List of empires

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is an alphabetical list of empires. The table may be resorted by other columns if your browser supports this function.

Empires and dynasties[edit]

Empire Modern state Capital From To Duration


Note First leader Last leader Flag
Abbasid Caliphate  Iraq Baghdad, Raqqa, Kufa, Samarra, Anbar 750 1258 508 Successor of the Umayyad Caliphate and Third of the Four Caliphates. As-Saffah Al-Musta'sim
Abbasid banner.svg
Aceh Sultanate  Indonesia Kutaraja 1496 1903 407 Ali Mughayat Syah Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II
Flag of the Aceh Sultanate.png
Achaemenid Empire  Iran Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Susa, Babylon 550 BC 330 BC 220 The first Persian empire, and the fourth largest List of largest empires (after Xiongnu Empire, Han Dynasty and the First Turkic Khaganate) in classical antiquity time period, founded by Cyrus the Great. Cyrus the Great Darius III
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Afsharid Dynasty  Iran Mashhad 1736 1796 60 Founded by Nader Shah, at its peak expanded Persia as far west as Baghdad, and as far east as Delhi. Nader Shah Shahrokh Afshar
Afsharid Imperial Standard (4 Stripes).svg
Aghlabid Emirate  Tunisia Kairouan 800 909 109 The Aghlabids were an Arab dynasty that ruled Ifriqiya and southern Italy as a vassal of the abbasids, though they were de facto independent from the caliphate. Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab Ziyadat Allah III
Drapeau de l Emirats Aghlabides de Kairouan.png
Ahom Dynasty  India Charaideo, Garhgaon, Rangpur (Ahom capital), Jorhat 1228 1838 610 It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India. Sukaphaa Purandar Singha
Ahom insignia plain.svg
Akkadian Empire  Iraq Akkad 2334 BC 2154 BC 180 The Oldest Empire in the World. Sargon of Akkad Shu-turul
Aksumite Empire  Ethiopia Axum 150 940 790 Succeeded by the Ethiopian Empire. Za Haqala Dil Na'od
Akwamu  Ghana Akwamufie, Nyanoase 1505 1867 362
Alaouite dynasty  Morocco Fes, Meknes 1631 2021 281 Sharifian Empire of Morocco. Later became a protectorate of France. Current ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Morocco Sharif ibn Ali Mohammad VI
Flag of Morocco (1666–1915).svg
Flag of Morocco.svg
Almohad Caliphate  Morocco Marrakech, Seville 1121 1269 148 Berber Empire Ibn Tumart Abu al-Ula al-Wathiq Idris
Flag of Morocco (1147-1269).svg
Almoravid dynasty  Mauritania,  Morocco Azougui (1040–1058), Aghmat (1058–1062), Marrakech (1062–1147) 1040 1147 107 Berber Empire Abdallah ibn Yasin Ishaq ibn Ali
Flag of Morocco 1073 1147.svg
Angevin Empire  United Kingdom, France France No official capital. Court was generally held at Angers and Chinon 1154 1242 88 Henry II Henry III
Royal Banner of England.svg
Aq Qoyunlu  Azerbaijan Bayburt, Palu, Ergani, Diyarbakır, Tabriz 1378 1503 125
Armenian Empire  Armenia Tigranakert 190 BC 428 618 Tigranes the Great took the title King of Kings.
True flag of the Arshakuni Arsacid dynasty.png
Artaxiad coat of arms by PeopleOfAr.svg
Assyria  Iraq Assur 2500 BC 911 BC 1589 Tudiya Ashur-dan II
Neo-Assyrian Empire  Iraq Assur, Dur-Sharrukin, Nimrud, Nineveh, Harran 911 BC 609 BC 302 Adad-nirari II Ashur-uballit II
Ashanti Empire  Ghana Kumasi 1670 1896 226 Osei Tutu Prempeh I
Flag of Ashanti.svg
Austrian Empire  Austria Vienna 1804 1867 63 Preceded by the Holy Roman Empire. Francis II Franz Joseph I
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg
Austria-Hungary  Austria,  Hungary Vienna, Budapest 1867 1918 51 Often referred to as the "Austro-Hungarian Empire". Formed out of the Austrian Empire as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Officially a real union of the rump Austrian Empire (Cisleithania) and the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen/Transleithania. Ruler was therefore referred to as Kaiser und König ("Emperor-King", literally "Emperor and King"). Franz Joseph I Charles IV and I
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg
Ayyubid dynasty  Egypt,  Syria Cairo, Damascus, Hama 1171 1260 89 Founded by Saladin, See also List of Muslim states and dynasties. Saladin Al-Ashraf[disambiguation needed]
Reconstruction of the Standard of the Sultan Saladin.svg
Saladin's Standard.svg
Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg
Aztec Empire  Mexico, Mesoamerica Tenochtitlan 1428 1521 93 The capital of Mexico, Mexico City, is built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Itzcoatl Cuauhtemoc
Aztec Triple Alliance.png
Aulikara Empire  India Mandsaur, 528 550 22 Empire disintegrated after Shiladitya, the second king's death. Yashodharman Shiladitya (ruler of Malwa)
Babylonian Empire  Iraq Babylon 1900 BC 1600 BC 300 See also Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Balhae  North Korea, Manchuria Sanggyeong 698 926 228 Successor of Goguryeo.
Banten Sultanate  Indonesia Old Banten, Serang 1526 1813 287 Maulana Hasanuddin of Banten
Flag of the Sultanate of Banten.svg
Sultanate of Banjar  Indonesia Banjarmasin, Pemakuan, Tambangan, Martapura, Kayu Tangi 1520 1905 385
Bamana Empire  Mali Ségou 1712 1861 149 Also known as the Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire
Belgian colonial empire  Belgium Brussels 1901 1962 61 Overseas possessions were referred to as "the colonies" rather than an empire. Leopold II of Belgium
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
Benin Empire  Nigeria Benin City 1440 1897 457
Kadamba dynasty  India Banavasi 345 540 195 The Kadambas (345–540 CE) were an ancient royal family of Karnataka, India, that ruled northern Karnataka and the Konkan from Banavasi in present-day Uttara Kannada district. The kingdom was founded by Mayurasharma in 345 CE.
Bornu Empire  Nigeria Ngazargamu 1387 1893 506 The continuation of the Kanem Empire.
Empire of Brazil  Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1822 1889 67 Established after Pedro I of Brazil declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal. Pedro I of Brazil Pedro II of Brazil
Flag of Brazil (1870–1889).svg
Britannic Empire  United Kingdom Londinium 286 296 10 Was a break-away state of the Roman Empire. See also the Carausian Revolt.
British Empire  United Kingdom London 1603 Either surviving until present or ended in 1997 394 The largest empire in world history. Precursor to the modern Commonwealth of Nations. Remnants of the empire include the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II remains as sovereign. For many the handover of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997 marked the end of the British Empire.[1] James I Elizabeth II
Flag of Great Britain (1707–1800).svg
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
British Raj  Pakistan,  Bangladesh,  India,  Myanmar Calcutta (1858–1912), New Delhi (1912–1947) 1858 1947 89 Governed by the Crown and part of the British Empire. Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in 1876. Queen Victoria George VI
British Raj Red Ensign.svg
Bruneian Empire  Brunei Not specified, possibly Kota Batu 1368 1888 520 Lasted until it became a British protectorate in 1888. Muhammad Shah of Brunei Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
Old Flag of Brunei.svg
First Bulgarian Empire  Bulgaria Pliska (680–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopie (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018) 680 1018 338 Founded by Khan Asparukh. Under Tsar Simeon I became the first powerful Slavic Empire. Falls to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Basil II. Asparuh of Bulgaria Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria
Second Bulgarian Empire  Bulgaria Veliko Turnovo (1185-1396) 1185 1422 237 Successor of the First Bulgarian Empire. Under the Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II became the most powerful state in the Balkans. Peter II of Bulgaria Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria
Flag of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1325).svg
Flag of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg
Burgundian State  France Dijon 1364 1477 113 Theorically vassal of France. Ruled a very large territory from Alps to North Sea. Phillip the Bold Charles the Bold
Ancient Flag of Burgundy.svg
Flag of the Low Countries.svg
Buyid dynasty  Iran Shiraz 934 1055 121 Imad al-Dawla Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Byzantine Empire  Greece Constantinople 330 1453 1123 The eastern half of the Roman Empire. Term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages. Constantine I Constantine XI
Byzantine empire flag or eatern roman empire.png
Caliphate of Córdoba  Spain,  Portugal Córdoba 756 1031 275 See also Caliphate. Abd al-Rahman III
Cao Wei  China Luoyang 220 265 45 See also Three Kingdoms. Cao Pi
Carthaginian Empire  Tunisia Carthage 814 BC 146 BC 668 Best known as the Roman Republic’s rival in the Punic Wars, Carthage was a North African commercial hub that flourished for over 600 years. Dido
Flag Tanit Symbol cropped.svg
Cebu Rajahnate  Philippines Cebu City 1279 1565 286 An Indianized state founded by a minor Chola prince.
Chagatai Khanate Transoxania Almaliq, Qarshi 1225 1687 462 Division of the Mongol Empire.
Chalukya dynasty  India Badami 543 753 210
Chauhan dynasty  India Delhi 800 1200 400
Chavín Empire  Peru 900 BC 200 BC 700
Chenla  Cambodia Isanapura 550 802 252 Succeeded by the Khmer Empire.
Chera dynasty  India Vanchi Muthur, Karur, Kodungallur, Kollam. 400 BC 1729 2129 A Tamil (Later, Malayalam) dynasty which includes Early Cheras, Medieval Cheras, Kodungallur Cheras and Venadu Cheras.
Chola empire  India Uraiyur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram 400 BC 1540 1940 A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas and Later Cholas till the reign of Virasekhara Chola (opponent of Nagama Nayak). Ruled parts of India, Sri lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Burma Maldives and Philippines. Vijayalaya Chola
Comanche Empire  United States N/A 1750 1850 100 A region of the southwest United States and Northern Mexico which was dominated by highly mobile Comanche warrior units known as racherías.
Commonwealth of England  United Kingdom London 1649 1660 11 Short puritan and republican period in Britain. The Cromwell's army conquered Ireland and Jamaica. Oliver Cromwell Richard Cromwell
Flag of The Commonwealth.svg
Congo Free State  DR Congo Vivi then Boma 1885 1908 23 Private kingdom of Leopold II. Annexed by Belgium after the revelation of committed atrocities in rubber plantations.
Flag of Congo Free State.svg
Crimean Khanate Crimea Bakhchysarai 1441 1783 342 One of the last Turkic kingdoms, annexed by Russia. Hacı I Giray Şahin Giray
Flag of the Crimean Tatar people.svg
Dacian Empire  Romania Sarmizegetusa Regia 168 BC 106 274 Reached its territorial expansion under King Burebista (82 BC – 44 BC) and also had the title of King of Kings. Rubobostes Decebalus
Danish colonial empire  Denmark (as Denmark–Norway 1536 – 1814) Copenhagen 1536 1953 417 See also Danish overseas colonies. Christian III of Denmark Frederick IX of Denmark
Flag of Denmark (state).svg
Delhi Sultanate  India,  Pakistan Delhi 1206 1527 321 Qutb al-Din Aibak Ibrahim Lodi
Delhi Sultanate Flag.svg
Demak Sultanate  Indonesia Bintara 1475 1568 93 Raden Patah Arya Penangsang
Durrani Empire  Afghanistan,  Pakistan Kandahar, Kabul 1747 1823 76 Ahmad Shah Durrani Shah Shujah Durrani
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg
Dutch Empire  Netherlands Amsterdam 1568 1975 407 See also Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company.
Flag of the Dutch Republic.png
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Egyptian Empire  Egypt Various, including Thebes, Akhetaten, Pi-Ramesses, Memphis 1550 BC 1077 BC 473 See also 18th Dynasty, 19th Dynasty & 20th Dynasty. Ahmose I Ramesses XI
Elamite Empire  Iran Susa 1210 BC 1100 BC 110 Elam#Elamite Empire (About Elamite Empire)
Elam Haltamti
Exarchate of Africa  Tunisia Carthage 585 698 113 The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered around Carthage, Tunisia, that encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean (excluding Italy and Sicily). And it was ruled by an exarch. Gennadius John the Patrician
Abbasynia  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 1137 1974 837 Yekuno Amlak Haile Selassie
Flag of Ethiopia (1875-1881).svg
Flag of Ethiopia (1897).png
Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg
Fatimid Caliphate  Tunisia,  Egypt Mahdia (909–969), Cairo (969–1171) 909 1171 262 See also Caliphate. Abdallah al-Mahdi Billah al-Adid
White flag 3 to 2.svg
First French Empire  France Paris 1804 1815 11 Established after the French Revolution Napoleon Napoleon
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1958).svg
Second French Empire  France Paris 1852 1870 18 Established after the French loss of the Franco-Prussian War Napoleon III Napoleon III
French colonial empire  France Paris 1534 Either surviving until present or ended in 1980 487 as of 2021 or 446 as of 1980 Some consider the Empire ending with the end of French presence in Vanuatu (see New Hebrides) France still maintains overseas possessions in the form of Overseas France. Francis I of France Emmanuel Macron
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg
Bourbon restoration flag v2.png
French empire.png
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1958).svg
Frankish Empire  France Various, including Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen 800 843 43 Succeeded by Middle Francia, East Francia, and West Francia. Clovis I Louis the Pious
Funan  Cambodia Vyadhapura 50 550 500 Succeeded by the Chenla.
Gallic Empire Rhineland-Palatinate Colonia Agrippina 260 274 14 Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Gaza Empire Southern Africa Not specified 1824 1895 71
Republic of Genoa  Italy Genoa 1096 1797 701 Major commercial power during the Late Middle Ages. Established colonies across the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Flag of Genoa.svg
Georgian Empire Georgia (country) Georgia Kutaisi, Tbilisi 1008 1490 482 Established in 1008 as an unified kingdom. Georgian kings took title "King of Kings" and ruled over large territory consisting of Georgian, Armenian and Muslim areas, as well as numerous client states. Officially dissolved at 1490. Bagrat III of Georgia George VIII of Georgia
Flag of Kingdom of Georgia.svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Egris-Abkhazia v2.svg
German Empire  Germany Berlin 1871 1918 47 See also German colonial empire. Otto Von Bismark as Prime minister of Prussia, uniter of Germany and then Chancellor of Germany (1871-1890) likely had far more political pull than Wilhelm I. Wilhelm I Wilhelm II
Old Flag of Germany (1866-1918)
Ghana Empire  Mauritania,  Mali Koumbi Saleh 300 1240 940 The empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the "Ghana Empire" by the title of its ruler (meaning "Warrior King"). Also known as Wagadou.
Ghaznavid dynasty  Afghanistan,  Pakistan Ghazni later Lahore 963 1187 224 Sabuktigin Khusrau Malik
Ghurid dynasty  Afghanistan,  Pakistan Firuzkuh 1148 1215 67 Amir Suri Ala al-Din Ali
Goguryeo Korea[2] Jolbon, Gungnae City, Pyongyang 37 BC 668 705 Predecessor of Balhae and Goryeo.
Goryeo Korea Gaegyeong, Ganghwa 918 1392 474 Successor of Goguryeo. Unification of the Korean Peninsula. State maintained as an empire between 918 and 1274. Taejo of Goryeo Gongyang of Goryeo
Royal flag of Goryeo (Bong-gi).svg
Gorkha Empire    Nepal 1600 1850 250 Unification of Greater Nepal. State maintained as an empire between 1600 and 1840.
Göktürk Khaganate Inner Asia Ötüken 552 747 195 552–603 First empire, 603–658 Double empire, 658–681 Dark age, 681–747 Second empire.
Golden Horde Central Asia Sarai Batu 1240 1502 262 Successor state of the Mongol Empire. Jochi Sheikh Ahmed
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg
Sultanate of Gowa  Indonesia Sungguminasa 1300 1945 645
Empire of Great Fulo  Senegal Tekrur 1514 1776 262
Great Moravian Empire  Czechia 833 900 67 The word "Moravia" did not refer only to present-day Moravia. Mojmir I of Moravia Mojmir II of Moravia
Seljuq Empire Aral Sea, Asia Minor, Persia Nishapur and later on Rey 1037 1194 157 Turkish empire, predecessor of the Sultanate of Rum.
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty  India Kannauj 600 1136 536 Founded by great king of Gujjars.
Gupta Empire  India,  Pakistan Pataliputra 320 550 230 Founded by Sri Gupta.
Hafsid Kingdom  Tunisia Tunis 1228 1574 346 The Hafsids were a sunni muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya for over 300 years. Abu Zakariya Yahya Abu Abdallah Muhammad VI ibn al-Hasan
Hafsid Flag - Tunisia.svg
Hafsid Flag 2 - Tunisia.svg
Han dynasty  China Chang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang 206 BC 220 426 Founded by Liu Bang the High Ancestor. Emperor Gaozu of Han Emperor Xian of Han
Hanseatic League North and Baltic Sea Lübeck 1356 1648 292 Alliance of German and Baltic merchant city-states.
Empire of Harsha  India Kannauj 606 647 41 Founded by Harshavardhana; collapsed after his death.
Hephthalite Empire  Afghanistan Kabul 420 567 147
Hittite Empire Anatolia Hattusa 1460 BC 1180 BC 280 See also Syro-Hittite states.
Holy Roman Empire Central Europe Not specified 962 1806 844 Referred to simply as the Roman Empire (not to be confused with the actual Roman Empire) before 1157, when it became the Holy Empire. The Holy Roman Empire is attested from 1254. Was officially known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512, although this designation had fallen out of use again by the 18th century. See Holy Roman Empire § Name. Otto I the Great Francis II
Flag of the March of Verona and Aquileia.png
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg
Hotak dynasty  Iran,  Afghanistan Isfahan 1709 1738 29 Mirwais Hotak Hussain Hotak
Black flag.svg
Hoysala Empire  India Belur, Halebidu 1026 1343 317
Hunnic Empire Eurasia Not specified 370 469 99
Husainid dynasty  Tunisia Tunis 1705 1957 252 The Husainids were a dynasty that ruled the Beylik of Tunis which was a largely autonomous governorate of the Ottoman Empire. Al-Husayn I ibn Ali Muhammad VIII al-Amin
Tunisian flag till 1831.svg
Flag of the Beylik of Tunis (1831–1881).svg
Idrisid dynasty  Morocco Fes 788 974 186 Founders of the first Moroccan state. Idris I Al-Hasan ibn Kannun
Flag of Morocco (780 1070) (1258 1659).svg
Ilkhanate  Iran Maragheh, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh 1256 1335 79 Successor state of the Mongol Empire. Hulagu Khan Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan
Flag of Ilkhanate.svg
Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)  Egypt,  Israel,  Jordan,  Lebanon, State of Palestine Palestine,  Syria Gibeah (1030–1010 BC), Mahanaim (1010–1008), Hebron (1008–1003), Jerusalem (1003–930) 1047 BC 930 BC 117 Split into Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah Saul Rehoboam
Kingdom of Judah (united monarchy)  Israel Jerusalem 1050 BC 586 BC 464 Considers the Start of Saul's reign, through the dual kingdoms of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and the Kingdom of Judah, until the Babylonian conquest of Judah.
Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyo) Andes ( Peru, Chile, Bolivia,  Ecuador, And Northwest of  Argentina and South of  Colombia) Cusco 1438 1533 95 The largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Pachacuti Waskar (legitimately)
Suntur Paucar.svg
Italian Empire  Italy Rome 1885 1943 58 See also Italian imperialism under Fascism. Umberto I Victor Emmanuel III
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg
Empire of Japan  Japan Tokyo 1868 1947 79 Emperor's government took control of the country in 1868. Regional hegemony in East Asia ended in 1945. The new constitution of 1947 formally abolished the empire.[3] Meiji Shōwa (Hirohito)
Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army (1868–1945).svg
Jin dynasty (266–420)  China Luoyang (265–311), Chang'an (312–316), Jiankang (317–420) 266 420 154 Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn dynasty (266–316), Eastern Jìn dynasty (317–420).
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)  China Huining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng 1115 1234 119 Also known as the Jurchens, were the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing dynasty.
Johor Empire  Malaysia Muar, Johor Lama 1528 1855 327 Alauddin Riayat Shah II Ali Iskandar
Jolof Empire  Senegal Linguère 1350 1549 199 Also known as the Wollof Empire. Succeeded by the Kingdom of Jolof (1549–1875).
Joseon Korea Hanseong 1392 1897 505 Taejo Gojong
Flag of Korea (1856).svg
Flag of the king of Joseon.svg
Kaabu Empire West Africa Kansala 1537 1867 330 Also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu'.
Kachari kingdom[4]  India Dimapur, Maibang and Khaspur 835 1832 997 The first of the Kachari kings claimed to rule in the town of Dimapur in Assam in the early ninth century, although he was probably little more than a powerful chieftain. The Kacharis belonged to the Dimasa Bodo Kachari group and called themselves descendents of Ghatotkacha, the son of the Pandava Prince Bhima. They also appear to have had links to their cousins, the Mlechha kings. They ruled from their capital at Hidimbapur (Dimapur).
Kalmar Union Scandinavia Roskilde then Copenhagen 1397 1523 126 Personal union of Denmark, Pomerania, Norway and Sweden. Margaret I Christian II
Flag of the Kalmar Union.svg
Kanem Empire  Chad Njimi 700 1387 687 Sef Omar I
Kanem flag from dulcerta 1339-pt.svg
Kanva dynasty  India Pataliputra, Vidisha 75 BC 30 BC 45 Replaced the Shunga Empire.
Kara-Khanid Khanate Turkistan Kashgar 840 1212 372 First Turkic dynasty to embrace Islam.
Kazakh Khanate  Kazakhstan Turkistan 1465 1847 382 Kerei Khan Kenesary Khan
Khazar Khaganate Pontic steppe, North Caucasus Balanjar, later Atil 700 1000 300 Founded by Western Turks, the members of the royal family embraced Judaism.
Khmer Empire  Cambodia Hariharalaya (802–889), Angkor (889–1431) 802 1431 629 Succeeded from the kingdom of Chenla. Jayavarman II Ponhea Yat
Flag of Cambodia (pre-1863).svg
Khilji dynasty  Afghanistan,  Pakistan Kabul, Delhi 1290 1320 30
Khwarazmian dynasty  Iran Urgench 1077 1221 144 Anushtegin Gharchai Qutuz
Kievan Rus'  Ukraine,  Russia Novgorod, Kiev 879 1240 361
Konbaung dynasty  Myanmar Mandalay 1752 1885 133
Kong Empire West Africa Kong 1710 1898 188 Also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire.
Korean Empire Korean Peninsula Hanseong 1897 1910 13 Was the last ruling Korean dynasties. [[Gojong of Korea Sunjong of Korea
Flag of Korea (1899).svg
Kushan Empire  Afghanistan,  Pakistan Various, including Mathura, Peshawar, Begram, Taxila 30 345 315 Kujula Kadphises Kipunada
Kingdom of Kush  Sudan Napata, Meroe 1070 BC 350 1420
Lakota people Great Plains Great winter camps 1700 1877 177 Main Native power in North America until Black Hills annexation by United States.
Latin Empire Thrace, Asia Minor Constantinople 1204 1261 57 See also Latinokratia.
Later Lê dynasty  Vietnam Đông Kinh 1428 1789 361 Lê Lợi Lê Chiêu Thống
Liao dynasty  China Shangjing 915 1125 210
Lodi Sultanate  Afghanistan,  Pakistan Delhi 1451 1526 75
Macedonian Empire  Greece Aegae, Pella, Babylon 334 BC 323 BC 11 Founded by Alexander the Great.
Madurai Nayak dynasty  India Madurai,


1529 1736 207 Branched out from the Vijayanagara Empire by Viswanatha Nayak.
Majapahit Empire  Indonesia Majapahit, Wilwatikta 1293 1527 234 Successor of the Singhasari; founded by Raden Wijaya. Raden Wijaya Prabu Udara
Flag of the Majapahit Empire.svg
Mali Empire West Africa Niani, later Ka-ba 1235 1610 375 A Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita.
Malacca Empire  Malaysia Malacca 1400 1511 111 Iskandar Shah Mahmud Shah
Mamluk Sultanate  Egypt,  Syria Cairo 1250 1517 267 See also Islamic Empire. Al-Mustansir (Cairo) Tuman bay II
Mameluke Flag.svg
Manchukuo  China Hsinking 1932 1945 13 Created as a puppet state of the Japanese Empire, with Emperor Puyi (the last emperor of the Qing dynasty) installed as nominal regent and emperor. Puyi Puyi
Flag of Manchukuo.svg
Maratha Empire  India Raigad, later Satara 1674 1818 144 Founded by Shivaji Maharaj, also known as the Maratha Confederacy.
Marinid dynasty  Morocco Fes 1244 1465 221 Abd al-Haqq I Abd al-Haqq II
Flag of Morocco (1258-1659).svg
Massina Empire West Africa Hamdullahi 1820 1862 42
Mataram Sultanate  Indonesia Kotagede, Karta, Plered, Kartosuro 1587 1755 168 The last major sultanate in Java. Production of Javanese Djong stopped during the era of this sultanate.
Mauretania  Morocco Volubilis, Caesarea 225 BC 44 269 . Baga (king) Ptolemy of Mauretania
Mauryan Empire  India,  Pakistan Pataliputra 321 BC 185 BC 136 Founded by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryan Empire became the largest ever Indian empire under Ashoka.
Median Empire  Iran Ecbatana 625 BC 549 BC 76 First Iranian empire, Founded by Deioces.
Mlechchha dynasty  India Tezpur 650 900 250 Founded by Salasthamba(Kachari King). The Mlechchha dynasty replaced the Varman dynasty.
First Mexican Empire  Mexico Mexico City 1821 1823 2 Agustín I of Mexico Agustín I of Mexico
Bandera del Primer Imperio Mexicano.svg
Second Mexican Empire  Mexico Mexico City 1864 1867 3 Succeeded the First Mexican Empire which was short lived (1821–1823). See also Mexican Imperial Orders. Maximillian I of Mexico Maximillian I of Mexico
Flag of Mexico (1864-1867).svg
Ming dynasty  China Nanjing (1368–1421), Beijing (1421–1644) 1368 1644 276 Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang the Great Marshal. Hongwu Emperor Chongzhen Emperor
Mitanni Empire  Syria,  Iran,  Iraq,  Turkey Washukanni 1500 BC 1300 BC 200
Mongol Empire  Mongolia Karakorum 1206 1368 162 Split into four empires (Yuan dynasty, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde). Largest contiguous land empire. Genghis Khan Toghon Temur
Mughal Empire Indian Subcontinent Agra, Delhi 1526 1758 232 Founded by Babur. "Mughal" is a Persian word for the Mongols. Babur Bahadur Shah Zafar
Captured flag of the Mughal Empire (1857).png
Nanda Empire Indian Subcontinent Pataliputra 450 BC 350 BC 100
Neo-Babylonian Empire  Iraq Babylon 626 BC 539 BC 87 See also Babylonia. Nabopolassar Nabonidus
Shamash-sun-symbol (3 rays).svg
Nguyễn dynasty  Vietnam Phú Xuân 1802 1945 143 Was the last ruling Vietnamese dynasty Would later be a puppet state of the Third French Republic. Gia Long Bảo Đại
Royal Flag of Vietnam (1802–1885).svg
North Sea Empire  Denmark Ribe 1016 1035 19 As one historian put it: "When the 11th century began its fourth decade, Canute was, with the single exception of the Emperor, the most imposing ruler in Latin Christendom. ... [H]e was lord of four important realms and the overlord of other kingdoms. Though technically Canute was counted among the kings, his position among his fellow-monarchs was truly imperial. Apparently he held in his hands the destinies of two great regions: the British Isles and the Scandinavian peninsulas. His fleet all but controlled two important seas, the North and the Baltic. He had built an Empire."[5] Sweyn Forkbeard Cnut the Great
Raven Banner.svg
Empire of Nicaea Bithynia Nicaea 1204 1261 57 Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
Northern Yuan dynasty  Mongolia, North China Shangdu, Yingchang, Karakorum 1368 1635 267 Created after the expulsion of the Yuan dynasty from China proper in 1368. Toghon Temür Ejei Khan
Numidia  Algeria, Cirta 202 BC 40 BC 162 First Berber Kingdom in North Africa, founded by Massinissa in 202 BC. Massinissa Juba II
Omani Empire  Oman Muscat 1698 1856 158 See Oman.
Ottoman Empire  Turkey Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul 1299 1922 623 Predecessor of the Republic of Turkey. Osman I Mehmed VI
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844–1922).svg
Oyo Empire Southwestern Nigeria Oyo-Ile 1400 1905 505
Pagan Empire  Myanmar Bagan 849 1297 448
Pahlavi dynasty  Iran Tehran 1925 1979 54 The last Imperial dynasty of the Persian Empire. Reza Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg
Pala Empire  India Pataliputra 750 1174 424
Palmyrene Empire  Syria Palmyra 270 273 3 Broke off from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Pandyan dynasty  India Madurai, Korkai, Tenkasi, Tirunelveli 500 BC 1759[6] 2259 A Tamil dynasty which includes Early Pandyas (possible sunken continent, Kumari Kandam), First Empire, Second Empire and Later Pandyas of Tenkasi and Tirunelveli.
Twin fish flag of Pandyas.svg
Parthian Empire  Iran Various, including Asaak, Hecatompylos, Ecbatana, Ctesiphon, Nisa 247 BC 224 471 Third Iranian empire, Founded by Arsaces I.
Pontic Empire Pontus, (Greece) Amaseia, Sinope 120 BC 47 BC 73 Mithridates VI had the title: King of Kings.
Portuguese Empire  Portugal Lisbon, Rio de Janeiro (1815–1821) 1415 1999 584 It was one of the first global empires and one of the longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. See also United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. João I António Guterres
Flag of Portugal (1495).svg
Flag of Portugal (1830).svg
Flag of Portugal.svg
Kingdom of Prussia  Germany Berlin 1701 1871 170 Was a great power during the 18th century. Unificated Germany after the Franco-Prussian War against France. Frederick I of Prussia Wilhelm I
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg
Ptolemaic Empire  Egypt Alexandria 305 BC 30 BC 275 See also Diadochi.
Qajar dynasty[citation needed] Iran Persia Tehran 1794 1925 131
Qara Qoyunlu  Azerbaijan Erciş, Mosul, Tabriz 1378 1468 90
Qin dynasty  China Xianyang 221 BC 206 BC 15 First dynasty of the imperial period. Qin Shi Huang
Qing dynasty  China Shenyang, Beijing 1644 1912 268 Last dynasty of the imperial period. Hong Taiji Puyi
Flag of China (1889–1912).svg
Ramnad Sethupathis  India Ramanathapuram 1590 1979 389
Rashidun Caliphate  Saudi Arabia Medina, Kufa 632 661 29 Predecessor of the Umayyad Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire. Abu Bakr Hassan
Black Flag.png
Rashtrakuta dynasty  India Manyakheta 753 982 229
Roman Empire  Italy Rome, Milan, Ravenna 27 BC 395 422 Together with the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, direct Roman states lasted from 753 BC until 1453 AD, 1229 years. Formed from the Roman Republic as a consequence of the dictatorship and political assassination of Julius Caesar. The Empire was divided into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire in 395 AD, although the latter is usually considered to have become a sort of distinct civilization. However, given that this half of the Empire fell only in 1453 AD, this extends the whole year count to 2206 years. Octavianus Augustus Theodosius I (undivided)
Romulus Augustus (Western)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg
Rouran Khaganate Inner China Not specified 330 555 225
Rozwi Empire Southern Africa Danangombe 1660 1866 206
Rustamid dynasty  Algeria Tahert 777 909 132 ʿAbdu r-Rahman ibn Bahram ibn Rūstam Yaqzan ibn Muhammad Abil-Yaqzan
Russian Empire (Romanov)  Russia Saint Petersburg 1721 1917 196 Successor state of the Tsardom of Russia. Peter The Great Nicolas II
Flag of Russia.svg
Flag of the Russian Empire (black-yellow-white).svg
Flag of Russia (1914-1917).svg
Saadi dynasty  Morocco Marrakech 1554 1659 105 Sharifian Empire of Morocco who destroyed the Songhai Empire. Abu Abdallah al-Qaim Ahmad al-Abbas
Flag of Morocco (1258-1659).svg
Safavid dynasty  Iran Tabriz, Qazvin, Esfahan 1501 1736 235 Ismail I Abbas III
Safavid Flag.svg
Saffarid dynasty  Iran Zaranj 867 1002 135
Sassanid dynasty  Iran Ctesiphon 224 651 427 Fourth Iranian Empire.
Derafsh Kaviani flag of the late Sassanid Empire.svg
Satavahana dynasty  India Amaravathi village, Guntur district Dharanikota 230 BC 220 450 An Andhra dynasty which preceded the Vengi dynasty of Andhra.
Samanid Empire  Iran Balkh, Bukhara 819 999 180
Saudeleur dynasty  Micronesia Nan Madol 1100 1628 528 A semi-mythic foreign dynasty ruling from the Pohnpei Island of modern Micronesia.
Duchy of Savoy  Savoy Chambéry then Turin 1416 1713 297 Theorically member state of Holy Roman Empire then vassal of France. Ruled a territory from Romandy to Nice. Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy Charles Albert of Sardinia
Flag of Savoie.svg
Seleucid Empire  Iran,  Iraq,  Syria Seleucia, Antioch 312 BC 63 BC 249 See also Diadochi. Seleucus I Nicator Philip II Philoromaeus
Serbian Empire  Serbia,  Montenegro Balkans Skopje, Prizren 1346 1371 25 Founded by Dušan the Mighty, fell into feudal disarray after his death. Stefan Dusan Stefan Uros V
Flag of the Serbian Empire, reconstruction.svg
Shu Han  China Chengdu 221 263 42 See also Three Kingdoms. Liu Bei Liu Shan
Siam Empire  Thailand Bangkok 1782 1932 150 Rama I Rama VII
Flag of Thailand (1782).svg
Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura  Indonesia Buantan, Mempura, Senapelan Pekanbaru, Siak Sri Indrapura 1722 1945 223
Sikh Empire Punjab region Lahore 1733 1849 116 Preceded the Punjab Province of British India in the Indian subcontinent. Ranjit Singh Duleep Singh
Sikh Empire flag.svg
Singhasari  Indonesia Singosari 1222 1292 70 Launched the Pamalayu Expedition which ended Malay control in the Straits of Malacca. Ken Arok Kertanegara
Sokoto Caliphate West Africa Sokoto (1804–1850), (1851–1902), Gudu (1804), Birnin Konni (1850, 1903) 1804 1903 99
Song dynasty  China Bianjing (960–1127), Lin'an (1127–1279) 960 1279 319 Founded by Zhao Kuangyin. Emperor Taizu of Song
Songhai Empire West Africa Gao 1340 1591 251 Former vassal of the Mali Empire which became one of the largest African empires in history.
Spanish Empire Spain Madrid 1479 1975 496 Was founded with Columbus’s funding, by the Catholic monarchs of Castille and Aragon, to his first voyage (that would land in America). Ferdinand II of Aragon & Isabella I Francisco Franco
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg
Bandera de España 1701-1760.svg
Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg
Flag of Spain (1945–1977).svg
Srivijaya Empire Indonesian Archipelago Palembang, Mataram 683 1293 610 It was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, then based on Mataram (Medang Kingdom) under Sailendra's dynasty.
Sui dynasty  China Chang'an 581 618 37 Emperor Yang of Sui
Wadiyar dynasty (Kingdom of Mysore) Mysuru, Karnataka Yaduraya Wodeyar 1399 1950 551
Shunga Empire  India Pataliputra, Vidisa 185 BC 73 BC 112 Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India.
Swedish Empire  Sweden Stockholm 1611 1721 110 See also Swedish overseas colonies. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden Frederick I of Sweden
Swedish Empire flag.png
Tahirid dynasty Iran Persia Nishapur 821 873 52
Tang dynasty  China Chang'an (618–904), Luoyang (904–907) 618 907 289 Founded By Li Yuan (aka. Emperor Gaozu of Tang).
Thanjavur Nayak dynasty South India Thanjavur 1532 1673 141 Founded by Sevappa Nayak.
Tây Sơn dynasty  Vietnam Phú Xuân 1778 1802 24 Nguyễn Nhạc Nguyễn Quang Toản
Royal Flag of Vietnam (1778–1793).svg
Sultanate of Ternate  Indonesia Ternate 1258 1914 657
Empire of Thessalonica Epirus, Kingdom of Thessalonica Thessaloniki 1224 1246 22 Evolved from the Despotate of Epirus.
Nazi Germany  Germany Berlin, Hamburg 1933 1945 12 Nazi Germany signed a treaty (Tripartite Pact) with the Japanese and Italian Empire. Only lasted at its height from winter 1941-42 when the Soviet Union started counterattacks. Adolf Hitler Karl Donitz (Signed surrender terms on May 7, 1945)[7]
Flag of Germany (1935–1945).svg
Tibetan Empire Tibet Lhasa 755 842 87 Expansion of Tibet started ~626. The death of the last leader lead to a civil war which destroyed the empire.[8] Trisong Dretsen Tsenpo Langadarma
Tondo dynasty  Philippines Tondo 900 1587 687
Sultanate of Tidore  Indonesia Tidore 1274 1967 693
Timurid Empire  Uzbekistan, Iran Persia and Central Asia Samarkand, Herat 1370 1526 156 Persianized form of the Mongolian word kürügän, Turko-Mongol Empire. Timur Badi' al-Zaman Mirza
Tlemcen  Algeria Tlemcen 1235 1556 321 the Zayyanids is a dynasty that ruled modern day north western Algeria, althought for much of their history they were either a vassal of the Hafsids or the Marinids Yaghmurasen Ibn Zyan Al Hassan ibn Abdallah
Flag of the kingdom of tlemcen.svg
Flag of the kingdom of Tlemcen 1388-1488.svg
Empire of Trebizond Pontus Trebizond 1204 1461 257 Successor state of the Byzantine Empire and a client state of the Kingdom of Georgia. Alexios I of Trebizond David of Trebizond
Banner of the Empire of Trebizond.svg
Toltec Empire Mesoamerica Tollan-Xicocotitlan 496 1122 626 Ce Técpatl Mixcoatl or Huémac (Unsure/potentially mythical) Topiltzin or Huemac (Accounts differ)
Toungoo dynasty Toungoo Myanmar 1510 1752 242 The largest empire ever formed in South East Asia’s history.
Toucouleur Empire West Africa Ségou 1848 1893 45
Tu'i Tonga Empire  Tonga, Pacific Ocean Mu'a 950 1865 915 See History of Tonga.
Turgesh Khaganate Turkistan Balasagun 699 766 67 Founded as a successor of West Turkish empire.
Umayyad Caliphate  Syria Damascus, Córdoba (capital-in-exile) 661 750 89 Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate, See also Caliphate. Muawiya I Marwan II
White flag 3 to 2.svg
Uyunid Emirate Arabian Al-Hasa, Qatif 1076 1253 177 The Uyunids were a Sunni Arab dynasty that ruled Bahrain for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Uyghur Khaganate Central Asia Ordubaliq 742 848 106 742–848 Founded as a successor of Göktürk Khaganate, 848–1036 Gansu state, 856–1209 Turfan state.
Vandal Kingdom  Algeria,  Tunisia Hippo Regius, Carthage 435 534 99 The Vandal Kingdom was established by the Germanic Vandal people, it ruled Africa (Roman province), Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and other Mediterranean islands. Gaiseric Gelimer
Hands of God orange.PNG
Vijayanagara Empire Karnataka, India Vijayanagara 1336 1646 310 A Kannada kingdown, where Gold use to be traded in streets; richest kingdom in the world. Harihara I Sriranga III
Flag of Vijaynagara.svg
Republic of Venice  Italy Venice 697 1797 1100 Major great power during the Middle Ages and the Early modern period. Paolo Lucio Anafesto Ludovico Manin
Flag of Republic of Venice (1659-1675).svg
Wari Empire  Peru,  Bolivia Huari/Tiwanaku 500 1100 600 It is a matter of conflict as to whether it was a real organized state that could be called an empire. If so, it would be considered the first empire in the Americas.
Wassoulou Empire West Africa Bissandugu 1878 1895 17 Also known as the Mandinka Empire.
Wattasids  Morocco Fez 1472 1554 82 The Wattasid dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Morocco. Like the Marinid dynasty, its rulers were of Zenata Berber descent.[2] The two families were related. Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya Ali Abu Hassun
Flag of Morocco (1258-1659).svg
Western Chalukya Empire  India Manyakheta, Basavakalyan 973 1189 216
Western Roman Empire  Italy Mediolanum, Ravenna 395 476 81 The western half of the Roman Empire.
Eastern Wu  China Wuchang, Jianye 229 280 51 See also Three Kingdoms. Sun Quan Sun Hao
Western Xia dynasty  China Xingqing 1038 1227 189 Also called the Tangut dynasty.
Xin dynasty  China Chang'an 9 23 14 Temporary usurper state of the Han Dynasty. Had only one emperor. Wang Mang Wang Mang
Yuan dynasty  China,  Mongolia Dadu 1271 1368 97 Division of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan emperors had nominal supremacy over western khanates. Kublai Khan Toghon Temür
Flag of Yuan Dynasty.jpg
Zand dynasty  Iran Shiraz 1750 1794 44 Karim Khan Zand Lotf Ali Khan Zand
Zand Dynasty flag.svg
Zhou dynasty  China Fenghao, Wangcheng, Chengzhou 1046 BC 256 BC 790 Zenith of bronze age in China.
Zhou dynasty (690–705)  China Luoyang (Shendu) 690 705 15 Temporary usurper state of the Tang Dynasty ruled by the only officially recognized empress regnant in Chinese history, Wu Zetian. Wu Zetian Wu Zetian
Zirids  Algeria,  Tunisia Achir, Kairouan, Mahdia 972 1148 176 the Zirid dynasty was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty who ruled Ifriqiya, initially starting as a vassal of the fatimids, but gradually gaining more autonomy until becoming fully independent in 1048. Buluggin ibn Ziri Abu'l-Hasan al-Hasan ibn Ali
Zulu Empire South Africa KwaBulawayo, Ulundi 1818 1897 79 Shaka Dinuzulu
Conjectural flag of Zululand (1884-1897) by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A.P.Burgers.png
Sumer  Iraq Not specified 4500 BC 1900 BC 2600 First civilisation and predecessor to the Akkadian Empire. Enmebaragesi Damiq-ilishu

Possible and informal empires[edit]

These governments, confederations and other entities have sometimes been informally referred to as "empires". Some did not fit the modern definition of empire (e.g. the Delian League), some were self-proclaimed by their first and often last ruler, others were short-lived attempts to turn an existing government into an empire, and there are also instances of the word "empire" being used to refer to unofficial spheres of influence which do not consider themselves empires.

"Empire" Origin Capital From To Duration Note
American Empire  United States Washington, D.C. 1776 Present 245 The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk who led the United States into the Mexican–American War of 1846. Since the Cold War the concept has been revived to refer to the United States' sphere of influence by its critics.
Athenian Empire (Delian League) Ancient Greece Delos island 478 BC 404 BC 74 Also known as the Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.
Second Athenian League Ancient Greece Athens 378 BC 355 BC 23
Central African Empire  Central African Republic Bangui 1976 1979 3 President Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa I in 1976, along him proclaiming the empire as a constitutional monarchy.
 United Arab Emirates Emirates of the United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi 1971 Present 48
Empire of China  China Beijing 1915 1916 1 It was a short-lived attempt by Yuan Shikai to reinstate the recently collapsed imperial monarchy.
First Empire of Haiti  Haiti Port-au-Prince 1804 1806 2

Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared himself Emperor Jacques I, starting the monarchy.

Second Empire of Haiti  Haiti Port-au-Prince 1849 1859 10

Faustin Soulouque declared himself Emperor Faustin I, reinstating the monarchy.

 European Union (EU) Various member nations No capital as it is a political, economic, and military alliance between the member nations.

If there were a capital it would be Brussels or Strasbourg.

1993 Present 28 The EU is a political, economic, and military alliance which adheres to certain centralized law-sets and has its own central government positions. While the EU isn't considered a single nation, it still has power for political and economic sway (amassing a combined GDP of $18.292 trillion in 2019), which it uses such as for bailing out member states in situations of bankruptcy and standing as a military unit aligned against what it considers to be threats.

The EU may be seen as a sphere of influence such as that of the United States, rather than a unit that directly controls territories.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania  Lithuania Vilnius 1200 1569 369 It was the largest state in Europe in the 15th century.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Poland,  Lithuania Kraków 1569 1795 226 It was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th and 17th-century Europe, with some 390,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century.[9][10][11][12][13][14]
Roman Republic  Italy Rome 509 BC 27 BC 482 Predecessor of the Roman Empire. Although not a monarchy, which was the norm at the time, it controlled large amounts of territory along the Mediterranean Sea.
Kingdom of Romania  Romania Bucharest 1920 1947 24 Following the post–World War I treaties that ratified its borders (the last one being the 1920 Treaty of Trianon), the newly-enlarged Romanian monarchy was rated by the Comintern as a multi-national imperial state that subjugated ethnic minorities.[15][16] Indeed, according to the 1930 Romanian census, just over 28% of Romania's inhabitants were not ethnic Romanians. Non-Romanians formed the majority in 14 out of Romania's 71 counties.

The issue of "Romanian imperialism" (as Romanian leading politician Iuliu Maniu put it) was further exacerbated by the 1941 creation of the Romanian Transnistria Governorate from parts of the Ukrainian SSR, under the rule of "Conducător" Ion Antonescu.[17] These new borders lasted until 1944. According to the 1941 Romanian census, 21 out of the now 73 Romanian counties were inhabited by a non-Romanian ethnic majority, including all of the 13 Transnistrian counties. Only two of these 21 new counties had a Romanian majority.

Soviet Empire Soviet Union Moscow 1922 1991 69 A political term for the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union used by its critics. In 8 March 1983, Ronald Reagan declared the Soviet Union to be an "Evil Empire"

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Friends Of The British Overseas Territories
  2. ^ "Koguryŏ". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Chronological table 5 1 December 1946 – 23 June 1947". National Diet Library. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  4. ^
  5. ^ Larson, Laurence M (1912). Canute the Great, 995(Circ)–1035, and the Rise of Danish Imperialism During the Viking Age. Putnam.
  6. ^ Sethuraman, N. (1993). The Later Pandyas (1371 - 1759 AD). Tiruchirapalli: The Epigraphical Society of India.
  7. ^ "Germany surrenders unconditionally to the Allies at Reims".
  8. ^ "The Rise and Fall of the Tibetan Empire".
  9. ^ Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 554. ISBN 978-0-19-820171-7. Poland–Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The realm of the last Jagiellons was absolutely the largest state in Europe.
  10. ^ Wandycz, Piotr Stefan (2001). The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Present (2nd ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-25491-5. The multinational character of the Habsburg monarchy was comparable to that of the Commonwealth [...]
  11. ^ McKenna, Amy, ed. (2014). Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. The Britannica Guide to Countries of the European Union. Chicago: Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-61530-991-7. Lithuania was also a powerful empire and dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries in close alignment with Poland; then, from 1569, it was part of a confederation with Poland [...]
  12. ^ Lozny, Ludomir (2005). "Poland". In Skutsch, Carl (ed.). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. 3. New York [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 963. ISBN 978-1-135-19388-1. It was indeed an Eastern European empire, a multiethnic and multicultural state with great economic strength and strong military power, controlling most of central and eastern European politics.
  13. ^ Kupisz, Dariusz (2012). "The Polish-Lithuanian Army in the Reign of King Stefan Bathory (1576–1586)". In Davies, Brian L. (ed.). Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500–1800. History of Warfare. 72. Boston: Brill. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-04-22196-3. In terms of territorial expanse in Europe the Polish-Lithuanian state was surpassed only by Russia and the Ottoman Empire and in respect to population was behind only France, Spain, and the German Empire.
  14. ^ Davies, Brian L. (2011). Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century. Continuum Studies in Military History. London [u.a.]: Continuum. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4411-7004-0. Poland–Lithuania had entered the seventeenth century as one of the great powers in Eastern Europe.
  15. ^ van de Grift, Liesbeth (2012). Securing the Communist State: The Reconstruction of Coercive Institutions in the Soviet Zone of Germany and Romania, 1944–1948. The Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7391-7178-3.
  16. ^ Fehér, Ferenc; Arato, Andrew, eds. (1991). Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe. Transaction Publishers. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-88738-311-3.
  17. ^ Deletant, Dennis (2006). Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and his Regime, Romania 1940–1944. Springer. pp. 85, 267.

External links[edit]