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List of genocides by death toll

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This list of genocides by death toll includes estimates of all deaths which were directly or indirectly caused by genocide, as it is defined by the UN Convention on Genocide. It excludes other mass killings, which may be referred to as genocide by some scholars and are variously also called mass murder, crimes against humanity, politicide, classicide, or war crimes, such as the Thirty Years' War (7.5 million deaths), Japanese war crimes (3 to 14 million deaths), the Red Terror (100,000 to 1.3 million deaths), the Atrocities in the Congo Free State (1 to 15 million deaths), the Great Purge (0.6 to 1.75 million deaths), the Great Leap Forward and the famine which followed it (15 to 55 million deaths).[1] A broader list of genocides, ethnic cleansing and related mass persecution is available. Genocides in history include cases where there is less consensus among scholars as to whether they constituted genocide.

Definition

The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group".[2]

List of genocides

Listed in descending order of lowest estimate.

Event Location From To Lowest
estimate
Highest
estimate
Proportion of group killed
The Holocaust[N 1] German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 5,100,000
[4][5][6]
6,000,000
[7]
Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe.[8][page needed]
Holodomor Soviet Union 1932 1933 2,711,000 7,811,000 Data from after the opening of the Soviet archives records deaths at 2.4 to 7.5 million in famine, 300,000 during the purge, and 1,100 from the Law of Spikelets.[9][10][11]
Nazi genocide of ethnic Poles[12][13] German-occupied Europe 1939 1945 1,800,000
[14]
3,000,000
[15][16]
From 6% to 10% of the total Polish gentile population. In addition, 3 million Polish Jews were killed during the Holocaust in Poland.[14]
Cambodian genocide[N 2] Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 1,386,734
[25][26]
3,000,000
[20][27]
15–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[28][29] including:

99% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

Circassian genocide[N 3] Russia Russian-occupied Circassia (territories of present-day Russia) 1864[N 4] 1867 600,000
[38][39][40][41]
2,000,000
[42][39][43][41]
95%–97% of total Circassian population killed or deported by the Russian forces.[44][45] Only a small percentage who accepted to convert to Christianity, Russify and resettle within the Russian Empire were spared. The remaining Circassian populations who refused were thus forcefully dispersed, deported and most of the time, tortured and killed en masse.[46]
Armenian genocide[N 5] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1922 600,000
[52]
1,500,000
[53]
90% of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire killed[54]
Rwandan genocide[N 6] Rwanda 1994 491,000
[55]
800,000
[56]
60–70% of Tutsis in Rwanda killed[55]
7% of Rwanda's total population killed[55]
Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N 7] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey)
1914 1922 300,000
[57]
900,000
[58]
At least 25% of Greeks in Anatolia (Turkey) killed[citation needed]
Dzungar genocide[N 8] Qing Dynasty (Dzungaria) 1755 1758 480,000
[62]
600,000
[62]
80% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
Genocide in Bangladesh[N 9] East Pakistan (territories of present-day  Bangladesh) 1971 300,000
[69]
3,000,000
[70][71]
2%[citation needed] to 4% of the population of East Pakistan[72]
Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N 10] Ottoman Empire

(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)

1915 1923 200,000
[73]
750,000
[74]
Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N 11] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Syrmia) 1941 1945 200,000
[76][77]
500,000
[76][77]
Massacres of Hutus during the First Congo War[N 12] Zaire 1996 1997 200,000
[80]
232,000
[81]
Romani genocide[N 13] German-occupied Europe 1935[84] 1945 130,000
[85]
500,000
[86][87]
25% of Romani people in Europe killed
Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide)[N 14] Soviet Union 1937 1938 111,091
[92]
250,000
[93]
22% of the Polish population of the USSR was "sentenced" by the operation (140,000 people)[94]
Chechen-Ingush Genocide[N 15]
(Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
Soviet Union 1944 1948 100,000
[101]
400,000
[102]
23.5% to almost 50% of total Chechen population killed[103]

[95][page needed][96][97][104]

Genocide of Acholi and Lango people under Idi Amin[N 16] Uganda 1972 1978 100,000
[105]
300,000
[105]
Darfur genocide[N 17] Darfur, Sudan

2003

Present

98,000
[108]
500,000
[109]
East Timor genocide[N 18] East Timor, Indonesia 1975 1999 85,320
[114]
196,720
[115]
13% to 44% of East Timor's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
Ikiza[N 19] Burundi 1972 80,000
[116][117]
300,000
[118]
As much as 10% to 15% of the Hutu population of Burundi killed[118]
Effacer le tableau[N 20] North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002 2003 60,000
[121][119]
70,000
[121]
40% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N 21]
Isaaq genocide[N 22] Somalia 1988 1991 50,000
[137][127]
200,000
[138]
Anfal genocide[N 23] Iraq 1986 1989 50,000
[142]
182,000
[143]
Genocide against Bosniaks and Croats by the Chetniks[N 24] Occupied Yugoslavia (territories of present-day Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro) 1941 1945 50,000
[148]
68,000
[148]
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars[N 25] Soviet Union ( Crimean ASSR) 1944 1948 34,000
[153]
195,471
[154]
The deportation and following exile reduced the Crimean Tatar population by between 18%[153] and 46%.[155]
Herero and Namaqua genocide[N 26] German South-West Africa 1904 1908 34,000
[156]
110,000
[157][158]
60% (24,000 out of 40,000[156]) to 81.25% (65,000[159][160] out of 80,000[161]) of total Herero and 50%[156] of Nama population killed.
Guatemalan genocide[N 27] Guatemala 1962 1996 32,632
[166]
166,000
[167]
40% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions where killed[citation needed]
California genocide[N 28] California, United States

1846

1873

9,492–16,094
[168][169][172]

120,000
[169][173]

Amerindian population in California declined by 80% during the period
Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N 29] Queensland, Australia

1840

1897

10,000
[178]
65,180
[179]
3.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
(10,000[178] to 65,180[179] killed out of 125,600)[clarification needed]
Rohingya genocide[N 30] Myanmar

2017

Present

9,000–13,700
[186]

43,000
[187]

Before the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis and the military crackdown in 2016 and 2017, the Rohingya population in Myanmar was around 1.0 to 1.3 million, chiefly in the northern Rakhine townships, which were 80–98% Rohingya. Since 2015, over 900,000 Rohingya refugees have fled to south-eastern Bangladesh alone, and more to other surrounding countries, and major Muslim nations. More than 100,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar are confined in camps for internally displaced persons.
Bosnian genocide[N 31] Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1995 Just over 8,000
[192]
31,10739,199
[193][194]
More than 3% of the Bosniak population of Bosnia and Herzegovina perished during the Bosnian War.[195]
Parsley massacre  Dominican Republic 1937 1937 12,000 20,000[196] Details of the casualties are still hard to gather.
1804 Haiti massacre[N 32] Haiti 1804 1804 3,000
[199]
5,000
[199]
Selk'nam genocide[N 33] Chile, Tierra del Fuego Late 19th century Early 20th century 2,500
[200]
4,000
[201]
84%
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.)[202][203]
Genocide of Yazidis by the Islamic State[N 34] Islamic State-controlled territory in northern Iraq and Syria 2014 2019 2,100–4,400
[206]
10,000
[207]
Moriori genocide[N 35] Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1835 1863 1,900
[209][210]
1,900 95% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki, a group of people from the Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama iwi.[211][212] All were enslaved and many were cannibalised.[213] The Moriori language is now extinct.[208][214]
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 36]
Van Diemen's Land, Australia Mid 1820s 1832 400
[217]
1,000
[217]

See also

Political extermination campaigns

Notes

  1. ^ 'Initially it was carried out in German-occupied Eastern Europe by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) by shooting or, less frequently, using ad hoc built gassing vans, and later in extermination camps by gassing.[3]
  2. ^ The Cambodian genocide is the commonly used term for the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot[17] that forced the urban population to relocate savagely to the countryside, among torture, mass executions, forced labour, and starvation.[18][19][20] Up to 20,000 mass graves, the infamous Killing Fields, were uncovered,[21] where at least 1,386,734 murdered victims found their final resting place.[22] The Khmer Rouge Tribunal found that targeting of Vietnamese and Cham minorities constituted a genocide under the UN Convention.[23][24]
  3. ^ The Circassian genocide refers to the ethnic cleansing, massive annihilation, displacement,[30] destruction and expulsion of the majority of the indigenous Circassians from historical Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea. This occurred in the aftermath of the Caucasian War in the last quarter of the 19th century.[31] The displaced people moved primarily to the Ottoman Empire. Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin's May 1994 statement admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognise "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide."[32] In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to issue the needed apology; to date, there has been no response from Moscow. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the United States, Belgium, Canada and Germany have sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with the request to recognise the genocide against Adygean (Circassian) people.[33] On May 21, 2011, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution, stating that "pre-planned" mass killings of Circassians by Imperial Russia, accompanied by "deliberate famine and epidemics", should be recognised as "genocide" and those deported during those events from their homeland, should be recognised as "refugees". Georgia, which has poor relations with Russia, has made outreach efforts to North Caucasian ethnic groups since the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.[34] Following a consultation with academics, human rights activists and Circassian diaspora groups and parliamentary discussions in Tbilisi in 2010 and 2011, Georgia became the first country to use the word "genocide" to refer to the events.[34][35][36] On 20 May 2011 the parliament of the Republic of Georgia declared in its resolution[37] that the mass annihilation of the Cherkess (Adyghe) people during the Russian-Caucasian war and thereafter constituted genocide as defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the UN Convention of 1948.
  4. ^ Although ethnic cleanings and massacres started in early 1800s, especially under the command of Grigory Zass, the mass deportation and murder where most deaths took place started in 1864.
  5. ^ The Armenian genocide,[47][48] carried out by the Young Turks, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, and mass starvation. It occurred concurrently with the Assyrian and Greek genocides; some scholars consider these to form a broader genocide targeting all of the Christians in Anatolia.[49][50] Overall, about 2 million Christians were killed in Anatolia between 1894 and 1924, 40 percent of the original population.[51]
  6. ^ Some 50 perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to lack of witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the Gacaca court system. Perpetrators who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars). It is recognised by the international community as a genocide.
  7. ^ For the Greek genocide other sources give 500,000–1,200,000 casualties between Pontic, Cappadocian and Ionians Greeks. The genocide, instigated by the Ottoman government, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments.
  8. ^ Dzungar genocide. The Manchu Qianlong Emperor of Qing China issued his orders for his Manchu Bannermen to carry out the genocide and eradication of the Dzungar nation, ordering the massacre of all the Dzungar men and enslaving Dzungar women and children.[59] The Qianlong Emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers.[60][61] The Qing soldiers who massacred the Dzungars were Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols. In an account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or the Kazakh Khanate, and 30% were killed by the army, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands of Chinese miles except those of the surrendered.[62][63][64] Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[62][65] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by the Qianlong Emperor.[62] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars,[62] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence".[66]
  9. ^ Genocide in Bangladesh. Massacres, killings, rape, arson and systematic elimination of religious minorities (particularly Hindus), political dissidents and the members of the liberation forces of Bangladesh were conducted by the Pakistan Army with support from paramilitary militias—the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams—formed by the radical Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party.[67] Although Bengali Hindus were specifically targeted, the majority of victims were Muslim.[68]
  10. ^ The Assyrian genocide is commonly known as "Seyfo" (which means sword in Assyrian). It occurred concurrently with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
  11. ^ Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian Genocide. German-Italian installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, and anti-Ustashe Croats and Bosniaks inside its borders, many in concentration camps, most notably Jasenovac camp. Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše, enacted racial laws similar to those of Nazi Germany, declaring Jews, Romani, and Serbs "enemies of the people of Croatia". He escaped to Spain after the war with the assistance of the Roman Catholic Church and fatally injured there some years later in an assassination attempt.[75]
  12. ^ During the First Congo War, troops of the Rwanda-backed Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-Zaïre (AFDL) attacked refugee camps in Eastern DRC, home to 527,000 and 718,000 Hutu refugees in South-Kivu and North-Kivu respectively.[78] Elements of the AFDL and, more so, of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) systematically shelled numerous camps and committed massacres with light weapons. These early attacks cost the lives of 6,800–8,000 refugees and forced the repatriation of 500,000 – 700,000 refugees back to Rwanda.[79] As survivors fled westward of the DRC, the AFDL units hunted them down and attacked their makeshift camps, killing thousands more.[80] These attacks and killings continued to intensify as refugees moved westward as far as 1,800 km away. The report of the United Nations Joint Commission reported 134 sites where such atrocities were committed. On 8 July 1997, the acting UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated that "about 200,000 Hutu refugees could well have been massacred".[80]
  13. ^ Porajmos (Romani pronunciation: IPA: [pʰoɽajˈmos]), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), the Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, was the planned and attempted effort by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate part of the Romani people of Europe. On 26 November 1935, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their German citizenship expanded the category "enemies of the race-based state" to include Romani, the same category as the Jews, and in some ways they had similar fates.[82][83]
  14. ^ The Polish Operation of the NKVD was a mass murder specifically aimed at the Polish ethnic group in the USSR by the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Historian Michael Ellman asserts that the 'national operations', particularly the 'Polish operation', may constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention.[88] His opinion is shared by Simon Sebag Montefiore, who calls the Polish operation of the NKVD 'a mini-genocide.'[89] Historian Timothy Snyder called the Polish Operation genocidal: "It is hard not to see the Soviet "Polish Operation" of 1937–38 as genocidal, as more than 100,000 innocent people were killed on the spurious grounds that theirs was a disloyal ethnicity and since Stalin spoke of "Polish filth"."[90] Norman Naimark called Stalin's policy towards Poles in the 1930s "genocidal"[91] but did not consider the entire Great Purge genocidal since it targeted political opponents as well.[91]
  15. ^ Aardakh also known as Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered on 23 February 1944 by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, as a part of Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.
    The deportation encompassed their entire nations, well over 500,000 people, as well as the complete liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Hundreds of thousands[95][page needed][96][97] [98] of Chechens and Ingushes died or were killed during the round-ups and transportation, and during their early years in exile. The survivors would not return to their native lands until 1957. Many in Chechnya and Ingushetia classify it as an act of genocide, as did the European Parliament in 2004.[99][100]
  16. ^ After Idi Amin Dada overthrow the regime of Milton Obote in 1971, he declared the Acholi and Lango tribes enemies, as Obote was a Lango and he saw the fact that they dominated the army as a threat.[105] In January 1972, Amin issued an order to the Ugandan army ordering that they assemble and kill all Acholi or Lango soldiers, and then commanded that all Acholi and Lango be rounded up and confined within army barracks, where they were either slaughtered by the soldiers or killed when the Ugandan air force bombed the barracks.[105]
  17. ^ The Darfur genocide refer to the war crimes and crimes against humanity such as massacre and genocidal rape that occurred within the Darfur region during the War in Darfur perpetrated by Janjaweed militias and the Sudanese government. These atrocities have been called the first genocide of the 21st century.[106] Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir has been indicted for his role in the genocide by the United Nations.[107]
  18. ^ The East Timor genocide refers to the "pacification campaigns" of state sponsored terror by the Indonesian government during their occupation of East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor genocide and Yale university teaches it as part of their "Genocide Studies" program.[110][111] Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000.[112] The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.[113]
  19. ^ Burundian genocide. In the long sequence of civil fights that occurred between Tutsi and Hutu since Burundi's independence in 1962, the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
  20. ^ Effacer le tableau ("erasing the board") is the operational name given to the systematic extermination of the Bambuti pygmies by rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The primary objective of Effacer le tableau was the territorial conquest of the North Kivu province of the DRC and ethnic cleansing of Pygmies from the Congo's eastern region whose population numbered 90,000 by 2004.[119] [120]
  21. ^ Eastern Pygmy population was reduced to 90,000 after a campaign that killed 60,000[121] implying a 40% decline
  22. ^ The Genocide of Isaaqs or "Hargeisa Holocaust"[122][123] was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.[124] The number of civilian deaths in this massacre is estimated to be between 50,000–100,000 according to various sources,[125][126][127] while local reports estimate the total civilian deaths to be upwards of 200,000 Isaaq civilians.[128] This included the leveling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (90 per cent destroyed)[129] and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively,[130] and had caused 400,000[131][132] Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, creating the world's largest refugee camp then (1988),[133] with another 400,000 being internally displaced.[134][135][136] In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia,[124] specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia.[124]
  23. ^ On 5 December 2012, Sweden's parliament, the Riksdag, adopted a resolution by the Green party to officially recognise Anfal as genocide. The resolution was passed by all 349 members of parliament.[139][disputed ] On 28 February 2013, the British House of Commons formally recognised the Anfal as genocide following a campaign led by Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi, who is of Kurdish descent.[140] South Korea recognised the Anfal as genocide on June 13 of 2013.[141]
  24. ^ Genocidal massacres and ethnic cleansing of ethnic Muslims and Croats by Yugoslav royalists and nationalists Chetniks across large areas of Occupied Yugoslavia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia) during World War II in Yugoslavia, on the basis of creating a post-war Greater Serbia.[144][145][146][147] The Moljević plan ("On Our State and Its Borders") and the 1941 'Instructions' issued by Chetnik leader, Draža Mihailović, advocated for the cleansing of non-Serbs. Death toll by ethnicity is estimated to be between 18,000–32,000 Croats and between 29,000–33,000 Muslims.[148]
  25. ^ The deportation of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar halqınıñ sürgünligi; Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар; Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Crimean Tatars or, according to the other sources, 423,100 of them (89,2 % were women, children and elderly people) in 18–20 May 1944; one of the crimes of the Soviet totalitarian regime. It was carried out by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Soviet state security and secret police, acting on behalf of Joseph Stalin. Within three days, Beria's NKVD used cattle trains to deport women, children, the elderly, even Communists and members of the Red Army, to the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, several thousand kilometres away. They were one of the ten ethnicities who were encompassed by Stalin's policy of population transfer in the Soviet Union. The deportation is recognised as a genocide by the countries of Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Canada respectively; as well as various scholars. Professor Lyman H. Legters argued that the Soviet penal system, combined with its resettlement policies, should count as genocidal since the sentences were borne most heavily specifically on certain ethnic groups, and that a relocation of these ethnic groups, whose survival depends on ties to its particular homeland, "had a genocidal effect remediable only by restoration of the group to its homeland".[149] Soviet dissidents Ilya Gabay[150] and Pyotr Grigorenko[151] both classified the event as a genocide. Historian Timothy Snyder included it in a list of Soviet policies that "meet the standard of genocide."[152]
  26. ^ The Genocide in German South West Africa was the campaign to exterminate the Herero and Nama people that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). It is considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century.
  27. ^ Guatemalan genocide. The government forces of Guatemala and allied paramilitary groups have been condemned by the Historical Clarification Commission for committing genocide against the Maya population[162][163] and for widespread human rights violations against civilians during the civil war fought against various leftist rebel groups. At least an estimated 200,000 persons lost their lives by arbitrary executions, forced disappearances and other human rights violations.[164] A quarter of the direct victims of human rights violations and acts of violence were women.[165]
  28. ^ The California genocide[168][169] refers to the destruction of individual tribes like the Yuki people during the Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856–1859,[170] general massacres perpetrated by settlers chasing the gold rush against Indians like the Bloody Island Massacre, or Klamath River "War of Extermination"[171] along with the overall decline of the Indian population of California due to disease and starvation exacerbated by the massacres.
  29. ^ Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia. Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony.[174] Thus some sources have characterized these events as a Queensland Aboriginal genocide.[175][176][177][178]
  30. ^ The Rohingya genocide[180][181][182][183] against the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar (Burma) by the Myanmar military and Buddhist extremists. The violence began on 25 August 2017 and has continued since, reaching its peak during the months of August and September in 2017. The Rohingya people are a largely Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced widespread persecution and discrimination for several decades. They are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law, and are falsely regarded as Bengali immigrants by much of Myanmar's Bamar majority, to the extent that the government refuses to acknowledge the Rohingya's existence as a valid ethnic group.[184] The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) is a Rohingya insurgent group that was founded in 2013 to "liberate [the Rohingya] people from dehumanising oppression".[185] On 25 August 2017, ARSA claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks on police posts that reportedly killed twelve security forces. Myanmar's military forces immediately launched a series of retaliatory attacks against Rohingya civilians, and were joined by local Buddhist extremists. Together they burnt down hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya men, women, and children, tortured countless others, and sexually assaulted countless Rohingya women and girls. Several Rohingya refugees say they were forced to witness soldiers throwing their babies into burning houses to die in the fire. Numerous Rohingya refugee women and girls have provided accounts of being brutally gang raped. The violence has resulted in a refugee crisis, with an estimated 693,000 Rohingya fleeing to overcrowded refugee camps in the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
  31. ^ The Bosnian genocide comprises localised, in time and place, massacres like in Srebrenica[188] and in Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995, as well as the scattered ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska[189] during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.[190] Srebrenica marked the most recent act of genocide committed in Europe and was the only theater of that war that fulfilled the definition of genocide as set by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologising to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks ("Bosnian Muslims").[191]
  32. ^ The 1804 Haiti massacre is considered to be a genocide by many scholars[197],[198] as it was intended to destroy the Franco-Haitian population following the Haitian Revolution. The massacre was ordered by King Jean-Jacques Dessalines to remove the remainder of the white population from Haiti, and lasted from January to 22 April 1804. During the massacre, entire families were tortured and killed, and by the end of it, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent.
  33. ^ The Selk'nam Genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of some three thousand, saw their numbers reduced to 500.[200]
  34. ^ The Genocide of Yazidis ' by ISIS includes mass killing, rape and enslavement of girls and women, forced abduction, indoctrination and recruitment of Yazidis boys (aged 7 to 15) to be used in armed conflicts, forced conversion to Islam and expulsion from their ancestral land. The United Nations' Commission of Inquiry on Syria officially declared in its report that ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis population.[204] It is difficult to assess a precise figure for the killings[205] but it is known that some thousand of Yazidis men and boys are still unaccounted for and ISIS genocidal actions against Yazidis people are still ongoing, as stated by the International Commission in June 2016.
    See also: 2007 Yazidi communities bombings.
  35. ^ The genocide of the Moriori began in the fall of 1835. The invasions of the Chatham Islands left the Moriori people and their culture to die off. Those who survived were either kept as slaves or eaten and Moriori were not sanctioned to marry other Moriori or have children within their race. This caused their people and their language to be endangered. There were only 101 Moriori people left out of 2000 who had survived in 1863.[208]
  36. ^ The extinction of Aboriginal Tasmanians was called an archetypal case of genocide by Rafael Lemkin[215] (coiner of the word genocide) among other historians, a view supported by more recent genocide scholars like Ben Kiernan who covered it in his book Blood and Soil: A History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. This extinction also includes the Black War, which would make the war an act of genocide.[216] Historians like Keith Windschuttle among other historians disagree with this interpretation in discourse known as the History wars.

References

  1. ^ McKenna, Erin, and Scott L. Pratt. 2015. American Philosophy: From Wounded Knee to the Present. Bloomsbury. p. 375.
  2. ^ "ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK: Genocide" (PDF). Office of the UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG). United Nations. p. 1. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  3. ^ For a listing of the number of murdered Jews, detailed by country, see Dawidowicz, Lucy (2010). The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945. Open Road Media. Appendix A. ISBN 978-1453203064.
  4. ^ * Riep, Leonhard (2020). "The Production of the Muselmann and the Singularity of Auschwitz: A Critique of Adriana Cavarero's Account of the "Auschwitz Event"" (PDF). Hypatia. 35 (4): 635. doi:10.1017/hyp.2020.41. ...between 5 and 6 million. According to Wolfgang Benz, at least 5.29 million up to around 6 million Jews of every age were murdered (Benz 1991, 17), whereas Raul Hilberg counts 5.1 million dead (Hilberg 2003, 1320–21)
    • Fischel, Jack R. (2020) [1999]. Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust (Third ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-5381-3016-2. The number of Jews killed by the Germans in the Holocaust cannot be precisely calculated. Various historians, however, have provided estimates that range between 4,204,000 and 7,000,000, with the use of the round figure of six million Jews murdered as the best estimate to describe the immensity of the Nazi genocide. The Germans exterminated approximately 54 percent of the Jews within their reach...
    • Stier, Oren Baruch (2015). Holocaust Icons: Symbolizing the Shoah in History and Memory. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-7404-2. ... between five and six million. The late Raul Hilberg, for example, political scientist and widely acknowledged dean of Holocaust historiography, estimated 5.1 million Jewish victims, and that number did not change in the third edition of his monumental work. This indicates, one might presume, that he was satisfied with his rigorous investigation into this figure... The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust offers a number of "more than" five million in its definition of the Holocaust.18 In 2007 the Division of the Senior Historian at the USHMM developed a series of estimates (dependent on means of counting) of between 5.65 million and 5.93 million, based on published accounts by Hilberg and others as well as on Soviet documents available only since 1991... No estimate has gone higher than six million.
  5. ^ * Mawdsley, Evan (2015) [2005]. Thunder in the East: The Nazi-Soviet War 1941–1945. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 437n30. ISBN 978-1-4725-1008-2. ... His total death toll for the European Holocaust was 5,100,00
    • Rubinstein, William D. (2014) [2004]. Genocide. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-86995-5. The number of Jews killed at the hands of the Nazis is invariably given, in shorthand terms at any rate, as 6 million, a figure which has, of course, entered the common consciousness and is endlessly repeated.122 It appears likely, however, that this number is too high by a considerable amount, as some careful Holocaust scholars such as Gerald Reitlinger and Raul Hilberg have pointed out. Reitlinger's early (1953) but carefully argued estimate of between 4,194,000 and 4,581,000 Jewish deaths is certainly the lowest ever offered by a serious historian; Hilberg's more recent, but even more carefully argued estimate of 5,100,000... appears to be the next lowest among reputable scholars... it appears to this historian that Reitlinger's figures are probably most nearly correct, with the figure of Jewish victims of the Holocaust numbering about 4.7 million, although there is a wide margin of imprecision. Given that about 2.7 million Jews perished in the six major extermination camps, a figure of 6 million Jewish dead necessarily means that 3.3 million perished in other ways: this is very difficult to believe and is almost certainly an exaggeration. In demographic terms, there are two ways of approaching this question: to compare the number of Jews in Nazi-occupied countries in September 1939 with those alive in May 1945 (bearing in mind such other factors as the escape of refugees and battle deaths), and to provide an estimate of the number of Jews who perished by method of death in the extermination camps, at the hands of the Einsatzgruppen, etc. Both are fraught with difficulties, especially the former
    • Hayes, Peter; Roth, John K. (2012) [2010]. The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-19-165079-6. Nevertheless, scholarly research, aided by recently opened archives and computerized data processing capacities, has put statistical estimates on a firmer footing than was possible in earlier decades. In previous stages of research, estimates of the Jewish victims ranged from 4,202,000—4,575,400 (Reitlinger 1961: 533–46), to 5.1 million (Hilberg 1961: 767), to 5,820,960 (Robinson 1971'. 889), to 6,093,000 (Lestchinsky 1948:60). At the end of the 1980s two different teams, one headed by a German scholar, another by an Israeli, meticulously reviewed all the available data and arrived at the following numbers for Jewish fatalities during the Holocaust: 5,596,000 to 5,860,149 (Gutman 1990: 1799) and 5.29 million to slightly more than 6 million (Benz 1991: 17). The new Yad Vashem museum, which opened in 2005, mentions 5,786,748 Jewish victims. One can be skeptical of such precision, but the most current research reliably calculates a total number of victims close to the now iconic figure Six Million
  6. ^ Hoffmann, Peter (2011-07-11). Carl Goerdeler and the Jewish Question, 1933–1942. Cambridge University Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-1-139-49944-6. The SS' own statistic for Jews killed under German authority is 5.1 million
    • Moore, Deborah D. (2008). American Jewish Identity Politics. University of Michigan Press. pp. 77–78 n 5. ISBN 978-0-472-02464-3. The exact number of Jews killed is not known and probably never will be known precisely. Raul Hilberg has placed the figure at 5.1 million; Lucy Dawidowicz estimated it at 5,933,900; Martin Gilbert, at 5–75 million; the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust states a minimum figure of 5,596,000 and a maximum of 5,860,000; and Wolfgang Benz sets the minimum at and a maximum of over six million. As previously unavailable archival materials in the former Soviet Union are made known to scholars, these figures are likely to be revised and, from early indications, probably upward. Some of these figures and an informed explanation of how they have been reached can be found in Franciszek Piper, "The Number of Victims," Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, ed. Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994), 61—76.
  7. ^ "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution". Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  8. ^ Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ISBN 978-0-8018-8358-3.
  9. ^ Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2009). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 441. ISBN 978-0-230-27397-9.
  10. ^ Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 1–65. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89. ISSN 2163-839X. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017.
  11. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2014). "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism" (PDF). History of the Present. 4 (2): 124. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115.
  12. ^ David Furber and Wendy Lower (2008). "Colonialism and genocide in Nazi-occupied Poland and Ukraine". In Moses, A. Dirk (ed.). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. p. 393. ISBN 978-1-78238-214-0.
  13. ^ Yehuda Bauer Comparison of Genocides. Studies in Comparative Genocide,1999 31–43. "According to Polish sources, about three million ethnic Poles lost their lives during the war, or about 10 per cent of the Polish nation(...) large numbers were murdered, or died as a result of direct German actions such as denying food or medical treatment to Poles, or incarceration in concentration camps. There is no way of estimating the exact proportions, but I believe it would be difficult to deny that we have here a case of mass murder directed against Poles. German plans regarding Poles talked about denationalizing the Polish people, or in other words, making them into individuals who would no longer have any national identity(...)This is a case of genocide – a purposeful attempt toeliminate an ethnicity or a nation, accompanied by the murder of large numbers of the targeted group."
  14. ^ a b "Polish Victims". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2020. It is estimated that the Germans killed between 1.8 and 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II. In addition, the Germans murdered at least 3 million Jewish citizens of Poland.
  15. ^ Cherry, Robert D.; Orla-Bukowska, Annamaria (2007). Rethinking Poles and Jews: Troubled Past, Brighter Future. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7425-4666-0. ...and the ruthlessness of German rule in Poland, where three million gentiles also perished and the punishment for hiding a Jew was execution of captured rescuers and their immediate families.
  16. ^ Banki, Judith Herschcopf; Pawlikowski, John (2001). Ethics in the Shadow of the Holocaust: Christian and Jewish Perspectives. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-58051-109-4. ...Along with those three million Polish Jews, three million Polish civilians were murdered as well....
  17. ^ Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide and International Justice. Facts On File. p. 83. ISBN 978-0816073108.
  18. ^ The CGP, 1994–2008 Cambodian Genocide Program, Yale University.
  19. ^ Terry, Fiona (2002). Condemned to Repeat?: The Paradox of Humanitarian Action. Cornell University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0801487965.
  20. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". In Reed, Holly E.; Keely, Charles B. (eds.). Forced Migration and Mortality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  21. ^ DeMello, Margo (2013). Body Studies: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-0415699303.
  22. ^ "Mapping of mass graves". Documentation Center of Cambodia.
  23. ^ Kiernan, Ben (2019). "Genocidal targeting: Two groups of victims in Pol Pot's Cambodia". In Bushnell, P. Timothy; Shlapentokh, Vladimir; Vanderpool, Christopher; Sundram, Jeyaratnam (eds.). State Organized Terror: The Case Of Violent Internal Repression. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-31305-5.
  24. ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (16 November 2018). "Khmer Rouge leaders found guilty of genocide in Cambodia's 'Nuremberg' moment". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  25. ^ "Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam)". www.d.dccam.org.
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  27. ^ The Quality of Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust, and Modern Conscience. Touchstone. 1985. pp. 115–16.
  28. ^ Etcheson, Craig (2005). After the Killing Fields: Lessons from the Cambodian Genocide. Greenwood. p. 119. ISBN 978-0275985134.
  29. ^ Heuveline, Patrick (1998). "'Between One and Three Million': Towards the Demographic Reconstruction of a Decade of Cambodian History (1970–79)". Population Studies. 52 (1): 49–65. doi:10.1080/0032472031000150176. JSTOR 2584763. PMID 11619945.
  30. ^ Niko Javakhishvili (2012-12-20). "Coverage of The tragedy public Thought (later half of the 19th century)". Tbilisi State University. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  31. ^ Galina Yemelianova (April 2014). Islam nationalism and state in the Muslim Caucasus. p. 3.
  32. ^ Paul Goble (2005-07-15). "Circassians demand Russian apology for 19th century genocide". Radio Free Europe. 8 (23). Radio Liberty.
  33. ^ "Circassia: Adygs Ask European Parliament to Recognize Genocide". unpo.org. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  34. ^ a b "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". New York Times. May 21, 2011.
  35. ^ Hildebrandt, Amber (2012-08-14). "Russia's Sochi Olympics awakens Circassian anger". CBC News. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
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  39. ^ a b Richmond, Walter (2013). The Circassian Genocide. Rutgers University Press. back cover. ISBN 978-0-8135-6069-4.
  40. ^ "Adsız Roman 1864–Çerkes Sürgünü ve Soykırımı". D&R (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-01-15.
  41. ^ a b Genel Komite, HDP (2014). "The Circassian Genocide". www.hdp.org.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  42. ^ Shenfield, Stephen D. (1999). Levine, Mark D; Penny Roberts (eds.). The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide. Massacres in History. p. 154. The number who died in the Circassian catastrophe of the 1860s could hardly, therefore, be less than one million, and may well have been closer to one-and-a-half million
  43. ^ "Adsız Roman 1864–Çerkes Sürgünü ve Soykırımı". D&R (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-01-15.
  44. ^ Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide. p. 132. If we assume that Berzhe's middle figure of 50,000 was close to the number who survived to settle in the lowlands, then between 95 percent and 97 percent of all Circassians were killed outright, died during Evdokimov's campaign, or were deported.
  45. ^ Isla, Rosser-Owen. "The First Circassian Exodus to the Ottoman Empire (1858–1867), and the Ottoman Response, based on the accounts of Contemporary British Observers" (PDF). Circassianworld.
  46. ^ King, Charles. The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus. p. 95.
  47. ^ Robertson, Geoffrey (2016). "Armenia and the G-word: The Law and the Politics". The Armenian Genocide Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 69–83. ISBN 978-1-137-56163-3. Put another way – if these same events occurred today, there can be no doubt that prosecutions before the ICC of Talaat and other CUP officials for genocide, for persecution and for other crimes against humanity would succeed. Turkey would be held responsible for genocide and for persecution by the ICJ and would be required to make reparation.14 That Court would also hold Germany responsible for complicity with the genocide and persecution, since it had full knowledge of the massacres and deportations and decided not to use its power and influence over the Ottomans to stop them. But to the overarching legal question that troubles the international community today, namely whether the killings of Armenians in 1915 can properly be described as a genocide, the analysis in this chapter returns are sounding affirmative answer.
  48. ^ Lattanzi, Flavia (2018). "The Armenian Massacres as the Murder of a Nation?". The Armenian Massacres of 1915–1916 a Hundred Years Later: Open Questions and Tentative Answers in International Law. Springer International Publishing. pp. 27–104. ISBN 978-3-319-78169-3. Starting from the claim by the Armenian community and the majority of historians that the 1915–1916 Armenian massacres and deportations constitute genocide as well as Turkey’s fierce opposition to such a qualification, this paper investigates the possibility of identifying those massacres and deportations as the destruction of a nation. On the basis of a thorough analysis of the facts and the required mental element, the author shows that a deliberate destruction, in a substantial part, of the Armenian Christian nation as such, took place in those years. To come to this conclusion, this paper borrows the very same determinants as those used in the case-law of the Military Tribunals in occupied Germany, the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda in genocide cases.
  49. ^ "The Armenian Genocide (1915–16): In Depth". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2020. Although the term genocide was not coined until 1944, most scholars agree that the mass murder of Armenians fits this definition. The CUP government systematically used an emergency military situation to effect a long-term population policy aimed at strengthening Muslim Turkish elements in Anatolia at the expense of the Christian population (primarily Armenians, but also Christian Assyrians). Ottoman, Armenian, US, British, French, German, and Austrian documents from the time reveal that the CUP leadership intentionally targeted the Armenian population of Anatolia.
  50. ^ Morris, Benny; Ze’evi, Dror (2019). The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey's Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-674-24008-7.
  51. ^ Ze’evi, Dror; Morris, Benny (2020). "Response to Critique: The thirty-year genocide. Turkey's destruction of its Christian minorities, 1894–1924, by Benny Morris and Dror Ze'evi, Cambridge, MA, and London, Harvard University Press, 2019, 672 pp., USD$35.00 (hardcover), ISBN 9780674916456". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (4): 561–566. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1735600. S2CID 216395523.
  52. ^ Bijak, Jakub; Lubman, Sarah (2016). "The Disputed Numbers: In Search of the Demographic Basis for Studies of Armenian Population Losses, 1915–1923". The Armenian Genocide Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-137-56163-3.
  53. ^ Morris, Benny; Ze'evi, Dror (2019). The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey's Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Harvard University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-674-91645-6.
  54. ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2015). "They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else": A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University Press. p. xxi. ISBN 978-1-4008-6558-1.
  55. ^ a b c McDoom, Omar Shahabudin (2020). "Contested Counting: Toward a Rigorous Estimate of the Death Toll in the Rwandan Genocide". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 83–93. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703252. S2CID 214032255. If one examines the claims for the overall number killed, at the higher end lies the figure of 1,074,017 Rwandan dead. This number originates with the Rwandan government which conducted a nationwide census in July 2000, six years after the genocide. Toward the lower end lies an estimate from Human Rights Watch, one of the first organizations on the ground to investigate the genocide, of 507,000 Tutsi killed... I have estimated between 491,000 and 522,000 Tutsi, nearly two thirds of Rwanda’s pre-genocide Tutsi population, were killed between 6 April and 19 July 1994. I calculated this death toll by subtracting my estimate of between 278,000 and 309,000 Tutsi survivors from my estimate of a baseline Tutsi population of almost exactly 800,000, or 10.8% of the overall population, on the eve of the genocide... In comparison with estimates at the higher and lower ends, my estimate is significantly lower than the Government of Rwanda’s genocide census figure of 1,006,031 Tutsi killed. I believe this number is not credible.
  56. ^ Guichaoua, André (2020). "Counting the Rwandan Victims of War and Genocide: Concluding Reflections". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 125–141. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703329. S2CID 213471539.
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  58. ^ Jones, Adam (September 13, 2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 166. ISBN 9781136937972. An estimate of the Pontian Greek death toll at all stages of the anti-Christian genocide is about 350,000; for all the Greeks of the Ottoman realm taken together, the toll surely exceeded half a million, and may approach the 900,000 killed that a team of US researchers found in the early postwar period.
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  71. ^ While the official Pakistani government report (Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1974) estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
    Chowdury, Bose comments – Dawn Newspapers Online.
    Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh – Matthew White's website.
  72. ^ R.J. Rummel (January 1997). Death By Government. Routledge. p. 331. ISBN 1560009276. The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in Bangladesh newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide (i.e. Rummel's 'death by government') are much lower—one is of 300,000 dead—but most range from 1 million to 3 million. ... The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in Pakistan overall; one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East Pakistan. If the rate of killing for all of Pakistan is annualised over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (March 1969 to December 1971), then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II).
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  114. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
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