List of wars involving Iran

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This is a list of wars involving the Islamic Republic of Iran and its predecessor states. It is an unfinished historical overview.

Conflict Iran (and allies) Opponents Results Notes
Median Empire
(678–549 BC)
Assyrian invasions of Media (the 10th – the late 7th centuries BC) Medes Assyrian Empire Defeat Kingdoms and city-states of Western Iran became Assyrian vassals
Median invasion of Assyria (the late 7th century BC) Medes

Scythians

Other Iranian peoples

Assyrian Empire Victory Invasion of the Assyrian Empire by a coalition of Iranian peoples, led by Kashtariti of Media
  • End of Assyrian rule in Media
  • Formation of an independent Median kingdom
  • Median invasion of Assyria repelled
Scythian invasion of Media (624–597 BC) Median Kingdom Scythians Victory War between two groups of Iranian peoples.
  • Conquest of Media by Scythians
  • End of Scythian rule in Media in 597 BC, during reign of Cyaxares
Medo-Babylonian invasion Assyria
(626–609 BC)
Median Kingdom
Babylonia

Persians

Assyrian Empire Victory Alliance between various people of the region against the Assyrian Empire, led by the Median Kingdom and Babylonia.
Siege of Harran
(609 BC)
Medes
Babylonia
Assyria

Egypt

Victory The Assyrian insurgency.
Battle of Eclipse
(585 BC)
Medes Kingdom of Lydia Undecided The battle ended due an eclipse.
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 BC)
Battle of the Persian border
(551 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persians Medes Empire Victory Persian retreat to Pasargadae
Battle of Hyrba
(552 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persians Medes Empire Victory
Persian Revolt
(552–549 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persians Median Empire Victory By conquering Media, Iran became an empire.
Conquest of Lydia
(547 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Lydian Empire Victory Lydia annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Babylonia
(540–539 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Victory Neo-Babylonian Empire annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Egypt
(525 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Kingdom of Egypt Victory Egypt annexed by Iran.
Conquest of India (Indus Valley)

(518 BC)

Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Mahajanapadas Victory Achaemenid military conquest North-western regions of the India for about two centuries
European Scythian campaign
(513 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Scythians in European Scythia Victory Achaemenid domination of the European Black Sea regions.
Greek Revolt Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Greeks Victory Persia (Iran) won a Decisive Victory re-establishes control over Greek regions in Asia Minor and Cyprus.
Greco-Persian War (First) Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Greeks Victory Persia conquers Macedon and the Cycladic Islands, re-subjugates Thrace, and establishes supremacy over the Aegean Sea
Greco-Persian War (Second) Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Greeks Defeat Macedon, Thrace and Ionia regain independence from Persia
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC)
Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) Supported by:
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire
Delian League (led by Athens) Victory Dissolution of the Delian League. Spartan hegemony over Athens and its allies.
Battle of Cunaxa
(401 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Cyrus the Younger Victory Artaxerxes II still in full control of the kingdom.
Corinthian War
(395–387 BC)
Athens
Argos
Corinth
Thebes
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire
Other allies
Sparta
Peloponnesian League
Victory

(Peace of Antalcidas

dictated by Iran)

Ionia ceded back to Achaemenid Iran. Boeotian league dissolved. Union of Argos and Corinth dissolved.
Artaxerxes' II Cadusian Campaign
(385 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Cadusii Victory Negotiated peace with rival chiefs.
Revolt of the Satraps
(372–362 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Rebel satrapies Victory Rebellions chrushed.
Second conquest of Egypt
(c. 340 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Egypt Victory Egypt is conquered for a second time by Iran.
Macedon invasion of Iran
(355–328 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persian Empire Macedon Defeat Iran conquered by the army of Alexander the Great.
Parthian Empire
(247 BC–224 AD)
Seleucid–Parthian Wars
(238 BC–129 BC)
Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Victory • Expulsion of the Seleucids from Iran.
Parni Conquest Parthia

(238 BC)

Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Victory • Rise of the Parthian Empire

• The beginning of the Seleucid–Parthian Wars

Parthian–Bactrian War (150 BC) Parthian Empire Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Victory Western Bactria annexed to the Parthian Empire
Battle of Ecbatana (129 BC) Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Victory End of Hellenistic rule in Iran.
Armenian–Parthian War
(87–85 BC)
Parthian Empire Kingdom of Armenia Defeat Osroene and Atrpatakan loyalty to Tigranes the Great.
Battle of Carrahe

(53 BC)

Parthian Empire Roman Republic Victory • Repelling the danger of the Romans

• Crassus killed

Antony's Parthian War

(36–20 BC)

Parthian Empire Roman Republic Victory • Antony's was unsuccessful in campaign against Iran

• Ended by formal peace in 20 BC

Roman–Parthian Wars
(66 AD–216)
Parthian Empire
Kingdom of Armenia
Roman Republic
Pontus
Status quo ante bellum Borders changed several times.
Parthian War of Caracalla

(216–217)

Parthian Empire Roman Empire Victory
  • Rome is forced to pay tribute to Parthia
Sassanid Empire
(224–651)
Battle of Hormozdgan

(224)

Sassanids Parthian Empire Victory • Fall of the Parthian Empire

• Rise of the Sassanid Empire

Roman-Sassanid Wars
(232–440)
Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Status quo ante bellum Borders changed several times.
Battle Of Barbalissos

(253)

Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Victory Shapur's army won against Valerian's army
Battle of Edessa

(260)

Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Victory Valerian was captured
Shapur ll's Arab Campaign

(325)

Sassanid Empire Arabs Victory
Julian's Persian expedition

(363)

Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Victory Sasanian annexation of five regions & fifteen major fortresses from the Roman Empire in addition to the consequent annexation of Armenia
Battle of Avarayr

(451)

Sassanid Empire ChristianArmenians Victory Following Persian the victory, Yazdegerd jailed some Armenian priests and nobles and appointed a new governor for Armenia.
Hephthalite–Sasanian Wars

(484-560)

Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire Victory The Hephthalite Empire breaks into minor kingdoms.
Byzantine–Sassanid Wars
(502–628)
Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Status quo ante bellum Borders changed several times.
Anastasian War

(502–506)

Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Victory * The Sassanian Empire captures Theodosiopolis and Martyropolis
Iberian War

(526–532)

Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Victory *Sasanians retained Iberia

Byzantines retained Lazica

Byzantines paid tribute of 11,000 lbs (5,000 kg) gold

Lazic War

(541–562)

Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Victory Fifty-Year Peace Treaty
Ethiopian–Persian Wars
(570–578)
Sassanid Empire Kingdom of Aksum

Byzantine Empire

Victory Ethiopians expelled from the Himyarite Kingdom. (Yemen is annexed by the Sasanian Empire)
War for the Caucasus

(572–591)

Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Defeat Khosrow II is restored to the Sasanian throne.

Khosrow II gives the Byzantine Empire most of Persian Armenia and western half of Iberia after the Sasanian civil war of 589–591

First Perso-Turkic War
(588–589)
Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire
Göktürks
Victory The Sassanids captured Balkh.
Byzantine–Sassanid War

(602–628)

Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Status quo ante bellum
Second Perso-Turkic War
(606–608)
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Hephthalite Empire
Victory Turkic invasion of Iran repelled.
Third Perso-Turkic War
(627–629)
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Byzantine Empire
Defeat Byzantine control of Georgia.
Muslim conquest of Persia
(633–644)
Sassanid Empire
Arab Christians
Rashidun Caliphate Defeat Fall of the Sassanid Empire
Saffarid dynasty
(861–1003)
Ghaznavid Dynasty
(962–1186)
Seljuq Empire
(1037–1194)
Battle of Dandanqan (1040) Seljuk Empire.png Seljuk Empire Ghaznavid Empire Victory • Fall of the Ghaznavid Empire

• Rise of the Seljuk Empire

Battle of Manzikert
(1071)
Seljuk Empire.png Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire Victory Seljuks enter Anatolia.
Byzantine–Seljuq wars
(1048–1308)
Seljuk Empire.png Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire

Empire of Trebizond
Crusader states

Victory Most of Anatolia conquered by the Seljuks.
First Crusade

(1095–1099)

Defeat
First Siege of Baghdad (1136) Seljuk Empire.png Seljuk Empire Abbasid Caliphate Victory al-Rashid fled the city for Mosul, where he abdicated the caliphate. His uncle, al-Muqtafi, was raised to the throne instead by Mas'ud, who then retired to the east.
Second Crusade

(1147–1150)


Western front (Reconquista)
Wendish Crusade
Victory
Second Siege of Baghdad (1157) Seljuk Empire.png Seljuk Empire Abbasid Caliphate Defeat Caliph al-Muqtafi successfully defended his capital against the coalition armies of Seljuq Sultan Muhammad of Hamadan and Qutb ad-Din of Mosul.
Ghurid dynasty
(879–1215)
Battle of Ghazni (1148) Ghurid dynasty Ghaznavids Victory
Battle of Ghazni (1151) Ghurid dynasty Ghaznavids Victory The Ghurid ruler defeated Bahram-Shah, captured the city, and destroyed it as revenge for the execution of his brother Quṭb ud-Dīn in 1149.
First Battle of Tarain
(1191)
Ghurid dynasty Chahamanas of Shakambhari Defeat Ghurid invasion of India repulsed.
Second Battle of Tarain
(1192)
Ghurid dynasty Chahamanas of Shakambhari Victory * Mu'izz al-Din conquers much of north-west India including Delhi
  • Fall of the Chahamanas of Shakambhari dynasty
Battle of Chandawar
(1193)
Ghurid dynasty Gahadavala dynasty Victory The victory of this battle gave Muhammad of Ghor control of much of northern India
Khwarazmian Dynasty
(1077–1231)
Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
(1218–1221)
Khwarazmian dynasty Mongol Empire Defeat Khwarezmia added to the Mongol Empire.
Timurid dynasty
(1370–1507)
Campaigns of Timur
(1380–1402)
Timurid.svg Timurid dynasty Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Muzaffarids
Jalayirid Sultanate
Tughlaq dynasty
Victory
Timurid Civil Wars
(1405–~1501)
Timurid.svg Various factions Timurid.svg Various factions Collapse of the dynasty Rise of the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty.
Safavid dynasty
(1501–1736)
Persian-Uzbek Wars
(1502–1510)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Uzbeks Victory Fall of the Shaybanid Empire.
Battle of Chaldiran
(1514)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire Defeat End of Shia uprisings in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1523
(1532–1555)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire Defeat Ottomans captured Lower Mesopotamia and Baghdad. First partition of the Caucasus between the Ottomans and Persians. Western Armenia and western Georgia falls in Ottoman hands, Eastern Armenia, eastern Georgia, Dagestan and the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan remain in Persian hands
Battle of Jam (1528) Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Uzbeks Victory Safavids Empire defeated Uzbeks and reconquest Herat.
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578
(1578–1590)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire Defeat Treaty of Constantinople (1590)
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1603 (First Stage)
(1603–1612)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire Victory Treaty of Nasuh Pasha (1612)
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1603 (Second Stage)

(1612 - 1618)

Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire Victory Treaty of Serav (1618)
Capture of Ormuz

(1622)

Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Kingdom of Portugal Victory Ormuz annexed to Persia
Mughal–Safavid War of 1622
(1622–1623)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Mughal Empire Victory Kandahar falls to Persia
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623
(1623–1639)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire Defeat Permanent partition of the Caucasus; Western Georgia and Western Armenia goes to the Ottomans, while Eastern Armenia, Dagestan, Eastern and Southern Georgia, and Azerbaijan remain under Persian rule. Ottomans decisively gain control over Mesopotamia.
Mughal–Safavid War of 1649
(1649–1653)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire

War flag of Khanate of Bukhara.svg Khanate of Bukhara

Mughal Empire Victory Persia recaptured Kandahar
Russo-Persian War of 1651
(1651–1653)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire  Russia Victory Russian fortress on the Iranian side of the Terek River destroyed, and its garrison expelled.
Russo-Persian War of 1722
(1722–1723)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire  Russian Empire
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Знамено Картлі.gif Kingdom of Kartli
Coat of arms of Gyulistan.jpg Melikdoms of Karabakh and Armenian rebels
Defeat Russians capture Derbent, Baku, and the provinces of Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad for about a decade.
Siege of Isfahan
(1722)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Black flag.svg Hotaki dynasty Defeat

(Regime change)

Afghan control of most of Iran.
Return of Safavids(Nader)
(1726–1729)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire Black flag.svg Hotaki dynasty

(Supported by:

Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire)

Victory

(Regime change)

End of the Afghan rule in Persia.
Battle of Zarghan
(1730)
Safavid Empire Hotaki dynasty Victory Afghans Expulsed from Iran (Persia)
Ottoman-Safavid war of 1730 (Nader) (1730–1735) Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire

Erivan Khanate

Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire

Autonomous Republic of Crimea Crimean Khanate

Victory Persian (Nader) reconquest of the entire Caucasus.

Treaty of Constantinople

Afsharid dynasty
(1736–1796)
Nader Siege of Kandahar (1737–1738) Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Black flag.svg Hotaki dynasty Victory End of the Hotaki dynasty
Nader Conquest of the Persian Gulf (1738–1747) Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Sultanate of Muscat
Imamate of Oman
Pirates
Victory The Persian empire becomes the arbiter of the Persian gulf until the collapse of the empire.
Nader invasion of India
(1738–1739)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty   Mughal Empire Victory Persian plundering of India.
Nader Conquest of Central Asia (1738–1740) Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Khanate of Bukhara

Khanate of Khiva

Victory the conquest of the Central Asian khanates.
Nader Invasion of Daghestan (1741–1745) Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty
Victory The Persian Empire annexes almost all of Dagestan.
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1743
(1743–1746)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Stalemate Treaty of Kerden, Status Quo Ante Bellum
Civil War between Afsharid and Qajar
(1747–1796)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar dynasty Regime change Mohammad Khan Qajar became the Shah of Iran.
Zand dynasty
(1751–1779)
Ottoman-Persian War of 1775
(1755–1776)
Zand Dynasty flag.svg Zand dynasty Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire Victory Basra captured by Persia
Qajar dynasty
(1785–1925)
Battle of Krtsanisi
(1795)
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar Iran Flag of Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti.svg Kartli-Kakheti
Imereti - drosha.svg Imereti
Victory Tbilisi captured and sacked by Iranian troops. Persian reconquest of the Caucasus and Georgia.
Persian Expedition
(1796)
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar Iran  Russian Empire Victory
  • Tactical Russian victory
  • Strategic Persian victory
  • Russian withdrawal after the death of Catherine II
Russo-Persian War of 1804
(1804–1813)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar Iran  Russian Empire Defeat Treaty of Gulistan. Iran irrevocably cedes most of its Caucasus territories (Dagestan, Georgia, and most of the Azerbaijan Republic) to Russia.
Ottoman–Persian War of 1821
(1821–1823)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar Iran  Ottoman Empire Victory Treaty of Erzurum, status quo ante bellum.
Russo-Persian War of 1826
(1826–1828)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar Iran  Russian Empire Defeat Treaty of Turkmenchay. Iran irrevocably cedes the remainder of its Caucasus territories comprising parts of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic that were not ceded yet in 1813, as well as all of what is nowadays the Republic of Armenia.
Siege of Herat
(1837–1838)
Mohammad Shah Qajar Flag.svg Qajar Iran Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Emirate of Herat

Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg East India Company

Defeat Successful Persian siege at Herat. Breach eventually repelled. Temporary British occupation of Kharg Island. Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Siege of Herat

(1856)

Early 20th Century Qajar Flag.svg Qajar Iran Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Emirate of Herat

(Supported by:

United Kingdom United Kingdom)

Victory Successful siege of Herat. Continued occupation until Persia's compliance with the Treaty of Paris. Installment of Sultan Ahmad Khan as puppet ruler of Herat.
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
Amir Kabir Flag.svg Qajar Iran United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg East India Company
Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Afghanistan
Defeat Persian force occupies and later withdraws from Herat.
Revolt of Salar-al-Daulah

(1911–1913)

State flag of Persia (1907–1933).svg Qajar Iran Forces of Salar-al-Daulah Victory Rebellion suppressed
Persian Campaign
(1914–1918) (Part of World War I)
State flag of Persia (1907–1933).svg Qajar Iran  Russian Empire
 British Empire
 British Raj
Stalemate Ottoman withdrawal after signing of Armistice of Mudros.
Pahlavi Dynasty
(1925–1979)
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
(1941) (Part of World War II)
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg Iran  Soviet Union
United Kingdom United Kingdom
 India
Defeat Abdication of Rezā Shāh, Allied occupation of Iran.
Iran Crisis of 1946
(1945–1946)
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg Iran Mahabad
Azerbaijan
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
Victory Dissolution of Mahabad and Azerbaijan.
Dhofar Rebellion
(1963–1976)[1]
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg Iran
 Oman
PFLOAG
PFLO
Victory Defeat of insurgents, modernization of Oman.
Arvand Conflict
(1974–1975)
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg Iran Iraq Victory
Islamic Republic of Iran
(1979–)
Iranian Revolution and Consolidation
(1979–1983)
 Iran Iran Imperial State


Islamic Republic victory Rival political factions and separatist movements crushed.

Tens of thousands of political executions in the aftermath (7,900 from 1981 to 1985, 3,800 to 33,000 in 1988, unknown in 1986–1987 or 1979–1980).

Multinational Force in Lebanon
(1982–1984)
Islamic Jihad Organization
Iran Iran
 Syria
Progressive Socialist Party
Amal Movement
 United Kingdom

 France
 United States
 Italy

Stalemate Syrian Allied victory[2]
Iran–Iraq War
(1980–1988)
 Iran
KDP
PUK
Badr Brigades
Iraq Iraq
MEK
PDKI
Stalemate Both Iraq and Iran accepted UNSC Resolution 598.

Return to status quo, observed by UNIIMOG.

Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency
(2004–2005)
 Iran Jundallah (Iran) Victory Capture of Abdolmalek Rigi.

Dissolution of Jundallah

2006 Lebanon War
(2006)
 Iran
Hezbollah

 Lebanon

 Israel Stalemate U.N brokered ceasefire through UNSCR 1701
Iran–PJAK Conflict
(2004–2013)
 Iran
 Turkey
PJAK Victory PJAK withdraws from Iranian territory
Syrian Civil War
(2011–present)
(Iranian intervention)
Syria Syria
Hezbollah
 Iran
 Russia
Syria Free Syrian Army
Flag of the Islamic Front (Syria) (Black).svg Islamic Front
al-Nusra Front
Islamic State
Ongoing Rebel and Islamist uprisings quelled in much of Syria.

Most of Syria now controlled by Syrian Government, which is supported by Iran. Islamic State in Syria defeated near the end of 2017.

War in Iraq
(2014–2017)
 Iraq
Peshmerga
 United States
 Iran
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq
Badr Organization
Hezbollah
Kata'ib Hezbollah
Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant Victory Iraqi government and allied victory against ISIL.

End of ISIL territorial control in Iraq; ongoing ISIL insurgency

Yemeni Civil War
(2014–present)
Supreme Political Council Cabinet of Yemen
Saudi-led coalition
Ongoing

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The rebellion started already in 1962, but Iran did not intervene before 1973.
  2. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (1984-04-08). "America's Failure in Lebanon". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-08.
  3. ^ "Statement by Deputy Press Secretary Larry Speakes". September 23, 1982.
  4. ^ Brinkley, Joel (March 11, 1984). "The Collapse of Lebanon's Army: U.S. Said to Ignore Factionalism". The New York Times.

External links[edit]