List of loanwords in Classical Syriac

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Loanwords in Classical Syriac Aramaic entered the language throughout different periods in the history of Mesopotamia. The Alexandrian and Seleucid rule along with interaction with their fellow citizens of the Greco-Roman world of the Fertile Crescent resulted in the adoption of numerous Greek words. The majority of these were nouns relating to Roman administration, such as officials, military and law.[1] The largest group of loanwords come from Greek and is followed by Iranian loans, although words from Sumerian, Akkadian and Latin are also passed on in varying degrees.[2] Several Hebrew loanwords exist (particularly religious terms). The Islamic Conquests changed the demographics of the empire and resulted in an influx of a new corpus of words from Arabic while life under the Seljuk, Ottoman and Safavid empires introduced Turkic words to the language.

Language isolates[edit]

Sumerian[edit]

Sumerian Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
E.GAL ܗܝܟܠܐ noun "palace, temple"
E.KUR ܐܓܘܪܐ noun "pagan shrine, altar"
agam (Akk. agammu) ܐܓܡܐ noun "meadow, swamp"
addir (Akk. agāru) ܐܓܪܐ noun "hire, wages"
azu (Akk. asû) ܐܣܝܐ noun "doctor (physician)"

[2][3][4][5]

Semitic[edit]

Akkadian[edit]

Akkadian Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
Nisannu ܢܝܣܢ proper noun "April"
Ayyaru ܐܝܪ proper noun "May"
Simānu ܚܙܝܪܢ proper noun "June"
Duʾūzu ܬܡܘܙ proper noun "July"
Abu ܐܒ proper noun "August"
Ulūlu ܐܝܠܘܠ proper noun "September"
Tašrītu ܬܫܪܝܢ proper noun "October; November"
Kislīmu ܟܢܘܢ proper noun "December; January"
Šabāṭu ܫܒܛ proper noun "February"
Addaru ܐܕܪ proper noun "March"
egubbu ܓܝܒܐ noun "temple courtyard basin"
inbu ܐܒܐ noun "fruit"
šaṭāru ܫܛܪܐ noun "deed, document"
ummānu ܐܘܡܬܐ noun "nation"
zīmu ܙܝܘܐ noun "beauty"
ziqtu ܙܩܬܐ noun "goad, rod"
abūtu ܐܒܘܬܐ noun "rule, plumbline of an architect; goad for scraping plowshares; duct work"
abullu ܐܒܘܠܐ noun "city gate; portico"
lilītu ܠܠܝܬܐ noun "lilith; female demon"
aban gabî ܡܓܒܝܐ noun "alum"
agāru ܐܓܪܐ noun "hire, wages"
agurru ܐܓܘܪܐ noun "kiln-fired brick or tile"
akukītu ܟܘܟܝܬܐ noun "storm, whirlwind"
muršānu ܘܪܫܢܐ noun "wood dove, pigeon"
amuriqānu ܡܪܝܩܢܐ noun "jaundice"
arad ekalli ܐܪܕܟܠܐ noun "architect, builder"
arru ܐܪܐ noun "decoy bird"
asītu ܐܫܝܬܐ noun "wall, column"

[2][3][6][7][5]

Arabic[edit]

Arabic Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
بُومَة ܒܘܡܐ noun "owl"

Hebrew[edit]

Hebrew Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
הוֹשַׁע־נָא ܐܘܫܥܢܐ noun; interjection "hosanna"

Indo-European[edit]

Greek[edit]

Early Greek loans which were administrative in nature became obscure as society changed, although words adopted from translations of Christian and philosophical texts outlived the former and survive to the current day.

Greek Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
ἀράχνη ܐܪܟܐܢܐ noun "spider"
αἱρετικός ܗܪܛܝܩܐ noun "heretic"
τεταρταίος ܛܗܛܐܪܛܗܘ ,ܛܗܛܪܛܗܐ ,ܛܗܛܐܪܛܗܐܘܣ noun "quartan"
ὀροβάγχη ܐܘܪܒܟܝܢ noun "broomrape"
ἄγνος ܐܓܢܘܣ noun "agnus"
κέγχρος ܩܢܟܢܘܢ noun "a gem"
ܦܪܦܝܪܝܛܝܣ noun "porphyrite"
ܣܪܕܘܢ noun "sard, a kind of stone"
γαλακτίτης ܓܠܐܩܛܝܛܝܣ noun "a type of milky stone"
ἀπόφασις ܐܦܘܦܣܝܣ noun "judgement"
συλλογισμός ܣܘܠܘܓܣܡܐ noun "syllogism"
ܦܪܘܛܣܝܣ noun "premise, proposition, preposition"
ὕπατοι ܐܘܦܛܝܢ noun "highest musical string"
κιθάρα ܩܝܬܪܐ noun "harp, lute"
βάσις ܒܣܣ noun "base, basis"
ܩܘܒܘܣ noun "cube'
ἀμμωνιακόν ܐܡܘܢܝܩܘܢ noun "gum ammoniac"
ἀνδροδάμας ܐܢܕܪܘܕܘܡܘܣ noun "arsenical pyrites"
ἄσβεστος ܐܣܒܣܛܘܢ noun "asbestos"
ἀφρόνιτρον ܐܦܘܢܝܛܪܘܢ noun "sodium carbonate"
ἀρσενικόν ܐܪܣܘܢܝܩܘܢ noun "arsenic sulfide, yellow ointment"
ܡܓܢܝܣܝܐ noun "magnesium"
μολυβδήνη mwlbdynˀ noun "galena"
μίσυ mysw noun "shoemaker's vitriol"
νίτρων nyṭrwn noun "nitre"
σηρικόν sryqwn noun "red ink, red lead"
ψιμύθιον psymtyn noun "white lead"
κιννάβαρις ܩܝܢܒܪܝܣ noun "cinnabar"
ܩܠܡܝܐ noun "cadmia (ore of zinc)"
κρήτη ܩܪܝܛ noun "chalk"
ῥητίνη ܪܛܝܢܐ noun "resin"
όξεῖα ܐܘܟܣܝܐ noun "sharp things (grammatical)"
σχῆμα ܐܣܟܡܐ noun "character, shape, form"
ἄρθρον ܐܪܬܪܘܢ noun "particle"
ζεῦγος ܙܘܓܐ noun "pair, conjugation, name of an accent"
τάξις ܛܟܣܐ noun "order, military company, apparatus"
ἄργολας ܐܪܓܘܠܐ noun "a type of snake"

[2][3]

Latin[edit]

Latin loans appear to have been largely transmitted to Syriac via Greek. This is evident based on the Syriac orthography which demonstrates it was borrowed from the Greek form.[2][3]

Latin Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
arena ܐܪܐܢܐ noun "arena"
comitatus ܩܝܡܛܛܘܢ noun "retinue"
palatium ܦܠܛܝܢ noun "palace"
curopalata ܩܘܪܐܦܠܛܝܣ noun "prefect of the palace"
caldarium ܩܪܕܠܐ noun "pot"
candela ܩܢܕܝܠܐ noun "lamp, torch"
carrarius ܩܪܪܐ noun "driver"
carruca ܩܪܘܟܐ noun "chariot"
dinarius ܕܝܢܪܐ noun "gold dinarius"

[2][3]

Iranian[edit]

Iranian Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
ܢܘܗܕܪܐ noun "commander"
ܓܙܐ noun "treasure"
ܐܗܡܪܐܓܪ noun "accountant"
daewa ܕܝܘܐ noun "demon, devil"
ܐܣܦܝܕܟܐ noun "white lead"
būrak ܒܘܪܟܐ noun "borax"
ܙܝܘܓ noun "mercury (element)"
ܙܪܢܝܟܐ noun "arsenic"
murtak ܡܪܬܟܐ noun "dross of silver, litharge"

[3][8]

Altaic[edit]

Turkic[edit]

Turkic Syriac Part of Speech Meaning Notes
yarliǵ ܝܪܠܝܟ noun "decree, mandate, yarligh"

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aaron Butts (2014). Greek Loanwords in Syriac.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Aaron Butts (2016). Latin Words in Classical Syriac.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project". Hebrew Union College.
  4. ^ Stephen A. Kaufman (1974). The Akkadian influences on Aramaic (PDF).
  5. ^ a b "The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary". University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  6. ^ Heinrich Zimmern (1915). Akkadische Fremdwörter als Beweis für babylonischen Kultureinfluss.
  7. ^ Stephen A. Kaufman (1974). The Akkadian influences on Aramaic (PDF).
  8. ^ Claudia Ciancaglini (2008). Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. ISBN 9783895006241.