1189

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1189 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1189
MCLXXXIX
Ab urbe condita1942
Armenian calendar638
ԹՎ ՈԼԸ
Assyrian calendar5939
Balinese saka calendar1110–1111
Bengali calendar596
Berber calendar2139
English Regnal year35 Hen. 2 – 1 Ric. 1
Buddhist calendar1733
Burmese calendar551
Byzantine calendar6697–6698
Chinese calendar戊申(Earth Monkey)
3885 or 3825
    — to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
3886 or 3826
Coptic calendar905–906
Discordian calendar2355
Ethiopian calendar1181–1182
Hebrew calendar4949–4950
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1245–1246
 - Shaka Samvat1110–1111
 - Kali Yuga4289–4290
Holocene calendar11189
Igbo calendar189–190
Iranian calendar567–568
Islamic calendar584–585
Japanese calendarBunji 5
(文治5年)
Javanese calendar1096–1097
Julian calendar1189
MCLXXXIX
Korean calendar3522
Minguo calendar723 before ROC
民前723年
Nanakshahi calendar−279
Seleucid era1500/1501 AG
Thai solar calendar1731–1732
Tibetan calendar阳土猴年
(male Earth-Monkey)
1315 or 934 or 162
    — to —
阴土鸡年
(female Earth-Rooster)
1316 or 935 or 163
Richard I (the Lionheart) (1157–1199)

Year 1189 (MCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. In English law, 1189 - specifically the beginning of the reign of Richard I - is considered the end of time immemorial.

Events[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]

  • May 11 – Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) sets out from Regensburg, at the head of a German expeditionary force (some 15,000 men, including 4,000 knights). He has ensured that his lands are safe while he is away on crusade and leaves his son Henry VI in charge of the country. After leaving Germany, Frederick's army is increased by a contingent of 2,000 men led by Prince Géza, younger brother of King Béla III of Hungary. On July 27, he arrives at Niš and is welcomed by Stefan Nemanja, Grand Prince of Serbia. In order to ease his passage, Frederick makes diplomatic contacts with Hungary, the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.[1]
  • July 6 – King Henry II dies at Chinon, near Tours, after doing homage to Philip II (Augustus), and surrendering the territories around Issoudun in the Centre-Val de Loire. He ends the hostilities against Philip, by agreeing to the peace terms and pays him 20,000 marks in tribute. Henry is succeeded by his son, Richard I (the Lionheart), as ruler of England.[2]
  • August – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) denies any crusader access and begins to hinder the German forces, who try to cross the Byzantine frontier. Frederick I progressed with force, by capturing Philippopolis and defeats a Byzantine army (some 3,000 men) that attempts to recapture the city. The Germans are delayed for six months in Thrace.[3]
  • King Sancho I (the Populator) turns his attention towards the Moorish small kingdoms (called taifas) and begins a campaign in southern Portugal. With the help of crusader forces he conquers (during the Reconquista) the town of Silves. He orders the fortification of the city and builds a castle. Sancho styles himself "King of Silves".[4]
  • November 11 – King William II (the Good) makes peace with Isaac II, he abandons Thessalonika and other conquests, and dies childless at Palermo. The Sicilian nobles elect Tancred of Lecce (illegitimate son of Roger II) as the new ruler of Sicily, instead of Princess Constance and her husband Henry VI, to avoid German rule.[5]
  • A charter by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea, the right to fish, to cut trees and the freedom of military service.[6]

England[edit]

Levant[edit]

  • May – Saladin has reconquered the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem except for Tyre. The castles of Montréal and Kerak are captured by Muslim forces. In the north, Saladin has regained the Principality of Antioch except for Antioch and the castle of Al-Qusayr in Syria.[9]
  • August 28Siege of Acre: King Guy of Lusignan moves from Tyre, where Conrad of Montferrat refuses to hand over the city. Guy and his crusader army (some 7,000 men, including 400 knights) besiege Acre. He makes camp outside, to wait for more reinforcements.[10]
  • September – Guy of Lusignan receives reinforcements of some 12,000 men from Denmark, Germany, England, France, and Flanders. He encircles Acre with a double line of fortified positions. On September 15, Saladin launches a failed attack on Guy's camp.[11]
  • October 4 – Guy of Lusignan leads the crusader forces to launch a full-on assault on Saladin's camp. With heavy casualties on both sides, neither force gains the upperhand. On October 26, Saladin moves his camp from Acre to Mount Carmel (modern Israel).[12]
  • October 30 – An Egyptian fleet (some 50 ships) breaks through the crusader blockade at Acre and reinforced the port-city with some 10,000 men, as well as food and weapons.
  • December – An Egyptian fleet reopens communications with Acre. The rest of the winter passed without major incidents, but the supply situation is poor in the besieged city.

Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]


Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Freed, John (2016). Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth, pp. 491–492. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-122763.
  2. ^ a b King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 38
  3. ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society, p. 658. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
  4. ^ Charles Wendell David, ed. Narratio de Itinere Navali Peregrinorum Hierosolymam Tendentium et Silviam Capientium, A.D. 1189. In Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, p. 81. (Dec., 1939): 591–676.
  5. ^ Steven Runciman (1990). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East 1100–1187, p. 403. Penguin Books.
  6. ^ Verg, Erich; Verg, Martin (2007), Das Abenteuer das Hamburg heißt (in German) (4th ed.), Hamburg: Ellert&Richter, ISBN 978-3-8319-0137-1
  7. ^ Warren, W. Lewis (1961). King John, pp. 39–40. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-45520-3.
  8. ^ Gosling, Paul (1991). From Dún Delca to Dundalk: The Topography and Archaeology of a Medieval Frontier Town A.D. c. 1187–1700., p. 237. Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society.
  9. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Command 12 – Saladin, p. 37. ISBN 978-1-84908-317-1.
  10. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Command 12 – Saladin, p. 40. ISBN 978-1-84908-317-1.
  11. ^ Cartwright, Mark (2018). The Siege of Acre, 1189–91 CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.worldhistory.org/article/1263/
  12. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey: Command 12 – Saladin, p. 38. ISBN 978-1-84908-317-1.
  13. ^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui; Hammond, Kenneth J. (2018). Routledge Handbook of Imperial Chinese History, p. 302. ISBN 978-1317-53-822-6.