Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Duke of Marlborough
Joshua Reynolds - 3rd Duke of Marlborough (1706-58) 1757 - (MeisterDrucke-569874).jpg
Portrait by Joshua Reynolds c. 1759
Lord Privy Seal
In office
8 June 1755 – 22 December 1755
MonarchGeorge II
Prime MinisterThe Duke of Newcastle
Preceded byThe Earl Gower
Succeeded byThe Earl Gower
Lord Steward of the Household
In office
1749–1755
MonarchGeorge II
Prime MinisterHenry Pelham
The Duke of Newcastle
Preceded byThe Duke of Devonshire
Succeeded byThe Duke of Rutland
Personal details
Born22 November 1706
Died20 October 1758(1758-10-20) (aged 51)
SpouseElizabeth Trevor
Children
Parents
Military service
Allegiance Great Britain
Branch/service British Army
Battles/warsSeven Years' War

Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough, KG, PC (22 November 1706 – 20 October 1758), styled as The Honourable Charles Spencer between 1706 and 1729 and as The Earl of Sunderland between 1729 and 1733, was a British soldier, nobleman, and politician from the Spencer family. He briefly served as Lord Privy Seal in 1755. He led British forces during the Raid on St Malo in 1758.

Early life[edit]

A young Charles Spencer, painted by John Vanderbank

He was the second son of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, and Lady Anne Churchill, the second daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and his wife Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. He inherited the Sunderland title from his older brother in 1729, becoming 5th Earl of Sunderland, and then the Marlborough title from his aunt Henrietta, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough in 1733. At that time, he handed over the Sunderland estates to his younger brother John, but he did not obtain Blenheim Palace until Sarah, the dowager duchess, died in 1744.[1]

On Thursday, 14 July 1737, Marlborough captained his own cricket team in a match against the Prince of Wales' XI on Kew Green. Wales' XI are known to have won the match which was apparently of minor standard although publicised because of the participants.[2] This is the only known mention of Marlborough in a cricketing connection.

He was one of the original governors of London's Foundling Hospital, the foundation of which in 1739 marked a watershed in British child care advocacy and attitudes.[citation needed]

Seven Years War[edit]

He is best known for his service in the early part of the Seven Years' War. He led the Raid on St Malo, a naval descent against the French coastal port. Following the Capture of Emden in 1758, he led the British expeditionary force sent to join Ferdinand of Brunswick's Army of Observation on Continental Europe, but died the same year, leaving command to John Manners, Marquess of Granby.

Marriage and children[edit]

He married The Hon. Elizabeth Trevor (c. 1713 – 1761), daughter of Thomas Trevor, 2nd Baron Trevor. They had five children:

Personal life[edit]

The amiable Charles was generally well-liked, and he was a loyal husband and loving father. He made sure to write to his wife frequently while on military campaigns and always sent his love to their children.[6] He had no concept of economy, and was a heavy spender. He was so notoriously incompetent with money that when he suddenly died in 1758, acquaintances wryly remarked that he died before he could spend his heir's inheritance on the estate.[7]

Death[edit]

In October 1758, Charles was on a campaign in Germany when he caught dysentery that was sweeping the camp. His sudden death shocked his family, friends, and England. However, an autopsy revealed he would have died not long after, as his lungs were ravaged by the consumption that had killed his mother and sister. Surprisingly, Charles did not spread consumption to his children.[8]

Titles[edit]

  • 22 November 170615 September 1729: The Honourable Charles Spencer
  • 15 September 172924 October 1733: The Right Honourable The Earl of Sunderland
  • 24 October 173320 October 1758: His Grace The Duke of Marlborough

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marlborough, Earls and Dukes of". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 737.
  2. ^ Waghorn, H. T. (1899). Cricket Scores, Notes, etc. (1730–1773). Blackwood. p. 18.
  3. ^ The Third Register Book of the Parish of St James in the Liberty of Westminster For Births & Baptisms. 1723-1741. 19 January 1737.
  4. ^ The Third Register Book of the Parish of St James in the Liberty of Westminster For Births & Baptisms. 1723-1741. 26 February 1738.
  5. ^ The Third Register Book of the Parish of St James in the Liberty of Westminster For Births & Baptisms. 1723-1741. 18 April 1740.
  6. ^ Hicks, Carola (19 June 2002). Improper Pursuits: The Scandalous Life of an Earlier Lady Diana Spencer. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29157-0.
  7. ^ Hicks, Carola (19 June 2002). Improper Pursuits: The Scandalous Life of an Earlier Lady Diana Spencer. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29157-0.
  8. ^ Hicks, Carola (19 June 2002). Improper Pursuits: The Scandalous Life of an Earlier Lady Diana Spencer. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29157-0.

External Sources[edit]


Honorary titles
Preceded by Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire
1739–1758
Succeeded by
Preceded by Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire
1739–1758
Vacant
Title next held by
The Duke of Marlborough
Political offices
Preceded by Lord Steward
1749–1755
Succeeded by
Preceded by Lord Privy Seal
1755
Succeeded by
Military offices
Preceded by Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull
1738–1740
Succeeded by
Preceded by Colonel of 38th Regiment of Foot
1738–1739
Succeeded by
Preceded by Colonel of The Royal Regiment of Dragoons
1739–1740
Succeeded by
Preceded by Captain and Colonel of
The Queen's Troop of Horse Guards

1740–1742
Succeeded by
Preceded by Colonel of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards
1742–1744
Succeeded by
Preceded by Master-General of the Ordnance
1755–1758
Vacant
Title next held by
The Viscount Ligonier
Peerage of England
Preceded by Duke of Marlborough
1733–1758
Succeeded by
Preceded by Earl of Sunderland
1729–1758