elshin

Jacob Alexander Elshin (1892-1976) was a Russian American artist.

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Jacob Shaw's Regiment

Jacob Shaw's Regiment (Бельские немцы Яковлевы роты Ша) was a first Russian regular infantry regiment of the Russian Army.

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Jacques Gershkovitch

Jacques Gershkovitch (1884–1953) was a Russian conductor and musician who became the first music director of the Portland Junior Symphony (now known as the Portland Youth Philharmonic), the first youth orchestra in the United States, based in Portland, Oregon.

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Jacques Tati

Jacques Tati (born Jacques Tatischeff,; 9 October 1907 – 5 November 1982) was a French filmmaker, actor, and screenwriter.

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Jafargulu agha Javanshir

Jafargulu agha Javanshir (Cəfərqulu xan Məhəmmədhəsən ağa oğlu Sarıcalı-Cavanşir; 1787 — 1866) was an Azerbaijani poet and public figure and was a major-general of the Russian Army.

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Jaime, Duke of Madrid

Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, known as Duke of Madrid and as Jacques de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou in France (27 June 1870 – 2 October 1931), was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain under the name Jaime III and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France as Jacques I.

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Jakub Wygodzki

Jakub Wygodzki (18561941; Jokūbas Vygodskis, יעקב ויגודסקי) was a Polish–Lithuanian Jewish politician, Zionist activist and a medical doctor.

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James Bruce (1732–1791)

Count James Bruce or Yakov Alexandrovich Bruce (1732–30 November 1791) was a Russian general.

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James Wolfe Murray

Lieutenant-General Sir James Wolfe Murray (13 March 1853 – 17 October 1919) was a British Army officer who served in the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War, Second Boer War and First World War.

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Jamshid Nakhchivanski

Jamshid Jafargulu oglu Nakhchivanski (Cəmşid Cəfərqulu oğlu Naxçıvanski; August 23, 1895 – August 26, 1938), also known as Jamshid Khan Nakhichevanski, was a Russian Imperial, Azerbaijani and Soviet military commander.

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Jan Czerski

Jan Stanisław Franciszek Czerski (b. 3 May 1845 in Swolna d. 25 June 1892 nr. Kolyma) was a Polish paleontologist, osteologist, geologist, geographer and explorer of Siberia.

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Jan Jelínek (legionary)

Jan Jelínek (8 April 1893 – 5 July 1974) was a Czech legionnaire and author of a book about legionnaires from the Boskovice region.

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Jan Latsis

Jan Latsis (February 20, 1897 – March 10, 1937) was a Latvian-born Soviet division commander and Komkor (corps commander).

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Jan Lorentowicz

Jan Lorentowicz (14 March 1868 – 15 January 1940; occasional pen name, M. Chropieński) was a Polish theatre director, literary critic, publicist, editor and book collector; president of the Polish PEN Club (1925–27); and from 1938, an elected member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature.

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Jan Rogowski

Jan Rogowski (cichociemny) (noms de guerre Jan Szulak, Piotr Jaczynski, Julian Koba, Zbigniew Plecki, Piotr Pomerski, Stefan Zawidzki, Czarka, Kacz) was a soldier of the Polish Army, Polish Armed Forces in the West and the Home Army.

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Jan Rządkowski

Jan Piotr Rządkowski (1860–1934) was a Polish military officer and a General of the Polish Army.

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January 1917

The following events occurred in January 1917.

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January Uprising

The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.

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Jarosław Dąbrowski

Jarosław Żądło-Dąbrowski (also known as Jaroslav Dombrowski; 13 November 1836 – 23 May 1871) was a Polish nobleman and military officer in the Imperial Russian Army, a left-wing independence activist for Poland, and general and military commander of the 1871 Siege and Commune of Paris.

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Javanshir clan

The Javanshirs--> (Cavanşirlər; جوانشیران – Javānširān) were a Turkic clan in Karabakh, who belonged to the Afshar tribe and were in turn a branch of the Oghuz Turks.

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Józef Łobodowski

Józef Stanisław Łobodowski was a Polish poet and political thinker.

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Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki

Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki (Iosif Romanovich while in the Russian military; sometimes also Dowbór-Muśnicki; 25 October 1867 – 26 October 1937) was a Russian military officer and Polish general, serving with the Imperial Russian and then Polish armies.

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Józef Haller

Józef Haller von Hallenburg (13 August 1873 – 4 June 1960) was a Lieutenant General of the Polish Army, a legionary in the Polish Legions, harcmistrz (the highest Scouting instructor rank in Poland), the President of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association (ZHP), and a political and social activist.

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Józef Poniatowski

Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski (7 May 1763 – 19 October 1813) was a Polish leader, general, minister of war and army chief, who became a Marshal of the French Empire.

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Józef Zajączek

Prince Józef Zajączek (1 November 1752, Kamieniec Podolski — 28 August 1826, Warsaw) was a Polish general and politician.

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Jānis Balodis

Jānis Balodis (20 February 1881 – 8 August 1965) was an army general, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Latvia (1919–1921), Minister of War (1931–1940) and politician who was one of the principal figures during the Latvian War of Independence and the dictatorship of Kārlis Ulmanis, when he officially was the number two of the regime as the Minister of War, Deputy Prime Minister and Vice President.

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Jānis Buivids

Jānis Buivids (8 September 1864 – 2 April 1937) was a general in the Latvian Army.

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Jānis Francis

Jānis Francis (July 3, 1877 – October 24, 1956) was a general of the Latvian Army, recipient of the Order of Lāčplēsis, the 3rd class.

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Jāzeps Grosvalds

Jazeps Grosvalds (Latvian: Jāzeps Grosvalds) (24 April 1891 – 1 February 1920) was a Latvian painter from Riga.

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Jean de Forcade de Biaix

Jean de Forcade de Biaix,Picamilh, Tome 1, Page 421 aka Jean de Forcade, Marquis de Biaix,Priesdorff, Band 1, Page 114, Nr.

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Jean Rémy

Jean Stanislas Rémy, commonly known as Jean Rémy, (Paris, October 3, 1899 - Toulouse, August 15, 1955) was a French colonel, a member of the Free French, and a Companion of the Liberation.

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Jeronimas Plečkaitis

Jeronimas Plečkaitis (10 December 1887 in Keturvalakiai, Russian Empire – 29 October 1963 in Pilviškiai, Lithuanian SSR) was a Lithuanian politician.

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Jerzy Świrski

Jerzy Włodzimierz Świrski (5 April 1882, Kalisz – 12 June 1959, London) was a Polish vice admiral and officer in the Russian Imperial Navy and later the Polish Navy.

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Jerzy Bordziłowski

Jerzy Bordziłowski (Юрий Вячеславович Бордзиловский; 1900-1983) was a Polish and Soviet military officer and communist politician.

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Johan Laidoner

Johan Laidoner (12 February 1884 – 13 March 1953) was an Estonian general and statesman.

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Johan Pitka

Johan Pitka, VR I/1, (19 February 1872 in Jalgsema, Järva County, Estonia – disappeared September 1944 in Läänemaa, Estonia) was a famous Estonian military commander from the Estonian War of Independence until World War II.

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Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky

Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky (21 November 1710 – 9 August 1775) was a Prussian merchant with a successful trade in trinkets, silk, taft, porcelain, grain and bills of exchange.

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Johann Georg von Browne

Count Johann Georg von Browne (or Johann Georg von Browne-Camus; 20 September 1767 – January 1827) was an officer in the Russian army, and settled in Vienna where he was a patron of Ludwig van Beethoven during the composer's early career.

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Johann Hermann von Fersen

Ivan Ivanovitch Hermann von Fersen (died 1801) was a Saxon-born infantry general who served from 1770 in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Johann Jakob Pistor

Johann Jakob von Pistor was an 18th-century German general who served in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Johann Ludwig Alexius von Loudon

Johann Ludwig Alexius von Loudon, born 10 January 1767 – died 22 September 1822, was the nephew of Feldmarschall Ernst Gideon von Laudon.

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Johann Martin von Elmpt

Field Marshal Ivan Karpovich Elmpt (Ива́н Ка́рпович Эльмпт, Johann-Martin von Elmpt; 1725) was a military officer of the Russian Empire.

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Johann Mickl

Johann Mickl (18 April 1893 – 10 April 1945) was an Austrian-born Generalleutnant and division commander in the German Army during World War II, and was one of only 882 recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves.

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Johannes Raudmets

Johannes Raudmets (also known as Ivan Ivanovich Raudmets) (January 1, 1892 – September 9, 1937) was an Estonian Soviet Komdiv (division commander).

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Johannes Soodla

Johannes Soodla (14 January 1897 in Kudina Parish, (now in Palamuse Parish) – 16 May 1965) was an Estonian military officer during World War I, Estonian War of Independence and World War II, serving in Kuperjanov's Partisan Battalion and the 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian).

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John Casimir Ehrnrooth

Johan Casimir Gustavovich Ehrnrooth (also Ernrot or Ehrnroth; 1833–1913) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish soldier in the service of Imperial Russia, who also acted as Prime Minister of Bulgaria.

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John Moberly (Royal Navy officer)

Captain John Moberly was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, of English parentage, in 1789.

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Joint Base McGuire–Dix–Lakehurst

Joint Base McGuire–Dix–Lakehurst (JB MDL) is a United States military facility located southeast of Trenton, New Jersey.

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Jonas Acus-Acukas

Jonas Asevicius-Acus-Acukas (July 29, 1885 in Jieznas – July 11, 1976 in Kaunas) was a Lithuanian army officer and chemist.

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Jonas Steponavičius

Jonas Steponavičius (10 March 1880 – 8 December 1947) was a Lithuanian Roman Catholic priest active in Lithuanian cultural and political life.

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José de Ribas

Josep de Ribas y Boyons (6 June 1749 –), known in Spanish as José Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons and in Russian as Iosif (Osip) Mikhailovich Deribas (Ио́сиф (О́сип) Миха́йлович Дериба́с), was a Neapolitan military officer in Russian service, who founded the city of Odessa.

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Josef (film)

Josef is 2011 Croatian drama and war film directed by Stanislav Tomić depicting war story of Austrian-Hungarian Croat soldier during World War I in 1915 in Galicia.

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Josef Schnitter

Josef Schnitter (Йосиф Шнитер, Yosif Shniter; 6 October 1852–26 April 1914) was a Czech–Bulgarian architect, engineer and geodesist credited with shaping the modern appearance of Plovdiv, Bulgaria's second-largest city.

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Joseph Achron

Joseph Yulyevich Achron, also seen as Akhron (Russian: Иосиф Юльевич Ахрон, Hebrew: יוסף אחרון) (May 13, 1886April 29, 1943) was a Russian-born Jewish composer and violinist, who settled in the United States.

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Joseph Carl von Anrep

Joseph Carl von Anrep (Иосиф Романович Анреп; Iosif Romanovich Anrep-Elmpt; 1796 – 28 June 1860) was a Russian general, of Baltic German descent, during the Crimean War.

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Joseph Galatte

Joseph Nikolajevič Galatte (Russian: Иосиф Николаевич Галатте; 1760 - 1816) was an Italian-born commander in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Joshua ben Aaron Zeitlin

Joshua ben Aaron Zeitlin (October 10, 1823, in Kiev – January 11, 1888, in Dresden), was the Jewish and Russian scholar and philanthropist.

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Joshua L. Goldberg

Joshua Louis Goldberg (January 6, 1896 – December 24, 1994) was a Belarusian-born American rabbi, who was the first rabbi to be commissioned as a U.S. Navy chaplain in World War II (and only the third to serve in the Navy in its history), the first to reach the rank of Navy Captain (the equivalent of Army Colonel), and the first to retire after a full active-duty career.

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Joshua Zeitlin

Joshua Zeitlin (1742 in Shklov, Belarus – August 18, 1822, in Kherson, Novorossiya) was a Russian rabbinical scholar and philanthropist.

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Jovan Šević

Jovan Šević or Ivan Šević (Јован Шевић, Иван Егорович Шевич; died) was an 18th-century military officer of Serb origin.

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Jukums Vācietis

Jukums Vācietis (Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис, Ioakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis; 11 November 1873 – 28 July 1938) was a Latvian Soviet military commander.

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Julius Aamisepp

Julius Aamisepp (1883–1950) was a Estonian horticulturalist, agricultural scientist, revolutionary, and soldier.

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Julius Kuperjanov

Julius Kuperjanov VR I/2, VR II/2 and VR II/3 (– 2 February 1919) was an Estonian military officer during the War of Independence and commander of the Tartumaa Partisan Battalion renamed after him posthumously.

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Juliusz Konstanty Ordon

Juliusz Konstanty Ordon (often referred to as Julian Konstanty Ordon; born in Warsaw, 16 October 1810, died in Florence, 4 May 1887) was a participant of the Polish November Uprising in 1830-1831.

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Juliusz Rómmel

Juliusz Karol Wilhelm Rómmel (3 June 1881 – 8 September 1967) was a Polish military commander, a general of the Polish Army and a member of the civil rights movement.

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July 1915

The following events occurred in July 1915.

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July 1916

The following events occurred in July 1916.

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July 31

No description.

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June 1915

The following events occurred in June 1915.

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Juozas Vitas

Juozas Vitas (real name Juozas Valūnas; 8 January 1899 – 1943) was a Lithuanian communist.

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Juozas Zikaras

Juozas Zikaras (November 18, 1881 – November 10, 1944) was a Lithuanian sculptor and artist, who created the design for pre-war Lithuanian litas coins.

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Kadish Luz

Kadish Luz (קדיש לוז, born Kadish Luzinski; 10 January 1895 – 4 December 1972) was an Israeli politician who served as Minister of Agriculture between 1955 and 1959 and Speaker of the Knesset from 1959 and 1969.

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Kaikhosro III Gurieli

Kaikhosro III Gurieli (ქაიხოსრო III გურიელი; died) was a member of the Georgian family of Gurieli, a princely dynasty of Guria.

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Kaikhosro IV Gurieli

Kaikhosro IV Gurieli (ქაიხოსრო IV გურიელი; died 1829) was a member of the House of Gurieli, a ruling dynasty of the Principality of Guria in western Georgia, which he de facto ruled as regent for his underage nephew Mamia V Gurieli from 1797 to 1809.

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Kakutsa Cholokashvili

Kaikhosro "Kakutsa" Cholokashvili (ქაიხოსრო ჩოლოყაშვილი; Kakoutsa Tcholokachvili; Кайхосро Чолокашвили, Kaikhosro Chelokayev) (July 14, 1888 – June 27, 1930) was a Georgian military officer and a commander of an anti-Soviet guerrilla movement in Georgia.

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Kalashnikov Concern

JSC Kalashnikov Concern (Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant until 2013) or IZHMASH (ИЖМАШ) is a Russian defense manufacturing concern and joint-stock company headquartered in the city of Izhevsk in the Republic of Udmurtia as well as the capital city of Moscow.

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Kalisch Review

The Kalisch Review was a set of military maneouvres held at Kalisz (then in the Congress of Poland) from 12 to 22 September 1835.

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Kapitan (rank)

Kapitan (derived from capitaine; before Latin: capitaneus – (military) leader, count, or chairman of a parish council; or from Latin: caput – head, main, chief, primary, principal, general, central, leading, etc.) is used manifold as rank, grade, or rank designation in the Army, Air Force or Navy of numerous countries and armed forces.

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Karl Ast

Karl Ast (pseudonym: Karl Rumor, 19 February 1886, Orava – 9 July 1971, New York City) was an Estonian writer and politician.

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Karl August Senff

Karl August Senff (12 March 1770 in Kreypau, Prussia – 2 January 1838 in Dorpat, Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire) was a Baltic German painter, engraver and teacher.

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Karl Clodt von Jürgensburg

Baron Karl Clodt von Jürgensburg (Russian: Карл Фёдорович Клодт фон Юргенсбург; 1765-1822) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Karl Fredrik Wilkama

Karl Fredrik Wilkama, born Wilkman, (27 March 1876 – 15 July 1947) was a Finnish General of the Infantry.

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Karl Friedrich Cerf

Karl Friedrich Cerf (February 27, 1771, Unter-Eisenheim-on-the-Main, Landkreis Würzburg, Germany - November 6, 1845, Berlin) was a German theatrical manager.

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Karl Friedrich Emil zu Dohna-Schlobitten

Karl Friedrich Emil zu Dohna-Schlobitten (4 March 1784 – 21 February 1859) was a Prussian field marshal.

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Karl Gustav von Baggovut

Karl Gustav von Baggehufwudt (Baggovut) (Карл Фёдорович Багговут., Carl Feodorovitš Baggovut (27(J:16) September 1761 in Perila, Estonia18 (J:06) October 1812) was a lieutenant general of the Russian Empire who took part both in Napoleonic Wars and Finnish War. His family was originally Norwegian, but had moved to Sweden in the 16th century, then to Estonia in the 17th century. He was seen as one of the bravest Russian generals and, on his death at the Battle of Tarutino (or Winkowo), Alexander I of Russia wrote to his widow, "I have lost a brave commander, useful to the fatherland".

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Karl Gustav von Strandmann

Karl Gustav von Strandmann (Штрандман, Карл Густавович; 1786–1855) was a Russian German military officer, a general of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Karl Ludwig von Phull

Karl Ludwig von Phull (or Pfuel) (6 November 1757 – 25 April 1826) was a German general in the service of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Empire.

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Karl Opperman

Count Karl Ivanovich Opperman (12 November 1766, Darmstadt - 2 July 1831, Vyborg) was a German-born engineer, surveyor, army officer and fortification builder in the service of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Karl Parts

Karl Parts VR I/1, VR II/2, VR II/3 (July 15, 1886 in Palupera Commune, Estonia – September 1, 1941 in Kirov, Soviet Union) was an Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Karl von Bistram

Baron Karl von Bistram or Karl Ivanovitch Bistrom (Russian: Карл Иванович Бистром; 1770, Bad Kissingen - 16 June 1838, Bad Kissingen) was a commander in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Karl von der Gröben

Karl von der Gröben (17 September 1788 – 13 July 1876) was a Prussian general.

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Karl Wilhelm von Toll

Count Karl Wilhelm von Toll (Карл Вильгельм Фёдорович Толль; 9 April 1777, Keskvere, Governorate of Estonia – 5 May 1842) was a Baltic German aristocrat and Russian subject who served in the Imperial Russian Army in the campaigns against the Napoleonic Army.

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Karol Anders

Karol Anders (8 September 1893 – 4 July 1971) was a Colonel in the cavalry of the Polish Army, brother of Lt. General Władysław Anders and Captain Tadeusz Anders, and double recipient of Poland's Virtuti Militari – IV and V Class.

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Karol Rómmel

Karol Rómmel (Карл Альфонсович Руммель, Karol von Rummel; 1888–1967) was a Polish and Russian military officer, sportsman and horse rider.

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Karol Ziemski

Karol Ziemski (24 May 1895 – 17 January 1974) (nom de guerre Wachnowski) was a general of the Polish Army, participant of the Polish September Campaign and the Warsaw Uprising, officer of the Home Army.

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Kasyan Chaykovsky

Kasyan Alexandrovich Chaykovsky (February 1893 – 23 April 1938) was a Red Army Komkor.

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Kazakhs

The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.

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Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire

Russian traders and soldiers began to appear on the northwestern edge of Kazakh territory in the 17th century, when Cossacks established the forts that later became the cities of Oral (Ural'sk) and Atyrau (Gur'yev).

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Kazimierz Pelczar

Kazimierz Pelczar (1894–1943) was a Polish academic and physician.

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Kazimierz Rumsza

Kazimierz Rumsza (1886–1970) was a Polish general.

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Kazimir Vasilevich Levitsky

Kazimir Vasilevich Levitsky (February 1835 – November 22, 1890) was an Imperial Russian general and division commander.

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Kazys Skučas

Kazys Skučas (3 March 1894 in Mauručiai, Marijampolė district – 30 July 1941 in the Butyrka prison) was a Lithuanian politician and General of the Lithuanian Army.

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Károly Kamermayer

Károly Kamermayer (14 May 1829 – 5 June 1897) was a Hungarian jurist and councillor, who served as the first mayor of Budapest between 1873 and 1896.

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Kārlis Lobe

Kārlis Lobe (26 March 1895 – 9 July 1985) was a Latvian officer in the Imperial Russian Army, Latvian Army and the Latvian Legion, recipient of the Order of the Three Stars.

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Kerch

Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.

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Keri (fedayi)

Arshak Gavafian, better known by his nom de guerre Keri (1858 – 15 May 1916), was an Armenian fedayee military commander and member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.

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Kermanshah

Kermanshah (کرمانشاه, کرماشان, Kirmashan; Kermānshāh; also known as Bākhtarān or Kermānshāhān), the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located from Tehran in the western part of Iran.

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Khapper

The Khappers were employed by the Kahals to fulfill the recruit quotas imposed on the Jewish communities from 1827 to 1857 in the Russian Empire.

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Kharkov Military District

The Kharkov Military District was a military district of the Russian Empire, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and the Soviet Union.

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Khevi

Khevi (ხევი) is a small historical-geographic area in northeastern Georgia.

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Khotyn

Khotyn (Хотин,; Hotin; see other names) is a city in Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine, and is the administrative center of Khotyn Raion within the oblast, and is located south-west of Kamianets-Podilskyi.

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Kiev Military District

The Kiev Military District was a military district of the Imperial Russian Army and subsequently of the Red Army and Soviet Armed Forces.

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Kije, Lubusz Voivodeship

Kije (Kay) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Sulechów, within Zielona Góra County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.

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Kirill Orlovsky

Kirill Prokofyevich Orlovsky (Кирилл Прокофьевич Орловский; – 13 January 1968) was a Soviet partisan commander, a functionary of the Soviet secret police, and the chairman of a major kolkhoz.

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Kirill Stuzke

Kirill Andeeevich Stutzke (Kirils Stucka; 1890–1938) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Kirov Plant

The Kirov Plant, Kirov Factory or Leningrad Kirov Plant (LKZ) (Kirovskiy Zavod) is a major Russian machine-building manufacturing plant in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Kliment Voroshilov

Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov; Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era.

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Kościuszko Uprising

The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.

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Koishikawa arsenal

The, formally was an arsenal in the Koishikawa area of Tokyo, on the grounds of today's Tokyo Dome City and the Koishikawa Kōrakuen Garden.

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Komandarm 1st rank

Komandarm 1st rank is the meaning of commanding (officer/general) of the Army 1st rank (Командующий армией; literal: Commander of the Army / Army commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR in the period from 1935 to 1940.

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Komandarm 2nd rank

Komandarm 2nd rank is the abbreviation to Commanding officer of the Army 2nd rank (Командующий армией; literal: Commander of the Army / Army commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR in the period from 1935 to 1940.

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Kone- ja Siltarakennus

Kone- ja Siltarakennus Oy ("Kone ja Silta";; "Maskin o. Bro") is a Finnish former engineering company based in Sörnäinen, Helsinki.

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Konrāds Ubāns

Konrāds Ubāns (December 31, 1893 – August 30, 1981) was a Latvian painter from Riga.

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Konstantin Avksentevsky

Konstantin Alekseyevich Avksentevsky (October 12, 1890 – November 2, 1941) was a Soviet army commander.

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Konstantin Chevkin

Konstantin Vladimirovitch Chevkin (1802–1875) was Minister of Transport in Imperial Russia, (1855–1862).

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Konstantin Dadiani

Prince Konstantin Dadiani (კონსტანტინე დადიანი, Константин Леванович Дадиани; 18 October 1819 – 25 April 1889) was a Georgian nobleman of the House of Dadiani and general of the Russian Imperial Army.

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Konstantin Danzas

Konstantin Karlovich Danzas (Константи́н Ка́рлович Данза́с) (1801 – February 3, 1870) was a Russian Major General, a friend of Alexander Pushkin, and his second in a duel with d'Anthès.

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Konstantin Golubev

Konstantin D Golubev (March 27, 1896 – June 9, 1956) was a Soviet general and army commander.

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Konstantin Koroteev

Konstantin Apollonovich Koroteev (Константин Аполлонович Коротеев; –4 January 1953) was a Soviet Army colonel general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Konstantin Lukich Gilchevsky

Konstantin Lukich Gilchevsky (March 5, 1857 – after 1927) was an Imperial Russian brigade, division and corps commander.

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Konstantin Mamontov

Konstantin Konstantinovich Mamontov (16 October 1869 – 14 February 1920) was a Russian military commander and famous general of the Don Cossacks, who fought in the White Army during the Russian Civil War.

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Konstantin Neumann

Konstantin Neumann (January 28, 1897 – November 5, 1937) He was born in what is now Jelgava, Latvia.

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Konstantin Päts

Konstantin Päts (– 18 January 1956) was the most influential politician of interwar Estonia, and served five times as the country's head of state.

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Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister from 1949 until his removal in 1956 during the Polish October.

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Konstantin Simonov

Konstantin Mikhailovich Simonov, born Kirill (Константи́н Миха́йлович Си́монов, – 28 August 1979), was a Soviet author and a war poet.

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Konstantin Smirnov

Konstantin Nikolaevich Smirnov (Константин Николаевич Смирнов), (19 May 1854 – 9 November 1930) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Konstantin Vakulovsky

Captain Konstantin Konstantinovich Vakulovsky (born 28 October 1894, died Summer 1918) was a World War I flying ace credited with six aerial victories.

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Konstantin Yurenev

Konstantin Konstantinovich Yurenev (Константи́н Константи́нович Юре́нев), also known as Konstantin Konstantinovich Krotovsky (Константин Константинович Кротовский) (1888 – 1 August 1938), was a Soviet politician and diplomat.

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Kostiukhnivka

Kostyukhnivka (Ukrainian: Костюхнівка, Polish: Kostiuchnówka) is a village in Volyn Oblast, Manevytskyi Raion of Ukraine.

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Kozakken Boys

Kozakken Boys is a football club from Werkendam in the Netherlands.

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Kozienice

Kozienice (קאזשניץ Kozhnits; Koschnitz) is a town in central Poland with 21,500 inhabitants (1995).

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Kozloduy

Kozloduy is a town of 13,771 inhabitants in northwest Bulgaria, located in Vratsa Province, on the Danube River.

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Kraków

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Kravtsov family (Don Cossacks)

Kravtsov (this family was a noble family Don Cossacks of a Polish origin. Owned the property in Bokovo-Platovo near Antratsyt. Anton Chekhov's first visit to the steppe was made in 1876 with the Kravtzoff family whose son - Pyotr Krawtzoff he tutored during his student days alone in Taganrog. During the Civil war in Russia a lot of members including old people, women's and kids was killed by Bolsheviks and in 1920s by Soviets. Today most part of family lives in city of Melbourn in Australia, several countries of Europe and United States.

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Krišjānis Berķis

Krišjānis Berķis (April 26, 1884 in Īslīce parish, Bauska municipality, Courland, modern Latvia – July 29, 1942 in Perm, Russia) was a Latvian general.

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Kronstadt

Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.

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Kryvyi Rih

Kryvyi Rih (krɪˈwɪj riɦ|lit.

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Kuban People's Republic

The Kuban People's Republic (Кубанская Народная Республика; Кубанська Народна Республiка) was an anti-Bolshevik state during the Russian Civil War, comprising the territory of the modern-day Kuban region in Russia.

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Kuperjanov Infantry Battalion

The Kuperjanov Infantry Battalion (Kuperjanovi jalaväepataljon) is a battalion of the Estonian Land Forces.

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Kutno

Kutno is a town located in central Poland with 44,718 inhabitants (2016) and an area of.

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Kyprian Kandratovich

Kyprian Antonovich Kandratovich (1859 – October 31, 1932) was an Imperial Russian corps commander.

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Lake Narach

Lake Narach (Нарач, Narač; На́рочь, Naročj; Narutis, Narocz) is a lake in north-western Belarus (Myadzyel Raion, Minsk Region), located in the basin of the Viliya river.

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Lake Naroch Offensive

The Lake Naroch Offensive in 1916 was an unsuccessful Russian offensive on the Eastern Front in World War I. It was launched at the request of Marshal Joseph Joffre and intended to relieve the German pressure on French forces.

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Lakehurst Maxfield Field

Lakehurst Maxfield Field, formerly known as Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst (NAES Lakehurst), is the naval component of Joint Base McGuire–Dix–Lakehurst (JB MDL), a United States Air Force–managed joint base headquartered approximately east-southeast of Trenton in Manchester Township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States.

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Lambros Katsonis

Lambros Katsonis (Λάμπρος Κατσώνης; Ламброс Кацонис; 1752–1804) was a Greek revolutionary hero of the 18th century; he was also a knight of the Russian Empire and an officer with the rank of colonel in the Imperial Russian Army (or Navy), decorated with an Order of St. George, IV class medal.

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Lamed Shapiro

Levi Yehoshua Shapiro (Yiddish: ל. שאַפּיראָ, born 1878, died 1948), better known as "Lamed Shapiro", (lamed is the Yiddish name of the letter ל), was an American Yiddish author.

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Lancer

A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance.

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Lanchester 4×2 Armoured Car

The Lanchester Armoured Car was a British armoured car derived from the Lanchester Sporting Forty touring produced during the First World War.

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Lankaran

Lankaran (Lənkəran) is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran.

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Latvian Riflemen

Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki, Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population.

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Lavr Kornilov

Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов,; 18 August 1870 – 13 April 1918) was a Russian military intelligence officer, explorer, and general of Siberian Cossack origin in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War.

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László Hudec

László Ede Hudec or Ladislav Hudec (Hugyecz László Ede) (Banská Bystrica, Austria-Hungary January 8, 1893 – Berkeley, October 26, 1958) was a Hungarian–Slovak architect active in Shanghai from 1918 to 1945 and responsible for some of that city's most notable structures.

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Lebaudy Frères

Lebaudy Frères was a French sugar producer based in Moisson, France.

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Lena massacre

The Lena Massacre or Lena Execution (Ленский расстрел, Lenskiy rasstrel) refers to the shooting of goldfield workers on strike in northeast Siberia near the Lena River on.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Leon Berbecki

Leon Berbecki (28 July 1875, Lublin – 23 March 1963, Gliwice) was a Polish army officer, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and World War I with the Imperial Russian Army.

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Leon Billewicz

Leon Billewicz (April 25, 1870 in Werbiczna – April 1940) was a Polish officer and a General of the Polish Army.

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Leonard Skierski

Leonard Wilhelm Skierski (26 April 1866 – 1940) was a Polish military officer and a general of the Imperial Russian Army and then the Polish Army.

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Leonas Bistras

Leonas Bistras (20 October 1890 in Liepāja – 17 October 1971 in Kaunas) was one of the most prominent Lithuanian politicians of the interwar period.

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Leonid Gobyato

Leonid Nikolaevich Gobyato (Леонид Николаевич Гобято) (6 February 1875 – 21 May 1915) was a lieutenant-general (awarded posthumously in 1915) in the Imperial Russian Army and designer of the modern, man-portable mortar.

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Leonid Kannegisser

Leonid Akimovic Kannegisser (Russian: Леони́д Иоаки́мович Каннегисер, March 1896 – October 1918) was a Russian poet and military cadet, known for assassinating Moisei Uritsky, chief of the Cheka in Petrograd, on 17 August 1918.

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Leonid Khabarov

Leonid Khabarov (p; born May 8, 1947) is a former Soviet military officer whose battalion was the first Soviet Army unit to cross the border into the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan on December 25, 1979, serving as the de facto beginning of the decade-long Soviet war in Afghanistan.

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Leonid Lesh

Leonid Vilgelmovich Lesh (Russian, Леонид Вильгельмович Леш, January 9, 1862 – August 28, 1934) was an Imperial Russian army commander.

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Leonid Pasternak

Leonid Osipovich Pasternak (born Yitzhok-Leib, or Isaak Iosifovich, Pasternak; Леони́д О́сипович Пастерна́к, 3 April 1862 (N.S.) – 31 May 1945) was a Russian post-impressionist painter.

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Leonid Sobolev

Leonid Nikolayevich Sobolev (Леонид Николаевич Соболев) (9 June 1844 – 13 October 1913) was an Imperial Russian Army general and politician.

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Leonid Veyner

Leonid Jakovlevich Veyner (March 17, 1897 – November 26, 1937) was a Soviet general, born in Horlivka, who was given the rank of Komkor on November 21, 1935.

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Leonty Cheremisov

Leonty Georgiyevich Cheremisov (Леонтий Георгиевич Черемисов; 1 July 1893 – 17 November 1967) was a Soviet Red Army commander and general who led the 16th Army in the Soviet Far East during World War II from 1943 to 1945.

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Leonty Ugryumov

Leonty Ugyumov (1887 – August 14, 1937) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Leopold I of Belgium

Leopold I (Léopold Ier; German and Leopold I; 16 December 1790 – 10 December 1865) was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830.

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Lev Mikhailovich Yashvil

Prince Lev Mikhailovich Yashvil (Лев Михайлович Яшвиль), also known as Levan Mikheilis dze Iashvili (ლევან მიხეილის ძე იაშვილი) (1772 - April 19, 1836) was a Georgian nobleman and a general of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Levidis family

Levidis (Λεβίδης) is the name of a family of old Byzantine aristocratic origin, hailing from Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and with a distinguished role in the history of the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, Wallachia, and modern Greece.

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Lidia Veselitskaya

Lidia Ivanovna Veselitskaya (Ли́дия Ива́новна Весели́тская), March 17, 1857 – February 23, 1936) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, memoirist, and translator who used the pseudonyms V. Mikulich (В.) and L. Chernavina (Л.).

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Liepāja

Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.

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Lifeguard (military)

Leibgarde (also life-guard, or household troops) has been, since the 15th century, the designation for the military security guards who protected Fürsten (royals and nobles) — usually members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and later its former territory — from danger.

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Lifeguard Jaeger Regiment

His Majesty Lifeguard Regiment («Лейб-гвардии Егерский Его Величества полк»), short also Lifeguard Jaeger Regiment (or: LG Jaeger Regiment), was a Jaeger regiment of the Russian Imperial Guard from 1796 to 1917.

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Light infantry

Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.

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Lipka Tatars

The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.

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List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft before 1925

This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred.

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List of ambulance drivers during World War I

This is a list of notable people who served as ambulance drivers during the First World War.

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List of Azerbaijani generals

This is a list of notable Azerbaijani generals and admirals, which is arranged alphabetically.

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List of Don Cossacks noble families

Noble families of Don Cossacks in alphabetical order includes the old original Cossack noble families from Free Don, families which titles were granted by the Tsars of Moskovia and Russian Imperators after including of the territories of Free Don in to Russian Imperium.

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List of former Estonian commanders

This is a list of the former Estonian commanders, which also includes the Estonian officers who have served in the Imperial Russian Army, Wehrmacht, Waffen SS and the military commanders, who have retired since the restoration of the Republic of Estonia in 1991.

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List of former Latvian commanders

This is a list of the former Latvian commanders, which also includes the Latvian officers who have served in the Imperial Russian Army, Wehrmacht, Waffen SS and the military commanders, who have retired since the restoration of the Republic of Latvia in 1991.

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List of generals of the Lithuanian Army

List of generals of the Lithuanian Army includes people that were awarded the rank of general by the independent Republic of Lithuania in 1918–40 or since 1990.

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List of Imperial Russian Army Don Cossack regiments

The Imperial Army of the Russian Empire fielded numerous cavalry regiments from the Don Cossack Host until the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II in 1917, at which point many fought in the Russian Civil War and were finally disbanded after the fall of the White movement to the Bolsheviks.

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List of infantry divisions of the Soviet Union 1917–57

This is a list of infantry divisions of the Soviet Union 1917–1957.

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List of massacres of Azerbaijanis

The following is a list of massacres of Azerbaijanis that have occurred throughout history.

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List of orders of battle

This is a list of orders of battle, which list the known military units that were located within the field of operations for a battle or campaign.

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List of people on the postage stamps of Russia

Stamp issues are described in the following general format: Year of issue: Catalogue number 1, Catalogue number 2.

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List of Prime Ministers of Bulgaria

This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Bulgarian state, from the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria to the present day.

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List of Russian people

This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other predecessor states of Russia.

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List of shipwrecks in 1854

The list of shipwrecks in 1854 includes at least some of the ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during 1854.

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List of titles and honours of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

This is a list of the titles and honours held by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, a senior officer of the British Army, Governor General of Canada, and member of the British Royal Family as third son of Queen Victoria.

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Livadiya, Crimea

Livadiya (Лівадія, Ливадия, Livadiia) is an urban-type settlement in Yalta Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea; a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine but incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

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Logone-Birni

Logone-Birni is a town and commune in Cameroon.

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Lucjan Żeligowski

Lucjan Żeligowski (1865–1947) was a Polish general, politician, military commander and veteran of World War I, the Polish-Soviet War and World War II.

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Ludvigs Bolšteins

Ludvigs Bolšteins (February 5, 1888 – June 21, 1940) was a Latvian general.

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Ludwig August Mellin

Count Ludwig August Mellin (23 January 1754 in Tuhala, Governorate of Reval – 12 March 1835 in Riga, Governorate of Livonia) was a Baltic German politician, cartographer, writer and publicist.

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Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn

Ludwig Georg Thedel, Graf von Wallmoden (6 February 1769 in Vienna – 22 March 1862 in Vienna) was an Austrian "General of the Cavalry", best known for his training of light infantry and the refinement of the Tirailleur system.

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Ludwig von Wolzogen

Justus Philipp Adolf Wilhelm Ludwig Freiherr von Wolzogen (4 February 1773 – 4 July 1845) was a Württembergian military officer, who served during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Ludwik Idzikowski

Ludwik Idzikowski (August 24, 1891 – July 13, 1929) was a Polish military aviator.

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Ludwik Malinowski (resistance fighter)

Ludwik Malinowski (nom de guerre Lew of Przebraze, 1887-1962) was a Polish resistance fighter.

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Luka Basanets

Luka Herasymovych Basanets (Лука Герасимович Басанець, Лука Герасимович Басанец; 1898 - 1962) was a Soviet military officer who led the Red Army's 140th Rifle Division, shattered by the German invasion of the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941.

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Lviv

Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.

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Lyaskovets

Lyaskovets (Лясковец) is a town in central northern Bulgaria, located in homonymous municipality of Veliko Tarnovo Province, 10 km northeast of Veliko Tarnovo, 2 km southeast of Gorna Oryahovitsa and 5 km south of the Yantra River, north of the Balkan Mountains.

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Maciej Sulkiewicz

Maciej (Suleyman bey) Sulkiewicz (Мацей Аляксандравіч Сулькевіч, Süleyman bəy Sulkeviç; 20 June 1865, Kiemiejšy, now Voranava District, Grodno Region, Belarus – 15 July 1920, Baku) was a lieutenant general of the Russian Empire, Prime Minister of Crimea (1918), and Chief of General Staff of Azerbaijani Armed Forces in 1918–20.

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Madeleine Radziwiłł

Princess Maria Madeleine Radziwiłł (born Marie-Eve-Madeleine-Josephus-Elizabeth-Apollonia-Catherine Zawisza-Kierżgajło; 1861 Warsaw – 1945 Fribourg) was a Polish–Belarussian aristocrat who financed many Catholic works.

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Madsen machine gun

The Madsen was a light machine gun that Julius A. Rasmussen and Theodor Schoubue designed and proposed for adoption by Colonel Vilhelm Herman Oluf Madsen, the Danish Minister of War, and that the Danish Army adopted in 1902.

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Magaza Masanchi

Magaza Masanchi (1886–1937; Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), Magaza Masanchin (Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), or Ma Sanqi, was a Dungan Communist revolutionary commander and Statesman in the Soviet Union.

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Makar Teryokhin

Makar Fomich Teryokhin (– 30 March 1967) was a Soviet Army lieutenant general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Maksim Purkayev

Maksim Alexeyevich Purkayev (Максим Алексеевич Пуркаев; August 14 (26), 1894, in the village of Nalitovo, Russian Empire – January 1, 1953, Moscow) was a Soviet military leader, reaching service rank of Army General.

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Mammad Hasan agha Javanshir

Mammad Hasan agha Sarijali Javanshir (Məhəmmədhəsən ağa Sarıcalı-Cavanşir) was a Russian military leader, major-general, son and heir of Ibrahimkhalil khan of Karabakh, father of major-general, public figure and poet Jafargulu agha Javanshir.

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Mannheim

Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.

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March Days

The March Days, or March Events, refers to inter-ethnic strife and massacres of about 12,000 Azerbaijanis and other Muslims that took place between 30 March – 2 April 1918 in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.

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Marching regiment

A regiment de marche (roughly 'marching regiment' in English) is a French temporary (provisional not permanent), regiment created for a specific campaign or other military purpose.

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Marcian Germanovich

Marcian Germanovich (October 29, 1895 – September 20, 1937) was a Soviet division commander and Komkor (corps commander).

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Maria (play)

The play Maria, a portrait of the sordid underbelly of Soviet society during the Russian Civil War, was written by Isaac Babel during the mid-1930s.

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Marie Rambert

Dame Marie Rambert, Mrs Dukes DBE (20 February 188812 June 1982) was a Polish-born dancer and pedagogue who exerted great influence on British ballet, both as a dancer and teacher.

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Marițica Bibescu

Marițica Bibescu, born Maria Văcărescu, also known as Marițica Ghica (August 1, 1815 – September 27, 1859), was the Princess-consort of Wallachia between September 1845 and June 1848.

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Mariiampil

Mariiampil (Маріямпіль), or formerly Marynopil (Маринопіль) is a village (a former township) in the Halych Raion of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province) on the left bank of the Dnister.

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Mark Rothko

Mark Rothko, born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz (Ма́ркус Я́ковлевич Ротко́вич, Markuss Rotkovičs; September 25, 1903 – February 25, 1970), was an American painter of Russian Jewish descent.

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Mark Slonim

Mark Lvovich Slonim (Марк Льво́вич Сло́ним, also known as Marc Slonim and Marco Slonim; March 23, 1894 Giuseppina Giuliano,, entry; retrieved October 15, 2015 – 1976) was a Russian politician, literary critic, scholar and translator.

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Martin Wetzer

Martin Wetzer (7 August 1868 – 29 September 1954) was a Finnish jurist and general.

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Mary, Turkmenistan

Mary, formerly named Merv, Meru and Margiana, is a city on an oasis in the Karakum Desert, located on the Murghab river.

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Matvei Vasilenko

Matvei Ivanovich Vasilenko (November 25, 1888 – July 1, 1937) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Max Reyter

Max Andreyevich Reyter (Макс Андреевич Рейтер, Maksis Reiters; – 6 April 1950) Alternative transliterations found in English-language sources include Reiter and Reuter.

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Maxim gun

The Maxim gun was a weapon invented by American-born British inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1884: it was the first recoil-operated machine gun in production.

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Maxim Stepanov

Maxim Osipovich Stepanov (August 1893 – 25 September 1945) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Maximilian Meyer Heine

Maximilian Meyer Heine (November 6, 1807 - November 6, 1879) was a German doctor, who served with the Russian Army during the Russo-Turkish War and who later became a Russian state councilor.

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May 1915

The following events occurred in May 1915.

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Mārtiņš Peniķis

Mārtiņš Peniķis (1874–1964) was a Latvian general and commander in chief of Latvian Army from 1928 to 1934.

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Mehmandarov

The Mehmandarovs are noble family of Azerbaijan.

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Meir Dizengoff

Meir Dizengoff (מאיר דיזנגוף, Меер Янкелевич Дизенгоф Meer Yankelevich Dizengof, 25 February 1861 – 23 September 1936) was a Zionist politician and the first mayor of Tel Aviv (1911-1922 as head of town planning, 1922-1936 as mayor).

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Melnik, Bulgaria

Melnik (Мелник, Μελένικο, Meleniko) is a town in Blagoevgrad Province, southwestern Bulgaria, in the southwestern Pirin Mountains, about 440 m above sea level.

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Mexican wine

Mexican wine and wine making began with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, when they brought vines from Europe to modern day Mexico, the oldest wine-growing region in the Americas.

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Michał Heydenreich

Michał Jan Heydenreich (Heidenreich), also known under the pseudonym Kruk, (19 September 1831, Warsaw, Russian Empire – 9 April 1886, Lviv) was a Polish general who took part in the January Uprising.

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Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly

Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.

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Michael Stroukoff

Michael Stroukoff was a Russian-born aircraft designer, who served in the White Army before emigrating to the United States.

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Michail G. Khomutov

Michael Grigorievich Khomutov (1795—1864), was a Russian General of the cavalry and adjutant general and an Earl (Hаказной атаман) of the Don Cossacks in 1848—1862.

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Michail Komninos Afentoulief

Michail Komneinos Afentoulief or Afentoulis (Μιχαήλ Κομνηνός Αφεντούλιεφ/Αφεντούλης) was a Greek who lived in Russia and served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Michman

Michman (p) is a Russian and Soviet Navy rank.

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Mieczysław Mackiewicz

Mieczysław Mackiewicz (9 May 1880 near Kowno – 6 August 1954 in Bangor, Wales) was a Polish general.

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Mihail Kogălniceanu

Mihail Kogălniceanu (also known as Mihail Cogâlniceanu, Michel de Kogalnitchan; September 6, 1817 – July 1, 1891) was a Moldavian, later Romanian liberal statesman, lawyer, historian and publicist; he became Prime Minister of Romania on October 11, 1863, after the 1859 union of the Danubian Principalities under Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza, and later served as Foreign Minister under Carol I. He was several times Interior Minister under Cuza and Carol.

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Mihailo Olćan

Mihailo Olćan (Михаило Олћан; 18 September 1894 – 21 November 1961) was a Serbian soldier and politician.

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Mikhail Alafusov

Mikhail Ivanovich Alafusov (1891 – July 13, 1937) was a Soviet general who received the title of Komkor on November 11, 1935.

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Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bonch-Bruevich

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bonch-Bruevich (a, 22 February 1888 – 7 March 1940), sometimes spelled Bonch-Bruyevich, was a Russian engineer, scientist, and professor.

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Mikhail Alekseyev

Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev (Михаил Васильевич Алексеев) (3 November 1857 – 8 October 1918) was an Imperial Russian Army general during World War I and the Russian Civil War.

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Mikhail Artemyevich Muravyov

Mikhail Artemyevich Muravyov (Михаи́л Арте́мьевич Муравьёв) (– July 11, 1918) was a Russian officer who changed sides during the time of the Civil War. He was born in a village of Burdukovo, near Vetluga Kostroma Governorate to a peasant family. In 1898 he entered the army, serving in the Russo-Japanese War and World War I, in which he was a lieutenant colonel on the Southwestern Front. After the February Revolution he organized volunteer units to continue the war, but he became disaffected from the Provisional Government and joined the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries. During the October Revolution he defended Petrograd against the forces of Alexander Kerensky. In January 1918 he led Red Guard units against the Central Rada of Ukraine and after the Battle of Kruty his forces took Kiev where they performed mass terror against the offices of the imperial army and pro-Ukrainian elements. Then his forces fought against the Don Cossack forces of General Kaledin. However, after he had been named commander of the eastern front, fighting the Czechoslovak Legion, he heard of the Left SR uprising against the Bolsheviks in early July and rebelled, sailing down the Volga with a thousand men, hoping to take Simbirsk. He was captured by the Bolsheviks, resisted arrest, and was shot while trying to draw a gun.

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Mikhail Batorsky

Mikhail Alexandrovich Batorsky (25 January 1890 8 February 1938) was a Red Army Komkor.

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Mikhail Batyanov

Mikhail Ivanovich Batyanov (Михаил Иванович Батьянов.) (1835 - 5 December 1916) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Mikhail Belyaev

Mikhail Alekseyevich Belyaev (Михаи́л Алексе́евич Беля́ев; December 23, 18631918) was a Russian general of the Infantry, statesman, Chief of Staff of the Imperial Russian Army from August 1, 1914 to August 10, 1916, and was the last Minister of War of the Russian Empire from January 3, 1917 to February 28, 1917.

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Mikhail Demichev

Mikhail Demichev (1885 – November 19, 1937) was a Soviet Komdiv (division commander).

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Mikhail Diterikhs

Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs (Михаи́л Константи́нович Ди́терихс; Michael Dieterichs; May 17, 1874, Kiev – 9 September 1937) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army and subsequently a key figure in the White movement in Siberia during the Russian Civil War, noted in particular for his monarchist views.

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Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov

Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Горчако́в; –, Warsaw) was a Russian General of the Artillery from the Gorchakov family, who commanded the Russian forces in the latter stages of the Crimean War and later served as a Namestnik of Kingdom of Poland from 1856 until his death.

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Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich

Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Бонч-Бруе́вич; – 3 August 1956) was an Imperial Russian and Soviet military commander, Lieutenant General (1944).

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Mikhail Dragomirov

Mikhail Ivanovich Dragomirov (Михаил Иванович Драгомиров; –) was a Russian general and military writer.

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Mikhail Drozdovsky

Mikhail Gordeevich Drozdovsky (Михаил Гордеевич Дроздовский) (October 7, 1881 – January 1, 1919) was a Russian army officer and one of the military leaders of the anti-Bolshevik White movement during the Russian Civil War.

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Mikhail Gromov (military)

Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gromov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Гро́мов; 23 February 1899 – 22 January 1985) a Russian and Soviet military aviator, test pilot and researcher, Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Mikhail Hatskilevich

Mikhail G Hatskilevich (November 21, 1895 – June 25, 1941) was a Soviet Kombrig (brigade commander) and division commander.

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Mikhail Kalatozov

Mikhail Konstantinovich Kalatozov (მიხეილ კალატოზიშვილი, Михаи́л Константи́нович Калато́зов) (28 December 1903 – 27 March 1973), born Mikheil Kalatozishvili, was a Soviet film director of Georgian origin who contributed to both Georgian and Russian cinema.

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Mikhail Kanashev

Mikhail Ivanovich Kanashev (Михаил Иванович Канашев; 4 September, 1866, Orenburg Governorate — after 1917) was a wachtmeister of the Imperial Russian Army, a head of a village (stanytsia otaman) and a deputy of the Fourth Imperial Duma from the Orenburg Governorate between 1912 and 1917.

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Mikhail Kozakov

Mikhail Mikhailovich Kozakov (in Russian: Михаил Михайлович Козаков) (14 October 1934, Leningrad – 22 April 2011, Ramat Gan) was a Soviet, Russian and Israeli film and theatre director and actor.

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Mikhail Krichevsky

Mikhail Efimovich Krichevsky (Михайло Юхимович Кричевський, Михаил Ефимович Кричевский; 25 February 1897, Karlovka, Poltava Governorate, Russian Empire – 26 December 2008, Donetsk, Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine) was a Jewish-Ukrainian supercentenarian and the last surviving World War I veteran who fought for the Russian Empire.

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Mikhail Kutuzov

Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.

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Mikhail Kvetsinsky

Mikhail Fyodorovich Kvetsinsky (Михаи́л Фёдорович Квецинский) (January 3, 1866 – March 31, 1923), also known as Michael (von) Kwetzinsky, was a Russian officer and a military administrator. He held notable command posts in the Russian Far East, during the Russo-Japanese War, during the First World War and during the Russian Civil War, when he was one of the leaders of the White Army of the North during the North Russia Intervention. Kvetsinsky became a Major-General in 1910 and a Lieutenant-General in 1915. He fled to Norway together with his superior Yevgeny Miller in 1920 and lived as a cab driver and labourer at a brewery at Lillehammer until his death three years later. His son Wassily von Kwetzinsky became a music critic and cultural figure in Norway. The Norwegian pianist Joachim Kwetzinsky is a stepson of his grandson.

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Mikhail Levandovsky

Mikhail Karlovich Levandovsky (May 15, 1890 – July 29, 1938, Левандовский, Михаил Карлович) was a Soviet Komandarm 2nd rank.

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Mikhail Loris-Melikov

Count Mikhail Tarielovich Loris-Melikov (Միքայել Լորիս-Մելիքով; – 24 December 1888) was a Russian-Armenian statesman, General of the Cavalry, and Adjutant General of H. I. M. Retinue.

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Mikhail Matyushkin

Mikhail Athanas'evich Matyushkin (Михаил Афанасьевич Матюшкин; 1676-1737) was a general of the Russian Empire during the reign of Peter the Great.

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Mikhail Meandrov

Mikhail Alekseyvich Meandrov (Михаил Алексеевич Меандров) (October 22, 1894, Moscow - August 1, 1946, Moscow) was an Imperial Russian and later Soviet officer.

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Mikhail Meshcheryakov

Mikhail Mikhailovich Meshcheryakov (November 20, 1896 – May 13, 1970) was a Red Army major general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Mikhail Mirkovich

Mikhail Fedorivich Mirkovich (September 17, 1836 – March 24, 1891) was an Imperial Russian regimental commander.

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Mikhail Pavlovich Danilov

Mikhail Pavlovich Danilov (15 May 1825 – 17 January 1906) was an Imperial Russian general and corps commander.

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Mikhail Sangursky

Mikhail Sangursky (1894 – 28 July 1938) was a Soviet division commander and Komkor (corps commander).

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Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov

Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov (Михаи́л Семёнович Воронцо́в; &ndash) was a Russian prince and field-marshal, renowned for his success in the Napoleonic wars and most famous for his participation in the Caucasian War from 1844 to 1853.

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Mikhail Skobelev

Mikhail Dmitriyevich Skobelev (29 September 1843 – 7 July 1882) was a Russian general famous for his conquest of Central Asia and heroism during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

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Mikhail Slonimsky

Mikhail Leonidovich Slonimsky (Михаи́л Леони́дович Слони́мский; – 8 October 1972) was a Soviet writer, member of the Serapion Brothers group.

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Mikhail Sokovin

Mikhail Sokovin (Russian, Михаил Алексеевич Соковнин, 18 October 1863 – 1943) was an Imperial Russian army commander.

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Mikhail Svechnikov

Mikhail Stepanovich Svechnikov (30 September 1882 – 26 August 1938) was a Russian military officer in the Imperial Russian Army and the Red Army.

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Mikhail Timofeyevich Romanov

Mikhail Timofeyevich Romanov (21 November 1891July 1943) was a Red Army Major general.

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Mikhail Tukhachevsky

Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.

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Mikhail Vrubel

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Вру́бель; March 17, 1856 – April 14, 1910, all n.s.) is usually regarded amongst the Russian painters of the Symbolist movement and of Art Nouveau.

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Mikhail Zasulich

Mikhail Ivanovich Zasulich (Михаи́л Ива́нович Засу́лич) (December 24, 1843 – 1910) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army, noted for his role as commander of the Russian 2nd Siberian Army Corps in the Battle of the Yalu River, of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905.

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Mikhaylo Parashchuk

Mikhaylo Parashchuk (Михайло Паращук; Михайло Парашчук; 16 November 1878 – 24 December 1963) was a Ukrainian sculptor who was active in Bulgaria from 1921 to his death.

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Milan I of Serbia

Milan Obrenović (Милан Обреновић; 22 August 1854 – 11 February 1901) was the ruler of Serbia from 1868 to 1889, first as prince (1868-1882), subsequently as king (1882-1889).

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Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of Russia

The Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation serves as the official service of military bands in active service within the Russian Armed Forces and formerly the Soviet Armed Forces.

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Military colours, standards and guidons

In military organizations, the practice of carrying colours, standards or guidons, both to act as a rallying point for troops and to mark the location of the commander, is thought to have originated in Ancient Egypt some 5,000 years ago.

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Military districts of the Russian Empire

In the Imperial Russian Army, a military district (вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) was a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments.

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Military Engineering-Technical University

The Saint Petersburg Military Engineering-Technical University (Nikolaevsky) (Санкт-Петербургский Военный инженерно-технический университет, VITU), previously known as the Saint Petersburg Nikolaevsky Engineering Academy, was established in 1810 under Alexander I.

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Military history of the Russian Empire

The military history of the Russian Empire encompasses the history of armed conflict in which the Russian Empire participated.

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Military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth evolved from the merger of the armies of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania following the 1569 Union of Lublin, which formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Military prison, Novocherkassk

The Military prison building (r) is the former guardhouse of the Imperial Russian Army in Novocherkassk, Rostov oblast, Russia and the current military commandant's headquarters of the city.

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Military ranks of the Soviet Union

The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917.

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Military science

Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.

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Military settlement

Military settlements (Военные поселения) represented a special organization of the Russian military forces in 1810–1857, which allowed the combination of military service and agricultural employment.

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Miliza Korjus

Miliza Elizabeth Korjus (August 18, c.1905– August 26, 1980) was a Polish-born ethnic Estonian coloratura soprano opera singer, who later appeared in Hollywood films.

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Minay Shmyryov

Minay Filippovich Shmyryov (Міна́й Пілі́павіч Шмыро́ў, Мина́й Фили́ппович Шмырёв; 23 December 18913 September 1964), also transliterated as Minay Shmyrev and Minai Shmyrev, was one of the leaders of the Belarusian partisan resistance against the German occupation during World War II.

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Ministry of Defence (Bulgaria)

The Ministry of Defence (Министерство на отбраната, Ministerstvo na otbranata) of Bulgaria is the ministry charged with regulating the Bulgarian Armed Forces.

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Ministry of Interior (Bulgaria)

The Ministry of Interior (Bulgarian: Mинистерство на вътрешните работи, Ministerstvo na vutreshnite raboti, abbreviated МВР, MVR) of the Republic of Bulgaria is the ministry charged with the national security and the upholding of law and order in the country.

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Mirza Adigozal bey

Mirza Adigozal bey (Mirzə Adıgözəl bəy; 1780s – September 9, 1848) was an Azerbaijani historian of the 19th century, author of the Garabaghname.

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Mkhitar Djrbashian

Mkhitar Djrbashian (also M. M. Dzhrbashjan, M. M. Jerbashian; Russian: Мхитар Мкртичевич Джрбашян; Armenian: Մխիթար Մկրտչի Ջրբաշյան.

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Modest Romiszewski

Modest Romiszewski (29 July 1861 in Warsaw - 7 October 1930 in Warsaw) was a Polish general, son of Imperial Russian Army general Władysław Romiszewski and Anna Dżakeli.

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Mogilev

Mogilev (or Mahilyow; Магілёў,; Łacinka: Mahiloŭ; Могилёв,; מאָליעוו, Molyev) is a city in eastern Belarus, about from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast.

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Mohammad Hossein Mirza Firouz

Prince Mohammad Hossein Mirza Firouz (1894-?) KCVO (1919) was Iranian prince of Qajar Dynasty.

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Moisei Uritsky

Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky (Моисей Соломонович Урицкий; &ndash) was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader in Russia.

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Monument to heroes of World War I (Rostov-on-Don)

Monument to heroes of the First World War ― is one of the monuments in the city of Rostov-on-Don, dedicated to the soldiers and officers of the Russian Imperial Army who gought in the First World War.

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Monument to Sergey Markov

Monument to General Sergey Markov ― a monument to Sergey Leonidovich Markov, Lieutenant-General of the Imperial Russian Army, hero of Russian-Japanese War and World War I and one of the leaders of the White movement.

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Moritz von Auffenberg

Moritz Auffenberg, from 1869 Ritter von Auffenberg, from 1915 Freiherr Auffenberg von Komarów (22 May 1852 – 18 May 1928) was a general of infantry for the Austro-Hungarian Army and Minister of War.

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Mortar (weapon)

A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.

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Moscow Military District

The Moscow Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

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Moskal

Moskal (Russian and москаль, маскаль, moskal, muszka, maskolis; muscal) is a historical designation used for the residents of the Grand Duchy of Moscow from the 12th-18th centuries.

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Mostowski Palace

Mostowski Palace (Pałac Mostowskich) is an 18th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland, located at ul.

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Mount Elbrus

Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Miñi taw,; Ӏуащхьэмахуэ, ’Wāśhamāxwa) is the highest mountain in Europe, and the tenth most prominent peak in the world.

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Mounted archery

A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback.

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Murmańczycy

Murmańczycy (Murmansk Group or Murmanians) was a common name for Polish military formations which fought against the Bolsheviks in the area of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, northern Russia, in 1918–1919.

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Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko

Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko (Михайло Омелянович Павленко; 8 December 1878 – 29 May 1952) was the Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA) and of the Army of the Ukrainian National Republic.

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Mykola Markevych

Mykola Andriyovych Markevych (Микола Маркевич) (7 February 1804 – 21 June 1860) was a Ukrainian musician, composer, historian, ethnographer, and poet.

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Mykola Mikhnovsky

Mykola Ivanovich Mikhnovsky (March 31, 1873 – May 3, 1924) was a Ukrainian political and social activist, lawyer, journalist, founder, ideologue and leader of a Ukrainian independence movement in the late 19th - early 20th century.

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Mykola Yunakiv

Mykola Yunakiv (Микола Юнаків) (December 6, 1871 Chuhuiv, Kharkov Governorate – August 1, 1931 Tarnów, Poland) was a Ukrainian general, military pedagogue.

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Nadvirna

Nadvírna, also referred to as Nadwirna or Nadvorna (Надві́рна, Polish: Nadwórna, נאַדוואָרנאַ, Nadvorna) is a city located in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast in western Ukraine.

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Nakhchivan (city)

Nakhchivan (Naxçıvan, Նախիջևան) is the capital of the eponymous Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, located west of Baku.

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Nakhichevan Khanate

The Nakhchivan Khanate (خانات نخجوان — Khānāt-e Nakhchevān) was a khanate that was established in Afsharid Persia in 1747.

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Name of Russia (Russia TV)

Name of Russia (Имя Россия, "The Name Russia") was a project of the Russia TV channel aimed to elect the most notable personality in Russian history through Internet, radio and television voting.

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National Association of Russian Explorers

The National Association of Russian Explorers (NORR; in Russian: Национальная Организация Русских Разведчиков (НОРР), Natsional'naya Organizatsiya Russkih Razvedchikov, НОРР) is a youth organization founded by former Russian Scout Pavel Nikolaevich Bogdanovich, a White emigre and veteran of the Russian Imperial army, in the late 1920s after leaving the National Organization of Russian Scouts of Colonel Oleg Pantyukhov.

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National Guard Forces Command

The National Guard Forces Command of the Russian Federation (Russian: Войска национальной гвардии Российской Федерации, Voyska Natsionalnoy Gvardi Rossiyskoi Federatsii) is the gendarmerie component of the National Guard of Russia, created through a presidential decree on April 5, 2016.

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National Organization of Russian Scouts (Scouts-in-Exile)

The National Organization of Russian Scouts (NORS; Национальная Организация Русских Скаутов, НОРС, alternately Национальная организация Российских скаутов) is one of the two large Russian Scouting in Exile movements.

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Nestor Makhno

Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Не́стор Івáнович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S. November 7) – July 25, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine in 1917–22.

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Newton A. McCully

Vice Admiral Newton Alexander McCully (1867–1951) was an officer in the United States Navy who served in the Spanish–American War and World War I.

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Nichita Smochină

Nichita P. Smochină (Russian and Moldovan Cyrillic: Никита Смокинэ, Nikita Smokine; also known as M. Florin; March 14, 1894 – December 14, 1980) was a Transnistrian-born activist, scholar and political figure, especially noted for campaigning on behalf of ethnic Romanians in the Soviet Union.

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Nicholas Couris

Father Nicholas Couris (born 1896 - died 3(16) August 1977) was an officer in the Imperial Russian Army, and combat veteran of the White Army during the Russian Civil War, and, in his old age, a priest of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia stationed in Dublin, Ireland.

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Nicholas Daniloff

Nicholas Daniloff (born December 30, 1934) is an American journalist who graduated from Harvard University and was most prominent in the 1980s for his reporting on the Soviet Union.

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Nicholas I of Montenegro

Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš (Никола I Петровић-Његош; – 1 March 1921) was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.

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Nicholas Repnin

Prince Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin (Никола́й Васи́льевич Репни́н; –) was an Imperial Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Nick Gorshenin

Nicholas Gorshenin (25 October 1922 – 9 October 2005) was a shark meshing contractor, North Sydney Council alderman and one of the founders of the Liberal Reform Group, which became the Australia Party.

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Nikandr Chibisov

Colonel General Nikandr Evlampievich Chibisov (Никандр Евлампиевич Чибисов) (November 5 (O.S. October 24), 1892 in stanitsa Romanovskaya (Rostov Oblast) – September 20, 1959 in Minsk) was a Soviet military commander and Hero of the Soviet Union (1943).

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Nikanor Zakhvatayev

Nikanor Dmitrievich Zakhvatayev (July 26, 1898 – February 15, 1963) was a Soviet general and army commander.

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Nikifor Grigoriev

Nikifor Grigoriev (Николай Алекса́ндрович Григо́рьев; c. 1885 – July 27, 1919), born Nychypir Servetnyk (Ничипір Серветник) in a small village of Zastavlia (now in the Nova Ushytsia Raion, Ukraine), was a paramilitary leader noted for numerous switching of sides during the civil war in Ukraine.

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Nikita Demidov

Nikita Demidov (full name Nikita Demidovich Antufiev; 5 April 1656 – 28 November 1725) was a Russian industrialist who founded the Demidov industrial dynasty.

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Niko I Dadiani

Nikoloz "Niko" Dadiani (ნიკოლოზ "ნიკო" დადიანი) or Nikolay Davidovich Dadian-Mingrelsky (Николай Давидович Дадиан-Мингрельский) (4 January 1847 – 23 January 1903) was the last Prince of Mingrelia from 1853 to 1867.

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Nikodem Sulik

Nikodem Sulik-Sarnowski, who used the noms de guerre "Jodko", "Jod", "Karol", and "Sarnowski" (August 15, 1893 - January 14, 1954), was an officer of the Russian Imperial Army, and Generał brygady of the Polish Army.

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Nikolai Aleksandrovich Lokhvitsky

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Lokhvitsky (in Russian: Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Ло́хвицкий) was a General in the Russian Expeditionary Force in France (REF).

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Nikolai Baratov

Nikolai Nikolaevich Baratov (Николай Николаевич Баратов) (February 1, 1865 – March 22, 1932) was an Imperial Russian Army general during World War I and the Russian Civil War.

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Nikolai Bardovsky

Nikolai Bardovsky (9 December 1832 – 27 August 1890) was a Russian Imperial Army lieutenant general.

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Nikolai Bibikov

Nikolai Bibikov (9 August 1842 – 21 February 1923) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Nikolai Danilov

Nikolai Danilov (April 25, 1867 – May 1934) was an Imperial Russian corps and army commander.

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Nikolai Epanchin

Nikolai Alexeyevich Epanchin (Russian, Николай Алексеевич Епанчин, 1857 - 1941) was an Imperial Russian division and corps commander.

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Nikolai Fedorovich Drozdov

Nikolai Fedorovich Drozdov (August 6, 1862 - December 29, 1953) - was a Russian and Soviet scientist in the field of design of barrel artillery systems and internal ballistics, the founder of the School of Artillery Designers, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the RSFSR (1940), full member of the Academy of Artillery Sciences, candidate mathematical sciences of the Russian Empire, Doctor of Technical Sciences (1938), professor, winner of the Stalin Prize of the first degree (1943).

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Nikolai Gikalo

Nikolay Fyodorovich Gikalo (Николай Фёдорович Гикало; born March 8, 1897, Odessa, Kherson Governorate – April 25, 1938) was a Soviet revolutionary and statesman.

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Nikolai Golovin

Nikolai Nikolayevich Golovin (Николай Николаевич Головин; 4 December 1875, – 10 January 1944) was a Imperial Russian general and military historian.

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Nikolai Ilyich Bulatov

Nikolai Ilyich Bulatov (born 21 January 1857) was an Imperial Russian corps commander.

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Nikolai Islenev

Nikolai Islenev (1785–1851) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Nikolai Iudovich Ivanov

Nikolai Iudovich Ivanov (Никола́й Иу́дович Ива́нов; 1851 – 27 January 1919) was a Russian artillery general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Nikolai Kashirin

Nikolai Dmitrievich Kashirin (16 February 1888 – 14 June 1938) was a Soviet Komandarm 2nd rank.

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Nikolai Kashtalinsky

Nikolay Aleksandrovich Kashtalinsky (Николай Александрович Кашталинский) (1840 - April 17, 1917) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Nikolai Krivoruchko

Nikolai Nikolayevich Krivoruchko (Russian, Николай Николаевич Криворучко, December 6, 1887 – August 19, 1938) was a Soviet Komkor (corps commander).

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Nikolai Linevich

Nikolai Petrovich Linevich, also Lenevich and Linevitch (Николай Петрович Линевич, Ліневич Микола Петрович; –) was a career military officer, General of Infantry (1903) and Adjutant general in the Imperial Russian Army in the Far East during the latter part of the Russo-Japanese War.

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Nikolai Markov (architect)

Nikolai Lvovich Markov (Николай Львович Марков, نیکولای مارکف.), born in Tbilisi in 1882 and died in 1957, was an Iranian architect of Russian descent.

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Nikolai Obolensky

Nikolai Nikolayevich Obolensky (November 10, 1833 – August 25, 1898) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Nikolai Obruchev

Nikolai Nikolayevich Obruchev (1830–1904) was a General Staff Officer in the Imperial Russian Army, imperial Russian general staff officer, military statistician, planner and chief of the Main Staff.

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Nikolai Reek

Nikolai Reek VR I/2, VR II/2, VR II/3 (born Nikolai Bazykov; in Tallinn, Estonia – 8 May 1942 Ussolye, Perm Oblast, Soviet Union) was the Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Nikolai Repnin-Volkonsky

Prince Nikolai Grigoryevich Repnin-Volkonsky (Russian: Николай Григорьевич Репнин-Волконский; 1778 - 6/18 January 1845 Yahotyn, now in Ukraine) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Nikolai Ruzsky

Nikolai Vladimirovich Ruzsky (Никола́й Влади́мирович Ру́зский) (– October 18, 1918) was a Russian general, member of the state and military councils.

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Nikolai Sollogub

Nikolai Sollogub (Николай Владимирович Соллогуб; May 16, 1883 – August 7, 1937) was a Russian and later Soviet military officer.

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Nikolai Stogov

Nikolai Nikolayevich Stogov (September 10, 1873 – December 7, 1959) was a Russian general, member of the first world and civil war.

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Nikolai Stoletov

Nikolai Grigorevich Stoletov (Столетов, Николай Григорьевич; –) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Nikolai Sukhozanet

Nikolai Onufrievich Sukhozanet (Никола́й Ону́фриевич Сухозане́т) (1794 – 22 July 1871) was an Imperial Russian Army general and statesman.

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Nikolai Sulima

Nikolai Sulima (Николай Семёнович Сулима; 1777-1840) was a Russian statesman and military commander, a General of the Imperial Russian Army during Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising.

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Nikolai Tretyakov

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Tretyakov (Третьяков, Николай Александрович 2 October 1854) - 5 February 1917) was a military engineer and general in the Imperial Russian Army, noted for his heroic role in the Siege of Port Arthur during the Russian-Japanese War.

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Nikolai Vedeneyev

Nikolai Denisovich Vedeneyev (28 March 1897 16 November 1964) was a Soviet Army lieutenant general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.

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Nikolai Velyaminov

Nikolai Alexandrovich Velyaminov (Николай Александрович Вельяминов) (February 27 (O.S. February 15), 1855 in Saint Petersburg – April 9, 1920 in Petrograd) was a Russian surgeon and public figure noted for improving the state of medical treatment in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Nikolai Volodchenko

Nikolai Gerasimovich Volodchenko (November 20, 1862 – 1945) was a Lieutenant-General of the Russian Army.

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Nikolai Yanushkevich

Nikolai Nikolaevich Yanushkevich (Никола́й Никола́евич Янушке́вич) (1(13) May, 1868 – 1918) was a Russian General who served as Chief of Staff of the General Headquarters (Stavka) of the Imperial Russian Army from August 1914 to September 1915.

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Nikolai Yaroshenko

Nikolai Alexandrovich Yaroshenko (Николай Алекса́ндрович Яроше́нко; –) was a Russian painter.

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Nikolai Yezhov

Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov,; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a Soviet secret police official under Joseph Stalin who was head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, during the most active period of the Great Purge. Having presided over mass arrests and executions during the Great Purge, Yezhov eventually fell from Stalin's favour and power. He was arrested, confessed to a range of anti-Soviet activity, later claiming he was tortured into making these confessions, and was executed in 1940. By the beginning of World War II, his status within the Soviet Union had become that of enemy of the people.

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Nikolai Yudenich

Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.

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Nikolai Zarubaev

Nikolai Platonovich Zarubaev (Никола́й Плато́нович Заруба́ев. 1843–10 June 1912) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese War.

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Nikolay Anichkov

Nikolay Nikolaevich Anichkov (Никола́й Никола́евич Ани́чков, often spelled Anitschkow in German literature) (1885, Saint Petersburg – 1964) was a prominent pathologist of Russian heritage.

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Nikolay Arsenyev

Nikolay Dmitrievich Arsenyev (Никола́й Дми́триевич Арсе́ньев, b. circa. 1739 – d. 1796) was a major-general of the Russian Empire, who served during the reign of Catherine the Great (r. 1762–1796).

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Nikolay Belov (general)

Nikolay Nikanorovich Belov (Никола́й Никано́рович Бело́в; 6 December 1896 – 9 August 1941) was a Red Army World War II major-general who commanded the 15th Motorized Rifle Division / 15th Rifle Division.

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Nikolay Bobrikov

Nikolay Ivanovich Bobrikov (Никола́й Ива́нович Бо́бриков; in St. Petersburg – June 17, 1904 in Helsinki, Grand Duchy of Finland) was a Russian general and politician.

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Nikolay Dukhonin

Nikolay Nikolayevich Dukhonin (Никола́й Никола́евич Духо́нин; 13 December 1876 – 3 December 1917) was a Russian general, the last commander-in-chief of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Nikolay Ivanovich Demidov

Nikolay Ivanovich Demidov (19 August 1773 – 4 June 1833) was a Russian General of Infantry, Adjutant-General and senator.

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Nikolay Kamensky

Count Nikolay Mikhailovich Kamensky (Никола́й Миха́йлович Каме́нский; 27 December 1776 – 4 May 1811) was a Russian general who outlived his father, Field Marshal Mikhail Kamensky, by two years.

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Nikolay Karamzin

Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (p) was a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic.

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Nikolay Koksharov

Nikolai Ivanovich Koksharov (Николай Иванович Кокшаров) (23 November (5 December), 1818 – 21 December (2 January), 1893) was a Russian mineralogist, crystallographer, and major general in the Russian army.

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Nikolay Krasnov (soldier)

Nikolay Ivanovich Krasnov (29 January 1833 – 15 September 1900) was a major-general of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Nikolay Kridener

Baron Nikolay Pavlovich Kridener (Николай Павлович Криденер; 10 March 1811 – 17 February 1891) was a Russian infantry general.

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Nikolay Kuibyshev

Nikolay Vladimirovich Kuibyshev (1 August 1938) was a Red Army Komkor.

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Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky

Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky (also spelled as Nikolai Nikolaevich Muraviev-Amurskiy; Никола́й Никола́евич Муравьёв-Аму́рский; —) was a Russian general, statesman and diplomat, who played a major role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into the Amur River basin and to the shores of the Sea of Japan.

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Nikolay Muravyov-Karsky

Nikolay Muravyov (Николай Николаевич Муравьёв-Карский; 14 July 1794 – 23 October 1866) was an Imperial Russian military officer and General of the Russian Army.

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Nikolay Nekrasov

Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

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Nikolay Pukhov

Nikolay Pavlovich Pukhov (–March 28, 1958) was a Soviet Army colonel general and a Hero of the Soviet Union who commanded troops during World War II.

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Nikolay Rtishchev

Nikolay Federovich Rtishchev (Николай Федорович Ртищев; b. 1754 – d. 20 January 1835) was a General of the Infantry of the Russian Empire who served as the Russian Commander-in-chief in the Caucasus between 1812 and 1816.

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Nikolay Shchors

Mykola Oleksandrovich Shchors (Микола Олександрович Щорс.; – 30 August 1919) was a Red Army commander, member of the Russian Communist Party, renowned for his personal courage during the Russian Civil War and sometimes being called the Ukrainian Chapayev.

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Nikolay Veryovkin-Rakhalsy

Nikolay Andreevich Veryovkin-Rakhalsy (1893–1984) was a Soviet general.

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Northern Front (Russian Empire)

The Northern Front (Северный фронт) was an army group of the Imperial Russian Army during the World War I. It was responsible for carrying out operations against the Central Powers along a front line that stretched 280 kilometers, from Riga in the north down to northern Belarus.

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Northwestern Front (Russian Empire)

The Northwestern Front (Се́веро-За́падный фронт) was an army group of the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War.

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November 1914

The following events occurred in November 1914.

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November Uprising

The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.

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Novo-Diveevo

Novo-Diveevo Convent (it is often spelled as Novo-Diveyevo, Novo-Diveievo or Novodiveevo, Ново-Дивеево - "New Diveyevo") is a female monastic community in Nanuet, Rockland County, New York in the United States.

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Novodevichy Convent

Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (Новоде́вичий монасты́рь, Богоро́дице-Смоле́нский монасты́рь), is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow.

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Novogeorgievsk

Novogeorgievsk was a city in Ukraine that since 1961 was flooded by the Kremenchuk water reservoir.

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Novorossiya

Novorossiya (a; Noua Rusie), literally New Russia but sometimes called South Russia, is a historical term of the Russian Empire denoting a region north of the Black Sea (Now part of Ukraine).

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Novorossiya Governorate

New Russia Governorate, or Novorossiya Governorate (Новоросси́йская губе́рния; translit.: Novorossiyskaya guberniya), was a governorate of the Russian Empire in the previously Ottoman and Cossack territories, that existed from 1764 until the 1783 administrative reform.

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Nowy Sącz

Nowy Sącz is a city in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship of southern Poland.

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Ożarów

Ożarów is a town in Poland, in the province of Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in Opatów county (Powiat of Opatów), historic Lesser Poland, with 4,906 inhabitants as of December 31, 2004.

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Odessa

Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

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Odo Dobrowolski

Odo Dobrowolski (born 1883 in Chernivtsi, died 1917 in Kiev) was a Polish painter.

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Old Grodno Castle

The Old Grodno Castle (also known as the Grodno Upper Castle and Bathory's Castle) originated in the 11th century as the seat of a dynasty of Black Ruthenian rulers, descended from a younger son of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev.

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Oleksander Hrekov

Oleksander Petrovych Hrekov (Олександр Петрович Греков) (4 December 1875 – 2 December 1958) was a general of the Imperial Russian Army, Ukrainian People's Army, military professor and one of the most prominent personalities in the History of Ukraine.

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Oleksander Osetsky

Oleksander Osetsky (Олександр Осецький) (July 24, 1873 Kremenets, Volhynian Governorate, now Ternopil Oblast – February 26, 1937 Paris) was a Ukrainian military officer.

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Oleksandr Udovychenko

Oleksandr Ivanovych Udovychenko (Олександр Iванович Удовиченко 20 February; 1887 - 19 April 1975), was a General of the Army of the Ukrainian National Republic and a military administrator.

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Oleksiy Butovsky

Oleksiy Butovsky (June 21, 1838 — March 10, 1917) was one of the founders of the International Olympic Committee, Lieutenant general of Imperial Russian Army, teacher at the Poltava Cadet Corps and sports functionary.

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Olga Kokovtseva

Margarita Romanovna Kokovtseva, generally named in English sources as Olga Kokovtseva was a female soldier in an Imperial Russian Army cavalry unit during World War I. Wounded in combat and decorated for bravery, she appears to have been involved with establishing a hospital for injured servicemen.

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Olsztynek

Olsztynek (Hohenstein in Ostpreußen) is a town in Olsztyn County, in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland.

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Operation Otto

Operation Otto (also known as Plan Otto) was the code name for two independent plans by Nazi Germany.

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Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland

The Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland (Statut Organiczny dla Królestwa Polskiego) was a statute which replaced the Constitution of 1815 in the aftermath of the failed November Uprising in the Russian Partition of Poland.

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Oskar Gripenberg

Oskar Ferdinand Casimir, Friherre Gripenberg (Оскар-Фердинанд Казимирович Гриппенберг, Oskar-Ferdinand Kazimirovich Grippenberg; 13 January 1838 – 7 January 1916) was commanding general of the Russian Second Manchurian Army during the Russo-Japanese War.

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Oskars Dankers

Oskars Dankers (March 26, 1883 – April 11, 1965) was a Latvian general.

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Oskars Kalpaks

Oskars Kalpaks (6 January 1882–6 March 1919) was the commander of 1st Latvian Independent Battalion, also known as "Kalpaks Battalion".

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Osowiec-Twierdza

Osowiec-Twierdza is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Goniądz, in Mońki County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland.

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Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski

Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski is a town in south-central Poland (historic province of Lesser Poland) with 74,211 inhabitants (2006).

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Otto Heinze

Otto Heinze VR I/2, VR II/3 (March 11, 1877, Kotly, Saint Petersburg Governorate – June 8, 1968, Bad Windsheim, Germany) was an Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence.

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Otto Smik

Otto Smik DFC (20 January 1922 – 28 November 1944) was a Czechoslovak pilot who became a fighter ace in the Royal Air Force.

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Otto Wilhelm Furuhjelm

Otto Wilhelmsson Furuhjelm(Фуругельм, Оттон Васильевич) was a Russian lieutenant-general of Finnish descent.

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Ottoman Greeks

Ottoman Greeks (Greek: Οθωμανοί Έλληνες, Osmanlı Rumları) were ethnic Greeks who lived in the Ottoman Empire (1299–1923), the Republic of Turkey's predecessor.

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Pacification of Manchukuo

The Pacification of Manchukuo was a Japanese anti-insurgency campaign during the Second Sino-Japanese War to suppress any armed resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo from various anti-Japanese volunteer armies in occupied Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army.

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Pale of Settlement

The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary residency was mostly forbidden.

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Papakha

Papakha (холхазан куй, xolxazan kuy), also known as astrakhan hat in English, is a wool hat worn by men throughout the Caucasus.

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Park Lavrov

Park Lavrov (Парк Лавров) is a memorial park in Pleven Province, Bulgaria, dedicated to the Russian and Finnish soldiers who died in the Siege of Plevna and the Battle of Gorni Dabnik during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

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Parliament of Finland

The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.

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Patriarch Alexy I of Moscow

Patriarch Alexy I (Alexius I, Патриарх Алексий I, secular name Sergey Vladimirovich Simanskiy, Серге́й Владимирович Симанский; – April 17, 1970) was the 13th Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus', Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) between 1945 and 1970.

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Paul Schiemann

Paul Schiemann (Pauls Šīmanis; 17 March 1876 – 23 June 1944) was a Baltic German journalist, editor and politician who was known for his commitment to minority rights.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.

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Paul von Plehwe

Paul von Plehwe or Wenzel von Plehwe (Па́вел Ада́мович (фон) Пле́ве, Pavel Adamovich (von) Plehve) (June 30, 1850 – March 28, 1916), a Baltic German officer, served exclusively in the Russian Army during World War I.

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Paul von Rennenkampf

Paul Georg Edler von Rennenkampf(f) (Russified into Павел-Георг Карлович (фон) Ренненкампф, Pavel-Georg Karlovich (von) Rennenkampf; – 1 April 1918) was an Baltic German nobleman and military leader of Baltic German extraction, General of the Cavalry (1910), General-Adjutant (1912), who served in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Paval Zhauryd

Paval Zhauryd (1889 in Žaǔryd – 1939 in Павал Жаўрыд) was a Belarusian military commander.

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Pavel Alexeyevich Belov

Pavel Alexeyevich Belov (18 February 1897 – 3 December 1963) was a colonel general in the Red Army during World War II.

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Pavel Argeyev

Capitaine Pavel Vladimirovich Argeyev (Павел Владимирович Аргеев) (March 1, 1887 – October 30, 1922), also known as Paul d'Argueev and The Eagle of Crimea, was a Russian-born flying ace of World War I, serving the French Armée de l'Air and Imperial Russian Air Service.

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Pavel Bashutsky

Pavel Yakovlevich Bashutsky (Па́вел Я́ковлевич Башу́цкий; 28 August 1771 – 23 January 1836) was a General of the Infantry of the Russian Empire.

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Pavel Bermondt-Avalov

Pavel Rafalovich Bermon(d)t-Avalov (Avalishvili) (Павел Рафалович Бермон(д)т-Авалов) (4 March 1877 – 27 January 1974) was an Ussuri Cossack and warlord.

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Pavel Bulgakov

Pavel Illyich Bulgakov (August 3, 1856 – 1940) was an Imperial Russian division and corps commander.

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Pavel Grigorievich Dukmasov

Pavel Grigorievich Dukmasov (November 6, 1838 – February 15, 1911) was an Imperial Russian corps commander.

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Pavel Liprandi

General Pavel Petrovich Liprandi, Павел Петрович Липранди, (15 January 1796 – 27 August 1864) was a Russian military officer of Spanish-Italian descent who participated in the Crimean War.

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Pavel Martynov

Pavel Petrovich Martynov (Павел Петрович Мартынов; 1782—1838) was a Russian military officer and a Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Pavel Mishchenko

Pavel Ivanovich Mishchenko (Павло Іванович Міщенко, Павел Иванович Мищенко., 22 January 1853 - 1918) was a career military officer and statesman in the Russian Empire.

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Pavel Savvich

Pavel Serg.

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Pavel Sukhoi

Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi (Па́вел О́сипович Сухо́й; Па́вел Во́сіпавіч Сухі́, Paviel Vosipavič Suchi) (22 July 1895 – 15 September 1975) was a Soviet aerospace engineer.

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Pavel Tsitsianov

Prince Pavel Dmitriyevich Tsitsianov Павел Дмитриевич Цицианов, also known as Pavle Dimitris dze Tsitsishvili (პავლე ციციშვილი, —) was a Georgian nobleman and a prominent General of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Pavel Yablochkov

Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov (also transliterated as Jablochkoff) (Павел Николаевич Яблочков in Russian) (&ndash) was a Russian electrical engineer, businessman and the inventor of the Yablochkov candle (a type of electric carbon arc lamp) and the transformer.

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Pavel Zelenoy

Pavel Alexeevich Zelenoy (Зеленой, Павел Алексеевич, 5 January 1833 – 10 January 1909) was a Russian admiral, governor of Taganrog and Odessa.

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Pavel Zhuravlev (partisan)

Pavel Nikolaevich Zhuravlev (Павел Николаевич Журавлев) (July 22, 1887, Alexandrovsky Zavod – February 23, 1920, Alexandrovsky Zavod) was a leader of the partisan movement in Transbaikalia from 1919 to 1920 during the Ataman Semyonov's regime.

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Pavlo Shandruk

Pavlo Shandruk (Павло Шандрук, Pawło Szandruk, February 28, 1889 in Volhynia – February 15, 1979 in Trenton, New Jersey) was a general in the army of the Ukrainian National Republic, a colonel of the Polish Army, and a prominent general of the Ukrainian National Army, a military force that fought against the Soviets under German command at the close of World War II.

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Pavlo Skoropadskyi

Pavlo Petrovych Skoropadskyi (Павло Петрович Скоропадський; Pavel Petrovič Skoropadskij; Paul Petrowitsch Skoropadskyj; 3 May 1873 – 26 April 1945) was a Ukrainian aristocrat, military and state leader, decorated Imperial Russian Army and Ukrainian Army general of Cossack heritage.

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Pāvils Dreijmanis

Pāvils Dreijmanis (born 4 February 1895, Aloja, Russian Empire — died 21 August 1953, Adelaide, Australia) was a Latvian architect, mayor of Riga, and recipient of the Atzinības krusts (Cross of Recognition) medal and the Order of the Three Stars.

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Păstorel Teodoreanu

Păstorel Teodoreanu, or just Păstorel (born Alexandru Osvald (Al. O.) Teodoreanu; July 30, 1894 – March 17, 1964), was a Romanian humorist, poet and gastronome, the brother of novelist Ionel Teodoreanu and brother in law of writer Ștefana Velisar Teodoreanu.

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Peasant rebellion of Sorokino

The Peasant rebellion of Sorokino, officially called the Kulak Rebellion of Sorokino by the Soviet authorities, was a popular uprising against the Soviet policy of war communism in what is today eastern Altai Krai.

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Peretz Markish

Peretz Davidovich Markish (פּרץ מאַרקיש) (Перец Давидович Маркиш) (7 December 1895 (25 November OS) – 12 August 1952) was a Soviet/Russian Jewish poet and playwright who wrote predominantly in Yiddish.

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Periscope rifle

A periscope rifle is a rifle that has been adapted to enable it to be sighted by the use of a periscope.

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Perloja

Perloja is a village in Varėna district, Lithuania.

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Persian Cossack Brigade

The Persian Cossack Brigade or Iranian Cossack Brigade (Berīgād-e qazzāq) was a Cossack-style cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Persia (modern Iran).

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Persian famine of 1917–1919

The Great Persian famine of 1917–1919 was a period of widespread mass starvation and disease in Persia (Iran) under rule of Qajar dynasty during World War I. So far, few historians have worked on the famine that took place in the occupied territory of the country that declared neutrality, making it an understudied subject.

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Petar II Petrović-Njegoš

Petar II Petrović-Njegoš (Петар II Петровић-Његош,; –), commonly referred to simply as Njegoš, was a Prince-Bishop (vladika) of Montenegro, poet and philosopher whose works are widely considered some of the most important in Montenegrin literature.

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Peter Andreivich Dannenberg

Peter A Dannenberg (Russian Пётр Андреевич Данненберг; 9 June 1792 – 6 August 1872) was a Russian general, particularly notable for his command during the Crimean War.

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Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck

Peter August Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (7 December 1697 – 22 March 1775) was a Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck.

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Peter Borovsky

Piotr Fokich Borovsky (Пётр Фоки́ч Боро́вский, 8 June 1863 – 15 December 1932) was Russian and Soviet surgeon and public health administrator of who worked in Tashkent, professor of surgery in Tashkent Medical Institute.

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Peter Coyote

Peter Coyote (born Robert Peter Cohon; October 10, 1941) is an American actor, author, director, screenwriter and narrator of films, theatre, television and audiobooks.

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Peter Lacy

Count Peter von Lacy, or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy (Пётр Петро́вич Ла́сси), as he was known in Russia (26 September 1678 – 30 April 1751), was one of the most successful Russian imperial commanders before Rumyantsev and Suvorov.

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Peter of Krutitsy

St. Hieromartyr Peter of Krutitsy (Священному́ченик Пётр Крути́цкий, born Pyotr Fyodorovich Polyansky, Пётр Фёдорович Поля́нский; June 28, 1862 – September 27 O. S./October 10, 1937), was a Russian Orthodox bishop and martyr. From April 12 till December 9, 1925 he was the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, serving as the Patriarchal locum tenens. Despite his imprisonment, he remained technically locum tenens until his death in 1937.

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Peter the Great Gulf

The Peter the Great Gulf (Russian: Залив Петра Великого) is a gulf on the southern coast of Primorsky Krai, Russia, and the largest gulf of the Sea of Japan.

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Peter von Bilderling

Baron Peter von Bilderling (born in St Peterburg May 26, 1844 – died in Zapolie September 25, 1900), was an engineer and an officer in the Engineering Corps of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Peter Wittgenstein

Ludwig Adolph Peter, Fürst zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (Пётр Христиа́нович Ви́тгенштейн, Pyotr Khristianovich Vitgenshtein) in Pereiaslav – 11 June 1843 in Lemberg, Austrian Empire) was a Russian Field Marshal distinguished for his services in the Napoleonic wars.

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Petr G. Kravtsov

Petr Gavrilovich Kravtzov (January 21, 1861 – January 21, 1919) was an officer of the Russian Imperial Army and Major General of the Don Army.

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Petr Ivanovich Panin

General Count Petr Ivanovich Panin (1721 – April 15, 1789), younger brother of Nikita Ivanovich Panin, fought with distinction in the Seven Years' War and in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, capturing Bender on September 26, 1770.

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Petras Avižonis

Petras Avižonis (17 April 1875 – 17 October 1939) was a Lithuanian ophthalmologist, rector of the University of Lithuania (1925–1926).

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Petras Leonas

Petras Leonas (1864–1938) was a Lithuanian attorney and politician, the first Minister of Justice of the newly independent Lithuania in 1918.

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Petre P. Carp

Petre P. Carp (also Petrache Carp, Francized Pierre Carp, Ioana Pârvulescu,, in România Literară, Nr. 25/2010 occasionally Comte Carpe; 28 Mircea Dumitriu,, in România Liberă, 22 September, 2007 or 29Călinescu, p.440 June 1837 – 19 June 1919) was a Moldavian, later Romanian statesman, political scientist and culture critic, one of the major representatives of Romanian liberal conservatism, and twice the country's Prime Minister (1900–1901, 1910–1912).

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Petro Dyachenko

Petro Dyachenko (Петро́ Дяче́нко, Petro Diaczenko, January 30, 1895 in Berezova Luka, Poltava Governorate, Russian Empire (present-day Ukraine) – April 23, 1965 in Philadelphia, United States) was a Ukrainian military commander who served as a staff captain in the Russian Army (World War I), colonel in the Ukrainian People's Army (1917–1921), major in the Polish Army (1928–1939), officer in the Volhynian Self-Defence Legion (aka 31. Schutzmannschaft-Bataillon des SD), commander of Panzerjagd-Brigade Vilna Ukraina (1945), and Colonel in the Ukrainian National Army (1945) and commander of the 2nd Division UNA.

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Petrograd Seimas

Petrograd Seimas (Rusijos lietuvių seimas Petrograde or Visos Rusijos lietuvių seimas) was a conference of Lithuanian activists in Petrograd, Russian Empire, held on to discuss the political future of Lithuania.

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Petrograd Soviet

The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.

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Pilzno

Pilzno is a town in Poland, in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in Dębica County.

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Pinsk Marshes

The Pinsk Marshes (Пінскія балоты, Pinskiya baloty), also known as the Pripet Marshes (Прыпяцкія балоты, Prypiackija baloty) and the Rokitno Marshes, are a vast natural region of wetlands along the forested basin of the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest to the west to Mogilev to the northeast and Kiev to the southeast.

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Pioneer (military)

A pioneer is a soldier employed to perform engineering and construction tasks.

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Piotr Skuratowicz

Piotr Skuratowicz (1 August 1891 – 1940) was a Polish military commander and a General of the Polish Army.

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Piotrków Pierwszy

Piotrków Pierwszy is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Jabłonna, within Lublin County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.

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Plastun

A Plastun or plastoon (Ukrainian, пластун) was a Cossack foot scouting and sentry military unit.

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PM M1910

The PM M1910 (Russian: Пулемёт Максима образца 1910 года, Pulemyot Maxima obraztsa 1910 goda or "Maxim's machine gun model 1910") was a heavy machine gun used by the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the Red Army during Russian Civil War and World War II.

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Podpolkovnik

Podpolkovnik (regimentary) is a military rank in Slavic countries which corresponds to the lieutenant colonel in the English-speaking states and military.

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Podporuchik

Podporuchik (potporučnik, потпоручник, poručík, podporucznik, подпору́чик, подпоручик, п, poručík) is an Officer's rank out of the Lieutenants rank group in Slavophone armed forces.

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Podpraporshchik

Podpraporshchik (lit) was a Russian non-commissioned officer (NCO) rank (ˌunʲtʲɪr ɐfʲɪˈtsɛr rank), originally below the Sergeant and Feldwebel.

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Poghos Bek-Pirumyan

Poghos Bek-Pirumyan (8 June 1856 – 19 January 1921) was an Armenian military commander.

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Polish Armed Forces in the East (1914–20)

Polish Armed Forces in the East around World War I is a term used for several Polish military formations formed in Russia and operating in the period of 1914–1920 (First World War, Russian Revolution of 1917, and the early stages of the Polish-Ukrainian War and Polish-Soviet War. Early formations were part of the Imperial Russian Army. Later, during the Russian Revolution, the Polish formations were mainly allied to the White Russian forces and the Western powers (both the German Empire and the Entente). All the formations (or their remains) were eventually incorporated into the Polish Army by 1920.

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Polish I Corps in Russia

Polish I Corps in Russia (I Korpus Polski w Rosji) was a Polish military formation formed in Belarus, in August 1917 in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917, from soldiers of Polish origin serving in the Russian Army.

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Polish II Corps in Russia

The Polish II Corps in Russia (II Korpus Polski w Rosji) was a Polish military formation formed in revolutionary Russia in 1917.

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Polish Legion in Finland

Polish Legion in Finland (Legion Polski w Finlandii) was a military unit made up of ethnic Poles who had been soldiers of the Russian Imperial Army in World War I. Created on April 24, 1917, in Viipuri, the unit existed until March 1, 1918.

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Polish–Prussian alliance

The Polish–Lithuanian and Prussian alliance was a mutual defense alliance signed on 29 March 1790 in Warsaw between representatives of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Polish–Russian War of 1792

The Polish–Russian War of 1792 (also, War of the Second Partition, and in Polish sources, War in Defence of the Constitution (wojna w obronie Konstytucji 3 maja)) was fought between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on one side, and the Targowica Confederation (conservative nobility of the Commonwealth opposed to the new Constitution of 3 May 1791) and the Russian Empire under Catherine the Great on the other.

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Polish–Soviet War

The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.

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Polkovnik

Polkovnik (lit) is a military rank in Slavic countries and countries in the former Soviet Union mostly which corresponds to a colonel in English-speaking states, and oberst in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries.

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Portland Youth Philharmonic

The Portland Youth Philharmonic (PYP) is the oldest youth orchestra in the United States, established in 1924 as the Portland Junior Symphony (PJS).

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Poruchik

Poruchik (poručnik, poručík, porucznik, пору́чик, поручник, poručík) is an officer rank in the lieutenant's rank group in Slavophone armed forces.

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Pososhniye lyudi

The Pososhniye lyudi (Посошные люди) was a collective name for the conscripts in the Russian army of the 16th-17th centuries, called up for military service from each sokha (the word pososhniye is a derivative from sokha, hence the term).

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Pospolite ruszenie

Pospolite ruszenie (lit. mass mobilization; "Noble Host", motio belli, the French term levée en masse is also used) is a name for the mobilisation of armed forces during the period of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Postage stamps and postal history of Estonia

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Estonia.

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Praporshchik

Praporshchik (3) is a rank in the Russian military, also used in other uniformed services of the Russian government such as the police.

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Pratulin Martyrs

The Pratulin Martyrs were a group of 13 Greek Catholic believers killed by the Imperial Russian Army on January 24, 1874, in the village of Pratulin, near Biała Podlaska.

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Preobrazhensky Regiment

The Preobrazhensky Lifeguard Regiment was one of the oldest and most elite guard regiments of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Prince Adarnase of Kartli

Afanasy Bagration (ათანასე ბაგრატიონი, At'anase Bagrationi; Афанасий Леонович Багратион, Afanasiy Leonovich Bagration), born Adarnase (ადარნასე) (15 November 1707 – 31 March 1784) was a Georgian prince royal (batonishvili) of the Bagrationi dynasty of House of Mukhrani of Kartli and a natural son of Levan of Kartli by a concubine.

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Prince David of Georgia

David Bagrationi (დავით ბაგრატიონი, Davit Bagrationi), also known as David the Regent (დავით გამგებელი, Davit Gamgebeli) (1 July 1767 in Tbilisi, Georgia – 13 May 1819 in Saint Petersburg, Russia), was a Georgian royal prince (batonishvili), writer and scholar, was a regent of the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from December 28, 1800 to January 18, 1801.

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Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg

Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg (Felix Prinz zu Schwarzenberg; 2 October 1800 – 5 April 1852) was a Bohemian nobleman and an Austrian statesman who restored the Habsburg Empire as a European great power following the Revolutions of 1848.

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Prince Ilia of Georgia

Ilia (ილია; Илья Георгиевич, Iliya Georgiyevich), also known as Elizbar (ელიზბარი), (2 September 1790 – 18 July 1854) was a Georgian prince royal (batonishvili), a son of George XII, the last king of Kartli and Kakheti, by his second marriage to Mariam Tsitsishvili.

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Princess Helene Dolgoruki

Helene Dolgoruki, more correctly Elena Pavlovna Dolgorukaya (Елена Павловна Долгорукая), married name Fadeeva (Фадеева) (1789-1860), was a Russian noblewoman who was the grandmother of both Sergei Witte and Madame Blavatsky.

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Princess Nika Yourievitch

Princess Nika Yourievitch (August 2, 1916 - September 17, 1995) was a French-born socialite and author, descended from Russian and Montenegrin nobility.

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Prokofy Romanenko

Prokofy Logvinovich Romanenko (– 10 March 1949) was a Ukrainian Soviet Army colonel general.

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Prokopy Zubarev

Prokopy Zubarev (February 1886 - 15 March 1938) was a Soviet party statesman.

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Provisional Russian Administration in Bulgaria

The Provisional Russian Administration in Bulgaria (Временное русское управление в Болгарии, Временно руско управление в България) was an interim government established for Bulgarian territories liberated by the Imperial Russian Army during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

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Puławy Legion

Puławy Legion (Legion Puławski) was a Polish military formation of World War I, as part of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Pugachev's Rebellion

Pugachev's Rebellion (Peasants' War 1773-75, Cossack Rebellion) of 1773-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in the Russian Empire after Catherine II seized power in 1762.

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Purges of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Purges of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union ("Чистка партийных рядов",, "cleansing of the party ranks") were a Soviet ritual in which periodic reviews of members of the Communist Party were conducted to get rid of "undesirables".

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Puumala

Puumala is a municipality of Finland.

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Pyotr Bagration

Pyotr Bagration (10 July 1765 – 24 September 1812) was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Pyotr Baluyev

Pyotr Semyonovich Baluyev (21 June 1857 – 1923 in Moscow) was an army general in the Imperial Russian Army and commander of the Southwestern Front from 24 July 1917 to 31 July 1917.

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Pyotr Berestov

Pyotr Filippovich Berestov (Пётр Филиппович Берестов;, Berestovo – November 26, 1961, Zaporozhye) was a Red Army major general during the Second World War.

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Pyotr Bryanskikh

Pyotr Alexeyevich Bryanskikh (1896 – August 29, 1938) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Pyotr Gorchakov

Prince Pyotr Dmitrievich Gorchakov (Пётр Дми́триевич Горчако́в; 24 June 17906 March 1868) was an Imperial Russian Army general from the Gorchakov family of Russian nobility.

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Pyotr Kotlyarevsky

Pyotr Stepanovich Kotlyarevsky (June 23, 1782 – November 2, 1852) was a Russian military hero of the early 19th century.

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Pyotr Krasnov

Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Пётр Николаевич Краснов; September 22 (September 10 old style), 1869 – January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was a Don Cossack historian and officer, promoted to Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary White movement afterwards.

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Pyotr Krechetnikov

Piotr Nikititch Kretchetnikov (Russian: Петр Никитич Кречетников) (1727 – c. 1800) was a Russian major-general in command of the corps sent to intervene against the Bar Confederation.

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Pyotr Lomnovsky

Pyotr Nikolayevich Lomnovsky (1871 – March 2, 1956), was a Russian military commander.

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Pyotr Nesterov

Pyotr Nikolayevich Nesterov (Пётр Николаевич Нестеров (born, Nizhny Novgorod - died, Zhovkva, Lviv Oblast) was a Russian pilot, an aircraft designer and an aerobatics pioneer.

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Pyotr Petrovich Palen

Count Pyotr Petrovich Palen (Пётр Петрович Пален, Peter von der Pahlen; 1778-1864) was a Russian noble and a general of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Pyotr Romanovich Bagration

Pyotr Romanovich Bagration (Пётр Рома́нович Багратио́н, პეტრე რომანის (რევაზის) ძე ბაგრატიონი; 24 September 1818 – 17 January 1876), the son of general Prince Roman Bagration, was a Russian-Georgian statesman, general and scientist who invented the first dry galvanic cell.

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Pyotr Rumyantsev

Count Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky (Пётр Алекса́ндрович Румя́нцев-Задунайский; –) was one of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century.

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Pyotr Saltykov (1698–1772)

Count Pyotr Semyonovich Saltykov (Пётр Семёнович Салтыков) (11 December 1697/1698/1700 - 26 December 1772) was a Russian statesman and a military officer, promoted to the rank of Field marshal on 18 August 1759.

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Pyotr Shabelsky-Bork

Pyotr Nikolayevich Shabelsky-Bork (Пётр Николаевич Шабельский-Борк, 5 May 1893 – 18 August 1952) was a Russian officer and writer, active in far-right and anti-Semitic politics in early 20th-century Europe, best known for the assassination of Vladimir Nabokov, father of the novelist of the same name, in Berlin on 28 March 1922.

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Pyotr Sobennikov

Pyotr Sobennikov (13 July 1894 – 1960) was a Soviet general and Army commander.

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Pyotr Solodukhin

Pyotr Solodukhin (January 24, 1892 – August 8, 1920) was a Bolshevik division commander in the Russian Civil War.

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Pyotr Telezhnikov

Pyotr Dmitryvich Telezhnikov (birth surname Schreider; born 31 March 1863) was an Imperial Russian division, corps and army commander.

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Pyotr Vannovsky

Pyotr Semyonovich Vannovsky (Пётр Семёнович Ванновский; Russian (before 1918): Пётръ Семёновичъ Ванновскій; Пётр Сямёнавіч Ванновскі) was an Imperial Russian statesman and military leader, General of the Infantry (1883), Adjutant General (1878) of Belarusian extraction, who served in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Pyotr Wrangel

Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, also Vrangel; Freiherr Peter von Wrangel; (August 27, 1878 April 25, 1928) was a Russian officer in the Imperial Russian Army and later commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Quartermaster

Quartermaster is a military or naval term, the meaning of which depends on the country and service.

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Radko Dimitriev

Radko Dimitriev (Радко Димитриев) (24 September 1859 in Gradets – 18 October 1918 near Pyatigorsk) was a Bulgarian general, Head of the General Staff of the Bulgarian Army from 1 January 1904 to 28 March 1907, as well as a general in the Russian Army during the First World War.

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Radom Confederation

Radom Confederation (Konfederacja radomska, Radomo konfederacija) was a konfederacja of nobility (szlachta) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in Radom on 23 June 1767 to prevent reforms and defend the Golden Liberties.

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Railroad plough

A railroad plough (Schienenwolf ("rail wolf") or Schwellenpflug ("sleeper plough") or (Schwellenreißer ("sleeper ripper")) is a rail vehicle which supports an immensely strong, hook-shaped plough. It is used for destruction of sleepers in warfare, as part of a scorched-earth policy, so that the track becomes unusable for the enemy. In use, the plough is lowered to rip up the middle of the track as it is hauled along by a locomotive. This action breaks the wooden ties which forces the steel rails out of alignment, making the line impassable by later rail vehicles. Bridges and signalling equipment also suffer serious damage.

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Ranks and insignia of the Russian armed forces until 1917

The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия, РИА) and the Imperial Russian Navy used particular ranks and rank insignia, oriented to German speaking and anglophone terms.

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Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955

Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces in the period 1943–1955 were characterised by a number of changes in the armed forces of the Soviet Union, including the reintroduction of rank insignia badges and the adoption of a number of higher ranks.

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Raphael Kalinowski

Raphael of St.

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Ray Barracks, Friedberg, Germany

Ray Barracks was a United States Army installation in Friedberg, Germany until it was closed by the U.S. government in 2007 and returned to the German government.

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Różan

Różan is a town in Mazovian Voivodeship, Poland, on the river Narew.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Army tactics in World War II

Development of Red Army tactics begun during the Russian Civil War, and are still a subject of study within Russian military academies today.

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Red Guards (Finland)

The Red Guards (Punakaarti, Röda gardet) were a paramilitary units of the Finnish labour movement in the early 1900s.

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Red Guards (Russia)

Red Guards (Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power".

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Reiter

Reiter or Schwarze Reiter ("black riders", anglicized swart reiters) were a type of cavalry in 16th to 17th century Germany.

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Remus von Woyrsch

Martin Wilhelm Remus von Woyrsch (4 February 1847 – 6 August 1920) was a Prussian Field Marshal, a member of the Prussian House of Lords from 1908 to 1918, and an Ehrenkommendator or Honorary Commander of the Order of St. John.

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Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905–07)

The Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905–1907), also known as the Polish Revolution of 1905, was a major part of the Russian Revolution of 1905 in Russian-partitioned Poland (see Congress Poland and Privislinsky Krai).

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Revolutions of 1830

The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830.

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Ribbon of Saint George

The ribbon of Saint George (also known as Saint George's ribbon and the Georgian ribbon; Георгиевская ленточка, Georgiyevskaya lentochka, not to be confused with the Guards Tape) is a widely recognized symbol of remembrance of the Soviet people who fought in the Great Patriotic War, WWII.

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Richard Saran

Richard Saran, short for Alexander Richard Saran, (3 October 1852 – 4 (or 5) January 1925), was a German architect.

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Richard Troyanovich Meves

Richard Troyanovich Meves (Ричард Троянович фон Мевес) (1839–1901) was a Lieutenant general in the Imperial Russian Army who fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78).

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Rifle troops

The rifles troops (стрелковые войска, English transliteration - strelkovie voiska) often called rifle troops in English, is name for the Russian infantry combat Arm of Service that, since 1857, had been armed with rifles (currently assault rifles) as their primary firearm.

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Rittmeister

Rittmeister (German for "riding master" or "cavalry master") was a military rank of a commissioned cavalry officer in the armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Scandinavia, and some other countries.

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Robert Eideman

Robert Eideman (Roberts Eidemanis) (1895 – June 12, 1937) was an ethnic Latvian Soviet Komkor, writer and poet.

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Robert Thomas Wilson

General Sir Robert Thomas Wilson (17 August 1777 – 9 May 1849) was a British general and politician who served in Flanders, Egypt, Iberian Peninsula, Prussia, and was seconded to the Imperial Russian Army in 1812.

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Rodion Malinovsky

Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Родио́н Я́ковлевич Малино́вский; – 31 March 1967) was a Soviet military commander in World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s.

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Rodion Markovits

Rodion Markovits (or Markovitz, born Markovits Jakab;, biographical article, (Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme 2007–2013); retrieved November 11, 2011 1888 – August 27, 1948) was an Austro-Hungarian-born writer, journalist and lawyer, one of the early modernist contributors to Magyar literary culture in Transylvania and Banat regions.

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Roerich Pact

The Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments or Roerich Pact is an inter-American treaty.

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Rogów raid

Rogow raid was a train robbery, carried out on November 8, 1906, in the village of Rogow, near the city of Łódź, Congress Poland.

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Roger Landes

Roger Landes, MC & Bar (16 December 1916 – 16 July 2008) was an agent and radio operator in the Special Operations Executive (SOE), F section.

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Roman Bagration

Prince Roman (Revaz) Ivanovich Bagration (Роман (Реваз) Иванович Багратион, რომან (რევაზ) ბაგრატიონი Roman (Revaz) Bagrat'ioni) (1778 – 1834) was a Georgian nobleman and a general in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Roman Ivanovich Panin

Roman Ivanovich Panin (28 September 1897 – 1 June 1949) was a Soviet major general from during World War II.

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Roman Kondratenko

Roman Isidorovich Kondratenko (Роман Исидорович Кондратенко; October 12, 1857 – December 15, 1904) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army famous for his devout defense of Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905.

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Roman Sanguszko

Prince Roman Adam Stanisław Sanguszko (1800–1881) was a Polish aristocrat, patriot, political and social activist.

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Roman von Ungern-Sternberg

Baron Roman Nicolaus Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (Барон Ро́берт-Никола́й-Максими́лиан Рома́н Фёдорович фон У́нгерн-Ште́рнберг)adopted Russian name: Роман Фёдорович фон Унгерн-Штернберг, which transliterates as Roman Fyodorovich fon Ungern-Shternberg (10 January 1886 NS – 15 September 1921) was an Austrian-born Russian anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation.

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Romanian Front (Russian Empire)

The Romanian Front (Румынский фронт) was a joint formation of the Imperial Russian Army and the Romanian Army during the First World War.

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Romanian War of Independence

The Romanian War of Independence is the name used in Romanian historiography to refer to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), following which Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. On, Romania and the Russian Empire signed a treaty at Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition that Russia respected the integrity of Romania. The mobilization began, and about 120,000 soldiers were massed in the south of the country to defend against an eventual attack of the Ottoman forces from south of the Danube. On, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and its troops entered Romania through the newly built Eiffel Bridge.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rosokhrankultura

Rosokhrankultura (Росохранкультура), full name: Federal Service for monitoring compliance with cultural heritage protection law (Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере массовых коммуникаций, связи и охраны культурного наследия), is a state agency of Russia responsible for keeping the national register of cultural heritage, enforcing preservation of listed properties through monitoring compliance with preservation law and enforcing compliance with copyright law, including licensing of copyright management agencies.

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Rover (motorcycles)

The Rover Company was a British bicycle and motorcycle manufacturer before it began the manufacture of motor cars.

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Rover Company

The Rover Company Limited was a British car manufacturing company that operated from its base in Solihull in Warwickshire.

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Ruby Cycle Co Ltd

The Ruby Cycle Co Ltd.

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Russian All-Military Union

The Russian All-Military Union is an organization that was founded by White Army General Pyotr Wrangel in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on 1 September 1924, initially headquartered in the town of Sremski Karlovci.

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Russian Army (1917)

In 1917, the Russian Army formally ceased to be the Army of the Russian Empire when the power in Russia was transferred to the Russian Provisional Government.

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Russian Army (disambiguation)

Russian Army may refer to.

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Russian Army order of battle (1812)

The Imperial Russian Army in June 1812 consisted of three main armies and other military formations.

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Russian battleship Slava

Slava (Слава "Glory") was a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Imperial Russian Navy, the last of the five s. Commissioned too late to participate in the Battle of Tsushima during the Russo-Japanese War, she survived while all of her sister ships were either sunk during the battle or surrendered to the Imperial Japanese Navy.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Constitution of 1906

The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the Emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Expeditionary Force in France

The Russian Expeditionary Force (Corps Expéditionnaire Russe en France) was a World War I military force sent to France by the Russian Empire.

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Russian Hussars

Hussars were first recorded in Russia as groups of irregulars in the mid-17th century.

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Russian occupation of Eastern Galicia, 1914–15

Russian occupation of Eastern Galicia, 1914–1915.

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Russian Peasants' uprising of 1905–6

The Russian peasants' uprising of 1905–6, also known as the Jaquerie of 1905–6 or the agrarian revolt of 1905–6, was a series of peasant uprisings and violence that broke out throughout the Russian Empire in the years of 1905–06.

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Russian Protective Corps

The Russian Protective Corps (Russisches Schutzkorps, Русский охранный корпус, Руски заштитни корпус) was an armed force composed of anti-communist White Russian émigrés that was raised in the German occupied territory of Serbia during World War II.

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Russian Railway Troops

Railway Troops of the Russian Armed Forces (Железнодорожные войска ВС России) are a railway troops service in the Rear Services of the Armed Forces of Russia.

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Russian ship of the line Vola

Vola (Вола) was an 84-gun built for the Imperial Russian Navy in the mid-1830s.

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Russian Signal Troops

Russian Signal Troops (Войска связи) is the specializing signal corps of the Ground Forces of the Russian Armed Forces.

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Russian–German Legion

The Russian–German Legion was a military unit set up in 1812 by the banished Graf Peter of Oldenburg on the instigation of Tsar Alexander I of Russia.

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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

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Ryadovoy

Ryadovoy (рядово́й, en: private.) in the Army, Airborne troops, and Air Force of the Russian Federation is the designation of a member of the rank group of enlisted personnel.

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Ryszard Zakrzewski

Ryszard Zakrzewski was a Polish traveler, topographer, and an officer in the Russian Army who lived in the 19th century.

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Rzeszów

Rzeszów (Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; Resche (antiquated); Resovia; ריישע, rayshe) is the largest city in southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018).

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Sack of Baturyn

Sack of Baturyn (Захоплення Батурина, Взятие Батурина) (1-2 November 1708), sometimes also referred to as the Slaughtering in Baturyn, was a part of series of punishing raids conducted by the Russian Imperial Army against Mazepa and Cossack state.

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Sadykh bey Aghabeyov

Sadykh bey Aghabekov (Sadıx bəy Ağabəyov; March 15, 1865 – October 9, 1944) also spelled as Sadykh bey Aghabeyov was an Azerbaijani general in the Russian Imperial Army and Azerbaijani politician in Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, founder and reformer of Azerbaijani Police, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Major General, Orientalist.

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Safarbek Malsagov

Safarbek Malsagov (1868–1944) was a Russian general.

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Samad bey Mehmandarov

Samadbey Mehmandarov Sadykhbey oglu (Səməd bəy Mehmandarov Sadıx bəy oğlu, Самедбек Садыхбек оглы Мехмандаров; October 16, 1855 – February 12, 1931) was an Azerbaijani General of the Artillery in the Imperial Russian Army and served as Minister of Defense of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

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Samson Makintsev

Samson Yakovlevich Makintsev (Самсо́н Я́ковлевич Маки́нцев), more commonly known as Samson Khan (سامسون‌خان); (1849 – 1776), was a general of Russian origin in the service of Qajar Persia.

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Samuel Lieberson

Samuel Achillos Lieberson (July 19, 1881 – July 30, 1965) was a physician, award winning composer and professor of music theory.

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Sargis Mehrabyan

Sargis Mehrabyan (Սարգիս Մեհրաբյան), also known as Commander Vartan, Vartan of Khanasor and Vartan Mehrpanian, was an Armenian fedayee military commander and member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.

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Sasiv

Sasiv (Ukrainian: Сасів/, Polish: Sasów also Sassów, Ruthenian/Ruś.: Sassíw, Russian: Сасов/) is a town in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine, since 1945.

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Sava Mutkurov

Sava Atanasov Mutkurov (Сава Атанасов Муткуров) (–) was a Bulgarian officer (Major General) and politician.

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Savage Division

The Caucasian Native Cavalry Division (Кавказская туземная конная дивизия), or 'Savage Division' (Дикая дивизия) was a cavalry division of the Imperial Russian Army, formed in 1914.

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Sándor Petőfi

Sándor Petőfi (né Petrovics;LUCINDA MALLOWS,, Bradt Travel Guides, 2008, p. 7Sándor Petőfi, George Szirtes,, Hesperus Press, 2004, p. 1 Alexander Petrovič; Александар Петровић; 1 January 1823 – most likely 31 July 1849) was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary.

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Scarlat Vârnav

Scarlat Vasile Vârnav, or Sofronie Vârnav (also known as Charles Basile Varnav, Charles de Wirnave, Varnavu or Vîrnav; ?–), was a Moldavian and Romanian political figure, philanthropist, collector, and Orthodox clergyman.

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Scottish Russians

Scottish Russians are Russians with full (or partial) Scottish ancestry.

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Second Battle of Chruślina

The Second Battle of Chruślina, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on August 4, 1863, near the village of Chruślina, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.

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Second Battle of Nowa Wieś (1863)

The Second Battle of Nowa Wies was a skirmish of the January Uprising in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (present-day Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, parts of Ukraine, and western Russia) against the Russian Empire on April 26, 1863.

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Second Battle of Oituz

The Second Battle of Oituz was a confrontation between Romanian and, to a lesser extent, Russian forces on one side and German and Austro-Hungarian forces on the other, during the Romanian Campaign of World War I. The battle took place primarily in the Oituz valley in Bacău County, Romania, between August 8 and August 20, 1917.

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Second Polish Republic

The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).

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Second Western Army

The Second Western Army was created during the 1810 as part of the reform of the Imperial Russian Army as a whole and was intended to defend the central western region of the Russian border with Poland (Duchy of Warsaw) to the Austrian border during the expected French invasion of Russia.

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Self-Defence of Lithuania and Belarus (1918)

Self-Defence of Lithuania and Belarus (Samoobrona Litwy i Białorusi) was a voluntary military formation created during the reconstitution of sovereign Poland towards the end of World War One in the Kresy macroregion.

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Semyon Aralov

Semyon Ivanovich Aralov (Семён Иванович Аралов, 18 December 1880 – 22 May 1969) was the first head of the Soviet Red Army Intelligence Directorate and subsequently had a career in the Soviet diplomatic service.

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Semyon Budyonny

Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (a; – October 26, 1973) was a Russian cavalryman, a military commander during the Russian Civil War and World War II, and a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.

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Semyon Gangeblov

Semyon Georgievich Gangeblov (Семён Георгиевич Гангеблов) (May 24, 1757 – February 17, 1827) was a Russian military commander of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Semyon Pugachov

Semyon Andreevich Pugachov (26 February 1889 – 23 March 1943) was a Russian soldier who served in the Russian Imperial and Soviet armed forces.

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Semyon Timoshenko

Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, Semën Konstantinovič Timošenko; Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко, Semen Kostiantynovych Tymoshenko) (– 31 March 1970) was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.

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Semyon Uritsky

Semyon Petrovich Uritsky (March 2, 1895 – August 1, 1938) was a Soviet General.

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Semyonovsky Regiment

The Semyonovsky Lifeguard Regiment was one of the two oldest guard regiments of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Senior lieutenant

Senior lieutenant (yliluutnantti, Oberleutnant, старший лейтенант, starshy leytenant premiärlöjtnant) is a military grade between a lieutenant and a captain.

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Senior officer

Senior officer may refer to.

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September 1916

The following events occurred in September 1916.

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Serafima Birman

Serafima Germanovna Birman (Серафима Германовна Бирман; – 11 May 1976) was a Russian and Soviet actress, theatre director and writer.

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Serbian Hussar Regiment

The Serbian Hussar Regiment was a military unit of the Russian Imperial Army which predominantly consisted of Serbian colonists to Russia.

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Serge Andolenko

Serge Andolenko (June 26, 1907 - August 27, 1973) was a French military officer of Russian origin who became brigade général of the French Army.

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Serge Youriévitch

Serge Youriévitch (Сергей Александрович Юрьевич, March 31, 1876 - December 18, 1969) was a French sculptor of noble Russian birth, a statesman, writer, and one-time chamberlain to Emperor Nicholas II of Russia.

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Sergei Belosselsky-Belozersky

Prince (Knyaz) Sergei Konstantinovich Belosselsky-Belozersky (Сергей Константинович Белосельский-Белозерский) (1867–1951) was a Russian aristocrat, general and member of the International Olympic Committee.

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Sergei Efimovich Gribov

Sergei Efimovich Gribov (17 July 1895 – 29 July 1938) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Sergei Konstantinovich Gershelman

Sergei Konstantinovich Gershelman (Серге́й Константинович Гершельман, Sergey Konstantinovich Gershelman; 26 June 1854 – 17 October 1910), last name also spelled Hershelman, was a Imperial Russian Army general, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and served as the Governor-General of Moscow.

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Sergei Korolev

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Sergei Mezheninov

Sergei A Mezheninov (January 19, 1890 – September 28, 1937) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Sergei Scheidemann

Sergei Mikhailovich Scheidemann (August 18, 1857 – 1922) was an army commander of the Imperial Russian Army in World War I. After the October Revolution, he went over to the Bolsheviks.

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Sergei Vasilchikov

Sergei Illarionovich Vasilchikov (9 September 1849 – 27 August 1926) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Sergei Vasilyevich Belyaev

Sergei Vasilyevich Belyaev (Russian: Сергей Васильевич Беляев; old style 20 September/2 October 1856, Moscow - ?) was a Major general of the Imperial Russian Army, brigade commander of the 83th infantry division.

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Sergei Wojciechowski

---- Sergei Wojciechowski (Серге́й Никола́евич Войцехо́вский, Sergej Nikolajevič Vojcechovský; 16 October 1883 in Vitebsk – 7 April 1951) was a Colonel of the Russian Army, Major-General in the White movement, and Czechoslovak Army general.

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Sergey I. Shivtzov

Yesaul Sergey Shivtzov (3 October 1874 – 17 March 1915) was an officer in the Imperial Russian Army who commanded the 1st Squadron of the 1st Orenburg Cossacks Cavalry Regiment during the World War I. He died leading the charge into battle of Khotyn against the Austro-Hungarian Army.

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Sergey Ilyushin

Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin (Серге́й Владимирович Илью́шин; – 9 February 1977) was a Soviet aircraft designer who founded the Ilyushin aircraft design bureau.

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Sergey Lazo

Sergey (Serghei, Sergei) Georgiyevich Lazo (Serghei Lazo; March 7, 1894 – April–May 1920) was a Communist leader in the October 1917 Revolution in the Russian Far East.

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Sergey Oldenburg

Sergey Fyodorovich Oldenburg (Серге́й Фёдорович Ольденбу́рг; 26 September 1863, in Byankino, Transbaikal Oblast – 28 February 1934, in Leningrad) was a Russian orientalist who specialized in Buddhist studies.

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Sergey Semyonovich Khabalov

Sergey Semyonovich Khabalov (21 April 1858 — 1924) was a Russian general of Ossetian origin and the commander of the Petrograd military district in 1917.

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Sergey Tsion

Sergei Anatoljevich Tsion (Сергей Анатолиевич Цион, 1874 – 1947) was an Imperial Russian Army captain who was one of the leaders of the Sveaborg Rebellion in 1906.

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Sev Berd

Sev Berd or Black Fortress (Սև բերդ; Чёрная Кре́пость, Chornaya Krepost) is an abandoned Russian imperial fortress in Gyumri, Shirak Province, Armenia.

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Seventh Fort

The Seventh Fort or VII Fort is a defensive fortification built in Žaliakalnis district of Kaunas, Lithuania, during implementation of the first phase of the construction of the Kaunas Fortress.

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Sextil Pușcariu

Sextil Iosif Pușcariu (January 4, 1877–May 5, 1948) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian linguist and philologist.

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Sfatul Țării

Sfatul Țării (Country Council) was a council that united political, public, cultural, and professional organizations in the greater part of the territory of the Governorate of Bessarabia in the disintegrating Russian Empire, which proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic as part of the Russian Federative Republic in December 1917, and then union with Romania in April (according to the old style, March) 1918.

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Shako

A shako is a tall, cylindrical military cap, usually with a visor, and sometimes tapered at the top.

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Shelikhov-Golikov Company

The Shelikhov-Golikov Company (SGC) was a Russian fur trading venture, founded by Irkutsk entrepreneurs Grigory Shelikhov and Ivan Larionovich Golikov in 1783.

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Shipka Memorial Church

The Memorial Temple of the Birth of Christ (Храм-паметник „Рождество Христово“, Hram-pametnik „Rozhdestvo Hristovo“), better known as the Shipka Memorial Church or Shipka Monastery is a Bulgarian Orthodox church built near the town of Shipka in Stara Planina between 1885 and 1902 to Antoniy Tomishko's design in the seventeenth-century Muscovite style, under the direction of architect Alexander Pomerantsev.

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Shlomo Heiman

Shlomo Heiman, (1892–1945) commonly known by the informal "Reb Shlomo", was a Rabbi, Talmudist, and Rosh Yeshiva of some of the most prominent yeshivas in Europe and the United States.

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Sidney Reilly

Sidney George Reilly MC (– 5 November 1925), commonly known as the "Ace of Spies," was a Russian-born adventurer and secret agent employed by Scotland Yard's Special Branch and later by the British Secret Service Bureau, the precursor to the modern British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6/SIS).

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Siege of Danzig (1813)

The Siege of Danzig was a siege of the city of Danzig during the War of the Sixth Coalition by Russian and Prussian forces against Jean Rapp's permanent French garrison, which had been augmented by soldiers from the Grande Armée retreating from its Russian campaign.

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Siege of Leningrad

The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.

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Siege of Port Arthur

The Siege of Port Arthur (旅順攻囲戦, Ryojun Kōisen; Оборона Порт-Артура, Oborona Port-Artura, August 1, 1904 – January 2, 1905), the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.

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Siege of Sveaborg

The Siege of Sveaborg was a short siege by Russia that took place at Sveaborg (Suomenlinna) in early 1808, during the Finnish War.

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Silvestras Žukauskas

Silvestras Žukauskas (Silvester Konstantinovich Zhukovsky, Сильвестр Константинович Жуковский; 31 December 1860 – 26 November 1937) was a general in the Russian army, and later in his native Lithuania, after it regained its independence in 1918.

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Silvestras Leonas

Silvestras Leonas (1894–1959) was a Lithuanian military officer.

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Simeon G. Murafa

Simeon Gheorghevici Murafa Lucia Sava,, Editura Pontos, Chișinău, 2010, p.171-172.

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Simferopol

Simferopol (p; Сімферополь,; Aqmescit, Акъмесджит) is a city on the Crimean peninsula which, de facto, is the capital city of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation but, de jure, is the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine.

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Simon Vratsian

Simon Vratsian (Սիմոն Վրացեան; 1882 – 21 May 1969) was the last Prime Minister of the First Republic of Armenia.

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Smiltene

Smiltene is a town in the Vidzeme region in northern Latvia, 132 km northeast of the capital Riga, and the administrative centre of Smiltene Municipality.

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Smolensk

Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.

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Sofia

Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

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Sofia Kovalevskaya

Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (Со́фья Васи́льевна Ковале́вская), born Sofia Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya (– 10 February 1891), was a Russian mathematician who made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics.

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Sophie Radford de Meissner

Sophie Adelaide Radford de Meissner (November 17, 1854 – April 17, 1957) was an author, playwright, diplomat's wife, spiritualist and socialite.

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Sotnia

Sotnia or sotnya (Ukrainian and Cотня, Satnija Satnija) is a military term of Slavic origin.

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Southwestern Front (Russian Empire)

The Southwestern Front (Юго-Западный фронт) was an army group of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. During the conflict it was responsible for managing operations along a front line that stretched 615 kilometers, from what is now southern Belarus to northern Romania, and took part in such operations as the Battle of Galicia and the Brusilov Offensive.

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Southwestern Front (Soviet Union)

The Southwestern Front was a name given to a Front (or Army group sized military formation) by the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War, by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic during the Russian Civil War, and by the Red Army during the Second World War.

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Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands

The Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands (Souvereine Vorstendom der Verëenigde Nederlanden) was a short-lived sovereign principality and the precursor of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in which it was reunited with the Southern Netherlands in 1815.

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Soviet Armed Forces

The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.

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Soviet helmets during World War II

Over the course of World War II the Soviet Union employed three main helmet designs; the SSh-36, the SSh-39, and the SSh-40, each being designated with the year in which they were introduced.

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Special Corps of Gendarmes

The Special Corps of Gendarmes (Отдельный корпус жандармов) was the uniformed security police of the Imperial Russian Army in the Russian Empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Sredets

Sredets (Средец) is a town in Burgas Province in southeastern Bulgaria.

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Sretensky Monastery (Moscow)

Sretensky Monastery (Сретенский монастырь) is a monastery in Moscow, founded by Grand Prince Vasili I in 1397.

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St. Nicholas Church, Taganrog

The Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker Church is a Russian Orthodox Church in the city of Taganrog in Rostov Oblast, Russia.

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St. Nicholas Military Cathedral

St. Nicholas Military Cathedral (Військовий Микільський собор), popularly known as The Great Nicholas (Великий Микола), was a main church of the Kiev Fortress garrison of the former Russian Empire, overlooking the Dnieper River in Kiev.

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Stabskapitän

Stabskapitän (en: Staff captain), in the cavalry also Stabsrittmeister (en: "Staff riding master" or "Staff cavalry master"), or Kapitänleutnant (en: Captain lieutenant), was a historic military rank in the Prussian Army.

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Staff captain

Staff captain is the English translation of a number of military ranks.

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Stanisław August Poniatowski

Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz

Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz (Станіслаў Булак-Балаховіч, Станисла́в Була́к-Балахо́вич; 12 November 1883 – 28 November 1940) was a notable general, military commander and veteran of World War I, Russian Civil War, Estonian War of Independence, Polish-Bolshevik War and the Invasion of Poland at the start of World War II.

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Stanisław Jackowski (officer)

Stanisław Jackowski (1881–1929) was one of the early pioneers of armoured warfare during the Polish-Soviet war of 1919-1921.

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Stanisław Kierbedź

Stanisław Kierbedź (Станислав Валерианович Кербедз, Stanislovas Kerbedis; 1810-1899) was a Polish-Russian engineer and military officer.

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Stanisław Kopański

General Stanisław Kopański (1895–1976) was a Polish military commander, politician, diplomat, an engineer and one of the best-educated Polish officers of the time, serving with distinction during World War II.

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Stanislav Rostotsky

Stanislav Iosifovich Rostotsky (Станисла́в Ио́сифович Росто́цкий; 21 April 1922, in Rybinsk – 10 August 2001, in Vyborg) was a Soviet film director and screenwriter, the recipient of the two USSR State Prizes and a Lenin Prize.

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Stasys Šilingas

Baron Stasys Šilingas (11 November 1885 – 13 November 1962) was a prominent lawyer and statesman in interwar Lithuania.

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Stasys Raštikis

Stasys Raštikis (September 13, 1896 – May 3, 1985) was a Lithuanian military officer, ultimately obtaining the rank of divisional general.

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Stavka

The Stavka (Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.

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Stębark

Stębark (Tannenberg) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Grunwald, within Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

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Steel and Iron

Shtol un Ayzn (שטאָל און אײַזן Steel and Iron) is a 1927 Yiddish language novel by Israel Joshua Singer.

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Stefan Banach

Stefan Banach (30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.

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Stefan Kossecki

Stefan Kossecki (1889 - 1940) was a soldier of the Imperial Russian Army, and Colonel of Infantry of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic.

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Stefan Mokrzecki

Stefan Mokrzecki of Ostoja coat of arms (1862–1932) was a general in the Russian Army and the Polish Army.

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Stefan Pogonowski

Stefan Pogonowski (1895–1920) was a Polish professional soldier and military officer.

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Steindamm Church

Steindamm Church Steindamm Church (Steindammer Kirche; kościół na Steindamm), St Nicholas' Church (Nikolaikirche, or Nikolauskirche; Polish: kościół św. Mikołaja), or Polish Church (Polnische Kirche; Polish: kościół polski) was the oldest church in the city formerly known as Königsberg, and today known as Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Stepan Akimov

Stepan Dmitrievich Akimov (1896 – October 29, 1941) was a Soviet general and army commander.

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Stepan Andreyevskiy

Stepan Stepanovitch Andreyevskiy (Russian: Степан Степанович Андреевский;, Tver Governorate -) was an Imperial Russian Army commander of the Napoleonic Wars, having the rank of Major General.

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Stepan Bogomyagkov

Stepan Nikolaevich Bogomyagkov (December 31, 1890 – September 1966) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Stepan Kalinin

Stepan Andrianovich Kalinin (28 December 1890 – 11 September 1975) was a Soviet army commander.

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Stepan Krasovsky

Sczyapan Yakimavich Krasuisky (Belorussian: Сцяпан Якімавіч Красоўскі, Russified: Stepan Akimovich Krasovskiy; - April 21, 1983) was a Soviet Air Force Marshal of the aviation.

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Stepan Nikitich Begichev

Stepan Nikitich Begichev (Бегичев, Степан Никитич) (22 July 1785 – 3 September 1859) was a Russian colonel and memoirist, brother of Dmitry Begichev and Yablochkova Elizaveta.

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Stepan Oborin

Stepan Ilyich Oborin (15 August 1892 – 16 October 1941) was a Red Army major general.

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Stepan Zotov

Stepan Andeeevich Zotov (November 23, 1882 – September 29, 1938) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).

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Stepantsminda

Stepantsminda (სტეფანწმინდა; formerly Kazbegi, ყაზბეგი), is a townlet in the Mtskheta-Mtianeti region of north-eastern Georgia.

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Streltsy

Streltsy (t; стреле́ц) were the units of Russian firearm infantry from the 16th to the early 18th centuries and also a social stratum, from which personnel for Streltsy troops were traditionally recruited.

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Surrender at Világos

The Surrender at Világos, which was the formal end of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, took place on 13 August 1849, at Világos, (now Şiria, Romania).

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Sveaborg rebellion

The Sveaborg rebellion was an Imperial Russian military mutiny which broke out on the evening of 30 July 1906 amongst the garrison of the coastal fortress of Sveaborg in the coast of Helsinki in the Grand Duchy of Finland.

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Sviyazhsk

Sviyazhsk (Свия́жск) is a rural locality (a selo) in the Russia, located at the confluence of the Volga and Sviyaga Rivers.

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Sylvester Stankievich

Sylvester Lvovich Stankievich (1866 – March 11, 1919) was an Imperial Russian corps commander.

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Tagantsev conspiracy

The Tagantsev conspiracy (or the case of the Petrograd Military Organization) was a non-existent monarchist conspiracy fabricated by the Soviet secret police in 1921 to terrorize intellectuals who might be in a potential opposition to the ruling Bolshevik regime.

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Tammisaari prison camp

The Tammisaari camp was a concentration camp and prison in Dragsvik, Ekenäs in Finland.

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Tampere camp

Tampere camp (also Kalevankangas camp) was a concentration camp operating from 6 April 1918 to 15 September 1918 in the Kaleva district of Tampere, Finland.

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Tapa Tchermoeff

Abdul "Tapa" Medjid Bey Ortsa Tchermoeff (1882 – August 28, 1937) (Тапа Абдул Миджит Бей Орца Чермо́ев Tapa Abdul Midƶit Bey Orca Çermoyev) was the only Prime Minister of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.

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Tarnów

Tarnów (is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.

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Tashkent Higher Tank Command School

The Chirchiq Higher Tank Command and Engineering School, formerly the Tashkent Order of Lenin Higher Tank Command School named after Pavel Rybalko is a military academy of the Ministry of Defense of Uzbekistan, responsible for training armored and engineering personnel of the Uzbekistan Ground Forces.

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Tatar Cavalry Regiment

The Tatar Cavalry Regiment (Tatar süvari alayı; Татарский конный полк) was one of the regiments of the Caucasian Native Cavalry Division of the Imperial Russian Army, which was formed from Tatars (Azerbaijanis) of Elisavetpol and Baku Governorate, and also the Borchali uezd of Tiflis Governorate.

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Tõnis Rotberg

Tõnis Rotberg (9 September 1882 – 24 July 1953) was an Estonian General.

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Teodor Narbutt

Teodor Narbutt (Teodoras Narbutas; 8 November 1784 – 27 November 1864) was a Polish–Lithuanian romantic historian and military engineer in service of the Russian Empire.

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Ternopil

Ternopil (Ternopil',; Tarnopol; Ternopol'; Tarnopol; Ternepol/Tarnopl; Tarnopol) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River.

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Teymuraz Bagration

Prince Teymuraz Constantinovich Bagration (21 August 1912 – 10 April 1992) was a Georgian-Russian nobleman and an émigré in the United States where he served as President of the Tolstoy Foundation, a New York-based charitable organization.

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Thadeus von Sievers

Faddey Vasilievich Sievers (Фаддей Васильевич Сиверс, 1853–1915) who served as a general in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I at the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes.

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The Case of Sergeant Grischa (film)

The Case of Sergeant Grischa is a 1930 American pre-Code drama film directed by Herbert Brenon, based on the German novel of the same name by Arnold Zweig.

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The Flying Elephant

The Flying Elephant (Letaushi slon) is a novel by Boris Akunin, the first part of the second book on the adventures of Russian and German spies during the First World War.

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The Infant and the Devil

The Infant and the Devil (Mladenets i chort) is a novel by Boris Akunin, the first part of the first book on the adventures of Russian and German spies during the First World War.

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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination.

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The Queen of Spades (story)

The Queen of Spades («Пиковая дама»; translit. Pikovaya dama) is a short story with supernatural elements by Alexander Pushkin about human avarice.

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The Scarlet Empress

The Scarlet Empress is a 1934 American historical drama film made by Paramount Pictures about the life of Catherine the Great.

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The Torment of a Broken Heart

The Torment of a Broken Heart (Muka razbitogo serdza) is a novel by Boris Akunin, the second part of the first book on the adventures of Russian and German spies during the World War I. It describes the dangerous adventures of Aleksei Romanov, who became a military intelligence officer.

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The Winter Queen (novel)

The Winter Queen (Russian: Азазель, Azazel) is the first novel from the Erast Fandorin series of historical detective novels, written by Russian author Boris Akunin.

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Theodor von Rüdiger

Theodor von Rüdiger (Фёдор Васильевич Ридигер; 1783 in Mittau – 11 June 1856 in Saint Petersburg) was a Baltic German military officer in service of the Russian Empire and a general of the Imperial Russian Army.

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Theodore Zeldin

Theodore Zeldin (born 22 August 1933) is an Oxford scholar and thinker whose books have searched for answers to three questions.

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Theotokos of Kursk

The Kursk Root Icon of the Sign (also Our Lady of Kursk) (Богоматерь Курская Коренная, Bogomater Kurskaya Korennaya, literally Theotokos of Kursk, Found Among the Roots) is an icon of Theotokos of the Sign, apparently painted in the thirteenth century and discovered in a forest near Kursk ca.

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Thomas Henry Barry

Thomas Henry Barry (October 13, 1855 – December 30, 1919) was a United States Army Major General and Superintendent of the United States Military Academy from 1910 to 1912.

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Thomas-Alexandre Dumas

Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (also known as Alexandre Dumas; 25 March 1762 – 26 February 1806) was a general in Revolutionary France and the highest-ranking man of mixed African descent ever in a European army.

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Tianjin railway station

The Tianjin railway station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China.

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Timeline of aviation – 19th century

This is a list of aviation-related events during the 19th century (1 January 1801 – 31 December 1900).

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Timeline of Romanian history

This is a timeline of Romanian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Romania and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of Russian innovation

Timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation.

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Timofey Shapkin

Timofey Shapkin (March 5, 1885 – March 22, 1943) was a Soviet corps commander.

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Tjyongoui Yi

Tjyongoui Yi (1884–1924(?)), also known as Yi Wi-jong, was a Korean diplomat and military officer.

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Tkhaba-Yerdy Church

Tkhaba-Yerdy (Ingush: ТкъобIa–Ерды; Храм Тхаба–Ерды; ტყობა-ერდი) is the ruins of the largest medieval Christian church in Ingushetia, Russian Federation.

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Toma Ciorbă

Toma Ciorbă (January 15, 1864–December 30, 1936) was a Bessarabian-born Romanian physician and hospital director.

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Trans-Caspian railway

The Trans-Caspian Railway (also called the Central Asian Railway, Среднеазиатская железная дорога) is a railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia.

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Treaty of Åbo

The Treaty of Åbo or the Treaty of Turku was a peace treaty signed between the Russian Empire and Sweden in Turku (Åbo) on 7.

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Trofim Kolomiets

Trofim Kolomiets (1894 – April 1971) was a Soviet corps commander.

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Tsarist officers in the Red Army

During the Russian Civil War, several former Tsarist officers joined the Red Army, either voluntarily or through coercion.

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Tunic (military)

A military tunic is a type of medium length coat or jacket, the lower hem of which reaches down to the thighs all the way round.

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Turchaninov family

Turchaninov (Турчанинов, sometimes transliterated as Turchin) was a surname of several noble families in the Russian Empire.

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Turkestan Military District

The Turkestan Military District (Туркестанский военный округ (ТуркВО), Turkestansky voyenyi okrug (TurkVO)) was a military district of both the Imperial Russian Army and the Soviet Armed Forces, with its headquarters at Tashkent.

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Uhlan

Uhlans (Polish: Ułan; German: Ulan) were Polish light cavalry armed with lances, sabres and pistols.

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Ukrainian Austrian internment

The Ukrainian Austrian internment was part of the confinement of enemy aliens in Austria during World War I. Central Camp Talerhof (German: Thalerhof) was a concentration camp operated by the Austro-Hungarian imperial government between 1914 and 1917 in the Austrian state of Styria.

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Ukrainian line

Ukrainian defensive line was a Russian heavily fortified defensive line on the territory of modern Ukraine built between 1731–1764 on the lands of the Zaporizhian Sich and the Cossack Hetmanate.

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Ukrainian People's Army

The Ukrainian People's Army (Армія Української Народної Республіки), also known as the Ukrainian National Army (UNA) was the Army of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1917-1921).

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Ukrainian State

The Ukrainian State (Українська держава, Ukrajinśka Deržava), sometimes also called the Hetmanate (Гетьманат, Hetmanat), was an anti-socialist government that existed on most of the modern territory of Ukraine (except for West Ukraine) from April 29 to December 14, 1918.

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Ukrainian War of Independence

The Ukrainian War of Independence was a period of sustained warlike conflict lasting from 1917 to 1921, which resulted in the establishment and development of a Ukrainian republic, later a part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

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Union of Salvation

The Union of Salvation (Soyuz spaseniya), formed in 1816, also known as the Society of True and Loyal Sons of the Fatherland (Obshchestvo istinnykh i vernykh synov otechestva) since 1817, was the first secret political society of the Decembrists.

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University of Chernivtsi

Chernivtsi National University (full name Yurii Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Чернівецький національний університет імені Юрія Федьковича) is a public university in the City of Chernivtsi in Western Ukraine.

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Uprising of Polish political exiles in Siberia

Siberian Uprising or Baikal Insurrection (Powstanie zabajkalskie or Powstanie nad Bajkałem, Кругобайкальское восстание) was a short-lived uprising of about 700 Polish political prisoners and exiles (Sybiracy) in Siberia, Russian Empire, that started on 24 June 1866 and lasted for a few days, until their defeat on 28 June.

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Urmia Orthodokseta

Urmia Orthodokseta ("Orthodox Urmia"; translit) was a magazine published every month from 1904 to 1914 in Urmia, Qajar Iran by the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission.

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Urusbiy

Urusbiy (Урусбийлери, Орусбийляры, Urusbiylari) is the surname of the mountain princes (Taubiy) of the Balkaria in the North Caucasus.

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Uzdowo

Uzdowo (Usdau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Działdowo, within Działdowo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

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Vaclovas Sidzikauskas

Vaclovas Sidzikauskas (April 10, 1893 – December 2, 1973) was a prominent diplomat in interwar Lithuania.

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Vakhtang VI of Kartli

Vakhtang VI (ვახტანგ VI), also known as Vakhtang the Scholar, Vakhtang the Lawgiver and Ḥosaynqolī Khan (translit) (September 15, 1675 – March 26, 1737), was a Georgian monarch of the royal Bagrationi dynasty.

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Valentina Gorinevskaya

Valentina Gorinevskaya (Валентина Гориневская; 1882 – 1953), was a Russian military surgeon and trauma specialist.

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