List of rulers of Moldavia - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia

List of rulers of Moldavia

Last updated

This is a List of rulers of Moldavia , from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.



Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons – being defined as os de domn – "of Voivode marrow", or as having hereghie – "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans. Between 1821 and 1862, various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Moldavian rulers, like Wallachian and other Eastern European rulers, bore the titles of Voivode or/and Hospodar (when writing in Romanian, the term Domn (from the Latin dominus ) was used).

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

The list is brought up to date for the first rulers, following the documented studies of Ștefan S. Gorovei [1] and Constantin Rezachevici. [2]


Princes of Moldavia

House of Dragoș

DragosIofMoldavia.jpg Dragoș c. 1347c. 1354Described as an early ruler of Moldavia, he was sent there as a representative of king Louis I of Hungary to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde, where he ruled.
Sas c. 1354c. 1363son of Dragoș
Balc of Moldavia c.c.son of Sas

House of Bogdan-Mușat

Bogdan I of Moldavia.jpg Bogdan I the Founder c. 13591367Maria
three children
Deposed Sas
Petru I 1367July 1368UnmarriedGrandson of Bogdan I, [3] rule not universally accepted by modern historians
Stamp of Moldova 196.gif Lațcu July 13681375Anna
before 1372
one child
Son of Bogdan I, deposed Petru I [3]
Petru I Musat.jpg Petru II Mușat 1375December 1391 Sophia of Lithuania
no children

Olga of Warsaw
no children
Son of Costea; often referred as Petru I Mușat
Roman I Musat.jpg Roman I December 1391March 1394Anastasia
three children
Son of Costea
Stamp of Moldova 345.gif Ștefan I March 139428 November 1399UnmarriedSon of Roman I
Iuga (George I)28 November 139929 June 1400UnmarriedSon of Roman I, deposed by intervention of Mircea I of Wallachia
AlexandruCelBun-Neamt.JPG Alexandru I the Good 29 June 14001 January 1432 Margareta of Losoncz
two children

Anna Neacsa of Podolsk
three children

Ringala of Lithuania
(divorced 13 December 1421)
no children

Marina Bratul
three children
Son of Roman I, installed by Mircea I of Wallachia
Iliaș I 1 January 1432October 1433 Maria Olshanki of Lithuania
23 October 1425
three children
Son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Ștefan II October 14334 August 1435UnmarriedIllegitimate son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule (only de facto ruler till September 1434)
Iliaș I 4 August 1435May 1443 Maria Olshanki of Lithuania
23 October 1425
three children
2nd rule, jointly with Ștefan II
Ștefan II 4 August 143513 July 1447Unmarried2nd rule, 4 August 1435 – May 1443 jointly with Iliaș; May 1444–1445 jointly with Petru III
Petru III May 14441445An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
1st rule, jointly with Ștefan II.
Roman II 13 July 144722 August 1447Unmarriedson of Iliaș; 1st rule
Petru III 22 August 144723 December 1447An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
2nd rule
Roman II 23 December 1447between 23 February and 5 April 1448Unmarried2nd rule
Petru III 5 April 144810 October 1448An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
3rd rule
Csupor de Monoszló
10 October 1448December 1448UnknownNon-dynastic. Born in Croatia, he was a Hungarian nobleman, commander of troops of John Hunyadi. He was sent in support of Petru III to depose his brother Roman, but Petru died suddenly two months later. Csupor ascended at the throne. His name, literally Tub Voivode was mentioned by Grigore Ureche.
Alexandru II December 144812 January 1449Unmarriedson of Iliaș I; 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova 357.gif Bogdan II 12 January 144915 October 1451Oltea
before 1433
six children
nephew of Alexandru the Good.
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 15 October 145124 February 1452Unknown
before 1455
one child
illegitimate son of Alexandru the Good; 1st rule
Alexandru II 24 February 145222 August 1454Unmarried2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 22 August 1454between 8 December 1454 and 8 February 1455Unknown
before 1455
one child
2nd rule
Alexandru II 8 February 145525 March 1455Unmarried3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 25 March 145512 April 1457Unknown
before 1455
one child
3rd rule
Stefan cel Mare.jpg Ștefan III the Great 12 April 14572 July 1504 Eudokia Olelkovna of Lithuania
5 July 1463
three children

Maria Asanina Palaiologina of Gothia
14 September 1472
four children

Maria Voichița of Wallachia
three children
Son of Bogdan II. In his reign Moldavia reaches its zenith.
Stamp of Moldova 403.gif Bogdan III The One-Eyed 2 July 150422 April 1517Anastasia
no children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
21 July 1513
no children
son of Ștefan III the Great;
Luca Arbore
22 April 15171523UnknownGatekeeper of Suceava. Regent in the name of Stefan IV.
Stefan al IV-lea.jpg Ștefan IV the Younger 152314 January 1527 Stana of Wallachia
no children
Son of Bogdan III; also called Ștefăniță until 1523 under the regency of Luca Arbore, Gatekeeper of Suceava
Rares.jpg Petru V Rareș 14 January 152714 September 1538Maria
before 1529
four children

Elena of Serbia
four children
Illegitimate son of Stephen the Great, 1st rule
Ștefan V Lăcustă 21 September 153820 December 1540Chiajna
before 1540
two children
grandson of Stephen the Great
Alexandru III the Evil 21 December 15409 or 16 February 1541Unmarriedson of Bogdan III
Rares.jpg Petru V Rareș 9 or 16 February 15412 or 3 September 1546Maria
before 1529
four children

Elena of Serbia
four children
2nd rule
IliasRares.jpg Ilie II Rareș 2 or 3 September 154630 May 1551Unmarried1st son of Petru Rareș
StefanRares.jpg Ștefan VI Rareș 30 May 15511 September 1552Unmarried2nd son of Petru Rareș
Ioan I Joldea between 4 and 12 September 1552between 4 and 12 September 1552UnmarriedNon-dynastic. Ruled 2 or 3 days in 1552.
Stamp of Moldova 143.gif Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 4 and 12 September 155230 November 1561 Ruxandra of Moldavia
January 1556
fourteen children
Son of Bogdan III, brother of Ștefan IV; 1st rule
Iacob Eraclid Despot.jpg Ioan II Iacob Heraclid
(Jacob Heraclides)
18 November 15619 November 1563A illegitimate daughter of Mircea IV of Wallachia
no children
The Despot Vodă, non-dynastic.
Ștefan VII Tomșa 9 August 1563between 20 February and 10 March 1564Unknown
at least two children
Stamp of Moldova 143.gif Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 20 February and 10 March 15649 March 1568 Ruxandra of Moldavia
January 1556
fourteen children
Restored to the throne.
RoxanaLapusneanu-wife-atMtAthos.jpg Ruxandra of Moldavia
9 March 1568November 1570 Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu
January 1556
fourteen children
Widow of Alexander IV. Regent on behalf of her son.
Stamp of Moldova 360.gif Bogdan IV November 157015 February 1572A princess from the Paniczewsk family
one child
Son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu
Ioan Voda.jpg Ioan III the Terrible 15 February 157211 June 1574 Maria Semionovna of Rostov
two children
Son of Ștefan IV; also called cel Viteaz) (the Brave)

Houses of Basarab (Drăculeşti line) and Bogdan-Muşat

Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 15741577 Drăculești 1st rule
Ivan Pidkova only portrait.jpg Ioan IV Potcoavă November 1577December 1577 Hetman, also called Ivan Pidkova, Nicoară Potcoavă or Ivan Sarpega. Non-dynastic.
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 15781579 Drăculești 2nd rule
Ioan V the Saxon 15791582 Bogdan-Mușat illegitimate son of Petru Rareș
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 15821591 Drăculești 3rd rule
Aaron I the Tyrant 15911592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu; 1st rule
Alexandru V the Wrongdoer 15921592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Bogdan IV; also ruled Wallachia (1592–1593)
Petru VII the Cossack 15921592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu
Aaron I the Tyrant 15921595 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
063 - Stefan Razvan.jpg Ștefan VIII Răzvan 15951595

Houses of Basarab (Drăculești line) and Movilești

Stamp of Moldova 192.gif Ieremia Movilă 15951600 Movilești grandson of Petru Rareș; 1st rule
MViteazul at Alba Iulia.jpg Mihail I Viteazul
(Michael I the Brave)
16001600 Drăculești also ruled Wallachia (1593–1600) and Transylvania (1599–1600)
Stamp of Moldova 192.gif Ieremia Movilă 16001606 Movilești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 255.gif Simion Movilă 16061607 Movilești brother of Iremia Movilă
Mihail II Movilă 16071607 Movileşti son of Ieremia Movilă; 1st rule
Constantin I Movilă 16071607 Movilești son of Ieremia Movilă; under the regency of his mother Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz; 1st rule
Mihail II Movilă 16071607 Movilești 2nd rule
Constantin I Movilă 16071611 Movilești under the regency of his mother; 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 229.gif Ștefan IX Tomșa 161116151st rule
Alexandru VI Movilă 16151616 Movilești
Stamp of Moldova 444.gif Radu Mihnea 16161619 Drăculești 1st rule
GasparGratiani.jpg Gaspar Graziani 16191620

Various dynasties

Alexandru VII Iliaş 16201621 Bogdan-Mușat nephew of Petru VI, Aron Tiranul and Bogdan IV; 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova 229.gif Ștefan IX Tomșa 162116232nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 444.gif Radu Mihnea 16231626 Drăculești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 362.gif Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 16261629 Movilești 1st rule
AlexandruCoconul.jpg Alexandru VIII Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
16261629 Drăculești 1st rule
Moise Movilă 16301631 Movilești 1st rule
Alexandru VII Iliaș 16311633 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 362.gif Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 16331633 Movilești 2nd rule
Moise Movilă 16331634 Movilești 2nd rule
Vasile Lupu.png Vasile Lupu 163416531st rule
106 - Gheorghe Stefan.jpg Gheorghe II Ștefan 165316531st rule
Vasile Lupu.png Vasile Lupu 165316532nd rule
106 - Gheorghe Stefan.jpg Gheorghe II Ștefan 165316582nd rule
114 - Gheorghe Ghica.jpg Gheorghe III Ghica 16581659 Ghica
Constantin Șerban 165916591st rule
Stefanica lupu.jpg Ștefan X Lupu 16591661also called Papură-Vodă (Bullrush Voivode); 1st rule
Constantin Serban Basarab.jpg Constantin Șerban 166116612nd rule
Stefanica lupu.jpg Ștefan X Lupu 165916612nd rule
Eustratie Dabija 16611665
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 166516661st rule
Stamp of Moldova 423.gif Iliaș III Alexandru 16661668 Bogdan-Mușat The last member of the House of Bogdan-Mușat reigning in Moldavia; son of Alexandru VII
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 166816722nd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 167216731st rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 16731673 Cantacuzene 1st rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 167316742nd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 16741675 Cantacuzene 2nd rule
123 - Antonie Ruset.jpg Antonie Ruset 16751678 Rosetti
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 167816833rd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 168316843rd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 16841685 Cantacuzene 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova 273.gif Constantin Cantemir 16851693 Cantemirești
Dimitrie Cantemir color.jpg Dimitrie Cantemir 16931693 Cantemirești 1st rule; deposed by Ottomans
Constantin Duca 169316951st rule
Stamp of Moldova md414.jpg Antioh Cantemir 16951700 Cantemirești 1st rule
Constantin Duca 170017032nd rule
Ioan Buhuș
170317031st term
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihail III Racoviță 17031705 Racoviță 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova md414.jpg Antioh Cantemir 17051707 Cantemirești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihail III Racoviță 17071709 Racoviță 2nd rule
Ioan Buhuș
170917102nd term
NicolaeMavrocordat.gif Nicolae Mavrocordat 17091710 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Dimitrie Cantemir color.jpg Dimitrie Cantemir 17101711 Cantemirești 2nd rule

Phanariotes (1711–1821)

Lupu Costachi
Ioan Mavrocordat.jpg Ioan Ι Mavrocordat 17111711 Mavrocordato
NicolaeMavrocordat.gif Nicolae Mavrocordat 17111715 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihai III Racoviță 17151726 Racoviță 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17261733 Ghica 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17331735 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17351739 Ghica 2nd rule
Russian occupation17391739 Russo-Austrian-Turkish War (1735–1739)
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17391741 Ghica 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17411743 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Ioan II Mavrocordat 17431747 Mavrocordato son of Nicolae Mavrocordat and brother to Constantin Mavrocordat
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17471748 Ghica 4th rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17481749 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Iordache Stavrachi 17491749
Constantin Racoviță 17491753 Racoviță 1st rule
Matei Ghica.jpg Matei Ghica 17531756 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 17561757 Racoviță 2nd rule
Scarlat Ghica portrait.jpg Scarlat Ghica 17571758 Ghica
Ioan Callimachi.jpg Ioan Teodor Callimachi 17581761 Callimachi
Stamp of Moldova RM443..jpg Grigore Callimachi 17611764 Callimachi 1st rule
Grigore III Ghica, Prince of Moldavia and Wallachia.jpg Grigore III Ghica 17641767 Ghica 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova RM443..jpg Grigore Callimachi 17671769 Callimachi 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17691769 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Russian occupation17691774 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Grigore III Ghica, Prince of Moldavia and Wallachia.jpg Grigore III Ghica 17741777 Ghica 2nd rule
Constantin Moruzi.jpg Constantin Moruzi 17771782 Mourousi
Alexandru Mavrocordat Delibey 17821785 Mavrocordato
Maurokordatos o phirares.jpg Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris 17851786 Mavrocordato
Stamp of Moldova md631.jpg Alexandru Ipsilanti 17861788 Ypsilanti
Austrian occupation17871791military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Kherson-28102009(059).jpg Emanuel Giani Ruset 17881789 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Russian occupation17881791 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 17921792 Mourousi 1st rule
Mihai Suțu 17931795 Soutzos also called Draco
Alexandru Callimachi.jpg Alexandru Callimachi 17951799 Callimachi
Constantin Ipsilanti.jpg Constantin Ipsilanti 17991801 Ypsilanti
Alexandru Sutu.jpg Alexandru Suțu 18011802 Soutzos
Iordache Conta
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 18021802 Mourousi 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 18061806 Callimachi 1st rule
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 18061807 Mourousi 3rd rule
Russian occupation18061812 Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)
Bessarabia is placed under Imperial Russian rule in 1812.
(See also President of Moldova, for the rulers of Moldova, a part of this territory which became independent in the 20th century.)
Alexandru Hangerli 18071807
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 18071810 Callimachi 2nd rule
deposed by Russians
Iordache Ruset-Roznovanu
18071807 Rosetti
MitropVeniaminCostachi.jpg Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
180718121st term
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 18121819 Callimachi 3rd rule
Mihail Sutu.jpg Mihail Suțu 18191821 Soutzos
Manu and Rizos-Nerulos
MitropVeniaminCostachi.jpg Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
182118212nd term
Alexander2.jpg Filiki Eteria occupation18211821military commander: Alexander Ypsilantis
Stefanbogoridi.png Caimacam
Stefan Bogoridi
(Ștefan Vogoride)
Stamp of Moldova md632.jpg Ioan Sturdza 18221828
Russian occupation18281834military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Mihail Sturdza watch.jpg Mihail Sturdza 18341849
Stamp of Moldova md629.jpg Grigore Alexandru Ghica 18491853 Ghica 1st rule
Russian occupation18531854 Crimean War
Stamp of Moldova md629.jpg Grigore Alexandru Ghica 18541856 Ghica 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Extraordinary Administrative Council18561856
Constantin Lecca - Theodor Bals.jpg Caimacam
Teodor Balș
Nikola-Bogoridi.jpg Caimacam
Nicolae Vogoride
Caimacams18581859 Ștefan Catargiu, Vasile Sturdza and Anastasie Panu
(Catargiu resigns in 1858 and is replaced by Ioan A. Cantacuzino)
Al I Cuza.jpg Alexander John Cuza 18591862also ruled Wallachia in personal union
Formal union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1862.

For later rulers, see Domnitor and King of Romania .

Related Research Articles

Vasile Lupu Moldavian Prince

Lupu Coci, known as Vasile Lupu was the Voivode of Moldavia between 1634 and 1653. Lupu had secured the Moldavian throne in 1634 after a series of complicated intrigues and managed to hold it for twenty years. Vasile was a capable administrator and a brilliant financier and was soon almost the richest man in the Christian East. His gifts to Ottoman leaders kept him on good terms with the Ottoman authorities.

Constantin Brâncoveanu Prince of Wallachia

Constantin Brâncoveanu was Prince of Wallachia between 1688 and 1714.

Petru I of Moldavia

Petru I may have been a Voivode (prince) of Moldavia from the end of 1367 to after July 1368. Several historians, including Constantin Rezachevici and Ioan Aurel Pop, believe him to have been the son of prince Ştefan, oldest son of voivode Bogdan I of Moldavia, while others, including historian Juliusz Demel, considered him to be the son of Costea of Moldavia with a daughter of Bogdan I. In the second hypothesis, there was no such voivode of Moldavia in 1367-1368, the first using the regnal name Petru being Petru II of Moldavia.

Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia Romanian voivode of Moldavia

Dragoș, also known as Dragoș Vodă, or Dragoș the Founder was the first Voivode of Moldavia, who reigned in the middle of the 14th century, according to the earliest Moldavian chronicles. The same sources say that Dragoș came from Maramureş while chasing an aurochs or bison across the Carpathian Mountains. His descălecat, or "dismounting", on the banks of the Moldova River has traditionally been regarded as the symbol of the foundation of the Principality of Moldavia in Romanian historiography. Most details of his life are uncertain. Historians have identified him either with Dragoș of Bedeu or with Dragoș of Giulești, who were Vlach, or Romanian, landowners in the Kingdom of Hungary.

Costea was a Voivode of Moldavia mentioned in a document from 1407 in line of rulers between Laţcu and Petru. Initially it has been thought that he ruled between 1373 and 1374, as the first ruler of Moldavia from the Muşat family. Also he was believed by some to have been born in Wallachia, being probably related to Basarab I's ruling family. More recent studies tend to consider him a son of Bogdan I.

Vlad VI of Wallachia was the voivode [prince] who ruled Wallachia between June 1530 and September 1532. He has been historically referenced as Vlad Înecatul ["Vlad the Drowned"], as a description of the manner of his death.

Iuga of Moldavia (known also as Iurg or Iurie in Romanian literature, Yury in Ruthenian, Jerzy in Polish; the epithet Ologul means "the Crippled") was Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia from November 1399 to June 1400. According to one hypothesis, he may have been the Lithuanian prince George Koriatovich. Other hypotheses posit him as the son of Roman I of Moldavia (1391–1394) and an unknown wife, possibly of Lithuanian extraction from descendants of Karijotas, confused with the Lithuanian prince because of the similar name and background. The nickname "the Crippled" can be found only in the chronicle of Putna Monastery, drafted in the first years of the 16th century, but its origins are unknown. The reasons why he has remained in history with this nickname are not known precisely.

House of Bogdan-Mușat

The House of Bogdan, commonly referred to as the House of Mușat, was the ruling family which established the Principality of Moldova with Bogdan I, giving the country its first line of Princes, one closely related with the Basarab rulers of Wallachia by several marriages through time. The Mușatins are named after Margareta Mușata who married Costea, a son of Bogdan I. For a long time it has been thought that Mușata was a daughter of Bogdan I and Costea was a member of House of Basarab who bore the name Muşat, all speculations unsupported by any documents.

House of Drăculești family

The House of Drăculești were one of two major rival lines of Wallachian voivodes of the House of Basarab, the other being the House of Dănești. These lines were in constant contest for the throne from the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth centuries. Descendants of the line of Drăculești would eventually come to dominate this principality until its unification with Transylvania and Moldavia by Mihai Viteazul in 1600.

Peter the Lame Prince of Moldavia from June 1574 to 23 November 1577

Peter VI the Lame was Prince of Moldavia from June 1574 to 23 November 1577. He also ruled 1 January 1578 to 21 November 1579 and 17 October 1583 to 29 August 1591. He was known as "the Lame" due to a physical deformity. Raised by the Turks in Istanbul and hardly knew of his country of origin before gaining the throne of Moldavia.

Ciubăr Vodă was a Hungarian aritsocrat of Croatian origin, a commander of the John Hunyadi’s troops sent to support Petru the IIIrd to replace the Roman the IInd. Ciubar Voda governed Moldova for about two months after unexpected death of Peter the IIIrd before October 10 and by the end of December 1448 (possibly the end of January 1449, as in February 1449, Alexăndrel took the Moldova’s throne, governed for the first time. He is only mentioned by Grigore Ureche, as ruler of Moldova for two months after Petru III of Moldavia.

Basarab VI was the son of the usurper Mehmed-bey who ruled Wallachia briefly in 1529 after the death of Radu of Afumati.

Leon Tomșa Ruler of Wallachia

Leon Tomșa, also known as Leon Vodă or Alion, was the Prince of Wallachia from October 1629 to July 1632. He claimed to be a son of Ștefan IX Tomșa, and as such a Moldavian, but was generally identified as a Greek of lowly origins, and reportedly an oyster-monger. He was imposed on the throne by the Ottoman Empire, one of a line of Princes who were primarily subservient to Ottoman power. In his first year, he also supported the political ascendancy of Greeks and Levantines, many of whom made their way into Wallachia's traditional aristocracy, or boyardom. This upset the local boyars, who were further alienated and impoverished by Leon's fiscal policies, which in turn reflected Ottoman demands for tribute. The regime was threatened by an Oltenia-centered rebellion, initially led by Ban Aslan, and later by Matei Basarab. Though often depicted as an anti-Greek movement, it had Greeks and Romanians fighting on either side.

Vasile Morțun

Vasile G. Morțun was a Romanian politician, playwright and prose writer.

Udriște Năsturel Wallachian scholar, poet, and statesman

Udriște Năsturel, first name also Uriil, Uril, Ioriste, or Oreste, last name also Năsturelovici, was a Wallachian scholar, poet, and statesman, the brother-in-law of Prince Matei Basarab through his sister Elena Năsturel. Together, the three staged a cultural revival centered on Bucharest and Târgoviște. Năsturel had risen through the ranks of Wallachian bureaucracy and had served Radu Mihnea's government in Moldavia, being kept as Logothete by Matei Basarab. In office, he had an international correspondence and went on diplomatic travels through Central Europe, while also overseeing the printing presses. He was the titular boyar of Herăști, known in his day as Fierești and Fierăști, where he built a palace that stands as a late example of Renaissance architecture, and earned him a regional fame.

Hrizea of Bogdănei politician

Hrizea of Bogdănei, also rendered as Hrizică, sometimes Hrizea-Vodă, was a Wallachian boyar and rebel leader, who proclaimed himself reigning prince in 1655. After rising to high office under his relative, Prince Matei Basarab, he was reconfirmed by Constantin Șerban. He alternated the offices of Spatharios, in charge of the Wallachian military forces, and Paharnic, before being won over by the rebellious Seimeni mercenaries. He issued a claim to the throne in Târgoviște, but controlled only part of the country, and had his seat at Gherghița. In summer 1655, his army was defeated, at Șoplea, by a Wallachian loyalists, supported by Transylvanians and Moldavians.

Leca or Lecca of Cătun, also known as Leca of Leurdeni, Leca Rudeanu, Comisul Leca, or Postelnico Leka, was a Wallachian political figure, prominent under Princes Michael the Brave, Radu Șerban, and Radu Mihnea. Originally a Comis, his first major assignments came during Prince Michael's conquest of Transylvania, when he also submitted to, and fought for, the Holy Roman Empire. Leca was a commander of Wallachian troops in Michael's battles at Mirăslău (1600) and Guruslău (1601), returning to Wallachia after Michael's assassination.

Banul Mărăcine

Banul Mărăcine or Mărăcină, common rendition of Barbu III Craiovescu, Barbu Mărăcine or Barbu Basarab, was a historical figure in Wallachia, who claimed the title of Prince. He was one of several Craiovești pretenders to the throne, a category which also included his father, Preda Craiovescu. Mărăcine himself entered historical record in 1532, when, as an opponent of Prince Vlad VI, he had his estate confiscated. He returned to favor later that year, with the crowning of Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina. Like Preda before him, Mărăcine served as Ban of Oltenia, becoming the last of his family to hold that title. According to various accounts, he turned against his new lord, from organizing armed resistance in Oltenia to involving himself in Vlad Vintilă's assassination. He was able to maintain his position following the crowning of Radu Paisie, but was eventually toppled by the latter in mid 1535.


The Paharnic was a historical Romanian rank, one of the non-hereditary positions ascribed to the boyar aristocracy in Moldavia and Wallachia. It was the local equivalent of a Cup-bearer or Cześnik, originally centered on pouring and obtaining wine for the court of Moldavian and Wallachian Princes. With time, it became a major administrative office and, in Wallachia, also had a lesser military function. The retinue of such boyars, usually called Păhărnicei, was in both countries also a private army.

Turnu Fortress

The medieval fortress of Turnu is located in the southern part of Turnu Măgurele at a distance of 3 km from the city and 1 km from the confluence of the Olt and Danube rivers. The fortress is documented during the reign of Mircea the Elder (1394) and was built on the Danube line for the defense of Wallachia against the Turkish peril. At the end of the reign of Mircea the Elder, under unclear circumstances, it came under Ottoman occupation to return to the possession of Wallachia only in 1829 when it was burned and demolished.


  1. Gorovei, Ștefan S., Întemeierea Moldovei. Probleme controversate, Editura Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iași, 1997, ISBN   973-9149-74-X
  2. Rezachevici, Constantin, Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova, a. 1324 - 1881, vol. I, Editura Enciclopedică, București, 2001, ISBN   973-45-0387-1
  3. 1 2 Constantin Rezachevici - Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova a. 1324 - 1881, Volumul I, Editura Enciclopedică, 2001