List of rulers of Austria

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This is a list of people who have ruled either the Margraviate of Austria, the Duchy of Austria or the Archduchy of Austria. From 976 until 1246, the margraviate and its successor, the duchy, was ruled by the House of Babenberg. At that time, those states were part of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1246 until 1918, the duchy and its successor, the archduchy, was ruled by the House of Habsburg. Following the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, the titles were abolished or fell into abeyance with the erection of the modern Republic of Austria.

Margraves of Austria[edit]

The March of Austria, also known as Marcha Orientalis, was first formed in 976 out of the lands that had once been the March of Pannonia in Carolingian times. The oldest attestation dates back to 996, where the written name "ostarrichi" occurs in a document transferring land in present-day Austria to a Bavarian monastery.

House of Babenberg[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Leopold I the Illustrious
(Luitpold der Erlauchte)
976–994
Herzog Leopold I. Babenberg.jpg c. 940 Richardis of Sualafeldgau
nine children
10 July 994
Würzburg
aged about 54
Henry I the Strong
(Heinrich der Starke)
994–1018
Herzog Heinrich I. Babenberg.jpg late 10th century
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau
never married 23 June 1018
Adalbert I the Victorious
(Adalbert der Siegreiche)
1018–1055
Adalbert der Siegreiche.jpg c. 985
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau
(1) Glismod of West-Saxony
no issue
(2)Frozza Orseolo
one issue
26 May 1055
Melk
aged about 70
Ernest the Brave
(Ernst der Tapfere)
1055–1075
Ernst II. der Tapfere.jpg c. 1027
son of Adalbert and Frozza Orseolo
(1) Adelaide of Eilenburg
1060
three children
(2) Swanhilde of Ungarnmark
1072
no issue
10 June 1075
aged about 48
Leopold II the Fair
(Luitpold der Schöne)
1075–1095
Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg.jpg c. 1050
son of Ernest and Adelaide of Eilenburg
Ida of Cham
1065
eight children
12 October 1095
aged about 45
Leopold III the Good
(Luitpold der Heilige)
1095–1136
Herzog Leopold III. Babenberg.jpg c. 1073
Melk
son of Leopold II and Ida of Cham
(1) Maria of Perg
no children
(2) Agnes of Germany
1106
eighteen children
15 November 1136
Vienna
aged about 63
Adalbert II the Devout
(Adalbert der Andächtige)
1136-1137
Adalbert der Andächtige.jpg c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
(1) Adelaide of Poland
no children
(2) Hedwig of Hungary
1132
no children
9 November 1137
Vienna
aged about 30
Leopold IV the Generous
(Luitpold der Freigiebige)
1137–1141
Markgraf Leopold IV. Babenberg.jpg c. 1108
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
Maria of Bohemia
28 September 1138
no issue
18 October 1141
Niederalteich
aged about 33
Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1141–1156
Herzog Heinrich II. Babenberg.jpg c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
(1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children
13 January 1177
aged about 70

Dukes of Austria[edit]

In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated the march to a duchy, independent of the Duchy of Bavaria.

House of Babenberg[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1156–1177
Herzog Heinrich II. Babenberg.jpg c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany
(1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children
13 January 1177
aged about 70
Leopold V the Virtuous
(Luitpold der Tugendhafte)
1177–1194
Herzog Leopold V. Babenberg.jpg c. 1157
son of Henry II and Theodora Komnene
Helena of Hungary
1174
four children
31 December 1194
Graz
aged about 37
Frederick I the Catholic
(Friedrich der Katholische)
1195–1198
Herzog Friedrich I. der Christliche.jpg c. 1175
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary
never married 16 April 1198
The Holy Land
aged about 23
Leopold VI the Glorious
(Luitpold der Glorreiche)
1198–1230
Herzog Leopold VI. Babenberg.jpg c. 1176
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary
Theodora Angelina
1203
seven children
28 July 1230
San Germano
aged about 54
Frederick II the Quarrelsome
(Friedrich der Streitbare)
1230–1246
Herzog Friedrich II. Babenberg.jpg 25 April 1211
Wiener Neustadt
son of Leopold VI and Theodora Angelina
(1) Sophia Laskarina
no issue
(2) Agnes of Merania
1229
no issue
15 June 1246
Leitha
aged 35

Interregnum[edit]

Ottokar of Bohemia

After Frederick's death, the succession of the Duchy was disputed between various claimants, based in two main rival heiresses:

Dukes and archdukes of Austria under the House of Habsburg[edit]

In 1278, King Rudolph I of Germany defeated Ottokar and took control of Austria. In 1282 he invested his sons with the duchies of Austria and Styria, thereby securing it for the House of Habsburg. Austria became one of the territories that remained under Habsburg rule for more than 600 years, forming the core of the Habsburg monarchy and the present-day country of Austria.

Partitions of Austria under Habsburg domain[edit]

Duchy of Austria
(1291-1379)
Duchy of
Lower Austria

(1379-1457)
Duchy of Inner and Further Austria
County of Tyrol

(1379-1406)
              Duchy of
Further Austria

(1406-1411)
       County of Tyrol
Duchy of Further Austria

(1406/11-1453)

Raised in 1453 to:
Archduchy of
Further Austria

(1453-1490)
Duchy of Inner Austria
(1406-1453)

Raised in 1453 to:
Archduchy of
Inner Austria

(1453-1490)
Archduchy of Austria
(Inner Austrian line)
(1490-1564)
Archduchy of Lower
and Upper Austria

(1564-1619)
Archduchy of
Further Austria

(with County
of Tyrol
)

(1564-1619)
Archduchy of
Inner Austria

(1564-1619)
Archduchy of Austria
(Inner Austrian line)
(1619-1623)
Archduchy of Lower
and Inner Austria

(1623-1665)
Archduchy of
Further Austria

(1623-1665)
Archduchy of Austria
(1665-1804)
(Lower/Inner Austrian line 1665-1780;
Habsburg-Lorraine line 1780-1804)

Table of rulers[edit]

Name Portrait Born Reign Ruling part Consort Death Notes
Rudolf I Rudolph I of Austria.jpg 1 May 1218
Breisgau
Son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg and Hedwig of Kyburg
26 October 1278 –December 1282 Duchy of Austria (1) Gertrude of Hohenberg
1245
nine children
(2) Isabella of Burgundy
5 February 1284
no issue
15 July 1291
Speyer
aged 73
His election as king of Germany (1273) and conquest of Austria (1278) marked the end of two periods in both countries: in Germany, the Great Interregnum after the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250; and in Austria, the Bohemian occupation that followed the succession crisis of 1246. Abdicated for his sons in 1282.
Albert I AlbrechtI.jpg July 1255
Vienna
Eldest son of Rudolf I and Gertrude of Hohenberg
December 1282 –1 May 1308 Duchy of Austria Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
20 December 1274
Vienna
twelve children
1 May 1308
Windisch
aged 52
Sons of Rudolf I, Albert I and Rudolf II co-ruled in Austria until Rudolf II's abdication in 1283. Albert was elected as king of Germany in 1298, and that same year he associated his own eldest son, Rudolf III in Austria. Rudolf III was also elected King of Bohemia in 1306, but predeceased his father, dying next year. Albert himself died assassinated by his son John Parricida.
Rudolf II the Debonair Erb.jpg July 1270
Rheinfelden
Third son of Rudolph I and Gertrude of Hohenberg
December 1282 –1283 Duchy of Austria Agnes of Bohemia
March 1289
Prague
one son
10 May 1290
Prague
aged 20
Rudolf III the Good Rudolf Stepan.jpg c. 1281
Vienna
Eldest son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
21 November 1298 –3/4 July 1307 Duchy of Austria (1) Blanche of France
25 May 1300
one daughter
(2) Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
16 October 1306
no issue
3/4 July 1307
Horažďovice
aged 26
Frederick I/III the Fair[1] Frederick III the Fair.jpg c. 1289
Vienna
Second son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
1 May 1308 –13 January 1330 Duchy of Austria Isabella of Aragon
11 May 1315
Ravensburg
three children
13 January 1330
Gutenstein
aged 41
Younger brothers of Rudolf III, and co-rulers in Austria and Styria. Leopold, despite being younger than Frederick, was the one who primarily inherited the County of Habsburg, the oldest land of the family, and it was only after his death (1326) that Frederick came to rule there. In 1314, Frederick was elected King of the Romans, firstly as rival of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and then accepting co-rulership.
Leopold I the Glorious[2] Leopold1mini.jpg 4 August 1290
Vienna
Third son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
1 May 1308 –28 February 1326 Duchy of Austria Catherine of Savoy
26 May 1315
Basel
two daughters
28 February 1326
Strassburg
aged 35
Albert II the Wise Albert II of Habsburg.jpg 12 December 1298
Habsburg Castle
Fourth son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
13 January 1330 –16 August 1358 Duchy of Austria Joanna of Pfirt
15 February 1324
Vienna
six children
16 August 1358
Vienna
aged 59
Younger brothers of the predecessors, and co-rulers. Albert established the primogeniture law into their domains. He also brought Carinthia and Carniola into Habsburg rule and laid an unsuccessful siege to Zürich. Otto administered the Swabian Habsburg lands. Otto's minor sons, Frederick (II) and Leopold (II), succeeded him in the co-rulership as titular dukes (1339-1344).
Otto I the Merry Otto, Duke of Austria.jpg 23 July 1301
Vienna
Seventh son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
13 January 1330 –17 February 1339 Duchy of Austria (1) Elisabeth of Bavaria
15 May 1325
Straubing
two sons
(2) Anne of Bohemia
16 February 1335
Znaim
no issue
17 February 1339
Neuberg an der Mürz
aged 37
Rudolf IV the Founder Rudolf IV.jpg 1 November 1339
Vienna
Eldest son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
16 August 1358 –27 July 1365 Duchy of Austria Catherine of Bohemia
13 July 1356
Vienna
no issue
27 July 1365
Milan
aged 25
After the unchanging of privileges for the Habsburgs in the decree of the Golden Bull in 1356, Rudolf gave order to draw up the "Privilegium Maius", a fake document to empower the Austrian rulers. He was the first to style himself as Archduke, title which was only made official in 1453. Rudolf also brought Tyrol into Habsburg domain.
The Privilegium Maius, fabricated by Rudolf in 1359, attempted to invest the Dukes of Austria with the special position of an "Archduke". This title was frequently used by Ernest the Iron and other Dukes but not recognized by other princes of the Holy Roman Empire until Frederick V became Emperor and confirmed the Privilegium in 1453.

After the death of Rudolf in 1365, his brothers Albert and Leopold succeeded him together, but divided their possessions between them in the Treaty of Neuberg of 1379:

Albert III the Pigtail Albrecht Dritte Habsburg1.jpg 9 September 1349
Vienna
Third son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
29 July 1365 –25 September 1379 Duchy of Austria (1) Elisabeth of Bohemia
after 19 March 1366
Vienna
no issue
(2) Beatrice of Nuremberg
4 March 1375
Vienna
one son
29 August 1395
Laxenburg
aged 45
Brothers of the predecessor, divided their domains in 1379. Leopold himself lost his life fighting in the Battle of Sempach (1386), a turning point that established the growth of the Swiss Confederacy and the effective decline of Habsburg power in their Swiss homeland.
25 September 1379 –29 August 1395 Duchy of
Lower Austria
Leopold III the Just[3] Leopold III of Austria.jpg 1 November 1351
Vienna
Fourth son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt
29 July 1365 –25 September 1379 Duchy of Austria Viridis Visconti
23 February 1365
Vienna
six children
9 July 1386
Sempach
aged 34
25 September 1379 –9 July 1386 Duchies of Inner and Further Austria
(with County of Tyrol)
William the Courteous Wilhelm Austria.jpg c. 1370
Vienna
Eldest son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
9 July 1386 –15 July 1406 Duchies of Inner and Further Austria
(with County of Tyrol)
Joan II of Naples
13 November 1401
Vienna
no issue
15 July 1406
Vienna
aged 36
Co-ruled with his brother Leopold IV. Also held regency in Lower Austria 1404–1406.
Leopold IV the Fat Leopold IV.jpg c. 1371
Vienna
Second son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
9 July 1386 –15 July 1406 Duchies of Inner and Further Austria
(with County of Tyrol)
Catherine of Burgundy
15 August 1393
Vienna
no issue
3 June 1411
Vienna
aged 40
Also held regency in Lower Austria 1404–1411. After the partition of 1406, kept Further Austria.
15 July 1406 –3 June 1411 Duchy of Further Austria
Albert IV the Patient Albrecht IV.jpg 19 September 1377
Vienna
Only son of Albert the Pigtail and Beatrice of Nuremberg
29 August 1395 –14 September 1404 Duchy of Lower Austria Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
24 April 1390
Vienna
two children
14 September 1404
Klosterneuburg
aged 26
His rule was marked by tensions and conflicts with the Leopoldinian line and the Luxemburg dynasty.
Regencies of William, Duke of Austria and Leopold IV, Duke of Austria (1404-1411) Succeeded as a minor, under guardianship of his Leopoldinian uncles. He was elected, in 1437–38, as King of Bohemia and King of Hungary, and also as King of Germany, beginning a three centuries long succession of Habsburg rulers as Kings of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors.
Albert V the Magnanimous Albrecht II. von Habsburg.jpg 16 August 1397
Vienna
Only son of Albert IV and Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
14 September 1404 –27 October 1439 Duchy of Lower Austria Elizabeth of Luxembourg
26 April 1422
Vienna
three children
27 October 1439
Neszmély
aged 42
In 1406, ater the death of William, the living brothers of the Leopoldinian Line made a new division of their territories:
  • Leopold kept Further Austria, to be inherited by his brother Frederick after his death;
  • Ernest founded the Elder Leopoldinian Line, who received Inner Austria;
  • Frederick founded the Junior Leopoldian Line, who received the county of Tyrol and then Further Austria.
Ernest the Iron Ernest the Iron.jpg c. 1377
Bruck an der Mur
Third son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
15 July 1406 –10 June 1424 Duchy of Inner Austria (1) Margaret of Pomerania
14 January 1392
Bruck an der Mur
no issue
(2) Cymburgis of Masovia
25 January 1412
Kraków
nine children
10 June 1424
Bruck an der Mur
aged 47
In 1414, he became the last Duke to be enthroned according to Carantanian traditional rite at the Prince's Stone in Carinthia, and from that time on called himself Archduke. Beside Rudolf IV, he was the only one who used the title before it became official in 1453.
Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets[4] Anonym Herzog Friedrich IV. von Tirol.jpg c. 1382
Fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti
15 July 1406 –24 June 1439 County of Tyrol
(with Further Austria from 1411)
(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children
24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57
Also held regency in Inner Austria 1424–1435. By siding with Antipope John XXIII, the Council of Constance stripped him of the remaining important Swiss possessions of the family, which went to the Swiss Confederacy.
Vacant 1439–1440
Regency of Frederick V, Duke of Austria (1440-1452) Succeeded as a minor, under guardianship of his Ernestine cousin. His death without descendants ended the Albertinian line, and the domains he inherited in Bohemia and Hungary, which were only recovered during the reign of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ladislaus the Posthumous Ladislas the Posthumous 001.jpg 22 February 1440
Komárom
Only son of Albert V and Elizabeth of Luxembourg
22 February 1440 –23 November 1457 Duchy of Lower Austria
(1440-53)

Archduchy of Lower Austria
(1453-57)
Unmarried 23 November 1457
Prague
aged 17
Lower Austria annexed to Inner Austria
Regency of Frederick V, Duke of Austria (1439-1446) In 1490 he abdicated of his territories, giving way for the reunification of Austria.
Sigismund the Rich Sigismund of Tirol (Alte Pinakothek) colour.jpg 26 October 1427
Innsbruck
Second son of Frederick IV and Anna of Brunswick
24 June 1439 –1490 County of Tyrol
Duchy of Further Austria
(1439-53)

Archduchy of Further Austria
(with County of Tyrol)
(1453-90)
(1) Eleanor of Scotland
12 February 1449
Innsbruck
one son
(2) Katharina of Saxony
24 February 1484
Innsbruck
no issue
4 March 1496
Innsbruck
aged 68
Further Austria and Tyrol annexed to Inner Austria
Regency of Frederick IV, Duke of Austria (1424-1435) Sons of Ernest I, ruled jointly. Occasionally, Albert revolted against him, occupying, until his death, lands known today as Upper Austria and Lower Austria. On his part, Frederick was elected, between 1440 and 1452, King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor. With this dignity, he conceded and made official, in 1453, the Habsburg title of Archduke, elevating officially the Duchy in an Archduchy, which he came to inherit a few years later. In 1490, despite having reunited all of Austria, Frederick's rule wasn't always uncontested:
  • 1485-1490: Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, occupied the proper Duchies of Austria and Styria, claimed the title Archduke of Austria.
Frederick V the Peaceful Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 005.jpg 21 September 1415
Innsbruck
First son of Ernest and Cymburgis of Masovia
10 June 1424 –1490 Duchy of Inner Austria
(1424-53)

Archduchy of Inner Austria
(1453-90)
Eleanor of Portugal
16 March 1452
Rome
five children
19 August 1493
Linz
aged 77
1490 -19 August 1493 Archduchy of Austria
Albert VI the Prodigal Albrecht VI. (Miniatur in Gebetbuch).jpg 12 September 1418
Vienna
Third son of Ernest and Cymburgis of Masovia
10 June 1424 –2 December 1463 Duchy of Inner Austria
(1424-53)

Archduchy of Inner Austria
(1453-63)
Mathilde of the Palatinate
1452
Vienna
no issue
2 December 1463
Vienna
aged 45
Maximilian I the Last Knight Bernhard Strigel 014.jpg 22 March 1459
Wiener Neustadt
Second son of Frederick V and Eleanor of Portugal
19 August 1493 –12 January 1519 Archduchy of Austria (1) Mary of Burgundy
18 August 1477
Ghent
three children
(2) Anne of Brittany
18 December 1490
Rennes
no issue
(3) Bianca Maria Sforza
16 March 1494
Hall in Tirol
no issue
12 January 1519
Wels
aged 59
In 1490, he reconquered lost Austrian lands after Matthias Corvinus's death and persuaded his cousin Sigismund to cede Tyrol to him.[5][6] Appointed King of the Romans in 1486 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1508. His first marriage allowed him to extend Habsburg domain over the Low Countries.
Charles I Jakob Seisenegger 001.jpg 24 February 1500
Ghent
Eldest son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
12 January 1519 –1521/1556 Archduchy of Austria Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
Seville
seven children
21 September 1558
Yuste
aged 58
Grandson of his predecessor. Through his mother he gained, in 1516, the recently unified Kingdom of Spain, founding a Spanish branch of the Habsburgs that came to rule until 1700. In 1519,he inherited the Austrian Archduchy, and was the first solely elected (not crowned) King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V). In 1521, he abdicated from Austria to his brother, but continued to rule behind him until 1556. In this year, Charles abdicated of all his possessions and retired to the Monastery of Yuste.
Ferdinand I
under Charles I (1521-1556)
Hans Bocksberger der Aeltere 001.jpg 10 March 1503
Alcalá de Henares
Second son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
1521/1556 –25 July 1564 Archduchy of Austria Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
25 May 1521
Linz
fifteen children
25 July 1564
Vienna
aged 61
Brother of the predecessor. While Charles I's son Philip II of Spain inherited the "Western" possessions (Low Countries, Spain with ultramarine lands, and Italian states), Ferdinand inherited the rest (Austrian possessions), while gaining the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, and came to be elected King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor in 1556, after his brother's abdication.
In 1564, after Ferdinand I's death, the Archduchy was once more divided between his sons:
  • Maximilian received Austria proper, known then as Lower and Upper Austria;
  • Ferdinand received Tyrol and Further Austria, which after his death with no descendants passed to the elder Austrian line;
  • Charles received Inner Austria (the duchies of Styria, Cartinhia and Carniola).
Maximilian II Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpg 31 July 1527
Vienna
Eldest son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
25 July 1564 –12 October 1576 Archduchy of Lower and Upper Austria Maria of Spain
13 September 1548
Valladolid
sixteen children
12 October 1576
Regensburg
aged 49
Maximilian, as the eldest son, was elected King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor in 1564, and inherited also the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia.
Ferdinand II Francesco Terzio 002.jpg 14 June 1529
Linz
Second son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
25 July 1564 –24 January 1595 Archduchy of Further Austria
(with County of Tyrol)
(1) Philippine Welser
ca. 1576
four children
(2) Anne Juliana Gonzaga
14 May 1582
Innsbruck
three daughters
24 January 1595
Innsbruck
aged 65
Had descendants, but from his morganatic marriage, making them unsuitable for succession; his lands were eventually inherited by the senior Austrian line.
Charles II[7] Anonym Erzherzog Karl II.jpg 3 June 1540
Vienna
Fourth son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
25 July 1564 –10 July 1590 Archduchy of Inner Austria Maria Anna of Bavaria
26 August 1571
Vienna
fifteen children
10 July 1590
Graz
aged 50
Unlike his brother Maximilian, Charles was Catholic and promoted the Counter-Reformation in his domains.
Rudolf V Hans von Aachen - Portrait of Emperor Rudolf II.jpg 18 July 1552
Vienna
Second son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
12 October 1576 –1608 Archduchy of Lower and Upper Austria Unmarried 20 January 1612
Prague
aged 59
Also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia and Hungary. Rudolf is seen as an ineffectual ruler whose mistakes led directly to the Thirty Years' War; as a great and influential patron of Northern Mannerist art; and an intellectual devotee of occult arts and learning which helped seed what would be called the scientific revolution.
Matthias Lucas van Valckenborch - Emperor Matthias as Archduke, with baton.jpg 24 February 1557
Vienna
Fourth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
24 January 1595 –26 June 1612

2 November 1618 –20 March 1619
Archduchy of Further Austria
(with County of Tyrol)
Anna of Tyrol
4 December 1611
Vienna
no issue
20 March 1619
Vienna
aged 62
Also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia and Hungary.
1608 –20 March 1619 Archduchy of Lower and Upper Austria
(with County of Tyrol 1612-18)
Maximilian III Henseiller Maximilian III of Austria.jpg 12 October 1558
Vienna
Sixth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
26 June 1612 –2 November 1618 Archduchy of Further Austria Unmarried 2 November 1618
Vienna
aged 60
In 1587 stood as a candidate to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He also held regency of the Lower and Upper Austria 1593–1595.
Albert VII Rubens - arquiduquealbertoVII01.jpg 13 November 1559
Wiener Neustadt
Fifth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
20 March –9 October 1619 Archduchy of Lower and Upper Austria Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain
18 April 1599
Valencia
no children
13 July 1621
Brussels
aged 61
Also Viceroy of Portugal under Philip II of Spain, and ruler of the Low Countries (1598-1621). Ruled a few months as Archduke, before abdicating. By this he made possible a new reunion of Austria.
In 1619, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (Ferdinand III of Austria) reunited the Archduchy, but, as consequence of the Thirty Years' War, he felt the need to divide the land once more:
  • Ferdinand kept Lower and Inner Austria;
  • Leopold, Ferdinand's brother, received Upper Austria (with Further Austria and Tyrol).
Regencies of Ernest of Austria (1590-1593) and Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria (1593-1595) Also Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637), and King of Hungary and Bohemia. In 1619 he reunited Austria, but divided it again.
Ferdinand III Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg 9 July 1578
Graz
Second son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria
10 July 1590 –9 October 1619 Archduchy of Inner Austria (1) Maria Anna of Bavaria
23 April 1600
Graz
seven children
(2) Eleonor Gonzaga
2 February 1622
Innsbruck
no issue
15 February 1637
Vienna
aged 58
9 October 1619 –1623 Archduchy of Austria
1623 –15 February 1637 Archduchy of Lower and Inner Austria
Leopold V Joseph Heintz d. Ä. 007.jpg 9 October 1586
Graz
Fifth son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria
1623 –13 September 1632 Archduchy of Further Austria Claudia de' Medici
19 April 1626
Innsbruck
five children
13 September 1632
Schwaz
aged 45
When he was chosen as Archduke regnant, he abdicated his ecclesiastical status (held the Bishoprics of Passau and Strasbourg) to get married and have children.
Regency of Claudia de' Medici (1632-1646)
Ferdinand Charles Frans Luycx - Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria.jpg 17 May 1628
Innsbruck
Eldest son of Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici
13 September 1632 –30 December 1662 Archduchy of Further Austria Anna de' Medici
10 June 1646
Innsbruck
two daughters
30 December 1662
Kaltern
aged 34
Ferdinand IV Frans Luycx 002 - Emperor Ferdinand III.jpg 13 July 1608
Graz
Third son of Ferdinand III and Maria Anna of Bavaria
15 February 1637 –2 April 1657 Lower Austria and Inner Austria (1) Maria Anna of Spain
20 February 1631
Vienna
six children
(2) Maria Leopoldine of Austria
2 July 1648
Linz
one son
(3) Eleonora Gonzaga
30 April 1651
Wiener Neustadt
four children
2 April 1657
Vienna
aged 48
Also Holy Roman Emperor (1637-1657), and King of Hungary and Bohemia.
Sigismund Francis Giovanni Maria Morandi 002.jpg 27 November 1630
Innsbruck
Second son of Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici
30 December 1662 –25 June 1665 Archduchy of Further Austria Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach
13 June 1665
Sulzbach
no issue
25 June 1665
Innsbruck
aged 34
Brother of the predecessor. After his death, his territories reverted to the elder line.
Leopold VI Benjamin von Block 001.jpg 9 June 1640
Vienna
Fourth son of Ferdinand IV and Maria Anna of Spain
2 April 1657 –25 June 1665 Archduchy of Lower and Inner Austria (1) Margaret Theresa of Spain
12 December 1666
Vienna
four children
(2) Claudia Felicitas of Austria
15 October 1673
Graz
two daughters
(3) Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
14 December 1676
Passau
eleven children
5 May 1705
Vienna
aged 64
Also Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Bohemia and Hungary. In 1665, he unified Austria once more.
25 June 1665 –5 May 1705 Archduchy of Austria
Joseph I JosephI.1705.JPG 26 July 1678
Vienna
Eldest son of Leopold VI and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
5 May 1705 –17 April 1711 Archduchy of Austria Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick
10 June 1646
Vienna
three children
17 April 1711
Vienna
aged 32
Also Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Bohemia and Hungary.
Charles III Workshop of Jacob van Schuppen - Portrait of Emperor Karl VI.png 1 October 1685
Vienna
Second son of Leopold VI and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
17 April 1711 –20 October 1740 Archduchy of Austria Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1 August 1708
Santa Maria del Mar, Barcelona
five children
20 October 1740
Vienna
aged 55
Also Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Bohemia and Hungary. In 1700, he claimed the Kingdom of Spain in the War of Spanish Succession (1700-1713).
Maria Theresa
with Francis I Stephen (1740–1765)
Joseph II (1765–1780)
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpg 13 May 1717
Hofburg Imperial Palace
Eldest daughter of Charles III and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
20 October 1740 –29 November 1780 Archduchy of Austria 12 February 1736
Vienna
sixteen children
29 November 1780
Hofburg Imperial Palace
aged 63
Also Queen of Bohemia and Hungary.
Francis I Stephen
with Maria Theresa (1740–1765)
Martin van Meytens 006.jpg 8 December 1708
Nancy
Fourth son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans
20 October 1740 –18 August 1765 Archduchy of Austria 18 August 1765
Innsbruck
aged 56
Also Holy Roman Emperor (1740-1765). Exchanged his original Duchy of Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1737).
The Austrian agnatic branch ended in 1780 with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria and was replaced by a combination of the Austrian cognatic branch of the Habsburgs and the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself as Habsburg-Lorraine (Habsburg-Lothringen). All Habsburgs living today are in the agnatic descendants of Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen.
Joseph II Carl von Sales Bildnis Joseph II posthum 1823.jpg 13 March 1741
Vienna
Eldest son of Francis I Stephen and Maria Theresa
29 November 1780 –20 February 1790 Archduchy of Austria
(Habsburg-Lorraine)
(1) Isabella of Parma
6 October 1760
Vienna
two daughters
(2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria
23 January 1765
Schönbrunn
no issue
20 February 1790
Vienna
aged 48
Co-ruling with his mother since the death of his father. Also Holy Roman Emperor (1765-1790).
Leopold VII Mengs, Anton Raphael - Pietro Leopoldo d'Asburgo Lorena, granduca di Toscana - 1770 - Prado.jpg 5 May 1747
Vienna
Third son of Francis I and Maria Theresa
20 February 1790 –1 March 1792 Archduchy of Austria
(Habsburg-Lorraine)
Maria Luisa of Spain
16 February 1764
Innsbruck
sixteen children
1 March 1792
Vienna
aged 44
Had a brief reign. Also elected Holy Roman Emperor (1790-1792).
Francis II Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png 12 February 1768
Florence
Eldest son of Leopold VII and Maria Luisa of Spain
1 March 1792 –11 August 1804 Archduchy of Austria
(Habsburg-Lorraine)
(1) Elisabeth of Württemberg
6 January 1788
Vienna
one daughter
(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
15 September 1790
Vienna
12 children
(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
6 January 1808
Vienna
no issue
(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
29 October 1816
Vienna
no issue
2 March 1835
Vienna
aged 67
In 1804 Francis adopted the new title Emperor of Austria, but kept the title of Archduke of Austria. In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved.

Emperors of Austria[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Francis I
11 August 1804 – 2 March 1835
Joseph Kreutzinger - Kaiser Franz I.jpg 12 February 1768
Florence
eldest son of Leopold VII and Maria Luisa of Spain
(1) Elisabeth of Württemberg
6 January 1788
Vienna
one daughter
(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
15 September 1790
Vienna
12 children
(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
6 January 1808
Vienna
no issue
(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
29 October 1816
Vienna
no issue
2 March 1835
Vienna
aged 67
Ferdinand I
2 March 1835 – 2 December 1848
Kaiser Ferdinand I.jpg 19 April 1793
Vienna
eldest son of Francis II and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
Maria Anna of Savoy
27 February 1831
Vienna
no issue
29 June 1875
Prague
aged 82
Francis Joseph I
2 December 1848 – 21 November 1916
Franz Joseph of Austria 1910 old.jpg 18 August 1830
Schönbrunn Palace
eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and Princess Sophie of Bavaria
Elisabeth of Bavaria
24 April 1854
Augustinerkirche
four children
21 November 1916
Schönbrunn Palace
aged 86
Charles I
21 November 1916 – 11 November 1918
Theodor Mayerhofer Kaiser Karl I von österreich 1917.jpg 17 August 1887
Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
eldest son of Archduke Otto Francis of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony
Zita of Bourbon-Parma
21 October 1911
Schwarzau Castle
eight children
1 April 1922
Madeira
aged 34

Republic of Austria[edit]

In 1918, following the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the Republic of Austria was established, but ended with "Anschluß" into the Third Reich from 1938 to 1945. Following World War II, the current Republic of Austria was established in 1945, even though Austria remained under the control and protection of Allied and Soviet Forces between 1945 and 1955.

The current head of state is the President of Austria; however, in practice, the Chancellor of Austria is more important. Every law still needs to be signed by the President however.

Otto von Habsburg (1912–2011), son of Charles I, was the head of the Habsburg house from 1922, but never reigned. In 2007 he handed the headship to his oldest son Karl von Habsburg who was first in the line of succession. He is the current head of the imperial family.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ His numbering, if counted as I, reflects, not the ducal succession of the Babenbergs (being in fact the third ruler of Austria bearing this name), but of the comital Habsburgs, being the first member of the family with this name. However, it is possible that he might have adopted his German numeral III in Austria, as the next de facto rulers of Austria who bore the same name styled themselves as Frederick IV and Frederick V.
  2. ^ His numbering reflects, not the ducal succession of the Babenbergs (being in fact the seventh ruler of Austria bearing this name), but of the comital Habsburgs, being the first member of the family with this name.
  3. ^ Numbered III by including the titular duke Leopold II (1339-1344)
  4. ^ Numbered IV by including either only the de facto duke Frederick the Fair, sometimes numbered III, or by including the titular dukes Frederick (II) (1339-1344) and Frederick (III) (1347–1362).
  5. ^ Pavlac, Brian A.; Lott, Elizabeth S. (1 June 2019). The Holy Roman Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 255, 278. ISBN 978-1-4408-4856-8. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  6. ^ Fichtner, Paula Sutter (7 March 2017). The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490-1848: Attributes of Empire. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-137-10642-1. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  7. ^ In German Articles and Books these Archdukes' names and titles are normally completed with the territorial names of their Duchy as: "Charles II of Inner Austria" = "Karl der II. von Inner Österreich"