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A Historical Research of the Ten Tribes Scattered Into the Nations Part 5

A Historical Research of the Ten Tribes Scattered Into the Nations Part 5

    Prof (Dr) WA Liebenberg
The Scientific Method to Prove Hebrews Existed All Along in Iberia… Introduction 1 For sound academic research on the presence of Hebrews, Ten Tribe Israelites, and Jews from the Tribe of Judah in Iberia (Georgia), we need to establish the difference between facts, opinions (theories), legends, and myths to arrive at the desired outcome.A fact is a statement that can be proven true or false. An opinion is an expression of a person's feelings that cannot be proven. Opinions can be based on facts or emotions and sometimes they are meant to deliberately mislead others. Therefore, it is important to be aware of an author or researcher's purpose and choice of language. Sometimes, the author/researcher lets the facts speak for themselves. 2 Emotional language is neither right nor wrong, but the way in which it is used can be positive or negative; it is up to the recipient to make reasonable judgement about the material he is reading and to draw his own conclusion. Therefore, when you read, it is important to judge facts and opinions carefully in order to come to the right conclusion. Ask yourself, "are the facts reliable?" or, "are the opinions based on the facts?" Once you answer these questions, you may be on the right track for finding and sticking to the facts. Bottom-line, you be the judge. It is extremely important to distinguish between facts and theories (opinions) in scientific research, and in every other subject also, because facts usually remain the same (constant) and theories often change. They are not always easy to differentiate, and even scientists sometimes forget to do so. And the people who write science textbooks nearly always forget to do so. So, twenty years from now the facts will remain the same, but the theories may have changed a significantly.Of course, we can't ignore the theories altogether, because they are our best explanations of the facts; it's just that we shouldn't consider them to be absolute truth. When some people see a scientific theory disproven and replaced by another, they lose confidence in all of science, which is a big mistake. That is how science progresses, and it is a wonderful way to learn about our world. In the researcher's experience as teacher of academic research and dissertation writing, the scientific method explains how facts and theories interact.The Scientific Method consists of three fundamental steps. These steps are to observe something, then to try to explain it, and then use your explanation to predict sound future observations. The three steps for proving the presence of Hebrews, Ten Tribe Israelites, and Jews from the Tribe of Judah in Iberia (Georgia) are: 1) Make Observations. 2) Propose a Theory.3) Use the Theory to Predict Future Observations.The heart of science lies in this third step. Thus, having your theory, use it to predict the outcome of a future observation. This is the "testing" part of science. If the prediction fails then the theory must be totally discarded or changed.These three steps are usually repeated over and over, often refining the theory after each set of new observations or experiments. The golden rule we will apply is to repeat the three steps until satisfied. IntroductionIn this section we will start by categorizing the evidence to arrive at a plausible outcome. Facts, opinions (theories), legends, myths, etc., will be considered to establish the settlement of the Hebrews, Israelites and Jews in the land today called Georgia. Below are the categories and the sequence that will be followed: 1) Biblical Evidence (TaNaCh, Talmud, Apocryphas) 2) Historical Evidence (Chronicles, Historiography) 3) Archaeological Evidence (Diggings, Museums) 4) Evidence of Names of Historical Tribal Entities 5) Evidence of Ethnic Affiliations (with other entities for whom proof exists) 6) Social and Cultural Evidence 7) Linguistic Evidence 8) National Characteristical Evidence 9) Mythological Evidence 10) Physical Similarity Evidence 11) Scientific Evidence All verses for the scattering to the north (Georgia's geographical area) as well as the whole of the world will be considered. The reason; to give the reader a holistic overview of understanding of the greater picture. IntroductionJewish organisations such as Brit-Am, Hebrew Nations, Kol HaTor, Azamra, Hebraic Teaching Group, to mention a few, did ground breaking work on the dispersion and the inevitable regathering of the Twelve Tribe Hebrew People.These leading organisations also fully understand that the Ten Tribes of Israel assimilated to the ways of the heathen and lost their identity, thus becoming Yosef (Joseph) of Egypt. 3 In their dispersion process, they eventually reached Western Europe, and from there their descendants populated North America, South Africa, Australia, and other regions 4 .There are many assertions that are proven by historical studies and related disciplines, nevertheless, the most important proofs are those found in Scripture. The Bible distinctly tells us where the Ten Tribes were destined to be in the End Times. The points below, when taken as one comprehensive whole, provide incontrovertible evidence as to where the Ten Tribes were to be. Each criterion is accompanied by a Biblical reference verse, exemplifying the area given, with a very short summarized explanation. 5 Time and space do not allow the researcher to give a full exegesis on each and every verse as listed below.The Bible was intended to be taken as literally as possible. It was also intended to be taken as an overall composite body, a kind of multidimensional jigsaw with each piece dove-tailing with the pieces around it. Therefore, it must be noted that 1) a group of peoples, 2) all related to each other, must be located 3) to fit ALL of the criteria. 3 Special thank you to Yair Davidiy for his research article "List of 122 (was 110) Brit-Am Biblical Proofs": http://www.britam.org/ListofProofs.html which was used here. In addition, summaries of each reference were taken from all his work as a whole and combined to give the reader a short holistic overview. 4 They were also dispersed into Kazahkstan and Russia, but this research does not focus on these areas. 5 In-depth explanations and additional clarifications are given at this link should the reader wish to investigate the other areas: http://www.britam.org/ListofProofs.html Brythonic 8 element tan 'fire' (tan is Welsh) in hill names 9 . There are many tan hills in England. Not only in ancient times but this practice was throughout history down to the invention of the telegraph. For example, a network of beacons set up on hilltops was used in England in 1588 to signal the approach of the Spanish Armada, and once it was spotted off the Scillies 10 , the news reached the English commanders in no time at all. "The Chronicles of Eri, being the history of the Gaal Sciot Iber, or the Irish People, translated from the Phoenician dialect of the Scythian language" 11 by Roger O' Connor, were published in London in two volumes in 1822. The Chronicle says that the Gaali had been in Armenia, and the Caucasus (Georgia). There is an actual area called "Gali" in Georgia 12 13 . They were traders and metallurgists, and archers. Oppressed by the Assyrians they fled via Hamath in northern Syria [which incidentally was known later as "Daphne of Antiochia" and was considered one of three regions through which the Ten Tribes were taken into exile, according to the Talmud and Midrash as discussed]. These people (the Gaal of Sciot) had the custom of lighting beacon fires on the coasts. 4) Isles: Isaiah 24:15, 49:6, 60:9, Jer 31: 9-10. The name "Brit-Am" is Hebrew for "Covenant of the people". It is found in Isaiah 42:6 and Isaiah 49:8. In both cases it is connected to the Ten Tribes. In ancient Hebrew the "n" and "m" (especially at the end of the word) in some dialects interchanged so Brit-Am could be considered a Biblical hint to Britain 14 . In some medieval English documents Britain is written as Brittamia or Britannia 15 . At all events, in Hebrew: "ish" means "man" or 8 Brythonic, the Celtic language anciently spoken in Great Britain. 9 Thanet from tan-eto-= "(place of the) bonfire" (cf. Welsh tân "fire", Cornish tanses, Old Breton tanet "aflame"), Wikipedia, Common Brittonic: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Brittonic 10 The Isles of Scilly (Scillies) are an archipelago off the southwestern tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain. It is the southernmost location in England and the United Kingdom, as well as the most westerly in England. 11 The Chronicles of Eri; Being the History of the Gaal Sciot Iber: or, the Irish People; Translated from the Original Manuscripts in the Phoenician Dialect of the Scythian Language is an 1822 book in two volumes by Roger O'Connor (1762-1834, purporting to detail the history of the Irish from the creation of the world. The work contains multiple plates and maps and is prefaced with the author naming himself "head of his race" and "chief of the prostrated people of this nation": Webb, Alfred John (1878 14 Britain is connected with colonialism and the settlement of North America and Australia. 15 "Britannia was the Greek and Roman term for the geographical region of Great Britain which was inhabited by the Britons and is the name given to the female personification of the island. It is a term "member of" (in Medieval Hebrew in some cases), and "Brit" means "covenant": so Brit-ish really can be understood to mean "man of the covenant". The ancient British called themselves Iberi or Hiberi, meaning "Hebrews" 16 17 18 . Isaiah 11:11 in the Hebrew also mentions the Isles of the Sea: coastlands of the sea: Everywhere else the KJ translates the Hebrew used here, "Iyai HaYam" as 'isles of the sea' and this is more correct and is referring to the British Isles and includes Scotland and Ireland. In 300s-400s CE, a group from southwest Ireland moved to Ulster in Northern Ireland and from there crossed the seas to occupy Dal Reada on the west coast. These people were known as the Scotti and gave Scotland its name. Some say that originally "Scotti" meaning "Wanderer" was just another name for Irishmen in general. One of the meanings of the word "Hebrew" (Ibri) also connotes "Wanderer". From the Geography of Ptolemy, and elsewhere, the earliest inhabitants of both Britain and Ireland were known as Iberi meaning Hebrew. The ethnic name Iberi was also common throughout the Celtic-speaking regions of Europe especially in the West. Nowadays the Scotti from Ireland who settled in Scotland are referred to as the Gaels. The Irish tongue and the "Celtic" language of the Scottish Highlands are both known as Gaelic. Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic are similar. Now, the Picts in the north were a mixture of peoples and included the Caledonians. In the south were groups who spoke a type of Celtic similar to Welsh and are referred to as Brythons. These groups more or less defeated the Romans and forced the Romans to build long defensive walls backed by substantial forces to keep them from raiding the south. The Picts or the leading element in what became the Picts came from Scythia. They were descended from the Agathyrsi who were later known as the Khazars 19 . The Agathyrsi sent a contingent across the sea to Scotland where it became identified with the Picts 20 . The Scythians were also known as the Sacae or the Saka. The Encyclopaedia Britannica states the terms Saka [Sacae] and Scyths were regarded as synonymous 21 . The still used to refer to the island today… The first writer to use a form of the name was the Greek explorer and geographer Pytheas in the 4th century BC. Pytheas referred to Prettanike or Brettaniai, a group of islands off the coast of North-Western Europe. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus referred to Pretannia,[1] a rendering of the indigenous name for the Pretani people whom the Greeks believed to inhabit the British Isles" Wikipedia, Britannia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Britannia 16 Hebrew Nations, The Celts as Israelites. Ancient Peoples of the West Called Themselves Hebrews: http://hebrewnations.com/articles/biblical-proof/attributes/hebrewcelts.html 17 Brit Am, The Name 'Hebrew' http://www.britam.org/Proof/Attributes/roleHebrew.html#Hebrew 18 Brit Am, Hebrews or Yew Trees?? What Did the Celts Call Themselves? http://www.britam.org/HebrewCelt.html 19 In early Russian the Khazars were referred to as "Hebrews". 20 Servius on Aenid 4.v.146. 21 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1943 Ed., Vol. 20, p. 238. famous Greek historian, Herodotus, wrote that the Persians call all the Scythians Sacae 22 . In these accounts, it is apparent that the Scythian tribes are known by a form of the Hebrew patriarch, Isaac. The Scythian tribes known as the Sacae or Saka bore the name of Isaac upon them, fulfilling the prophecies in Gen 21:12 and 48:16 that the Israelite tribes would bear that name. One could argue that the emergence of the Scythians in the Black Sea region at the same point in history that the Ten Tribes of Israel fled the kingdom of Israel was just a coincidence. However, the presence of uniquely Israelite cultural traits and names among the Scythians confirms that the Scythians were, indeed, displaced and relocated Israelites from the Ten Tribes of Israel. It has been noted that the Scythians were known as Saka or Sacae, and that this name of Isaac would be imprinted on the Ten Tribes of Israel throughout history. The Scythians homelands were not limited to just the Black Sea region. They began to expand eastward across the steppes quickly as their population burgeoned, and they also established themselves in Asia Minor and the Caucasus Mountains. An early Scythian capital was named Sakiz 23 , again proclaiming to the world the significance of the name of the Israelite patriarch, Isaac, to their history. It must be noted that Herodotus also records bizarre practices and rituals being practiced by various peoples in the Scythian region which were not based on any vestigial Torah-tradition among the Israelites. It is also important to note that there were many different ethnic groups and tribes called Scythians by historians. Herodotus himself notes there was a difference between the Scythians and other tribes who lived in the region dominated by the Scythians. Although Herodotus wrote that the stupidest nations in the world lived in the Black Sea region, he exempted the Scythians from this negative classification 24 . Therefore, the term Scythian came to describe a lifestyle as much as a national ancestry, and all the peoples and tribes in the steppe region came to be known as Scythians. The term Saka or Sacae identifies the Israelite tribes in the region as that name preserves an ancestry from the Israelite patriarch, Isaac. As mentioned, the Scythians lived in the region of the Black Sea and Caucasus Mountains. By the time of the first century BCE, a Caucasus Mountain kingdom was named Iberia and its kings routinely bore the dynastic name of Pharesmenes. The Iberians were known to be Scythians or Scythian allies 25 . The term Iberia is based on the name of Eber, the namesake of the Hebrews. This same name, Iberia, had previously been placed upon the modern region of Spain 22 Herodotus, The History, 7. 64. 23 Tamara Talbot Rice, The Scythians, p. 45. 24 Xenophon, Cyropaedia, V. ii. 23-26. 25 Xenophon,Cyropaedia, and Portugal, which were formerly part of the Phoenician Empire of Israel, Tyre and Sidon. The name Pharesmenes includes the exact name of Phares, the ancestor of King David, to whom the promise of royal descendants was given. We, however, believe the Nennius: Historia Brittonum 26 is correct to reflect the Israelite origin of the Scots people and their association with the Scythians prior to their reaching the Isles of Britain. Herdotus, book iv. cap. 6, says that the Greeks call them Scythians or Skuthia, (from Skuthis), but they call themselves "Scoloti." 27 Now, as to the origin and meaning of this word Skuthis: in Greek it has no signification, but was merely the name of the mythical son of Jupiter and the half serpent woman. But it has nevertheless been so employed to designate a wandering people, that Mr. P. Smith, in, "Ancient History of the East," p. 472, conjectures that Scythian "was not an ethnic name but rather as we now use 'nomad,' a generic designation of certain wandering or pastoral tribes." It no doubt came to be so applied by writers about the time of Strabo; but, as before observed, Herodotus, who lived some four hundred years earlier, discriminates between tribes of the Scythian nation and the tribes of Scythian habits, who were not Scythian by tradition or language. Again, the name of Scotland, or Scotia, applied to Scotland and the North of Ireland, has been conjectured by some to be derived from Skotos "darkness," because people in those latitudes got among the fogs; but it is, on the most conclusive evidence, an ethnic or tribal name. The people were called Scoti in Spain (Iberia Peninsula) before they came to Ireland, and regarding this, one legend is that their chief married a Daughter of Pharaoh named Scota, and on her account called his people Scoti; another Irish legend states that they were called Scoti "from their leader Ebur Scut, or Ebur the Scythian latinised Scoti". Now, Sandford, Lancaster Herald of Arms in the time of James II, states that when Edward I brought the coronation stone from Scotland, there was a piece of wood attached to it, on which were cut in Latin the Following lines: "Ni fallet fatum Scoti hunc quocunque locatum, Invenient lapidem regnare tenentur ibidem." Translated "If fates go right, where'er this stone is found, The Scots shall monarchs of that realm be found." Sir Walter Scott's translation of Irish lines, regarding the same stone into English, writes thus: "Unless the fates be faithless grown, or prophet's voice be vain, Where'er is found this sacred stone, the wanderer's race shall reign." Hence Scots, Scythians, or Skuthai, and wanderers appear to be synonymous terms. Now in Greek Skuthai has no meaning; but if I find a language in which such a word has a meaning which indicates wandering, I have grounds for assuming that the people to whom that language belongs are the owners or originators of the name. In Hebrew S'cots means "booths" (see Gen 33:17) or temporary dwellings, such as gypsies would use, and the dwellers in them would be as we should say, Succothites. In Lev 23:33-43, we find, "And HaShem spake unto Moses, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of S'coth (Tabernacles) for seven days unto Adonai.... And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before Adonai your Elohim seven days: all that are Israelites born shall dwell "ba S'cot," that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell "ba S'cot," when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am Adonai your Elohim." Thus, besides S'coth meaning a temporary abode, we have here the institution of a feast of S'cot to commemorate the wanderings in the wilderness, when the Israelites were S'cothi, or dwellers in booths; and this seems to give the origin of the Greek Skuthai, and to give a reason for the legend regarding the divine origin of Skuthees and his half viper mother from Egypt. 5) Tarshish: Isaiah 60:9. The Atlantic Ocean area. Isaiah speaks of exiled Israelites (from Ephraim and the other Tribes) returning by aeroplane and by ships (verse 8). The Talmud (Hullin 91b) also infers that Tarshish means the Atlantic Ocean and historically a major city-port named Tartessos and identified as Tarshish was located on the southwest coast of Spain. Tartessos-Tarshish at one stage was part of a maritime domain with probable establishments in Britain and Gaul. A portion of the Exiled Israelites were transported (as explained in the Brit-Am Commentary to Amos 4:2) to Spain which at that time was considered as part of Tarshish. These exiles later passed over to Gaul and the British Isles. The Biblical expression "Ships of Tarshish" means primarily those plying the Atlantic Ocean and therefore the "isles" mentioned in association with Tarshish and Israelites are those and South Africa are all southern countries, of which South Africa is also in the same time-zone as Israel, a more direct south you cannot get. There are also direct parallels between Israel and South Africa, i.e. both made covenants with HaShem, etc. 11)Best Places (Atziliyah): Isaiah 41:9. The King James Translation of Isaiah 41:9 instead of 'chief parts' has 'chief men'. This interpretation, if correct, is reflecting a most unusual employment of Hebrew expression for if 'men' were meant, the Bible would indicate it more explicitly. The Hebrew expression used in Isaiah is "atzilayah" and this means "chiefs of" or "nobility of" or "highest points of" and to the author's mind is qualifying which of the earth's ends, would belong to Israel -obviously the best and most noble ones. The Hebrew word "atzil" is related to the Nordic Aedil meaning noble. It also connotes reserved and in a sense all the areas settled by the sons of Joseph had been reserved for them, since previously they were often sparsely occupied before the sons of Joseph reached them. Areas in which we have traced the Ten Tribes are qualitatively the best regions of the earth. Climate and geography influence the characteristics of the inhabitants. These are not the only factors but they are important. The geography of Scandinavia, Holland, France, Britain, North America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and the State of Israel has determined something in the National Personality of the peoples involved. It is the interaction of the people with the Land that is important. "Atzil" can also mean "highest point" as a noun and as a verb can connote delegation of quality. All those areas where the Ten Tribes now populate are naturally blessed regions when compared to the rest of the world. North America, the British Isles, Scandinavia, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa have all been blessed physically in so far as they are full of natural resources, relatively free from diseases and plague, and have invigorating climates on the whole. In Australia there is a problem of skin cancer due to the plentiful sunshine but from other considerations the environment is an inspiring and joyful one.12) Many Waters: Num 24:7. In all oceans and on every sea, meaning a powerful world-encompassing kingdom. Onkelos 31 translates this verse into Aramaic as meaning: "His king will be great, he will be multiplied with sons, and he will rule over mighty peoples and be more powerful than King Agag and he will take his kingdom". Onkelos was a 31 Onkelos, possibly identical to Aquila of Pontus or Aquila of Sinope, was a Roman national who converted to Judaism in Tannaic times . He is considered to be the author of the famous Targum Onkelos (c. 110 CE).righteous convert related to one of the Roman Emperors. He translated (after consulting with the Sages and using earlier works) the Bible into Aramaic. His translation was sanctioned by the Sages. The translation of Onkelos is often more like a commentary based on accepted traditions. The descendants of Israel will be found in many waters, i.e. abiding by different seas and oceans whilst remaining one coherent whole. Peoples we identify as Israelite nations today are to be found by the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Australia, New Zealand), by the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (North America), by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (South Africa), and by the North Sea (Western Europe). No other related group of nations fulfills this criterion, at least not to such a degree. The Prophet calls upon the Exiles to indicate with special signs their pathway into exile, in order that they may quickly return to the land by the path they went in. This method of marking a pathway is practised 32 A menhir (French, from Middle Breton: maen, "stone" and hir, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. 33 A dolmen, also known as a cromlech, portal tomb, portal grave or quoit, is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone (" (1973)(1974)(1975); Chairman of the Department of Bible, TAU (1982-19851990-1991 and Chairman of the Program for BA General, the Faculty of Humanities TAU (1988)(1989) unto this day…How would they know to find the way in Biblical times? How would they describe the way of journey or the border line? It appears that in Biblical times it was accepted practice to make note of prominent features…" Abarbanel remarks: "The prophet therefore spoke concerning the Kingdom of Israel [of the Ten Tribes] set thee up waymarks saying that when you go into exile make signs by the routes and waymarks like piles of rocks [i.e. cairns] or stone monuments [Hebrew: matzavah, i.e. dolmen] so that you may set your heart to the route and remember in order that you may return in the way you went in, return to your city." The "waymarks" the prophet is referring to were megalithic monuments. These monuments we believe were set up by Israelites and we have some proof for this belief. Even, however, if the monuments in question were not set up by Israelites but had existed previously the fact remains that they happened to all lie along the path of Israelite migration westward. It is this fact that Jeremiah is telling the Israelites (i.e. he is telling us) to take note of. The word translated above as "waymarks" in the original Hebrew is "tzionim" which strictly speaking means "signs" but in spoken Hebrew is usually used to denote a stone erection marking a grave or event. The most literal explanation of this verse amongst the Classical Authoritative Rabbinical Commentators is that given by the "Radak". 35 The Radak says: "'set yourself up waymarks' (Jeremiah 31): This was directed to the Community of Israel, that in the generation when they would be exiled they should set up waymarks [i.e. "tsionim"] such as piled-up stones or stone monuments. The purpose of these monuments was to mark the paths [of migration for the sake of future recognition]. The meaning was to say that even though you will be exiled, hope is not lost and you are still destined to return to these your cities. "Make yourself high heaps" [Hebrew: "tamrurim"]. The same message is 35 David Kimhi (also Kimchi or Qimḥi) (1160-1235), also known by the Hebrew acronym as the RaDaK ‫)ר"דק(‬ (Rabbi David Kimhi), was a medieval rabbi, biblical commentator, philosopher, and grammarian. Kimhi was born in Narbonne, France, the youngest son of Rabbi Joseph Kimhi and the brother of Rabbi Moses Kimhi, both also Biblical commentators and grammarians. His father died while David was still as a child, and Kimhi was raised by his brother Moses. Later, he supported himself by teaching Talmud to the young. He was well versed in the whole range of Hebrew literature, and became the most illustrious representative of his name. Works of the Kimhi family were underwritten by the Ibn Yahya family of Lisbon, Portugal. Kimhi saw himself primarily as a compiler and summarizer. As a noted Hebrew grammarian, his book Michlol and his dictionary of the Hebrew language called Sefer Hashorashim (Book of Roots) draws heavily on the earlier works of Rabbi Judah ben David Hayyuj and Rabbi Jonah ibn Janah, as well as from the work of his father. These two books were originally written as one, although over the years they have come to be printed separately. Kimhi is probably best known today for his Biblical commentaries on the books of the Prophets. He also wrote commentaries on the Books of Genesis, Psalms, and Chronicles. His Biblical work mirrors his grammarian work, and focuses on issues of language and form as well as upon content. He explains words on the basis of their grammatical construction and their etymological development.repeated though the wording is changed since both "tamrurim" [i.e. "high heaps"] and "tsionim" (i.e. "waymarks") connote elevated-height [from the root "tamar"]..." Bearing in mind that according to the previous verse 36 Jeremiah is addressing himself to Ephraim, the verse in Jer 31:21 may therefore be understood to say: "Set yourself up stone monuments [menhirs, dolmens] and high heaps of stones [cairns] [i.e. megalithic monuments!]. Set your heart towards the prepared way: The way in which you went. Turn back o virgin of Israel, return unto these cities of yours. The mode of expression employed by Jeremiah the prophet should be understood differently from that used by Moses. When Moses gave a Commandment it had to be obeyed. When the prophets issue an order concerning future action it means they are predicting what will happen. They are telling us what must be learned from this action. Jeremiah is saying that (for whatever reason) the exiled Israelites will have stone monuments set up. Through these monuments Jeremiah predicts that it will be possible in the future to learn of the Israelite paths of migration away from the Land of Israel. Once this is learned, it will serve as a means by which they may be persuaded to return. The inferred commandment to the exiles to erect "tsionim" is therefore applicable to the dolmens and other so called "Stone Age" ("Megalithic") monuments. Many of these monuments date from the Bronze and Iron Age periods. They are mentioned in the Bible as being set up by the Hebrew Patriarchs and Judges as well as by others. The ancient Israelites were always familiar with bronze and iron utensils but it should be noted that in some cases the use of stone only was enforced. An altar had to be erected of whole unhewn stones 37 ; "An altar of whole stones over which no man hath lift up any iron" (Joshua 8:31). Joshua was commanded to circumcise Israelites born in the wilderness with "knives of flint" (Joshua 5:2-3). The Hebrew has "Charvoth Tsurim" which the KJ imprecisely translates as "sharp knives". "Tsur" means flint or sharp stone. Dolmens and related monuments are found in the Land of Israel, in Jordan, in the Caucasus, in Bulgaria, in Spain, West France (Brittany), the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Britain, and Ireland. There are several types of dolmens and examples have also been reported from Ethiopia, Japan and India. Eastern dolmens are somewhat different from those of Israel and the west. Even so in India the dolmens are linked with legends of green-eyed Vikings and with the Ten Tribes. The type of dolmen found in the area of ancient Israel (on both sides of the Jordan River) is the same as that found in Western Europe: "The megalithic dolmens found in the Golan and Galilee are structures composed of two vertical basalt blocks roofed by large rock slabs. A heap of stones usually covered the dolmens, creating a tumulus. Such structures are known in Transjordan from the Chalcolithic period, but in the Golan and Galilee they definitely date to EB [i.e. Early Bronze] IV /MB [Middle Bronze] I...These dolmens recall similar megalithic burial structures known throughout Europe in the Bronze Age, but the significance of this resemblance is unclear". 38 The conventional dating applied in Europe to dolmens and the like is too early. Most megalithic monuments in Western Europe were erected in the Late Bronze or Early Iron Age after the Israelites had been exiled. People of Israelite origin erected them! In archaeological and historical studies of Western Europe dolmens are associated with the Celtic Druids. Wherever Celts and Druids were found together, so too, were there dolmens. Iron age artifacts are frequently found together with or in the vicinity of dolmens. Iron was largely introduced to Europe after 700 BCE with the coming of the Celts. Through Dolmens a good case may be made for tracing the migrations of the Ten Tribes to Western Europe. The quoted verse of Jeremiah may well be understood in this sense. The word "tamrurim" used by Jeremiah (translated here as "high heaps") in Modern Hebrew is the word used for "traffic sign" or "wayfare indicator". Waymarks, as noted, equal dolmens. The verse 39 may therefore in the Hebrew be understood further as saying: "Establish waymarks [i.e. "tsionim" = dolmens] for yourself, set up for yourself high-heaps [i.e. cairns, "tamrurim" = wayfare markers]: put your heart [i.e. pay attention] to the pathways you went by and return, O virgin of Israel, come back to these cities of yours. Some understand the above verse in a partly figurative sense but taken literally according to the Radak it means that a trail of megalithic monuments should be traceable along the paths of migration as indeed it is. B. Recognizable Symbols Category 14)Bald-Headed Eagle: Micah 1:16,KJV. "Make thee bald, and poll thee for thy delicate children; enlarge thy baldness as the eagle; for they are gone into captivity from thee." All of the places in Micah are addressed to the Southern Two Tribe Kingdom, and appear to have belonged to either Benjamin or Judah. These all appear to be places whose inhabitants were exiled by the Assyrians and who joined the Ten Tribes in exile. The Ten Tribes also include many from the southern Tribes of Judah and Benjamin just as Judah eventually included many from the Ten Tribes. , and Ibn Ezra 42 also considered the "Raem" to be a unicorn (see Kaplan in the "Living Torah"), as did Menasseh ben Israel 43 . The question is, did the Unicorn exist? In Brit-Am's magazine Truth no. 7 there is an article discussing this question in depth. There were animals with one horn such as the narwal (a small whale with a long horn); the sakea which was a kind of goat like deer depicted by the Assyrians with one horn. In some opinions the sakea was a mythical animal 44 ; The Prehistoric Elasmotherium states: "This was a gigantic rhinoceros the size of an elephant, with a horn that may have measured up to six feet long. Unlike the contemporary rhinoceros, the horn of the elasmotherium was situated on its forehead rather than on its nose." 45 This animal was reportedly extinct long before the age of man. Additionally, the auroch which was a gigantic wild bull of immense strength and only 41 Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi c. 1075 -1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher. He was born in Spain, either in Toledo or Tudela, in 1075 or 1086, and died shortly after arriving in Palestine in 1141, at that point the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Halevi is considered one of the greatest Hebrew poets, celebrated both for his religious and secular poems, many of which appear in present-day liturgy. His greatest philosophical work was The Kuzari. 42 Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Abenezra or Aben Ezra) (1089-1167) was born at Tudela, Navarre in 1089, and died c. 1167, apparently in Calahorra. He was one of the most distinguished Jewish poets and philosophers of the Middle Ages. 43 recently extinct has also been suggested as representing the "raem" and in Akkadian (the language of Ancient Assyria) the word "rimu" appears to mean an auroth. Whatever the "raem" originally was it became identified with the unicorn and together with the lion these two were used as symbols of Britain. The detail from a 17 th century synagogue ceiling reconstruction in Hodorov (Ukraine), picture depicts a lion and unicorn. The lion is kissing the horn of the unicorn… perhaps indicating the long awaiting reunification of Judah and Joseph? C. Historical Behaviour Category 16) Cyrus 46: Isaiah 44:28. HaShem says that He will send His messenger before Him to prepare the way and rebuild the Temple (Mal 3:1). Rav Saadia Gaon 47 and Ibn Ezra said that the Messenger is the Messiah Son of Joseph. The Messiah Son of Joseph, according to the Malbim 48 and others will be the future head of the Ten Tribes when they return to re-unite with Judah. Now, Cyrus is a type of Messiah Son of Joseph, a historical prototype. Rabbi Eliyahu of Vilna says "The historical Cyrus in Isaiah serves as a figure representing the Messiah son of Joseph and the Ten Tribes in general." Isaiah used the figure of Cyrus as a prototype to prefigure the Messiah Son of Joseph. Thus, Cyrus represents the Messiah Son of Joseph who will proceed and that of the Messiah Son of David. The Messiah Son of Joseph will lead the Ten Tribes in the Latter Days. Cyrus will also come to fulfill and epitomize a process that will have already been started by those who preceded him, so too will the Messiah Son of Joseph represent a culmination of tendencies, emotions, and spiritual energies that will have begun before His time. By examining which national groupings 46 Cyrus may well have been of Israelite descent. Another legend claims that Cyrus was the son of Queen Esther and King Ahaseurus. 47 Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (Arabic: Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; alternative English Names: Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; b. Egypt 882/892, d. Baghdad 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period. The first important rabbinic figure to write extensively in Arabic, he is considered the founder of Judeo-Arabic literature. Known for his works on Hebrew linguistics, Halacha, and Jewish philosophy, he was one of the more sophisticated practitioners of the philosophical school known as the "Jewish Kalam" (Stroumsa 2003). In this capacity, his philosophical work Emunoth ve-Deoth represents the first systematic attempt to integrate Jewish theology with components of Greek philosophy. Saadia was also very active in opposition to Karaism, in defense of rabbinic Judaism. 48 Meïr Leibush ben Yehiel Michel Wisser (March 7, 1809 -September 18, 1879), better known as The Malbim, was a rabbi, master of Hebrew grammar, and Bible commentator. The name "Malbim" was derived from the Hebrew initials of his name. He used this acronym as his surname in all his published works, and became known by it in common usage. have begun to fulfill and give expression to characteristics associated with the Messiah Son of Joseph we may further discern in what areas the ten tribes will be at the end times. Isaiah switched from Cyrus to Israel in the same verses as may be seen in the text, in the Hebrew original, and according to the explanation of the sages. Cyrus/Israel 49 is promised help from HaShem, power and great riches. Cyrus is thus taken to embody all the Lost Tribes of Israel who have not known the Almighty, yet they fulfill His historical will. Meaning, only Brit-Am Nations, Covenant People Nations, fit the Biblical criteria of Joseph. Whether you accept the idea of Cyrus as being a prototype of Messiah Son of David or not, the verses surrounding the mention of Cyrus in the Bible definitely are speaking of the end times. They definitely concern Israel in the future and they correlate with all other passages in the Bible dealing with the Ten Tribes in the End Times. We see from these and other verses that the forces of Joseph (prototype messiahs as Cyrus and many others) will be involved in the ingathering. This is spoken of as a blessing, a promise, and a duty. They are also connected with the building of the future Temple. These activities will precede the redemption and ingathering of the Ten Tribes themselves. We are entering the End Times and the only nations that have supported the Jews and helped enable the State of Israel to exist, are those identified by Brit-Am as containing significant numbers of lost Israelites from the Ten Tribes. 17) Rule Over Other Peoples: Gen 27:29; 48:19 (KJV). Jacob [re-named Israel] was blessed by Isaac: "Let people serve thee, and nations bow down to thee: be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's sons bow down to thee: cursed be every one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that blesseth thee". Nations would bow down to the Twelve Tribes. Ephraim (Ten Tribes) was also blessed, Gen 48:19: "And his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations." The wording highlighted in bold in Hebrew is "malo hagoim" or literally "the fullness of nations". Onkelos translates this as saying that his seed will rule over the nations. Thus Ephraim (Ten Tribes) was to become a ruler of other peoples! The expression "malo hagoim" could also be understood to mean that other nations will be dependent upon him for their very existence or at the least for their own fulfilment and self-expression. The Ten Tribes headed by Ephraim and represented by Ephraim in the Bible were to rule over other peoples. This is one of their signs of identification. There are related concepts to this that also imply rulership over other peoples. 50 Some of these related concepts include becoming a light to the Gentiles, possessing the gates (strategic points) of his enemies, being like an irresistible lion in the flock, being the major world power at the end of time and in the period leading up to it, historically possessing Egypt and India and causing slaves from Africa to cross over to you in chains where they were to become attached to you, etc. 18) Being Recognizable as a "Brit-Am": Isaiah 42:6; 49:8. The Ten Tribes will comprise a "Brit-Am", or Confederation of People(s). Isaiah 42:6: "I HaShem have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people [Hebrew: "Brit-Am"], for a light of the gentiles;" The bold highlighted wording in Hebrew is "Brit-Am". Israel will be a Brit-Am. As said before, in the Middle Ages Britain sometimes referred to herself as Britammia.The Welsh called themselves, Bryth(y) Brithan, or Briths of Brithan. 51In Biblical Hebrew "brith" means covenant. The Rabbinical Biblical Commentator Malbim says that Brit-Am means Israel. 52 Brit-Am represents the Ten Tribes returning. Other reasons were that Brit-Am hints at Britain from whom many of those to whom Davidiy direct their message originate. Davidiy's friend Cecil Davis pointed out that Brit-Am can also be understood as a shortened way of saying "Britain and America". Isaiah 49:8: "Thus saith HaShem, in an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people [Hebrew: "brit-am"], to establish the earth, to cause to inherit the desolate heritages;" The Talmud and Midrashim say that this verse and all the verses around concern the Ten Tribes and their ultimate return and reunification with Judah. "Desolate heritages" relatively speaking were the regions of North America, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa before the nations here spoken of colonized them. Also, on a long-term geo-political and economical level, the Zionist-Jewish resettlement of part of the Land of Israel was made possible, in some measure, due to the policies of Britain and America. The Ten Tribes were to be associated with the name "Brit-Am" and with the concept it represents: The Commonwealth of Nations, and the Commonwealth of the People. British and American Constitutional Understanding and Law entail (each with their own different points of emphasis) the Conception of Confederation and of a Peoples Covenant, a sacred bonding and mutual obligation between different parts of the nation 50 Dealt separately with on the Brit Am Website, please see Yair Davidiy's work. 51 Charles A. L. Totten: The Romance of History: Lost Israel Found, USA, 1890. 52 This is why Yair Davidiy chose "Brit-Am" for the name of their organization. and basic in alienable rights. All this is entailed by the Covenant of the People with the Nation. All of this is summed up in the Hebrew expression "Brit-Am". "Brit-Am" is the Ten Tribes of Israel and their future reunification with Judah as spoken of in Isaiah concerning the reaction of Judah when he sees the Ten Tribes returning: "Then shalt thou say in thine heart, who hath begotten me these, seeing I have lost my children, and am desolate, a captive, and removing to and fro? And who hath brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; these, where had they been?" (Isaiah 49:21). A Midrash (repeated at least eight times in early Talmudic and Midrashic sources) speaks of Isaiah 49:6 as referring to the Ten Tribes and their places of exile and links Isaiah 49:21 to this phenomenon and the reaction of Judah when Judah begins to realize who the present day Ten Tribes are! The Midrash understands from the verse that until that time Judah will not have been aware of who their Lost Tribal brothers are! 53 Taken together with all the other indicators we may conclude that here too is confirmatory evidence for the Ten Tribes today being found as distinctly recognizable entities only in Western Nations. . Isaiah also speaks of seagoers: "Sing unto HaShem a new song, and His praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof" (Isaiah 42:10). End of the earth: Most Israelites dwell at the geographical extremities of the earth when Jerusalem is considered as the center. Go down to the sea: This is referenced to Seagoers. And all that is therein: Note the emphasis; Israelites will be all over the seas of the world. This ties in with other proofs (that are discussed before) connected with this one such as Israelites being in many oceans and ruling the waves. Isles: references to islands and coastland dwellers. Isaiah indicates that Israelites will be major sea-farers. This fits in with the promises to Israel that included being a major sea-faring power with international extensions. The following verse (11) speaks of Kedar which is also linked with North America and the Ten Tribes as expounded upon in the book "Ephraim" 56 The Ten Tribes had to be a sea-faring nation and include sea-farers amongst their many other characteristics. Note the connection of The Lost Ten Tribes with "Tarshish", with ships plying the Atlantic Ocean, of Israelites being in "many waters", ruling the waves, and of specific Tribes (such as Zebulon and Dan) being connected with the sea and sea-Shores. On the one hand it may be claimed that nearly every nation with a coastline has produced a seafaring element. When however one examines the historical record there are not that many sea-faring races on a major level. We have the British (including Americans), Scandinavians, and Dutch as the primary sea-farers followed by Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italians, Greeks, and to some degree the Chinese, and in our day Indians from India. Out of this list Biblical Evidence shows that the British (including Americans), Scandinavians, and Dutch as well as the French were the ones whose populations included a significant proportion of Israelites. However you take it, the message is clear that the Lost Ten Tribes are to be found over several oceans and to include seafaring amongst their activities and distinguishing markers. 19) Seafarers 20) Be the Dominant World Power:Num 24:7-9; Micah 5:7-9. The TenTribes were to become a dominant world power and towards the end of days, the most powerful nation or national grouping in the world. This is evident from the implications of other identifying characteristics such as rule over other peoples, etc., and defeating Edom. It is also a sign in its own right. This is described in the prophecy of Bilaam, in Num 24:7: "He shall pour the water out of his buckets, and his seed shall be in many waters, and his king shall be higher than Agag, and his kingdom shall be exalted". Agag represents the most powerful ruler in the non-Israelite world and Israel will surpass his might. He will be on many waters in all oceans and on every sea; to be a powerful world-encompassing kingdom. Num 24:8: "Elohim brought him forth out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of a unicorn: he shall eat up the nations his enemies, and shall break their bones, and pierce them through with his arrows". Ephraim is to be a mighty nation which defeats all its enemies. There is hardly a nation in the world that at some stage or other was not defeated in battle by Britain and/or the USA. Again we have the symbol of the Unicorn. The Midrash (Numbers Rabah 2;7) says that the unicorn is the symbol of Manasseh. It is true that the unicorn is now part of the symbolic coat of arms of the UK but they derived it from Scotland which has two unicorns on its standard. The USA is dominated by Manasseh. Is the verse above hinting that Manasseh (symbolized by the unicorn) would end up being the most powerful tribe? Num 24:9: "He couched; he lay down as a lion, and as a great lion: who shall stir him up? Blessed is he that blesseth thee, and cursed is he that curseth thee". Also: Micah (5:7-9) is very clear in his prophecy about their strength: "And the remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people as a dew from HaShem, as the showers upon the grass, that tarrieth not for man, nor waiteth for the sons of men. And the remnant of Jacob shall be among the gentiles in the midst of many people as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep: who, if he go through, both treadeth down, and teareth in pieces, and none can delive. Thine hand shall be lifted up upon thine adversaries, and all thine enemies shall be cut off". 21)Military Might: Deut 33:27, 33:29; Jer 51:20-21. The Bible predicted that Israelites would be renowned for their military ability and be the major world power. This proof is part and parcel of the other aspects such as ruling over other peoples, becoming the dominant world power; nevertheless, military might must be counted separately. It adds something in the way of emphasis and is a distinction of power in general. Military might does not necessarily have to always accompany the other facets of power and dominance though in the case of Joseph it does, and the Bible predicted it would do so. Jer 51:19-21: "The portion of Jacob is not like them; for he is the former of all things: and Israel is the rod of his inheritance: the Lord of Hosts is His Name. Thou art my battle axe and weapons of war: for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy kingdoms; and with thee will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; and with thee will I break in pieces the chariot and his rider;" Israel is the tool HaShem uses to break and make nations. To the degree that this prophecy was to be fulfilled before the Messianic Era then it could only have been fulfilled by the Ten Tribes. The Ten Tribes of Israel could therefore only be found amongst a people or peoples who were powerful on the international scene, preferably the most powerful. This is another proof confirming Brit-Am's (Davidiy's) identifications. Zech 10:7: "And they of Ephraim shall be like a mighty man, and their heart shall rejoice as through wine: yea, their children shall see it, and be glad; their heart shall rejoice in HaShem." The military ability of Israel was also predicted by Moses in Deut 33:26-27: "There is none like unto the Elohim of Jeshurun, Who rideth upon the heaven in thy help, and in His excellency on the sky. The eternal Elohim is thy refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms: and He shall thrust out the enemy from before thee; and shall say, destroy them." Here it is implied that the Almighty takes care of our enemies for us. In continuation of these verses however it is seen that HaShem prefers that we ourselves destroy the evildoers and enemies of Israel. This requires courage and at times self-sacrifice. Deut 33:28: "Israel then shall dwell in safety alone: the fountain of Jacob shall be upon a land of corn and wine; also his heavens shall drop down dew." Referring to agricultural bounty. "His heavens shall drop down dew": The nations we have identified as containing significant numbers of Israelites all dwell in areas that have beneficial climates, invigorating environments, and fertile soils. Military ability is an Israelite attribute, Deut 33:29: "Happy art thou, o Israel: who is like unto thee, o people saved by HaShem, the shield of thy help, and who is the sword of thy excellency! And thine enemies shall be found liars unto thee; and thou shalt tread upon their high places." This is also translatable from the Hebrew as saying, "and for whom the sword is of thy excellency", i.e. the sword is the source of your pride. One of the signs of Israelite descent is proven potential of military ability against overwhelming odds. This quality is not always evident but it is there. Sometimes it is temporarily dormant. Other characteristic include those of fraternity towards other Israelites, mercy, and justice. 22)The Battle-Axe of the Almighty or "Police-Man of the Globe": Jer 51:20 Zech 10:7. Some said that Jeremiah is referring to the Medes as the "battle-ax" of HaShem, but according to the simple meaning he is referring to Israel. Israel is the tool HaShem uses to break and make nations. To the degree that this prophecy was to be fulfilled before the Messianic Era then it could only have been fulfilled by the Ten Tribes. The Ten Tribes of Israel could therefore only be found amongst a people or peoples who were powerful on the international scene, preferably the most powerful. This is yet another proof confirming Brit-Am's identification criteria. 23) Defeat Edom:Ezek 25:14; Obad 1:18. The Ten Tribes headed by Ephraim are destined to defeat Edom. Edom means the sons of Esau who dominate Germany and other portions of Europe and possibly Japan as well. To identify The Ten Tribes headed by Ephraim we must therefore seek a nation or group of nations that has proven itself capable of the said feat in the past. The nations of Britain and North America and their kin folk have done this. This quality (like all other identifying characteristics) has to be considered along with all other identifying characteristics that taken as a whole can only indicate one specific group of peoples. Ezek 25:14: "And I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel: and they shall do in Edom according to mine anger and according to my fury; and they shall know my vengeance, saith Adonai Elohim." Tradition says that the seed of Ephraim, who is Joseph, will destroy Edom. The Book of Obadiah is dedicated to this theme, Obad 1:18: "And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau for stubble and they shall kindle in them, and devour them; and there shall not be any remaining of the house of Esau; for HaShem hath spoken it." Obadiah says that the House of Joseph shall destroy the House of Esau. Rabbinical sources identified Esau with Rome and with Germany and sometimes with Europe in general. The Talmud says that only Joseph is capable of defeating Esau. The sources do not say that all the Germans are from Esau but part of them, especially amongst elite leading elements. The same sources also say that the Germans are descended from Canaanites, from Gomer, from Togarmah, from Ashkenaz, and so on. They are therefore a mixed people like most other peoples. There was however a tradition that the ruling elements of Rome and Germany were descended from Esau. Many Germans considered themselves the descendants of Roman soldiers and identified with the Roman Empire. We must look for a nation that has proven itself capable of defeating Germany and this is what Britain and the USA (Joseph) did do in the Second World War. The Commentary, "Ahavat Yehonatan", VaYishalch 57 : "You may ask, since the House of Jacob is fire they should be able to overcome Esau alone. Why then should they need Joseph? The answer is that the power of Jacob to fight against Esau is applicable only if Esau comes within the boundaries of Israel. In order to offensively penetrate the borders of Esau we need Joseph since the seed of Esau falls only before the children of Rachel. The intention here is to Joseph who was born outside of the Land of Israel..." Notes from the Commentary "Daat Sofrim" 58 : "Edom is not a nation of one pure constitution. It is composed of the descendants of Esau and of the Horites who intermingled together. As a result of this foreign qualities were added to those that naturally belonged to Esau." The prophecy is apparently directed not only to the period when this people [Esau] dwelt in its land but also to the days when it would be assimilated amongst the peoples of the world and fulfill its great role beginning with Rome. "And the house of Esau for stubble": Daat Sofrim emphasizes, 1) All prophesies of disaster and punishment are contingent on the culprit not reforming himself but if he changes his ways disaster can be averted. 2) It says that the House of Edom will be made an end of, i.e. it will no longer exist as an independent recognizable unit but many individuals from Edom will survive amongst other nations. 59 These sources show that Esau dominates Germany and related nations and that only "Joseph" can defeat them. We therefore, in order to identify "Joseph", should search for a nation or group of nations that have proven such ability within historical times. 25) Alcoholic Drunkards: Isaiah 28:1-3. Isaiah 28:2 refers to the Ten Tribes in their places of exile as the drunkards of Ephraim. This means they must be found in alcohol consuming countries. The USA, Australia, Britain, Ireland, Scotland, South Africa, and related nations fit the bill along with other attributes unique to themselves. 24) Light for the Gentiles: D. Situation Category 26)Separate from Judah: Isaiah 11:12-13, 49:21. The Ten Tribes will not be part of Judah. Only in the Last days just before or during the Messianic Era will Judah and Joseph re-unite. Until that time they will be separate. The Ten Tribes must therefore be sought for amongst an entity that is not part of Judah and not recognized by Judah. In other words, the Ten Tribes must be the "Yosef in Egypt" in dress and stature. The Ten Tribes must be undercover, hidden Hebrews! In the End Times recognition will come but it will not be easy. Judah has prejudices and historical hang-ups to overcome and so does Joseph.A lot of dislike of Judah and wrong thoughts concerning Judah are still to be found amongst Joseph. These experiences serve to strengthen the conviction of the Brit-Am truth. In the census figures of Ezra and Nehemiah none of the Ten Tribes are mentioned but only people from Judah, Benjamin, and Levi. All of the Prophets spoke of the Ten Tribes remaining separate and lost until the End Times. Nachmanides spoke of these issues in the Book of Redemption. 60 61 Ezekiel 37 speaks of the re-union of Judah and Joseph in the end times. Isaiah (11:11-12) spoke of the future re-union of Joseph and Judah. Isaiah in this passage implies that not only will the two halves have been separate until the end times but also a certain amount of antagonism may have existed between them on occasion. Isaiah 11:12-13 "and he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim." One side will not envy or vex the other after the re-union. This implies that before the re-union there were occasions when elements amongst one side or the other were antagonistic to their brothers. The Talmud says: "Concerning who did Isaiah pronounce this prophecy? He was speaking only concerning Judah and Joseph. Said Rabbi Shmuel son of Nachman 62 in the name of Rabbi Yonathan, 63 when Joseph and Judah were arguing the Holy Angels said to each other, Let us go down and see what is happening. Usually when a bull and a lion confront each other the bull retreats before the lion. In this case a bull (Joseph) and a lion (Judah) are arguing and there is a standoff. Jealousy will continue to abide between these two until he Messiah comes, as it says: [Isaiah 11:13] "The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim." (Tanchuma, VaYigash, 4). In the past Jeroboam the son of Nebat who was from Ephraim hated King Rehoboam who was from Judah. There was a controversy between them. In the future there will be peace between these two anointed leaders. They will not be jealous of each other. Concerning them, it says: (Isaiah 11:13) "The envy also 60 Rabbi Dr Charles B. Chavel, Ramban (Nachminides): The Book Of Redemption. Publisher: Shilo Publishing House (January 1, 1978). ISBN-10: 0883280272. 61 Extracts from which were quoted in Brit-Am's article on Nachmanides and the Ten Tribes -THE TEN TRIBES WILL RETURN! The Bible Says So! By Nachmanides (Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman, 1194-1270, born in Spain, died in the Land of Israel): http://britam.org/ShortRETURN.htm 62 Samuel ben Nahman or Samuel [bar] Nahmani was a rabbi of the Talmud, known as an amora, who lived in the Land of Israel from the beginning of the 3rd century until the beginning of the 4th century. He was a pupil of R. Jonathan ben Eleazar (Pes. 24a) and one of the most famous haggadists of his time (Yer. Ber. 12d; Midr. Teh. to Ps. ix. 2). He was a native of the Land of Israel and may have known the patriarch Judah I (Gen R. ix.). It appears that he went to Babylon in his youth but soon returned to Israel (Sanh. 96b). 63 Rabbi Jonathan was a Palestinian tanna of the 2nd century and schoolfellow of R. Josiah, apart from whom he is rarely quoted. Jonathan is generally so cited without further designation; but there is ample reason for identifying him with the less frequently occurring Jonathan (or Nathan) b. Joseph (or "Jose"; comp. Mek.[disambiguation needed], Yitro, Baḥodesh, 10, with Sifre, Deut. 32; Mek., Ki Tissa, 1, with Yoma 85b; Tosef., Niddah, ii. 2, Ket. 60b, and Yer. Soṭah vii. 19c).of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim." (Brayshit Rabati page 147). Everywhere you find these two tribes (Judah and Joseph) hating each other and antagonistic to each other, etc. May we infer from this that even the future Anointed Captain of War who will arise from Joseph and the Anointed Messiah who will arise from Judah will (Heaven forbid) be jealous of each other? No. There will be no antagonism between them, as it says: [Isaiah 11:13] "The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim." (Agadat Brayshit 63)." To conclude, Ephraim represents all the Ten Tribes. Those who harass Judah shall be cut off, Anti-Semites will be punished. Ephraim shall not be jealous of Judah; a lot of anti-Semitism is due to jealousy. Judah shall not harass Ephraim; Jewish do-gooders and hyper-active individuals etc. sometimes antagonize other people, it is in their nature. 27) Not known to Judah: Isaiah 49:13-14, 21. Hosea 1:7. Isaiah 28:11 says "For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people." Most Israelites will not know Hebrew at that time. Isaiah speaks of the Jewish reaction when the Ten Tribes will return. Many Jews will be astounded and even perhaps slightly resentful since they will feel that Joseph at times of trouble could have been more positive. Isaiah says the Ten Tribes will return and the Jews of Judah will meet the return of the Ten Tribes with mixed reactions, Isaiah 49:21, "Then shalt thou say in thine heart, who hath begotten me these, seeing I have lost my children, and am desolate, a captive, and removing to and fro? And who hath brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; these, where had they been?" In other words, the Jews will ask where were all those now identified as Israel when the Jews needed help and were alone? According to the Midrash (Pesikta Rabati 32;10) this reaction of the Jews will take place when they see the three exiles of the Ten Tribes returning! This reaction is also discussed in the Zohar as described in Yair Davidiy's book 'Ephraim'. and is faithful with the saints." Ephraim shall be called "Notsrim" in Hebrew. This term later came to be applied to Christianity and from the beginning had religious connotations, Jer 31:6, "For there shall be a day, that the watchmen [Hebrew: notsrim] upon the mount Ephraim shall cry, arise ye, and let us go up to zion unto Adonai our Elohim." The word translated above as "watchmen" is applicable, not to Judah, but to Ephraim. This term in Hebrew came to mean "Christian" and Jeremiah was in fact prophesying that the Ten Tribes in the latter times would be Christians prior to their return. As Hebraic Restorers, now seen all over the world, we consider, in line with Maimonides concerning Christianity and Islam in general, that Christianity is a tool of divine providence through which the Gentiles will become more acquainted with Biblical Truth. Specifically, Christianity is the means by which most of the Ten Tribes will first become acquainted with their Israelite identity and its significance. As such, Christianity is the Hebraic Restorers' ally and not adversary. A good portion of those Christians who support Biblical truth, emphasize the Hebrew roots of their religion, while recognizing the paganism that has been adopted by mainstream Christianity. The Ten Tribes therefore must be sought for amongst Christian nations. They are not amongst the Jews (of Judah), neither are they muslims, or pagans. They must be sought for amongst those Christian nations that emphasize Biblical truth. This claim has Biblical and historical substance and is an additional foundational proof when impressing "Judah" as to who the Ten Tribes are and where they are to be found at present. The Ten Tribes were exiled for their sins, for violating the Torah 66 and part of their offenses included the worship of the pagan god "baal", 2 Kings 17:6-8, 10 and 16, "In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against HaShem their Elohim, which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods, and walked in the statutes of the heathen, whom HaShem cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made… and they set them up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree:… and they left all the commandments of HaShem their Elohim, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made a grove, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal." Baal worship was one of their distinguishing characteristics. The Israelite "Celts" in Britain also worshipped the Baal as noted. "Baal: The worship of fire is associated with both Baal and Moloch in ancient times. There is the familiar story of Elijah and the prophets of Baal in I Kings 18. An idea of the extent of Baal worship is found in Ireland. Abundant traces are preserved to this day in place names and in dedications of ancient temples to Baal. The tradition remains at Glendalough, County Wicklow, Ireland, that in ancient times the heathen priest used to ascend the fine round stone tower, now restored, and at sunrise called aloud the name of Baal four times, once from each of the four openings at the summit of the tower which face the cardinal points of the compass. Baal worship is believed to have continued until the time of St. Patrick. There are many remnants of old fire worship and sacrifice of children to Moloch in Scotland. Only a century ago on an estate in Scotland it was the practice of peasants on May Day to gather round a fire and throw their children across from one to another through the fire. Other similar descriptions come from Devonshire and in Ireland at fires called Beltina, or Baal fires. Beltane is the name of the first of May in Scotland which even now commemorates the ancient name of Bel" (Victoria Institute,44:125;6:267;. Note that this type of Christianity i.e. fire worship, Christmas trees, Mother Mary icons, etc., is absolutely forbidden to Jews!! 29) Gomer: Hosea chapter 1. Descendants of the Ten Tribes in the Book of Hosea are described as the sons of a loose woman called Gomer. Gomer was also the name of a group of nations descended from Japheth who elsewhere are described as being in Europe. Before moving to Europe, Gomer the son of Japheth was to be found in the Middle East. Regions attributed to Gomer son of Japhet in Midrashic and related sources are also those attributed to the Ten Tribes. The Book of Hosea indicates a union of the exiled northern Israelites with Gomer. We may therefore assume some type of geographical association between Gomer of Japheth and Gomer of Israel. The name Gomer was also the name given to the Cimmerians. The Cimmerians were a people who first appeared on the fringes of the Assyrian Empire shortly after the Israelites were exiled. From the Cimmerians emerged the Scythians and Goths. The term Gomer (Gameri or Gumri in Akkadian) is also similar to how the name for Israel, "Khumri", could have been pronounced by the Assyrians. Khumri was the Assyrian name for Israel and cases are known where the Assyrians switched "g" for the "kh" sound. Gomer was the name of a son of Japheth son of Noah. Gomer was the father of Ashkenaz, Riphat, and Togarmah 67 . From the union of Hosea emerged three 67 Genesis chapter 10.children who are shown to represent the Ten Tribes. The Prophet Hosea symbolizes the Almighty or Israel. According to the allegory that Hosea explicitly gives us, from his union with Gomer emerge descendants of the Ten Tribes in their state of exile. This corresponds with our historical researches that show that Gomer is the Cimmerian peoples. Israelites either: 1) Became identified as the Cimmerians and company or at the least 2) merged with them and are to be found amongst peoples derived from Cimmerian-descended groups. The genealogies of Gomer and his sons are quite interesting: "And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphah, and Togarmah" (Gen 10:3). Gomer was identified with Afrikey and with Germamia or Germaniah (Genesis Rabah 37). Afrikey appears to have been an area in Elam near Susiana where (according to de Gobineau) the name Afrikey was given to a sacred region of the Medes. Others have tried to identify Afrikey with Iberia in the Caucasus or with Phrygia in Turkey. Wherever "Afrikey" actually was, the Ten Tribes of Israel were also reported to have been there! "Germamia" or "Germaniah" may be Carmania in southwest Iran which Herodotus (1;125) termed Germania and wherein Israelite groups for a time were to be found. Alternative identifications for "Germaniah" are "Mannae" in Armenia and Germanikey in the Bosporus area. A connection with the European country of Germany should also be considered. One ancient source (Targum Jerushalemi on Genesis 10) lists Afrikey, Germania, Madai, Macedonia, Bythinia, Thrace, as belonging to Gomer. The Cimmerians at a later stage did invade these regions whence they moved further westward. Ashkenaz is often identified with the Scyths. Ashkenaz was attributed "Asia" (Genesis Rabah 37) meaning an area by Sardes in Lydia (Western Turkey by Phrygia), as well possibly as a region in Cilicia (Southeast Turkey, and to part of Afghanistan. The name Ashkenaz was also given (Targum Jehonathan on Ezekiel 27;23) to Haydayb (i.e. Adiabene) in Northern Syria which in the Talmud (Yebamot 17) is equated with Habor whereto part of the exiled Israelites were taken (2 Kings 17:6). The Targum Jerushalemi identifies Ashkenaz with the Barbari which is an ethnic connotation for the so called "Germanic" peoples who attacked and invaded the Roman Empire ca.200-500 C.E. Elsewhere both the Barbari and the Germans are identified with Edom. In ancient times the term Barbar was used synonymously with the term for Hebrew. Adiabene, which one source ascribed to Ashkenaz, is also attributed (Genesis Rabah 37) to Riphah brother of Ashkenaz. Riphah is connected to the Riphaean (Ural) and/or Carpathian Mountains by some. Greek (such as Aristotle) and Roman sources applied the name Riphas or Riphai to the Alpine Mountains in Central Europe. The Targum Yehonathan placed Riphah in Parkvi which is located in the region of Areia east of the Caspian Sea. "Areia" is the Greek rendition of Hara whereto part of the Ten Tribes were taken (1 Chron 5;26). Togarmah the brother of Ashkenaz has been identified with the region of Tilgarimu just north and northeast of Cilicia. Also in the Hara and neighbouring region east of the Caspian Sea was Tukharistan and a people called Togar or Tukharian in Classical Literature. These names relate to Togarmah and are connected both with the Germans and with the Turks. In this same general area were the Chumaru, the Chomari, and the Komari which names all connect with the Cimmerians and with Gomer. Later Rabbinical traditions were to link both Gomer proper and Ashkenaz with the Germans. Riphah was associated with peoples in France.Togarmah with the Turks. The Anglo-Saxons also emerged from Turkish areas in Central Asia and are associated with the Turks in Medieval Mythology. The Khazars (who were part of the Ten Tribes and related to the Scots, Anglo-Saxons, Finns, and Scandinavians) were subjected to Turkish cultural influences and have WRONGLY been attributed Turkish origins. Josephus identified Gomer with the Celtic Galatians while Josephon linked Gomer to the Franks of Western Europe. All of the above identifications have some historical pertinence. They are not intended to be all exclusive and these same sources sometimes attribute one ancestor to several people or one people to several ancestors. Sometimes the attributions refer to temporary historical situations in which the countries mentioned were conquered for a time by a small group belonging to the identified ancestor, and so on. The overall essence of the sources is to identify Gomer and sons with peoples who eventually settled in central and western Europe! Since the exiled Israelites are identified with entities who in their places of exile were to combine (temporarily?) with Gomer, so too must these same Israelites be sought after in those same regions towards which "Gomer" gravitated! Hosea 1:4 says "and HaShem said unto him, call his name Jezreel; for yet a little while, and i will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and will cause to cease the kingdom of the house of Israel." Jezreel is the name of a town and a valley. It was a place of significance in Israelite history. In prophecy its significance involves the meaning of its name from the root Yezer meaning "to scatter". Jehu was an Israelite king. The name is pronounced as Yehu or Hu in short since the Yecomponent is one of the names of Elohim. In Welsh tradition, the Welsh were known as Gomri and as Cyrmy (i.e. Cimmerians) and were led by Hu from Drephrobane opposite Byzantium across the sea to Defene in Wales. In Yair Davidiy's book Ephraim it is shown how these traditions coincide with Jewish traditions about the Ten Tribes. This is not an absolute proof, but taken in context it is a legitimate indication and should be seen in both a Biblical and historical perspective. Rabbi Eliyahu of Vilan 68 as interpreted by Shlomoh Koslavski, ("Va-Asher Tovanah Yagidu", Jerusalem, 5764) used a system that would have placed Gomer in Scandinavia or in Northern Europe in general and Magog to the south of Gomer. On the other hand Rabbi Eliyahu of Vilan understood the Talmud as identifying Gomer with Germany. On the whole the sources incline to identify Gomer in our time as descriptive of "Celtic" and "Germanic" peoples. The Brit-Am identification of the Lost Ten Tribes with groups in Western and Northern nations corresponds with the above. Historically the entities identified as Israelites, were on the whole associated with "Celtic" and "Germanic" and migrated westward with them. This fits the description of Hosea who described the Ten Tribes in exile as offshoots of Gomer. E. Blessings Category 30)Numerous: Gen 15:5, 22:17, 24:60, 32:12; Num 23:10; Isaiah 9:3, 10:22, 24:16, 26:15; Hos 1:10. It was prophesied that the Ten Tribes would be extremely numerous and numbers hundreds of millions or more. We must therefore look for a group of peoples related to each other who do have such numbers as well as fulfilling all the other criteria given by the Bible. Only the Brit-Am solution fulfills these conditions. Abraham was promised that his seed would be extremely numerous. 69 Isaac married Rebecca who it was predicted would become the mother of alfei revava or "thousands of ten thousands", 70 translated as thousands of millions by the King James. Isaac was to be the ancestor of innumerable descendants. 71 The Israelites will be so 68 Rabbi Elijah (Eliyahu) ben Shlomo Zalman Kremer, 1720-1797. The word "gaon" means genius and on no person could this title be more appropriately bestowed than on Rabbi Eliyahu of Vilna. Rabbi Eliyahu was probably the most influential Jewish leader in modern history. Rabbi Eliyahu's great abilities began to show at a very early age. At the age of seven he gave his first public discourse and displayed a fully developed intellect. By the time he was ten he had advanced to the point where he no longer needed a teacher. When he was still a young man, Rabbi Eliyahu accepted upon himself "galus," self-imposed exile (a not unheard of practice at that time), in which he wandered from community to community as a beggar. This lasted for a period of some years whereupon he returned to the city of Vilna. Despite efforts on his part to hide his great righteousness and phenomenal knowledge, he was soon famed as a great tzadik (righteous man) and Torah scholar. At the age of 35 he was approached by one of the leading sages of that time, Rabbi Yonason Eybschutz, to act as an intermediary in the conflict between him and another great sage, Rabbi Yakov Emden. numerous that they cannot be counted. 72 The Ten Tribes at the end times will number an enormous number of people. We saw how the Jews of Judah will be astounded at the numbers of Lost Israelites who will return even though they were not previously known to belong to Israel 73 . Isaiah predicted that in the Last days only a few would survive and that disasters would occur. 74 "Be as the sand of the sea": Descendants of Israel will be exceedingly numerous towards the end times. Isaiah says that the nation will be increased greatly and be removed unto the ends of the earth 75 meaning the geographical extremities of the world such as Britain/Scotland, North America, Scandinavia, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Hosea also said that the Children of Israel will be innumerable. 76 When you take everything all together and consider who we believe the Ten Tribes to be today and their present numbers and compare them with that which was prophesied, instead of asking "how can they be so many?", one could well ask, "where are the rest?" Brit-Am supporter, Colbert Brian, pointed out that an indicated number concerning the Israelites in the future could have been six hundred million males plus their families based on the prophecy when they left Egypt! Deut 1:11: "Adonai Elohim of your fathers make you a thousand times so many more as ye are, and bless you, as he hath promised you!" At that time they numbered more than 600,000 males who went out to war. A thousand times 600,000 makes 600 million males on to which must be added females and children under the age of twenty and men over the age of 60. We have not yet necessarily reached these numbers but will do so in the future. If our peoples do not repent, the numbers will be greatly reduced prior to the day of deliverance, Isaiah 10:22 "For though your people Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will return. Destruction is decreed, overflowing with righteousness." This indicates that towards the last days the Israelites will be exceedingly numerous but only a relatively few would make it. Jer 3:14 says "Turn, o backsliding children, saith HaShem; for I am married unto you: and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to zion:" This could mean several things: It could be that only a minority will return. Zech 13:8 indicates that there will also be some kind of calamity and that only a third will survive: "And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith HaShem, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein". Zion according to the simple meaning is another term for Jerusalem meaning Judah in the religious sense. It could be that a relatively small portion "one of a city, and two of a family" will be called upon to return to repentance and accept Torah in the religious sense, prior to the Messianic Era. Ezek 5:2 is referring to the fate of Jerusalem on the simple level. One third destroyed within the city, another third in the area around about, and the last third scattered and exiled. A similar use of dividing into threes concerning a coming calamity was found in Zechariah (13:8-9). The general explanation suggested is that some calamity will occur in the last days. Two-thirds of the world's people (including, by implication, two-thirds of the Israelites?) will perish. Part of the remaining third of non-Israelites and Israelites by descent will then accept the faith of Israel and identify as Israelites. There will be persecutions and the threat of extinction. Most of the non-Israelites who accepted the Israelite faith will back out and it will be mainly those of Israelite descent who remain attached to Israelite religion. After all that, no matter what happens, the Israelite numbers will increase again. 31) Agricultural Plenty: Gen 27:28 49:25; Deut 33:13-16; Hoshea 2:8.Jacob was promised a healthy climate, agricultural plenty and mineral riches 77 . These blessing were repeated in the blessing to Joseph, 78 who is a type of the Ten Tribes. "Blessings of heaven above": climate and agriculture. "Blessings of the deep": Water and mineral resources. "The breasts, and of the womb": Health and fertility and bounty from HaShem. In the Blessing of Moses 79 tells us that Joseph will be blessed with agricultural plenty and mineral resources (33:15-16). This says that Joseph was blessed with agricultural prosperity, healthy lands, and mineral resources in plenty (verse 13). Some plants need a set number of hours of both daylight and darkness (verse 14), certain plants require moonlight. Food products and Mineral resources (verse 15). Verse 16, "precious things of the earth" means agricultural plenty and "that was separated from his brethren" indicates Joseph was apart from his brothers Judah and still dwells apart from them in physically separated areas. Hoshea (2:8) also says that the Ten Tribes in their place of exile, as well as being extremely numerous, shall enjoy great agricultural bounty and other material blessings. Nations we identify as having the Ten Tribes amongst them produce nearly all of the world's agricultural surpluses: Beef, sheep (mutton and wool), wheat, maize, cotton, sugar, wine (France, USA, Australia, South Africa, Israel), Britain in ancient times was the chief source of tin for the world. Tin was needed in the production of bronze which was the major metal then in use. Britain also was historically important in the production of silver, lead, gold (from Ireland), and, at the time of writing, has oil resources in the North Sea area together with Norway. Scandinavia produced amber which in ancient times was more valued than gold.Major other underground products such as petroleum though not always in Ten Tribes countries are nevertheless frequently to a significant degree under their de facto control. 33) Gate(s) of Your Enemies:Gen 22:17, 24:60. These are international strategic points. Abraham was told that his seed would inherit the gate of his enemies (Gen 22:16). "By myself have I sworn": HaShem is eternal and so is this promise. The promise was now made unconditional and irrevocable. It had to be fulfilled as in part it has been. Gen 22:17 says "the gate of his enemies", meaning Abraham was promised that his descendants would control strategic points giving him an edge over actual and potential adversaries. The son of Abraham was Isaac. Isaac married Rebecca who it was predicted would become the mother of 'alfei revava' or thousands of ten thousands and that her seed would possess the gate of those who hate them (24:60). These prophecies meant that the promised seed would possess international thoroughfares and vantage points of strategic importance as the USA and Britain (and only they) have done. Obtaining bases and control over international strategic points is still a fundamental part of American and British foreign policy and military strategy. They are unique in this matter. Abraham had been promised that his seed would possess the gate of his enemies and Rebecca likewise was promised that her seed would possess the gate of those that hate them. The promise to possess the gate of enemies refers to the possession of strategic points that allow access to or control over thoroughfares of supply or the interior of a country or something similar. This is how Rabbinical Commentators understood it, for instance it was said that the blessing was partially fulfilled in the time of Solomon by Solomon building the city of Tadmor In some cases, not only can they see soldiers marching below but they can even discern what signs-of-rank the soldiers filmed bear on their shoulders. In other words the USA has gates -meaning avenues of entry. It has means of access to all of its actual and potential enemies. The possession of these gates (of option of entry into these areas) does not guarantee victory in war but it is an advantage. Other countries have got space-programs of their own but none of them so far have achieved anything like the USA. Not that they are less gifted. They lacked the resources and inclination at the right time. Even when they become powerful, other nations rely on other means of influence, defense, or coercion. The principle of possessing a gate or potential point of access to a strategic position is not applied by other nations. It is not part of their traditional Strategic Orientation, Military, or Foreign Policy. Other nations had Empires and globe-encompassing policies. Examples include the Ottoman Turks, Russia, Germany, France, etc. These were all great and formidable powers. None of them applied the principle of possessing gates on a large scale and first preference as part of their overseas policy. This principle however is and always has been an integral aspect of the very pattern of thinking in British and American orientation. It was always that way. The blessing to possess the gates of your enemies was pertinent to the British and Americans and was not applicable to other nations. Stephen J. Spykerman in an article (A Ruler of Nations) in the magazine Brit-Am Truth no.7 reports: "Another telling example of the kinship between America, Great Britain and her Commonwealth partners Canada, Australia and New Zealand, is their joint involvement in ECHELON, the global spy satellite system. ECHELON is a secret worldwide intelligence-gathering operation, and it is the greatest surveillance network the world has ever seen. The US National Security Agency (NSA), has created a global spy system, code named ECHELON, which is able to intercept and analyse virtually every phone call, fax, email and telex message sent anywhere in the world. The interesting point is that the USA, in seeking allies for this project, has not sought the assistance of nations such as France, Germany or Japan, but has instead enlisted the aid of Great . Egypt, Black Africa (Seba) and Cush (translated as Ethiopia but also applicable according to the Aramaic translation and related tradition to India) will be Israel's, and they shall be subjected to you. Egypt's Sues Chanel is controlled by Israel. The Ten Northern Tribes were exiled by the Assyrians. Later, the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar, conquered Judah and Jerusalem and exiled the Jews to Babylon. Cyrus, the king of Persia, conquered Babylon and allowed the Jews of Judah to return. Isaiah 81 mentioned Cyrus by name even though he prophesied close to 200 years before his time. The prophecies of Isaiah concerning Cyrus on the whole fit the Persian king of that name though here and there they divert from him on some important points. These prophecies also tend to go off on a tangent, speak of Cyrus and then in the same breath speak about the future of Israel. The Rabbis interpreted the prophecies about Cyrus to pertain to a future Messianic Being of whom the Persian King Cyrus was a kind of prototype, a typology. This interpretation fits the message of Scripture. Isaiah begins by speaking about Cyrus and then he addresses himself to Israel. He predicts 82 that whatever passes via (Hebrew "yigia" translated as labour but also meaning "come unto, arrive at") Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush ("Ethiopia" as translated in the King James and not India in this case), shall be yours and the tall Sabaean African Negroes will pass over unto you in chains. In the end they will acknowledge that HaShem is with you. Isaiah predicted 83 that Cush (India) and Seba, (Black Africa), would be subjected to Israel. Isaiah predicted 84 that the Ten Tribes would rule over India, Egypt and much of Negro Africa. The trade with India would be theirs, the recompense arriving (via the Suez Canal) at Egypt would be theirs, and they would transport Negroes, (many of whom were large-bodied), across the seas in chains. The whole passage ends on the point that in the last days they will return to worship the True God. We identify the Ten Tribes headed by Britain, America and South Africa 85 as Israel. South Africa has been very active in slavery as well. Also, if we consider Britain and North America as one Anglo-Saxon entity then the Prophecy indicates that the Ten Tribes are amongst them. The British ruled India and economically they gained very much from trade with her. They ruled Egypt and controlled the Suez Canal linking the Mediterranean Sea with the East. They also controlled much of Africa. Negro Slaves in chains were sent by them, and others . Apart from descendants of David who are to be found amongst the modern Jews there are others. Numerous people from the Tribe of Judah were also exiled together with the Lost Ten Tribes. The Sons of David had once been appointed as administrators over all Israel (2 Sam 8:18). Later members of the House of David had intermarried with leaders of the Northern Kingdom (Ten Tribes) and passed over to live in those areas. In this and other ways descendants of David must have penetrated the ranks of the exiled Israelites. An Aramaic inscription mentions a "House of David" somehow in connection with Dan in the Galilee. There was a Judaean entity known as Yadi in southeast Turkey which was attached to Judah in the south, "he recovered Damascus, and Hamath, which belonged to Judah, for Israel" (2 Kings 14:28). The rulers of Yadi had Hebrew names like Gabbar, Bamah, Hayya, Saul, and maybe represented a minor branch of the House of David. Yadi disappeared together with the northern Ten Tribed Kingdom of Israel. Part of the Ten Tribes became known as the Sakae or Scythians. The Sacae-Scythians once had an independent kingdom named "Sakastan" in eastern Iran. The ruling dynasty of Sakastan believed itself descended from King Solomon the son of David. In Iberia (Georgia in the Caucasus and in the southern Russia area), which also belonged to the Scythians there was also a dynasty (related to the Arsacid Kings of Parthia) that traced itself back to David. The ruling houses (of David) of the Sakae-Scythians in Sakastan and Scythia were interrelated and had familial connections with the monarchs of the Guti (Goths) and Parthians and they with each other. From these monarchic and aristocratic lines came the early kings of Scandinavia, of the Franks, and of the AngloSaxons. Another source of the Davidic line may have penetrated West European nobility via France! There was once a semi-autonomous Principality in Narbonne (southern France) described by Arthur J. Zuckerman in "A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, 768-900" (New York, 1972). It was ruled by a Jewish Prince of the House of David whose offspring intermarried with the aristocracy and Royal Line of France and these with that of Normandy, Scotland, and England. Amongst the Welsh, Scottish, English, and other groups in Europe there were families who believed they descended from King David of Judah. There is a strong tradition that Tea Tephi a princess of the House of David came to Ireland, married a prince of the line of Nial and from this union emerged the monarchs of Scotland and later of all Britain. Genealogists believe that many Presidents of the USA belong to British and Irish Royal lines. The astronomer Galileo's father wrote a book in 1581 in which he explained that the Irish attachment to the harp was traced by the Irish to their descent from King David. It may be that many of the Rulers over the exiled Israelites and those who ministered to them in Britain, America, and elsewhere are (and were) descended from the House of David. This is a proof since: a) The literal application of Jer 33:26 is that amongst the rulers of Israel [Ten Tribes] there would have to be at least some descendants of David. b) We have reasonable proof that amongst some of the ruling bodies of certain nations in the west there are descendants of David. c) If one was searching for nations descended from Israel it would be reasonable to look at those nations amongst whose ruling elites descendants of David were present. 89 38) Headed by Kings: Gen 17:6, 16, 35:11. Nations and Kings would emerge from Abraham: "And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee." Apart from the USA, Finland. France, and Switzerland most nations that contain significant numbers of Israelites have a hereditary monarch at their head: Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Holland, Luxembourg all have hereditary kings or queens over them. Gen 17:7 says that this covenant will endure forever. There are several kings over several nations at one and the same time! Sarah the wife of Abraham was blessed that she would become a mother of nations and kings of peoples would come from her (17:16, 21): This means the monarchs of several nations ruling at one and the same time, such as the monarchs of Western European countries do now. In Gen 17:15-16 with reference to "…mother of nations; kings of people" we clearly see it refers to several nations. The Hebrew says kings of peoples rather than "kings of people" meaning that several kings over several peoples all existing at the same time, and all Israelite. This ties in with what we said above about monarchies among the Israelite nations today. Jacob was promised that a nation and a company of nations and kings would come from him, Gen 35:10-11 "And Elohim said unto him, thy name is Jacob: thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name: and he called his name Israel. And Elohim said unto him, I am Elohim Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins." The Israelite nations were to be ruled by kings. They were to comprise several nations and kings would reign over at least a portion of these nations. The only group of nations in the world that are related to each other and do have monarchs reigning over most of them is that group of Western Nations that Brit-Am identifies as comprising a significant proportion of descendants of the Ten Tribes of Israel. G. Ancestral Names in General Category39) The name "Hebrew": He went to Nineveh and prophesied. The people of Nineveh (Ten Tribers) did penitence and were forgiven and no disaster occurred (at that time) to the city. Incidentally the peoples who later came westward from Scythia and Germania and who were also Israelites, were referred to by the Romans as Barbari. This term is generally taken to be a negative expression meaning that they were barbarians and uncivilized in Roman eyes. Nevertheless the term according to some originally had ethnic connotations. The Hebrews in the Ancient Middle East (according to the Encyclopedia Judaica) were known as Iberi and as Barbari. The word "Hebrew" in Hebrew is "Ivri" or "ibri" from the root "aver, aber" connoting "other side". This is where the English words "over" and "other" come from. "Hebrew" connotes someone who moves around, from one place to another, i.e. "a Wanderer". The Ancient "Celts" of Britain, Ireland, Scotland and Western Europe called themselves Iberi meaning "Hebrew". The Khazars were part of the Ten Lost Tribes. The name "Khazar" is conventionally considered to derive from a root meaning "wander". The same applies for the name "Scot" as in Scottish and Scotland. This is the meaning of "Khazar", "Scot", and maybe "Alban" or "Albanach". Here is a quotation from Search for Ancestors: "The word "Khazar" is a Turkish word derived from the root of kaz with the meaning of gez (wander). The term of khazar means gezer (wanderer) and it coincides with the meaning of a nomad who freely wanders around without any connection to one place in the Anatolian Turkish. Probably, this word must have taken its final shape through an etymological transformation in the forms of gezer, gazar, kazar and hazar. The word Khazar is used as el-Hazar in Arabian language, Huzari, Kozar in Hebrew language, Gazari, Chazari in Latin language, Hazari in Georgian language, Huszar in Hungarian language and Ko-sa, ka-sat in Chinese language." 90 The name Khazar is therefore understood to connote "wanderer". This is also the meaning of "Hebrew" and one of the given meanings of "Scot" as in "Scotland". Another source quote: "A native of Scotland. Nennius uses both Scyth and Scotti indifferently. Strabo considers Scyth and Nomades synonymous terms. The original word in Ossian is Scuta, which literally signifies 'restless wanderer,' hence the propriety of the name Scuite or Scot" 91 and "The name "Scot" comes from an old Celtic word meaning wanderer or vagrant" 92 and ""Scoti means "wanderers". The latter says that "Albanach" (Picts) also connotes "wandering". The Picts dwelt mainly in the Northeast of Scotland. Traditionally they descended from the Agathyrsi and came from Scythia. Agathyrsi was one of the earlier names of the Khazars. The Picts either came from the Agathyrsi (Khazars) or an important element amongst them did." 93 Why is the term "Hebrew" especially pertinent to descendants of Joseph? For that we need to start with the names of Isaac, Jacob, and Israel in Western Traditions…The Lost Ten Tribes were destined to be known by the names of the forefathers, Abraham the Hebrew, Isaac, and Jacob. Concerning Abraham who was known as "the Hebrew" we find the Western Celts also being known as "Hiberi" or Hebrews, see the source referred to above. Isaac was considered the ancestor of the Scottish, Welsh, and English according to separate traditions. The name Jacob is repeated in the Union Jack, the flag of Britain and actually means Union/Brit of Jacob/Israel. The term USA "Yank/Yankee" which is a Hebrew alternative for Jack i.e. Jacob. Concerning Isaac, Gen 21:12 says "And HaShem said unto Abraham, let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called." Ephraim and Manasseh were destined to become a multitude in the midst of the earth and the name of Jacob be called upon them and the name of his fathers Abraham and Isaac (Gen 48:16). This means primarily that the essence of the forefathers would be expressed through the sons of Joseph. It has a secondary meaning that the very names would recall the forefathers. As said, Abraham was known as the Hebrew (Gen 14:13) Britain called themselves and were termed by others Iberi meaning Hebrews. Names given to the Scythians (Isaac-Gulu, Ishkuza, Zohak, Saca, Sak, Saksin, Saxon) and to the Saxons who settled in England were derived from the name Isaac. In The Four Ancient Books of Wales William Skene says about the "'Isacon' (Isaac) Ancestor of the Scots" under "The Races of Britain and The Place of The Picts Among Them" 94 : "In the Albanic Duan, which seems to have belonged to some collection of additions to Nennius, and which contains the oldest record of the ethnological traditions of Scotland, the brothers Brittus and Albanus appear as the eponymi of the two Celtic races inhabiting respectively Britain and Alban,or Scotland." (p.99) and the poem follows "O, all ye learned of Alban, Ye well-skilled host of yellow hair, What was the first invasion? Is it known to you? Which took the land of Alban? Albanus possessed it; numerous his hosts. He was the illustrious son of Isacon. He and Briutus were brothers without deceit. From him Alban of ships has its name. Briutus banished his active brother. Across the stormy sea of Icht. Briutus possessed the noble Alban. As far as the conspicuous promontory of Fothudain." (p.100). Note: The father of the brothers is named "Isacon" cf. "Isaac". Similar appellations are found in some of the earliest genealogies of the Welsh and English. As mentioned, the name Jacob is recalled in the Union Jack of Britain meaning the Uniting of Jacob and in the nickname "Yanki/Yankee", which is short for Jacob. The Ten Tribes in the End Times are referred to in connection with the raising up the Tribes of Jacob (Isaiah 49:6), The UNION JACK and the nickname YANKEE for North American derives from a form of the name Jacob. This etymology is explained by I. E. Mozeson ("The Word", p.20 entry: "ANKLE") and holds true regardless as to whether the name was derived from the Dutch Janke, a Red Indian name for "English", or from the name of a Red Indian Tribe. Whatever its origin, "YANK" is an acceptable shortening of the Hebrew Jacob!! This name was given to citizens of the USA and the name in Hebrew means Jacob. Jacob was also known as Israel (Gen 32:28, 35:10). Israel is Yisra-el. The name Isru is derived from Israel. Isru was also considered one of the ancestors of the Irish and Scottish according to their own traditions. The monarchs and leaders (such as Cromwell) of England throughout history referred to their people as Israel. It matters not whether they considered this term to be applicable for spiritual reasons rather than physical ones they nevertheless did apply the term to their people. The same may be said concerning the early Puritan settlers of America. All these mentioned above are connected to the ancestors of the Hebrews. The isles should be aware that God will gather in the scattered ones of Israel. 95 Rachel (the mother of Joseph) will no longer have to weep over the exile of her children for they will return. 96 Ephraim is called a bullock or young bull, Jer 31:18 "I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus; thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock [Hebrew: aegel] unaccustomed to the yoke: turn thou me, and I shall be turned; for thou art the Adonai my Elohim." In Hebrew the word translated as "bullock" is "aegel". Historically this very name "Aegel" was a diminutive (favourite nickname) for the ethnic term "Angle". The Angles gave England (i.e. Angle-land) its name. Together with the Saxons, Jutes, Vandals, and others the Angles conquered from the Celts the land that was later named "England". The Angles were also called Aegels. The appellations Angle and Aegel were employed interchangeably. The Hebrew word for young bull is "Aegel". Rashi 97 was the foremost Medieval Jewish Commentator. In commentating on this verse (Jeremiah 31:18) Rashi states that the Hebrew word "Aegel" (Young Bull) was a name applied to Ephraim. As we saw, this was also another name applied to the English. The English now nickname themselves "John Bull". Since the early 1800s the figure of John Bull has been used to portray Britain in political cartoons. John Bull parallels Uncle Sam who represents the USA. As said the names Aegel and Angle appear to have been interchangeable. In Hebrew they could be two alternative ways of pronouncing the same word. For example, in old Ashkenazic (European) Hebrew the "ayin"-letter could have an "an" sound instead of the usual "a", thus Yankel was a nickname for someone called Yakov, with the Ya-in Yacov being pronounced as "Yan". Similarly Aegel and Angel could originally have both been different forms of the Hebrew word "Aegel". England (Angleland) was named after the Angles. Angle is another form for Aegel and aegel was a nick-name for Ephraim. Aegel means young bull. This is an important point: The verse 98 is therefore strongly indicating that the English (Angles) are to be identified with Ephraim. Concerning Joseph, Moses commented in Deut 33:17: "his glory is like the firstling of his bull". 44) -114). Tribal and Clan Names: There are seventy Tribal and Clan Names many of which are still in use. Each Name deserves to be registered as proof in its own right as described and illustrated in Davidiy's renowned work "The Tribes" 99 . Seventy souls went down to Egypt with Jacob and his family 100 . These include the family of Joseph. These names are repeated with some variations in the Book of Numbers. 101 References in the Bible and archaeological inscriptions indicate that these names were given to clans within the individual Tribes. Other names are found in the Bible that also became clan names. Most (but not all), of the original seventy names can be traced to groups of people in the west amongst nations that we identify as descended from the Ten Tribes. Brit-Am has also traced other Biblical clan names that were not in the original seventy amongst these peoples. The total number of names that we have accounted for numbers around seventy or more. Hebrew Tribes and Clans that bore certain names, marched together in certain formations and had certain peculiar characteristics, have been traced bearing similar or identical names, traveling in the same configurations, and with the same Tribal characteristics. Taking this phenomenon into consideration, together with Biblical and other evidence showing the people in question to be descended from the Lost Tribes, we can consider these names to comprise an additional body of evidence in its own right of great value. We briefly explained these names here: A) The Tribe of Gad: Gad is a name for Goth. The Hebrew term "Gad" can be pronounced in some modern Hebrew dialects as "Goth". Gudos was also a name for the Goths. Getae were a Gothic group in the Balkans and Scandinavia or the name is just another form of Goth. Guti was a name for the Goths both in Scandinavia and east of the Caspian though some modern historians incorrectly transliterate the name (from Chinese characters) as "Yueh-chi". Guthones = Goths on Baltic coast. Gautoi in Scandinavia. Gadrosia in Iran. Gad was a name for the Goths and an identifying root in Gothic toponomy. Pasargadoi meant Sons of Gad in ancient Iran. Thatagydes in ancient Afghanistan: "Thata-" represented 105 E) Tribe of Simeon: "And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman" (Gen 46:10). "The sons of Simeon after their families: of Nemuel, the family of the Nemueli: of Jamin, the family of the Jamini: of Jachin the family of the Jachini. Of Zerah, the family of Zarhi: of Shaul, the family of the Shauli" (Num 26:12-13). Simeon assimilated in part amongst Judah -"And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my lot, that we may fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go up with thee into thy lot. So Simeon went up with him" (Judges 1:3). "And the second lot came forth to Simeon, for the tribe of the children of Simeon according to their families: and their inheritance was within the inheritance of the children of Judah" (Joshua 19:1). Peoples of Simeon: Shimeon (Simeon). Samnitae (Scythia). Semnoni (Germany, included the Angle-group prior to their invasion of Britain, see the coming issue of our magazine Brit-Am Truthissue no.8 for an interesting article concerning Biblical-like practices amongst these people when they were still pagans in Northern Europe. Simuen -Ireland. Simeni -Wales. Semoni -East Celtic Britain. Samnites -Brittany Gaul in present-day France. Clans of Simeon: Nemuel = Nemetae (Gaul), Nemnetes? (Gaul). Ohad = Headobards (Lombards migrated from Scandinavia to North Italy). Yamin = Yom (Viking group), Ymbrin in Sweden. Ambri moved to Scandinavia and Belgium. Yacin = Euci (Anglo-Saxon Germany), Eucae (Scythia east of Caspian Sea), Euchatae (Scythia), Iceni (Celtic Britain in "Semoni" region: "Iceni" = approximates to the Phoenician-Hebrew rendition of Yacin). Hecani (Anglo-Saxon group). Zerah (Zohar) = Suiar (Holland). Zarchi = Zaratae (Scythia). Shaul = Silures (Wales). F) Tribe of Benjamin: Most of Benjamin went with Judah and are to be found amongst the Jews, possibly especially in the East European section of Ashkenazi (European) Jews. Nevertheless, a segment of Benjamin also was attached to the Ten Tribes. The clans of Benjamin: Archaeological finds from Mari on the central Euphrates report the existence of a group of Benjaminites together with elements of Reuben in the region. This shows that already in Biblical times a segment of Benjamin had broken away and gone northward. The association with Reuben was to be a recurring feature of Benjaminites in exile. Belah (Bela-g-h) = Belagae (in Gaul, Ireland, and Britain). Becher = see Becher of Ephraim, similarity of name often presaged future combination. YaYikra Rabah 2;3). This Midrash refers to the fact that the very name Ephraim connotes nobility whereas Manasseh connotes representative accountable democracy. Ephraim dominates Britain and Manasseh is prevalent in the USA. Ephraim (nobility, the aristocratic principle of government) still prevails in Britain whereas the democratic principle is paramount in the USA. 116) Representative Democracy associated with Manasseh: Gen 41:51. As said, the names "Ephraim" and "Ephrathi" (meaning someone from Ephraim) in Hebrew connote nobility. This pertains to Britain. On the other hand the name "Manasseh" embodies the concept of democratic responsible representation as endorsed by the USA, Gen 41:51 "And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: for Elohim, said he, hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house." The name "Manasseh" in Hebrew encapsulates the meaning of North American democracy! The Patriarch Joseph, son of Israel, had two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, whose names testified to aspects of their national destiny: "And unto Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, which Asenath the daughter of Potiphera priest of on bare unto him. And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: for Elohim has caused me to forget [Hebrew: nashani] all my troubles and my father's family" (Gen 41:50-51). Rabbi Hirsch says: ""Forget" is not the only meaning of "Nosheh". "Nosheh" also means: to be the bearer of a claim, to be a creditor. [Genesis 32;33]: `"Nosheh" ...to have body or property in another's trust. Thus the "NoSHeH" (Creditor) has passed to another person part of his property, and as a result he demands something from him... a woman in the singular [Hebrew: "Ishah"]... compliments (her husband) and stands by his side as an equal. In the plural [i.e. in the plural name for women, "NoSHim"], however, is revealed the communal status of woman. The woman surrenders some of her rights to the man and these rights are represented by him. Only in the mass, in the life of the general whole group, do women reveal themselves as weak and lacking resourcefulness. Women, however, are "Noshim" (i.e. "creditors") with a claim [to be represented] on the husband who owes it to them" [S.R. Hirsch on Genesis 32;33 (in free translation)]. Explanation: In Hebrew a man is "Ish" and a woman is "Ishah" i.e. the feminine form of "ish" (man) is "ishah" i.e. "woman". The normal feminine plural form is formed by adding the suffix "-oth" and so the plural of "ishah" ("woman") should be "ishoth" but it is not so. Contrary to the usual format, the plural form of "ishah" in Hebrew is "noshim" which appears identical to the plural form of "nosheh" (meaning "creditor") and therefore may be understood to mean "creditors" and upon this anomaly Rabbi Hirsch based his interpretation. Rabbi Hirsch was basing himself on the assumption of Hebrew Law in which women were not counted in the aggregate as separate entities but as being represented by their husbands. They were therefore in sense electors of their husbands who represent them and are responsible to and for them. Rabbi Hirsch finds this same principle repeated in the use made of the name Manasseh which he says is derived from the same rootword. The name "Manasseh" (Manasheh) in Hebrew is built up from the word components "Ma-Nasheh". "Noshe" means to have a claim on the responsibility of another, or have a claim for representation: MaNasseh can mean "make a representative responsible for". Manasseh as a noun or name can mean the principle of responsible representation. It should be remarked that in Hebrew a word root can connote both a direct action and its reversal. "Nasheh" can imply putting something of one's own in the domain of someone else and therefore having a claim on that person or alternately "nosheh" connotes the claim others have on oneself. The form "Manasseh" is a name indicating "nosheh" more in the affirmative active manner of making responsible representation for oneself. "Manasseh" actually means "responsible representation obligating the represented"! The American War of Independence began over the principle of: 'No Taxation Without Representation!', and the American system and lifestyle and ethical system is built on this principle. Only the USA attaches such significance to these principles since only for Manasseh are they part of its very being. A related point is the name of "Machir" who was the first-born son of Manasseh (Genesis 50:23). The Hebrew "Machir" or "HaMachiri" (belonging to "Machir") gave rise to the Latinized form of "Amerigo" from which came the term "America". America was therefore in a roundabout-way named after Machir. In Hebrew "Machir" connotes "selling, and price" and the principle of Capitalism. 40)117) The name "America" from Machir firstborn of Manasseh. USA the major capitalist nation and "Machir" denotes Principle of Sale. Machir was the first-born son of Manasseh son of Joseph. 111 Machir was the forefather of the Gileadites. 112 The Phoenicians are believed to have visited America years before Columbus arrived. According to Barry Fell 113 the Phoenicians named it -"The Great North Country". TheHebrew prophets predicted that in the end time the Ten Tribes would return from the "North Country". 114 The prophets certainly were well acquainted with the Phoenicians some of whom were in effect Israelite Tribes. The Vikings later attempted to settle in North America and named it "Markland" which is believed to mean "Land of Darkness" 115 . Even so, Maruk (a permutation of Machir) and Mark (in "Markland") are not dissimilar. After the Vikings, the existence of America was realised by people in Britain including fishermen from the port of Bristol. Richard Ameryk, a Bristol merchant 1470s is now claimed to perhaps have given America its name. Ameryk was of Welsh ancestry and his family name originally was "Ap-Meryk", possibly denoting "Son of Machir". The more commonly accepted explanation is that the name "America" comes from that of the Explorer, Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512) also called "America" and (after 1507) "America" is said to have been named in his honour. At all events, the name Amerigo or "America" is similar to Medieval appellations ("Aimerico", 116 etc.) for a Jewish Prince of southern France whose proper Hebrew name (from which the Latinised appellations were derived) was "Machir". The name in Hebrew was also given as "HaMachiri". In Biblical Hebrew "HaMachiri" literally denotes "The Sons of Machir" 117 but it could also connote "That which Comes of Machir" and in this case it was applied as a nickname to Machir himself and then Latinised to sound something like "America"! The Hebrew version is difficult for untrained westerners to pronounce (or even remember) and so was rendered in Early Medieval Latin as "Americo" or "Amerigo" and this name was later given to Amerigo Vespucci who gave his name to the land of America. It follows that the name America may well be understood to mean "Land of Machir" (or "Land of the Sons of Machir"), son of Manasseh. The very name "Manasseh" in Hebrew ( (Zuckerman notes that Machir (Ha-Machiri) was referred to as Al Makhiri, "AYMERI", "Maghario" (p. 180) or "Magharius", as "Aymeri", p.121 n.16., and as "Aimerico", and "Aimericus". Zuckerman p.131 n. 38. Zuckerman describes how Machir ("Aimericus") became a legend whose name was celebrated in the ballads of Southern France and neighboring regions.) 117 Num 26:29. responsible representation and this is a fundamental aspect of the North American character. The USA was created when its early settlers declared "no taxation without representation" and fought against Britain for their Independence. America was named after Machir. Brit-Am supporter Benyamin Turkia (of Finland, now living in Jerusalem) pointed out that "Machir" in Hebrew can mean "Selling" or even simply the Principle of Capitalism. The principles of Capitalism and Free Enterprise have also become part of the American character. Note: It should be noted that in Rabbinical commentaries on the Bible and in Jewish tradition the meaning and origin of names is very important and this principle is supported by the Bible itself. Great emphasis is given to the meaning of names, e.g. the names of Abraham, Sarah, and Israel. 118) Zebulon on the shores of the Sea: Gen 49:13. Isaiah speaks of seagoers, Isaiah 42:10 "Sing unto HaShem a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof". The Ten Tribes had to be a sea-faring nation or include sea-farers as we have seen. We shall also note the connection of the Ten Tribes with Tarshish and with ships plying the Atlantic Ocean, and of Israelites being in "many waters". In addition to the above we have the fact that specific Tribes were also described as sea-goers. Dan was referred to as someone who dwells in ships, Judges 5:17 "And why did Dan remain in ships? Asher continued on the sea shore, and abode in his breaches". In the Hebrew it says that Dan dwelt in ships. The point about Asher as dwelling on the sea-shore and "in his breaches", Hebrew: "mifratsav", may also be understood to say that Asher dwelt on his sailing boats. In Davidiy's book "Lost Israelite Identity" a whole chapter is dedicated to the seafaring activities of the Ancient Israelites and several more chapters that discuss aspects related to this kind of activity. Concerning Zebulon it was prophesied, Gen 49:13 "Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon". Zebulon settled in the Netherlands (Holland), see The Tribes. The expression translated above (from the KJV) as "the haven of the sea" in Hebrew is "chof (pronounced as "hof") yamim" meaning at the seashores or at the shore of the seas. A third of Holland is below sea-level, another third is subject to periodic sea-flooding, i.e. two thirds of the country needs protection (in the form of dykes, dams, etc.) from sea-inundation, i.e. they are dwelling on the shores of the sea. This is the only country in the world where this holds true. In ancient times a people recorded by Ptolemy called Sabulingoi dwelt in the region of Northern Holland-Frisia. "Sabulingoi" in Hebrew means "People of Zebulon". Northern peoples at that time switched "s" for "z". Other peoples who settled in the area bore names similar to those of clans of Zebulon (Sered, Elon, Yahleel) recorded in the Bible. Accepting the fact that Zebulon settled in Holland and that many of the Dutch descend from Zebulon (dominantly in South African) entails recognition of their kinfolk (such as the Angles) as being of similar Israelite origin. There are ten prophetic clues concerning Zebulun to being Holland and her offshoot South Africa. 118 It is interesting to note that there is no direct history connecting the Tribe of Zebulun to the Dutch people. Even the Caucasian population of the Netherlands comes from various backgrounds. One can compare this to Jewry. The Jewish people have known many proselytes, yet, there has been a core of the Tribe of Judah (and some of Levi & Benjamin) over the past 2500 years. The core passes on characteristics and genes to the periphery. Looking at the prophetic clues one has to conclude that a core of the Tribe of Zebulun once found its way to the Low Countries. This core passed its characteristics and genes on to the influx of others. The more fulfilled prophetic clues we find, the stronger our case. What follows is not historic proof, but proof by revelation. 1st Clue: To Dwell -Dwelling: "And Leah conceived again, and bare Jacob the sixth son. And Leah said, Elohim hath endued me with a good dowry; now will my husband dwell with me, because I have born him six sons: and she called his name Zebulun [=Dwelling] KJV throughout,unless mentioned). The name Zebulun means to dwell or dwelling and this gives a clue for the population of the low countries. Home, homeliness, cosiness, intimate dwelling, it's all very important to the Dutch. The Dutch word "gezelligheid" ("geselligheid" in Afrikaans) is hard to translate into other languages, cosiness comes close but does not justify it. The Netherlands is a relative small country, densely populated, 16 million people, and yet the biggest town, Amsterdam, has only 820,000 people (Rotterdam 620,000). The Netherlands has a village-like atmosphere compared to other countries. Foreigners often regard Holland as one big garden. There is no wilderness, no wild country. Everything is neat, clean, systematic, well groomed, "gezellig", tidy, even the forests seem to be tidy. Think of all the narrow houses along the canals of Dutch towns, and the canal-boats. Interior design has been important in Holland since the days of the Dutch Republic of the Seven United Provinces . Just look at the pictures of Vermeer. South Africa is also renowned for its "geselligheid" and similar lifestyle as Holland.2nd Clue: Dwellings "On-Sea": "Zebulun shall dwell at the shore of the sea, and he shall be a shore for ships…" (Gen 49:13a, JPS). "Z'vulun will live AT THE SEASHORE, with ships anchoring along his coast…" (Gen 49:13a, CJB). The Hebrew word chof means a cove (as a sheltered bay):-coast [of the sea], haven, shore, [sea-]side. The Netherlands has only sandy beaches, from the islands in the north (province of Friesland) to the islands in the south (province of Zealand). The beaches are bordered by sand dunes, sometimes 50m high and at some places 4km wide. Before the great land reclamations started, half of the country was close to the sea. There is an abundance of place names with "aan Zee" (on-Sea), zand (sand) and duinen (dunes): Katwijk aan Zee, Noordwijk aan Zee, Bergen aan Zee, Egmond aan Zee, Castricum aan Zee, Wijk aan Zee, Bloemendaal aan Zee, Hagen aan Zee, Julianadorp aan Zee, Schoorl aan Zee, Huisduinen, Loosduinen, Camperduin, Heemskerkerduin, Kijkduin, Breezand, Cadzand-Bad, Gravenzande, Zandvoort. Half the country is built on reclaimed land. If there were no dunes and no dykes, half the country would be submerged. The vast majority of South Africa's border consists of the ocean-or two oceans, which, according to the International Hydrographic Organization, officially meet at Cape Agulhas, the most southern point of Africa. 119 3rd Clue: Zebulun, A Haven For Ships: "Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships…" (Gen 49:13). There are different translations for "chof". It can be translated either as beach or haven (port). This is quite logical when we see that in the past the beach was often the port for vessels. Until the 19th century Scheveningen had no harbour for its fishing vessels. The fishing boats (flat-bottoms) were pulled up onto the beach with the help of horses. Jacob's prophecy concerning the Tribe of Zebulun in the "end-time" (acharit ha-yamim, Gen 49:1) is about dwelling "on-Sea" and being a port for the nations. This can only be fulfilled by Zebulun as a lost Tribe, as Zebulun was a landlocked Tribe in Canaan. There are many ports in the low-countries. Rotterdam was the biggest port of the world for 50 years and still is the biggest port of Europe. Rotterdam and surrounding harbours are called Europoort. It is the mouth of Europe. Rotterdam has a turnover of 430 million tons a year (2010). Rotterdam is the transport hub of Europe. South Africa is also renowned for its eight busy ports, exporting, coal, iron, maize, fertilizer, etc. etc. out to many countries. South Africa is also one of the major maritime routes from ancient times, connecting the eastern and the western worlds. Also, the SAECS (Southern Africa Europe Container Service) conference plays a vital role in managing freight rates and surcharges, as well as capacity on route. 120 4th Clue: Zebulun, A Travelling People: "And of Zebulun he said, Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out; and, Issachar, in thy tents" (Deut 33:18). There is a special bond between Zebulun and Issachar. They are even more often mentioned together than Ephraim and Manasseh. In verse 19 the maritime blessing is extended to Issachar as well. In verse 18 a difference is accentuated between the two Tribes. Zebulun (provinces of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht) rejoice in your going out; and Issachar (the population north of the line Haarlem-Bremen) rejoice in thy tents. The tents refer to stables and have to do with husbandry. At the time of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces (1581-1795) there were many Dutch explorers. 121 Many parts of the East and West Indies, Spitsbergen, Australia and New Zealand (Zealand is a Dutch province) were discovered by the Dutch. The Dutch settled in New Amsterdam (New York), Surinam, the West Indies, the Cape and the Dutch Indies. Many Dutch place names can be found. The VOC, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company, had many ships built and organized many trips to the far east. Zebulun, rejoice in thy going out. Wikipedia: "Statistically, the VOC eclipsed all of its rivals in the Asia trade. Between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only 882,412 people from 1500 to 1795, and the fleet of the English (later British) East India Company, the VOC's nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2,690 ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century." The travelling of the Dutch is also apparent in the inland navigation of Europe. More than half of the 13,000 vessels are Dutch. The rest are registered in Belgium, France and Germany. The VOC is the Dutch East India Company, the WIC is the West India Company and there was the Nordic Company of the whalers. The Dutch were the leading nation in whaling for two centuries, Zebulun rejoice in thy going out. The Netherlands is a transport land, a transit land. Rotterdam is the hub of Europe, and Amsterdam is an important port too. Transport from Rotterdam to the hinterland occurs not just by inland navigation, but by rail and by trucks too. The Dutch like to travel, the NL (Netherlands) on the number plates of trucks, coaches and tourist cars can be found all over Europe. The Dutch are caravan lovers. The boers of South-Africa are mainly of Dutch stock and they had their "Great Trek" (1830-1850) from the Cape towards what later was to become Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal, in an effort to escape the influence of the English. In 1647, a Dutch vessel, the Haarlem, was wrecked in the present-day Table Bay, South Africa. After being rescued, the marooned crew recommended that a permanent station be established in the bay. The VOC sailing the spice route to the East, had no intention of colonizing the area, instead wanting only to establish a secure base camp where passing ships could shelter, and where hungry sailors could stock up on fresh supplies of meat, fruit, and vegetables. To this end, a small VOC expedition under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay on April 6, 1652. To grow fresh supplies they released a small number of Dutch from their contracts and permitted them to establish farms, with which they would supply the great VOC settlement from their harvests. This arrangement proved highly successful, producing abundant supplies of fruit, vegetables, wheat, and wine; they later raised livestock. The small initial group of free burghers, as these farmers were known, steadily increased and began to expand their farms further north and east. The majority of burghers had Dutch ancestry and many belonged to the Calvinist Reformed Church of the Netherlands, but there were also numerous Germans as well as some Scandinavians. In 1688 the Dutch and the Germans were joined by the French Huguenots, many also Calvinists, who were fleeing religious persecution under King Louis XIV. As the burghers continued to expand into the rugged hinterlands of the north and east, many began to take up a semi-nomadic pastoralist lifestyle. In addition to its herds, a family might have a wagon, a tent, a Bible, and a few guns. As they became more settled, they would build a mud-walled cottage, frequently located, by choice, days of travel from the nearest European. These were the first of the Trekboere (Wandering Farmers, later shortened to Boers. "Wondering" is the Hebrew language is the word "Hebrew"), completely independent of official controls, extraordinarily self-sufficient, and isolated. Their harsh lifestyle produced individualists who were well acquainted with the land. Like many pioneers with Christian backgrounds, the burgers attempted to live their lives based on teachings from the Bible. 123Thus, Holland with the VOC was an integral part of South Africa's establishment and economy. And even today, South Africans love travelling and caravan is an essential commodity of the average family. Cycling tours in South Africa and the Netherlands are also very popular. 5th Clue: Zebulun, Abundance of the Seas: "…for they [Zebulun and Issachar, Holland (and her offspring South Africa) and Friesland] shall suck of the abundance of the seas…" (Deut 33:19b). Moses includes the blessing of Issachar into the blessing of Zebulun: "And of Zebulun [Moses] said, Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out; and, Issachar, in thy tents" (v. 18). There is a separate emphasis in verse 18, but verse 19 concerns both Tribes: "They shall call the people unto the mountain; there they shall offer sacrifices of righteousness: for they shall suck of the abundance of the seas, and of treasures hid in the sand" (v19). The phrase "abundance of the seas" concerns many items over the past centuries: herring fishing, fishing in general, whaling, the harvesting of shrimps, mussels and oysters, trade coming by sea, dredging vessels, making of dykes, canals and ports, Holland-America line, Dutch merchant fleet in the 20th century, naval wars, shipbuilding, etc. Our riches came from the sea and by sea! Likewise South Africa which also has gas reserves in the sea. The PetroSA GTL refinery at Mossel Bay, is the focal point of PetroSA's current production activities 124 . Now, Moses has ten blessings for the Tribes. Simeon is not mentioned, and Zebulun and Issachar are mentioned within one blessing. Both of them would be living by and from the sea. The mentioning together is an indication that the Frisians would not have their own state in the end time. In Canaan both Zebulun and Issachar were landlocked Tribes. The Mosaic blessing concerning the fact that Zebulun and Issachar would suck the abundance of the seas was for the end-time. Frisians and Dutch have been coastal peoples for centuries, South Africa included. Bert Otten says the following on the Afsluitdyke: "It goes without saying that the abundance of the seas also refers to all the fertile reclaimed land from the sea in the Netherlands. About half the country is below sea-level. The Afsluitdyke (Closing-off-dyke) turned the Zuyderzee into a fresh water lake, the Ysselmeer (1932). In the following decades huge polders of reclaimed land were made in the former Zuyderzee." 6th Clue: Zebulun, Treasures Hid In the Sand: "…for they [Zebulun and Issachar, Holland (/South Africa) and Friesland] shall suck… of the treasures hid in the sand" (Deut 33:19c). This part of the prophecy needs some elaboration. In the first place we think of the flatfish which hides in the sand which has been important to Dutch fishing. Gravel and sand themselves are treasures as well. The Netherlands is situated in the delta of Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Below many parts of the Netherlands are huge layers of sand and gravel. Especially along the Meuse are many sand deeps and gravel deeps, lakes which have come into existence by dredging the layers of sand and gravel. Holland is the biggest flower and bulb exporter in the world. Behind the sand dunes there are "geestgronden". These "geestgronden" exist of sand from the dunes, mixed with clay. This mixture is very useful for the growing of bulbs. So even their tulip fields are linked to the abundance of the sea and treasures hid in the sand, as the North Sea brought both the clay and the sand. Another fulfilment is to be found in Shell, Wikipedia: "Royal Dutch Shell, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo-Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom. It is the second largest company in the world in terms of revenue. Gas and oil are formed in former seas and can be defined as 'treasures hid in the sand'." In the 1960s a huge field of gas was found in Slochteren (north of the Netherlands, Issachar area). Wikipedia: "Slochteren is in the center of the giant Groningen gas field, discovered in 1959, ensuring the position of the Netherlands as a major energy exporting country. The estimated gas reserves in 2009 were 2700 billion m³ (95,350 billion cubic foot). Another example of Zebulun and Issachar sucking the treasures hid in the sand, deep in the sandstone of former seas." Likewise South Africa who mines huge amounts of minerals from the sea-sand at Richards Bay north-coast area in Kwazulu-Natal, 125 and as said, who also extract huge amounts of gas from the seal at Mosselbay. 7th Clue: Zebulun, A Compassionate People: "Do you therefore, my children, from that which God bestoweth upon you, show compassion and mercy impartially to all men, and give to every man with a good heart. And if ye have not at the time wherewith to give to him that asketh you, have compassion for him in bowels of mercy. I know that my hand found not at the time wherewith to give to him that asked me, and I walked with him weeping for more than seven furlongs, and my bowels yearned towards him unto compassion" (The Testament of Zebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy). 126 According to Otten of the pseudo-epigraphic The Testament of Zebulun, the patriarch Zebulun was a giver and full of compassion, one of the very strong characteristics of Zebulun. The Testament of Zebulun is also called the Testament of Compassion and Mercy. The patriarch Zebulun admonishes his children to be givers and to be compassionate. There are other seafaring nations like the Greek and the Japanese, however, in the Dutch we find a unique fulfillment of both prophetic clues: a nation tied to the sea and known to be givers, to be compassionate, both by government as well as in private. South Africans in general have been known as "givers" and have the ability to make strangers feel welcome and "at home". 8th Clue: Zebulun's Stone, a Diamond: "And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work… And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius [Ruben], a topaz [Simeon], and a carbuncle [Levi]: this shall be the first row. And the second row shall be an emerald [Judah], a sapphire [Issachar], and a diamond [Zebulun]" (Exod 28:15-18). Amsterdam has been a diamond city for 400 years. For 400 years Amsterdam was the most important diamond city in the world, but not anymore. Amsterdam retains first position in direct sales of diamonds to customers though. Famous diamonds like the Koh-I-Noor and the Star of the South were cut in Amsterdam (at Coster Diamonds). There is a link between diamonds and Dutch speaking areas. There are a huge amount of diamond mining and cutting operations in the Boer Republic of South Africa (near Kimberley of Orange Free State). Diamonds follow the trail of the Tribe of Zebulun. Wikipedia: "Mining in South Africa has been the main driving force behind the history and development of Africa's most advanced and richest economy, after Nigeria. Large scale and profitable mining started with the discovery of a diamond on the banks of the Orange River in 1867 by Erasmus Jacobs and the subsequent discovery and exploitation of the Kimberley pipes a few years later. Gold rushes to Pilgrim's Rest and Barberton were precursors to the biggest discovery of all, the Main Reef/Main Reef Leader on Gerhardus Oosthuizen's farm Langlaagte, Portion C, in 1886, the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the subsequent rapid development of the gold field there, the biggest of them all. Diamond and gold production may now be well down from their peaks, though South Africa is still number 5 in gold but South Africa remains a cornucopia of mineral riches. It is the world's largest producer of chrome, manganese, platinum, vanadium and vermiculite. It is the second largest producer of ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium. It is also the world's third largest coal exporter. South Africa is also a huge producer of iron ore; in 2012, it overtook India to become the world third biggest iron ore supplier to China, who are the world's largest consumers of iron ore." 127 Now, Antwerp was a diamond city before Amsterdam. At the time of the inquisition many diamond traders fled to Amsterdam. In the 1920s the Amsterdam market collapsed and Antwerp grew in importance. Nowadays about 80% of the diamond trade is via Antwerp. 9th Clue: Zebulun, Writers, Bookprinting: [From Deborah's Song] "…and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the writer (Judges 5:14b). After Jacob's prophecies (Gen 49) and Moses' blessings (Deut 33), Deborah's Song (Judges 5) is often an important source for clues towards the identities of the Tribes. This important verse for identifying Zebulun is translated in the Greek Sepuagint as: "…and from Zabulon came they that draw with the scribe's pen of record" (Judges 5:14b, LXXE). Holland is a very literate country and everything having to do with books, reading, writing, printing, publishing, cartography, Bible Societies, literacy, speaking foreign languages, can be seen as fulfilments of this clue. Many Dutch people see Laurens Janszoon Coster (Haarlem, c. 1370(Haarlem, c. -1440 as the inventor of the printing press. Although this cannot be proven and may not be true, Holland was a leading nation in printing in the 17th century. Although the country itself was conservative in the 18th century, it became the place where most foreign (forbidden!) works of the enlightenment were printed and published. Even Crusades set up by Anne van der Bijl (became Open Doors), smuggling Bibles and literature into communist countries is a fulfilment of this verse. The Dutch have been great cartographers. 128 A modern way of combining computers and cartography is sat nav or satellite navigation. TomTom NV is a Dutch manufacturer of sat nav systems and is the leading manufacturer in Europe. 129 Zebulun handles the pen of the writer… and of the cartographer. The Hebraic Teaching Group, with its HRTI academic institute 130 in South Africa, is now officially the largest producer of Hebraic Restorer reading material in the world. 10th Clue: Zebulun & Judah (Jews): "And HaShem spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, Every man of the children of Israel shall pitch by his own standard… far off about the tabernacle of the congregation shall they pitch. And on the east side… shall they of the standard of the camp of Judah pitch… And those that do pitch next unto him shall be the tribe of Issachar… Then the tribe of Zebulun… All that were numbered in the camp of Judah were 186,400, throughout their armies. These shall first set forth" (Num 2:1-9). There is a bond between Judah, Issachar and Zebulun. They are the three youngest sons of Leah. The three Tribes camped for 40 years in brotherly fashion in the camp of Judah (Num 2:1-9). They were the first ones to break up. And at a new campsite they were the first ones to set up camp before the tabernacle was set up. Issachar and Zebulun joined the others in sinthink of the Golden Calf and the bad report of the 10 spiesbut they were not ringleaders in evil. The peace they enjoyed together under the banner of Judah (a lion!) in the desert is prophetic for the peace they would have in the end-time, in the last days. Over the past 400 years a special bond has developed between the Dutch/South Africa (Zebulun), the Frisians (Issachar) and Jews (Judah). Holland became independent in 1581 and over the past 430 years Jews have lived in relative peace among the Dutch, as long as we were independent. They lost control and were occupied in 1940 -1945 by the Germans. Tragically 105,000 Jews were deported. The Germans were helped by a minority of Dutch nationals, sad to say. It would not have happened if they had been able to stay out of the war. When the Dutch queen Beatrix visited the Knesset (1995) JUDAH: AFFINITY WITH THE JEWS:This entails proven feelings of kinship and sympathy with the Jews and a relative lack of anti-Semitism when compared with others. This holds true even though prophecy 155 also indicates that a certain degree of tension would always exist almost to the end between "Ephraim" and Judah. ORIGINALITY: Innovation and Intellect: A minimal degree of national intellectual wisdom and honesty. 156 BRAVERY: Proven military prowess in the past at least and at present in potential. 157 EMPATHY:The doing of social justice. Abraham was blessed to become a great and mighty nation that his descendants might do "justice and judgement". 158 ISRAELITE SELF-IDENTIFICATION:Israelite identification means that in some way a significant (more often in quality rather than in numbers) portion of the peoples concerned at some stage or other to a degree are known to have identified themselves as Hebraic. This holds in many cases but not in all of them. Examples: d1) The USA had its own Israelite-identifying groups such as the early Puritans, some of the Founding Fathers, the Mormons, and numerous others, in fact within the whole structure of American religion especially of the fundamentalist variety there have been such tendencies. Israelite identification is a recurring feature in American history. Israelite Identifying groups from Europe even from such places as Germany and Russia and like-minded individuals from all over the world all tended to gravitate to the USA. USA support for the State of Israel also says something about an underlying realization of communality. Family connection: The identified group will have a known and proven "ethnic" link to some degree to other of the peoples identified as "Israelite" so that the proofs for one may applied to the other and the effect becomes cumulative. d2) British: Anglo-Saxon legend and tradition presumed Hebrew ancestry. Puritans. Restoration Movement. Personal identification of leading figures. Welsh Hebrew origins known of from early times. Scottish food taboos and traditions, etc. d3) Ireland: Irish legend and tradition presupposes a significant degree of Hebrew ancestry. d4) The Finnish of Finland believed themselves descended from the Lost Tribes of Israel. d5) Denmark, Sweden and Norway had periods of identification with Israel. Early Swedish histories spoke of Hebrew ancestry. The Danes also had an Israelite tradition and identified strongly with Jews at time of need. Descendants of Scandinavians in USA were prominent in Israelite identification groupings and pro-Israel activities. d6) Netherlands (Holland) acceptance of Jews and identification with them. Tradition of Israelite origin amongst the Frisians and Puritan type Hebraic movements and sympathies. d7) Belgium: Similar to Netherlands but moderated by Roman Catholic religion. d8) France: Protestant French (Huguenots) identified with Israel. Periods of identification with Jews. Feeling amongst intellectuals of Gaul having had a Semitic (Hebrew) origin. Much of French History may even be seen as a struggle between the Hebraic and the non-Hebraic elements and sentiment. d9) Switzerland: Hebraic Calvinists. Some very moderated Hebraic feeling throughout. FAMILY CONNECTION: The identified group should have proven "ethnic" links to at least one of the other identified groups so that the proofs of one may be applied to the other. TRIBAL AFFILIATION: The Exiled Israelites were destined to settle in groups retaining much of their original Tribal cohesion or later through some kind of "homing" instinct members of the same Tribe tended to converge together. "SUGGESTED" QUALIFICATIONS AS APPLIED TO INDIVIDUALS INNER IDENTIFICATION: Do you feel Israelite or Jewish or would you like to be so considered? Here are some criteria: ANCESTRY: Do you have Jewish ancestors or those who were probably Israelites according to Brit-Am and related research findings? If you do not have such ancestry or are not sure would you be prepared to totally and irrevocably identify as an Israelite? SCRIPTURE: Do you believe in the Bible? Would you be prepared to keep Biblical Laws if you were convinced at any stage that the Bible requires you to do so? SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS: Do you now live amongst people of Brit-Am Israelite or Jewish origin and do you identify with them and on the whole are accepted by them? At the least do you wish to live amongst such people? PHILO-JUDAIC: Are you pro-Jewish? At the least do you reject anti-Semitism and even feel offended by it? Would you like to see a union between "Ephraim" and Judah? GOOD QUALITIES: These are based on the three criteria of the Sages. We have counted these under one heading since they are inter-related and someone who has one of the three qualities in effect must have the two others. The Sages said that there are three signs that distinguish descendants of Israel: They are 1) merciful, 2) kind, and 3) modest. To fulfill these criteria one does not necessarily have to be a "saint" just to judge one's reactions all other things being equal: 1) Mercy: Do you feel sympathy for others? Do you believe in social justice? Do you try to take account of the sensitivities of others? 2) Altruism: Kindness: Are you kind to others? At the least do you feel that needless suffering should not be inflicted on others but rather where possible good be done unto them? 3) Modesty: Are you prepared to do good and act worthily even though you may receive no reward or recognition and perhaps even suffer because of it? FAMILY: If you fulfill the above requirements do some members of your family now or in the past also share the said sentiments and qualities? Please note: It is obvious that if someone is of Israelite descent ("ANCESTRY" point above) they are Israelite whether or not they fulfill any of the other listed points. The criteria however may be useful for those who are not certain or cannot provide evidence that is satisfactory from the viewpoint of others. CAN I MARRY A JEW IF I AM NON-JEWISH BUT ISRAELITE?No. The Ten tribes had their identity suspended 159 temporarily in the religious sense in order to release them from the consequences of not keeping the Law and the obligation of keeping it. In the Messianic Era however they will return and things will be as they previously were. 121) Object of Islamic Terror. Did the Prophet Hosea predict a MuslimTerrorist attack against Britain or America who in Scripture are referred to as "Ephraim"? Hosea chapter 9 in Hebrew explicitly mentions Machmad (Mohammed) as "the mad prophet", and evil spiritual leader.Hosea speaks of terrorists assembling in Egypt and bringing disaster on Ephraim. Brit-Am has shown through Biblical studies and research in secular fields such as history, linguistics, mythology, cultural patterns, and numerous other disciplines, in fact anywhere where any relevant evidence may be available, how determinative elements amongst peoples of Western Europe are descended from the Ten Tribes of Israel. We have also shown how the peoples of the British Isles and their overseas offshoots descend especially from the Tribes of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh. Though Ephraim as a Tribe may be more dominant in Britain it is also present in North America. Apart from this, it is the way of Scripture to refer to the Ten Tribes in general, or at least to the leading Israelite factor amongst them, as "Ephraim". Hosea 9:7 tells us, "The days of visitation have arrived, the days of payment have come, Israel shall know, the prophet is evil, the spiritual leader is mad because of your transgression there is great hatred." The Muslims are not rational. Anyone in the west who acted as Islam seems to require its adherents to think and act would not be considered normal. On the other hand similar things could be said about the adherents of many religions in different contexts so it is perhaps best to concentrate upon our own houses rather than probe how others run theirs. Nevertheless the relevant verses concerning Ephraim suffering at the hands of Muslim terrorists are there in the Book of Hosea and they do have a specific intention. As mentioned in Davidiy work "Ephraim" (1995) chapter two: "Regarding the future, some type of ill-fated bond between Ephraim and the followers of Islam is spoken of in the Biblical Book of Hosea. It is obvious that the same Biblical Prophecies may legitimately often be understood in several entirely different ways -as they were perhaps intended to be. The verses should be seen in their context. The overall message is that the Prophet Hosea condemns Ephraim, uses a word which is a form of the name "Mohammed", speaks of the region of Egypt and the east, and predicts a disaster which somehow involves a spiritual leader and mad prophet who also appears to be identified by Maimonides as "Mohammed". Hosea 9:1 says, "Do not be happy Israel, do not rejoice like [other] peoples, for you have sinned [and gone] away from your Elohim". Note that "Israel" is told not to be "happy" because they have departed from the truth. By "Israel" in this case Ephraim or the Ten Tribes in their place of exile is intended. Britain when linked in Jewish and Arab tradition with the Ten Tribes was known as "The Happy Isles". The ancestor of the British in Celtic British tradition had a name, "Aed", connoting "happy" and linked to the Patriarch "Isaac". This name in Arabic lore represented the exiled people of northern Israel. 160 Hosea continues: "They will not dwell in the land of HaShem, Ephraim shall return to Mitsrayim (Egypt) and eat unsanctified broth in Assyria (9:3). For, lo, they are gone because of destruction: Egypt shall gather them up, Memphis shall bury them: the pleasant places [Hebrew "Machmad" i.e. Mohammed] for their silver, nettles shall possess them: thorns shall be in their tabernacles [9:6]. The days of visitation have arrived, the days of payment have come, Israel shall know, the prophet is evil, Madi [Hebrew: "Meshuga"] a man of spirit because of your transgression and of great hatred (9:7): "Ephraim looked out with the god of the prophet, a hidden snare on all his paths, hatred in the house of his god" (Hosea 9:8). Basing ourselves mainly on the Brit-Am Commentary to Hosea 161 we may paraphrase the above verses as saying: Ephraim will be punished for their sins and corruption and departure from the God of Israel.[Abandoning the settlement of Judah in the State of Israel is another aspect of abandoning the God of Israel.] Terrorists will commit acts of terrible destruction against Ephraim. They will be inspired by a spiritual leader, a madman, a Mahammad who desires their wealth. Wild beasts of men will feast on their ruins. As mentioned above, "the mad prophet" was indicated by Maimonides (1135-1204), in his "Letter to Yeman") to be a reference to Mohamed. The name of Mohammed (in Hebrew and Arabic: "Machmad") does appear in the passage. The desert sun, sparse diet, and seclusion (as well as the possible use of hashish and various weeds smoked by some of the Arabs) are liable to play tricks on highly strung spiritually inclined individuals. If the people concerned also suffer from epilepsy (as Mohammed did) and delusions of grandeur so is the propensity for error compounded. The religion of Islam in effect is derived from Arabic culture. Ishmael the son of Abraham and Hagar his Egyptian maidservant was the father of leading elements amongst the Arabs. Prior to the birth of Ishmael his mother was told, Gen 16:11-12 "And the angel of HaShem said unto her, behold, thou art with child and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because HaShem hath heard thy affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren." Onkelos (1st century CE) translated the expression, "his hand will be against every man and every man's hand against him" as meaning that he will need everyone and everyone will need him. This is the case today. Everyone needs Arab oil and the Arabs need everyone else to develop this oil and market it. They also are often violently disposed towards everyone else and other people dislike them. Historically, the Arabian Jews whom Mohammed massacred may have been an offshoot from the Ten Tribes, i.e. "Ephraim". Their settlements in Arabia appear to date from shortly after the Assyrian Exile. Regarding the future the message of Hosea is a warning that the forces of Islam are a danger. Association with them threatens disaster upon Ephraim which mainly means Great Britain. Ephraim also includes important elements in North America, South Africa, and Australia. A portion of Ephraim is also to be found amongst the Jews. The name Ephraim in Scripture can stand too for the leading power amongst the Ten Tribes or all of the Ten Tribes in general. The said verses may well contain a hint that Ephraim will attempt some type of rapport with "the god of the prophet" and this will not turn out well. 122) Numerous Other Proofs in Scripture and Related Sources. ConclusionMany have sought to predict the cause of human events, but none have had the incredible accuracy of the ancient Biblical prophets! Did you know that prophets, thousands of years before the deportation and migration of the Tribes into the nations, prophesied the events? Did you know each and every one of these prophecies was literally fulfilled with unprecedented accuracy? Why will the restoration prophecies of the Tribes no also be fulfilled? All the prophecies on the return and restoration of the Twelve Tribe Israel Kingdom will also be literally fulfilled with unprecedented accuracy in the very near future! Overwhelming Scriptural evidence has been presented to the reader in this first division out of the eleven: 1) Biblical Evidence (TaNaCh, Talmud, Apocryphas) 2) Historical Evidence (Chronicles, Historiography) 3) Archaeological Evidence (Diggings, Museums) 4) Evidence of Names of Historical Tribal Entities 5) Evidence of Ethnic Affiliations (with Other Entities for whom proof exists) 6) Social and Cultural Evidence 7) Linguistical Evidence 8) National Characteristical Evidence 9) Mythological Evidence 10) Physical Similarity Evidence 11) Scientific EvidenceThe researchers have focused mainly on the Biblical references in this research section, which as said, is already overwhelming. In the next part we will focus on the Historical, Archaeological, Tribal, and Ethic Affiliation Evidence.The researcher has listed additional resources from the Talmud and Apocryphal Books in the appendix for your perusal. Commonwealth of Yisrael (Chever HaAmim HaYisraeli)Founded upon Ezekiel 37:15-17, bringing together organizations internationally and in Israel which share the vision of reconciliation of the divided Houses of Yehudah and Yoseph (10-Israel leaving spiritual Egypt) in fulfilment of the main theme of the Biblical message and Divine intent, to establish the Sovereign Rule of the G-d of Israel over the earth.Watch this short 4 minute DVD: http://www.commonwealthofyisrael.com/ The Commonwealth of Yisrael project brings together organizations internationally and in Israel which share the vision of reconciliation of the divided Houses of Yehudah and Yoseph (10-Israel leaving spiritual Egypt) in fulfilment of the main theme of the Biblical message and Divine intent, to establish the Sovereign Rule of the G-d of Israel over the earth. This vision is founded in the prophecy of Ezekiel 37:15-17 of the re-uniting of the two Sticks into one and in many prophecies of the Bible and underlies the entire main theme of redemption as defined by the Scriptures. Both Houses of Yisrael will be fully represented in this project in pursuance of the Biblically mandated unification of the nation of Yisrael. "I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their G-d, and they shall be my people." Jeremiah 31:33 Vision StatementReconciliation between the historically greatly divided 2 Houses of Yisrael underlies the main theme of all Scripture: i.e. the Final Redemption of Yisrael, which is now in process of fulfilment.This Vision seeks to promote repair of historical and current breaches between the estranged 2 Houses of Yisrael (Isa. 11:12) by examining Biblical evidence, disseminating knowledge and information about the current developing phenomenon and uncovering areas of commonality and correction that can bring the two divisions of the 'House of the G-d of Yisrael' together in Peace and Covenant Torah unity to establish the re-united 12-Tribed Kingdom of Yisrael. The reconciliation effort seeks to let the world know that the 'dry bones' live, that the G-d of Yisrael is King over the Torah obedient 12-Tribed Kingdom of Yisrael.Take part in the beginning of possibly one of the greatest events foretold in the Bible, register now: http://www.commonwealthofyisrael.com/#!yoseph-isalive-list/qr4l3 glory shall fly away like a bird [Hosea 9:11]. When they gain merit, they are elevated like a cloud, as it says, who are these that fly as a cloud [Isaiah 60:8]." So we see that in at least one place the Talmud speaks of the above verse in Isaiah (60:8) in connection to Ephraim meaning to the Lost Ten Tribes.Mishnah in Sanhedrin (110b): "The Ten Tribes will not return as it says (Nitzovim 29:8) "And he threw them to a different land like this day". Just as a day passes and will never return, they too will be exiled never to return, these are the words of Rabbi Akivah. "Rabbi Eliezer says, just like a day is followed by darkness, and the light later returns. So too, although it will become "dark" for the Ten Tribes, G-d will ultimately take them out of their darkness." Thus, we have two opinions regarding the destiny of the Ten Tribes. The Talmud cites an additional view which is one of the opinions that their destiny is dependent on their behavior, "Rabbi Shimon ben Judah of Kfar Ako says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: 'If their behavior continues as it is today ("this day") they will not return, if they repent, they will indeed return.View of Rabbi Eliezer (that is accepted as Halacha) -that the Ten Tribes will return. [A Talmudic sage even used the sharp expression "Rabbi Akivah has lost his piousness" -when referring to R. Akivah's harsh statement about the Ten Tribes. Thus, the Halacha remains as Rabbi Eliezer -that the Ten Tribes will ultimately return.] The Talmud explains that this view is based on the verse (Isaiah 27:13) "and it will be on that day, a great Shofar will be blown, and the lost will come from the land of Ashur"this verse refers to the Ten Tribes who were exiled to the land of Ashur. One point still has to be clarified: Amos (5:1) said in reference to the Ten Tribes: "Hear this thing, upon which I am mourning: The Virgin of Israel fell, and will never get up". How would R. Eliezer explain the words "It will never get up?" A possible explanation is that it will not "get up" as an independent entity, but it will get up as an entity totally incumbent to the kingdom of Judah.The Midrash tells us that the Ten Tribes were exiled to three places: Some were exiled to the land behind the Sambatyon River. Another group was exiled to a distant land behind the River (this land was twice the distance from Israel than the first Land); the third group was "swallowed in Rabbeslah." The Midrash then describes the manner in which some of the third Group (who were "swallowed") will return: "G-d will make them underground tunnels and they will travel through them, until they reach the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. G-d will stand on the mount causing it to split, and the Ten Tribes will emerge from within." (Yalkut Shimoni, Isaiah 469). Obviously, this Midrash is not to be taken literally, it rather alludes to the severe spiritual exile which this group is now enduring and the spiritual transformation which they will undergo when Moshiach comes: The Ten Tribes were taken to exile and "were swallowed", i.e. they have totally forgotten their Jewish Identity, as if it has been "swallowed" by some external force. Their energy remains only in potential form. When Moshiach comes, G-d will take them through tunnels (symbolizing the process of refinement) and will lead them to the Mount of Olives (a mountain which was (originally) dedicated to the growing of fruit -a symbol of utilization of potential energy. Finally the mountain will split, and they will emerge -their Jewish identity will reemerge from the present state of "potential" and will be fully realized.Indeed, the sages of the Talmud and Midrash offer a number of alternative locations for the exiled tribes, including Afriki (commonly translated as Africa) and the Mountains of Selug (Talmud, Sanhedrin 94a). One place where we read of other destinations is the Jerusalem Talmud: Rabbi Berachiah and Rabbi Chelbo said in the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman: To three places was Israel exiled: one to beyond the Sambatyon River, one to Daphne of Antiochia, and one to where the clouds came down and covered them.The Midrash gives a similar account of where the exiles went, but adds a description of their miraculous return as well: To three places were the ten tribes exiled. Some were exiled to the Sambatyon River. Another group was exiled to a distant land behind the Sambatyon River; this land was twice as far from Israel as the first. The third group was "swallowed in Rivlathah." [G-d will] "say to the prisoners go forth," to those are those exiled were exiled to the Sambatyon River. [And He will say] "to them that are in darkness, show yourselves" to those exiled to a distant land behind the Sambatyon River. And for those who were swallowed in Rivlathah, G-d will create for them underground tunnels, and they will travel through them until they reach the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. G-d will stand on the mountain, causing it to split, and the ten tribes will emerge from within, as the verse states, "On that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem from the east, and the Mount of Olives will split in the midst thereof-toward the east and toward the west-a very great valley. Half the mountain will move to the north, and half of it to the south." (Pesikta Rabbati 31; Yalkut Shimoni, Isaiah 469).Rabh and Samuel. According to one he was a clever king, because if he would have said that he would take them in a better land than theirs they would consider him a liar. And according to the other he was a fool, for what use could it be for them to go in a land which is not better than their own? To where did he exile the ten tribes of Israel? According to Mar Sutra to Africa, and according to R. Hanina to the mountains of Slug. However, the ten tribes of Israel slander the land of Israel, for when they reached the city of Sus they said that it was like their own land. And when they came to the city of Elmin they said that it is like our Elmin (Jerusalem). And when they reached the second Sus they said that it was much better than their own land. (https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Talmud/sanhedrin11.html)In Talmudic literature we occasionally run across a slight reference to the ten tribes, as, for instance, Mar Sutra's statement that they journeyed to Iberia. Gustav Karpeles "Jewish Literature and Other Essays". Publisher, Library of Alexandria, 1985. ISBN, 1465526501, 9781465526502. Apocrypha References2 Esdras 13:26-50: 29 Behold, the days come, when the most High will begin to deliver them that are upon the earth. 30 And he shall come to the astonishment of them that dwell on the earth. 31 And one shall undertake to fight against another, one city against another, one place against another, one people against another, and one realm against another. 32 And the time shall be when these things shall come to pass, and the signs shall happen which I shewed thee before, and then shall my Son be declared, whom thou sawest as a man ascending. 33 And when all the people hear his voice, every man shall in their own land leave the battle they have one against another. 34 And an innumerable multitude shall be gathered together, as thou sawest them, willing to come, and to overcome him by fighting. 35 But he shall stand upon the top of the mount Sion. 36 And Sion shall come, and shall be shewed to all men, being prepared and builded, like as thou sawest the hill graven without hands. 37 And this my Son shall rebuke the wicked inventions of those nations, which for their wicked life are fallen into the tempest; 38 And shall lay before them their evil thoughts, and the torments wherewith they shall begin to be tormented, which are like unto a flame: and he shall destroy them without labour by the law which is like unto me. 39 And whereas thou sawest that he gathered another peaceable multitude unto him; 40 Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land in the time of Osea the king, whom Salmanasar the king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land. 41 But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt, 42 That they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land. 43 And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow places of the river. 44 For the most High then shewed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over. 45 For through that country there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half: and the same region is called Arsareth. 46 Then dwelt they there until the latter time; and now when they shall begin to come, 47 The Highest shall stay the springs of the stream again, that they may go through: therefore sawest thou the multitude with peace. 48 But those that be left behind of thy people are they that are found within my borders. 49 Now when he destroyeth the multitude of the nations that are gathered together, he shall defend his people that remain. 50 And then shall he shew them great wonders.57 Eybeschuetz, Jonathan, Ahavat Yehonatan. Published Varsha: Zisberg, 1875. p. 228. 58 R' Chaim Dov Rabinowitz (1909-2001) was a Lithuanian born rabbi who authored a monumental commentary on the Hebrew Bible (Daat Soferim) and a history of the Jewish people (From Nechemia to the Present). 59 For more on this matter see the Brit-Am Commentary to the Book of Obadiah and Yair Davidiy's publication, "Joseph" -The Israelite Destiny of America" Russell-Davis Publishers, 5761, 2001, Jerusalem, Israel 2nd edition. http://britam.org/bkjoseph.html 87 Judah Loew benBezalel, alt. Löw, Loewe, Löwe, or Levai, (between 1512 and 1526 -17 September 1609 widely known to scholars of Judaism as the Maharal of Prague, or simply The MaHaRaL, the Hebrew acronym of "Moreinu Ha-Rav Loew," ("Our Teacher, Rabbi Loew") was an important Talmudic scholar, Jewish mystic, and philosopher who, for most of his life, served as a leading rabbi in the cities of Mikulov in Moravia and Prague in Bohemia. Within the world of Torah and Talmudic scholarship, he is known for his works on Jewish philosophy and Jewish mysticism and his work Gur Aryeh al HaTorah, a supercommentary on Rashi's Torah commentary.88 As David Ben Melekh (David Jirkvalidze) did of Georgia, one of the expert consultants of this research. Isaac: Gen 21:12, 48:16. Discussed already in point 39. 41) Jacob: Isaiah 49:6. Discussed already in point 39. 42) Israel: "Isru" traditional ancestor of the Irish and Scottish. Discussed already in point 39. 43) John Bull: Deut 33:17, Jer 31:18. 98 Jer 31:18. 99 Yair Davidiy, "The Tribes. The Israelite Origins Of Western Peoples": Published by Russell-Davis Publishing, Jerusalem, Israel: http://britam.org/the-Tribes.html 100 Gen 46:8 -27. 101 Num 26:4-50.the Teutons and "Gydes" the Goths. Gadeni in Scotland. Gaedhal in ancient Scotland and Ireland. Geddingas were an Anglo-Saxon associated sub-tribe. Clans of Gad: Ziphion Thaifalli (Gothic allies from Scythia migrated to France), Haggi (Chaggi), Chauci (Franks also known as "Hugo", and as "Hocing"), Yngling (Sweden), Cauci (Ireland), Hugeonots of France named after a legendary Hugo identifiable as Haggi of Gad, Shuni (Suni) Suiones (Sweden), Etsbon Bastarnae (Gothic Galatian group moved to France), Astings, Hastings(Vandal group invaded England and Scotland), Ozni Osnabruch (Frankish Germany), Eri (Geri) Grani (Sweden), ), Areli (Ha-Eruli) Eruli (Herules) -associated with Goths, (Sweden), Guni Chouni (Huns), see Guni of Naphtali (Egan -Denmark, Gugerni-Holland). Possible meaning of the names: Gad -Good Fortune, A Troop of Soldiers. Ziphion -The Northerner, the secretive modest one. Haggi -The Rejoicer. Suni -The Beautiful Handsome One. Etsbon -Creator, The Sensitive One. Ozni -Attentive. Well -Balanced. Eri -Alert. Arodi -A Wild Donkey, A Powerful Serpent. Areli -The Lion. Guni -The Protector and Protected. Gad dominated Sweden but also had offshoots all over Europe especially in France, maybe Spain, Holland, and elsewhere. B) The Tribe of Naphtali: "And the sons of Naphtali; Jahzeel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shilem" 102 . "The river which since the end of World War-II marks the border between Norway and Russia is called Granse Jakobs Elv which means Jacob's Border River" Orjan Svennson. Peoples of Naphtali: Naphtalite -Huns (= Thyssagetae of east Scythia = Sian Yueh-chi i.e. Little Goths) migrated to Norway Thule (Norway). Clans of Nephtali: Jahzeel = Zeeland (Holland), Zealand (Denmark), Yssel (Scandinavia). Guni = Egan (Norway), Gugerni (Holland), Chouni (Huni, Huns of Scandinavia, etc.). Jezer = Jassar (Alans), Vraesi (Denmark, emigrated en-masse to Britain). Shillem = Sillingae (amongst the Vandals, Holland, and Scandinavia). C) The Tribe of Dan: "And the sons of Dan; Hushim" 103 . "These are the sons of Dan after their families: of Shuham, the family of the Shuhami. These are the families of Dan after their families" 104 . Peoples of Dan: Dan = Don, Danaster, Danaper, Danube (all rivers associated with the Scyths). Danuna: One of the Sea-Peoples, from Cilicia (south-east Turkey), they moved with the Jutes to Denmark. Dangalai (Iran), apparently moved to Scythia. Danava (a Scythian Tribe), Dana (from Lebanon-Israel to Ireland, Tuatha de Danaan). Don (Wales). Damnones according to Camden). Calubi (Chalubi) = Chalybes of Scythian Caucasus and Calybes of Celtic Spain -both famed metallurgists. Darda = Ancestor of groups amongst Scandinavian Royalty. Yair (Jair) = Iari of early Middle East and later Iari of Ireland and Scotland. .The Magonsaete have a name that in Hebrew could mean armor-bearers (Magon-Saeti). Other clans of Machir 108 included Likhi and Aniam (= Unecinga of Mercia), Shupim = Spale of Mercia, Chupim = Gifel of Mercia. J) The Tribe of Zebulon: "And the sons of Zebulon; Sered, and Elon, and Jahleel" (Gen 46:14). Zebulon = Zabulistan (Afghanistan in Scythian times), Sabalingoi (Denmark, Holland). Clans of Zebulon: Sered = Suardinoi (Sweden), Suardone, Suarini (Holland). Elon = Alan (Scyths, Khazar Jews), Aland (Sweden, Finland), Halin (Norway), Halland (Sweden), Holland (Netherlands). Yahleel (Yachlayl) = Chali (Denmark and Holland). For detail explanations, historical facts and evidence as well as the general background, see "The Tribes. The Israelite Origins of Western Peoples". 109 H. National Characteristics Category 115) Nobility principle associated with Ephraim: Jer 31:20. The Names "Ephraim" and "Ephrathite" (somebody from Ephraim) connote nobility as remarked upon by the Sages, Jer 31:20 "Is Ephraim my dear son? Is he a pleasant child? For since I spake against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore my bowels are troubled for him; I will surely have mercy upon him, saith HaShem." "Ephraim my dear son" according to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi 110 said: "[the word Ephraim means] someone who grew up in a palace [i.e. a noble]. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Nachman said: [the word Ephraim means] a master and governor. Said Rabbi Pinchas, our forefather Jacob when he passed away crowned Ephraim with a crown and made him the head of the tribes, the chief of the assembly, the most handsome and exalted of my descendants will be called by his name." Davidiy: "The Tribes. The Israelite Origins of Western Peoples": published by Russell-Davis Publishing, Jerusalem, Israel. http://britam.org/the-Tribes.html 110 Joshua ben Levi or Yehoshua ben Levi was an amora (Rabbi of the Talmud) who lived in the land of Israel of the first half of the third century. He headed the school of Lydda in the southern Land of Israel. He was an elder contemporary of Johanan bar Nappaha and Resh Lakish, who presided over the school in Tiberias. (Genesis Rabbah 94.) With Johanan bar Nappaha, Joshua often engaged in homiletic exegetical discussions (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 116a; Megillah 27a; Shevuot 18b). It is uncertain whether the name "ben Levi" meant the son of Levi, whom some identify with Levi ben Sisi, or a descendant of the tribe of Levi. according to the Commentary of Rabbi Shimshon Raphael Hirsch) can mean delegated academic career, and lectured in zoology at Victoria University of Wellington. A world authority on fossil sea urchins, he was recruited by Harvard University in 1964, and emigrated to the United States to join the staff of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard where he worked until retirement in 1979. He died of heart failure in San Diego, California, aged 77, while discussing a new book with his publisher.[1]He wrote the following books: America BC, Wallaby Books, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-79079-X. Saga America, Times Books, ISBN 0-8129-6324-5 (paperback). Bronze Agae America, Ilttle, Brown & Company (Canada) Limited, ISBN 0-316-27771-1 (hardcover). 114 Jer 31:8. This Georgia's geographical area and can also include any country north of Israel. 115 Whatmore, Arthur William. "Insulae Brittanica", Great Britain, 1913. 116 ZUCKERMAN, Arthur J. "A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, 768-900", New York, 1972. p. 375. ). A Compendium of Irish Biography: Comprising Sketches of Distinguished Irishmen, and of Eminent Persons Connected with Ireland by Office Or by Their Writings. Dublin: M.H. Gill & son. p. 383. OCLC 122693688. 12 Wikipedia, Abkhazia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abkhazia 13 Womenaid µ International, Conflict In The Caucasus: http://www.womenaid.org/press/info/aid/conflict.html of Britain, America, and the coastline of North and West Europe. Taking the Classical Commentators as a whole we see that the Ten Tribes were considered to be in the west, especially in France and Britain. According to the Geneva Bible of Calvin on Obadiah 1:20: "By the Canaanites, the Jews mean the Dutchmen, and by Zarephath, France, and by Sepharad, Spain." When considered from the Land of Israel it means: the continents of America and Australia, and the geographical extremities of South Africa and Northwest Europe.10) "Land of Sinim": Isaiah 49:12. They will also return "from the land of Sinim", this means (says Rashi and the Aramaic transliteration of Yehonathan) "From the Land of the South". Australia, New Zealand, author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the TaNaCh. Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise and lucid fashion, Rashi appeals to both learned scholars and beginning students, and his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study. His commentary on the Talmud, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud (a total of 30 tractates), has been included in every edition of the Talmud since its first printing by Daniel Bomberg in the 1520s. His commentary on TaNaCh-especially on the Chumash ("Five Books of Moses")-is an indispensable aid to students of all levels. 29 Isaac ben Judah Abravanel (1437-1508), commonly referred to just as Abravanel, also spelled Abarbanel or Abrabanel, was a Portuguese Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier. Abravanel was born in Lisbon, Portugal, into one of the oldest and most distinguished Jewish Iberian families, the Abravanel family, who had escaped massacre in Castile in 1391. A student of the rabbi of Lisbon, Joseph Chaim, he became well versed in rabbinic literature and in the learning of his time, devoting his early years to the study of Jewish philosophy. Abravanel is quoted as saying that he included Joseph ibn Shem-Tov as his mentor. At twenty years old, he wrote on the original form of the natural elements, on religious questions and prophecy. Together with his intellectual abilities, he showed a complete mastery of financial matters. This attracted the attention of King Afonso V of Portugal who employed him as treasurer.30 Nahmanides, also known as Rabbi Moses ben Naḥman Girondi, Bonastruc ça (de) Porta and by his acronym Ramban (1194-1270), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Spanish Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator. He was raised, studied, and lived for most of his life in Girona, Catalonia, Spain.6) Zarephath: Obad 1:20. Meaning France and Britain. According to the Hebrew Commentators of verse 20, Canaanites means Germany, Zarephath means France, or France and Britain, or France and the region to the north of France, or all of the said areas together. Sepharad means Spain. At all events Zarephath meant France (Rashi 28 ) and the north or France and Britain (Abarbanel 29 ) together. 28 Shlomo Yitzchaki (22 February 1040 -13 July 1105), in Latin: Salomon Isaacides, and today generally known by the acronym Rashi (Hebrew: ‫‪‬שי‬ ‫,ר"‬ RAbbi SHlomo Itzhaki), was a medieval French rabbi and The verse was understood as saying that the Ten Tribes were in Zarephath (Nachmanides 30 ). 7) Thighs, Peninsulas, and Coasts: Jer 31:8. A peninsula is a projection (i.e. a thigh) of land in to water, connected to the mainland by a narrow strip of land, called an isthmus: major Israelite Tribal centers such as Jutland (Denmark), Scandinavia, and North America are peninsulas. Western Europe, Scandinavia, Britain, North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa refer to coasts. 8) Western Location: Isaiah 24:14, Hosea 1:10. Mainly situated to the west of the Land of Israel. It is referenced as the Western World. 9) Ends of the Earth: Isaiah 24:16, 26:15, 41:8-9 43:6 49:6. 13 )13Dolmens showing Pathway of Migration: Jer 31:21. Our interpretation of Jeremiah 31 as predicting the Megalithic Path would be referred to by the Tribes of Ephraim-Israel in the future as proof of their origin from the Land of Israel: "Set thee up waymarks, make thee high heaps: set thine heart toward the highway, even the way which thou wentest: turn again, o virgin of Israel, turn again to these thy cities." In other words, set yourself up stone monuments [menhirs, 32 dolmens 33 ] and high heaps of stones [cairns] [i.e. megalithic monuments]. In other words set your heart towards the prepared way: The way in which you went, then turn back o virgin of Israel, return unto these cities of yours. Megalithic monuments describe routes of migration from the Land of Israel to the West. Hoffman 34 in his book Olam HaTaNaCh: " table"), although there are also more complex variants. Most date from the early Neolithic (4000-3000 BCE). 34 Yair Hoffman is a Full Professor at the Department of Bible, TAU and the Chairman of the Department of Bible at Seminar Hakibuzim College, Tel-Aviv. Born in Tel-Aviv (1937). He graduated (1962 Bible and Hebrew Literature), completed his MA (thesis: 'Edom in the Prophetic Literature', 1967) and his Ph.D. (1974, thesis: 'The Prophecies on Foreign Nations in the Hebrew Bible'). Since 1967 he is teaching mainly at TAU. Hoffman was Chairman of the Department of Judaism at Beth-Berl College ). He was a Visiting Researcher, in the Department of Near Eastern Studies, UC Berkeley (1980); Visiting Professor in the Department of Hebrew Studies, UW Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1986), 1993-Visiting Professor, Department of Theology, University of Calgary, Alberta. table like36 Jer 31:20. 37 Deut 27:6. Manoel Dias Soeiro (1604 -November 20, 1657), better known by his Hebrew name Menasseh ben Israel, also, Menasheh ben Yossef ben Yisrael, also known with the Hebrew acronym, MB"Y, was a Portuguese rabbi, kabbalist, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press (named Emeth Meerets Titsma`h) in Amsterdam in 1626. Menasseh was born on Madeira Island in 1604, with the name Manoel Dias Soeiro, a year after his parents had left mainland Portugal because of the Inquisition. The family moved to the Netherlands in 1610. The Netherlands was in the middle of a process of religious revolt against Catholic Spanish rule throughout the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648). Amsterdam was an important center of Jewish life in Europe at this time. The family's arrival in 1610 was during the truce mediated by France and England at The Hague. 44 Michael Banyai, The Arab Fringe. An Enquiry Concerning Mutsri, Kush, Meluhha And Magan: http://www.abara2.de/chronologie/fringe.php 45 Mysterious Creatures. Intriguing Torah Enigmas of Natural and Unnatural History, Nosson Slifkin, Israel, 2003 p. 62. : Isaiah 42:10. Nearly the whole of Isaiah chapter 42 is referring to Israel. 54 A covenant of the people [Brit-Am], for a light of the gentiles and of freeing the prisoners55 [18][19] 22:18; Isaiah 42:1, 6; Amos 5:14-15: "Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the gentiles". Remember "but thou, Israel, art my servant"[Isaiah 41:8] and "he shall bring forth judgment to the gentiles" (Isaiah 41:1). Israel shall judge and rule over the other nations and instruct them. Isaiah 42:6: "I HaShem have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the gentiles;" Israel will be a Brit-Am (covenant of the people). As said before, in the Middle Ages Britain sometimes referred to herself as Britammia. The Welsh called themselves, Bryth(y) Brithan, or Briths of Brithan. The Rabbinical Commentator Malbim says that "Brit-Am" here refers to Israel. On the whole the Ten Tribes have instructed and enlightened other nations. 28 )28Christianity (it may however have a role to play concerning the Ten Tribes): Hosea 2:8, 13, 16, 11:12; Jer 31:6. They shall worship the Baal 64 like the Celts in Britain and Gaul once did. Baal was a god who died and was resurrected. They shall mistake Baal for the God of Israel 65 . Hosea 11:12 says "Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit: but Judah yet ruleth with Elohim,64 Hosea 2:8, 2:13, 2:16. 65 Hosea 2:16. fruits, vegetables, etc. Lands of Joseph are especially prominent in this regard and Joseph was bestowed a double portion. 32) Mineral Resources: Gen 49:25; Deut 33:13, 15. This is linked with the blessing of Agricultural Plenty since where agricultural blessings are77 Gen 27:28. 78 Gen 49:25. 79 Deuteronomy chapter 33. recalled so too are mineral resources. Gen 49:25 "Blessings of the deep": Water and mineral resources. Deut 33:13 says that Joseph was blessed with agricultural prosperity, healthy lands, and mineral resources in plenty. Verse 15 indicates food products and mineral resources countries. Countries comprising both are North America, Australia and South Africa which are very rich in mineral resources. In some cases the host countries are open enemies of the USA and in others they are potential enemies. Even so, they have no real say on a day-to-day basis concerning what the USA does or does not do with these bases, and on them. The USA has the Wheeler Air Base in Libya, it has a base in Cuba, it has bases in Japan, bases in islands off Japan, in the Pacific Ocean, in the Indian Ocean, in every Sea and in every Ocean, in Greenland, in Saudi Arabia, in the Persian Gulf, in northern Iraq (i.e. Kurdistan); It has all kinds of facilities of strategic importance all over the world. The host nations (as we said) in which these bases are located are often America's enemies but they still can do little concerning what America does in these bases. They cannot get America out though these bases potentially allow America access to their vital points. In other words they allow America access. They allow America, if necessary, to come in. They are gates. They are the gate of your enemies that was promised to the Chosen People and these promises have been fulfilled through Britain and America. America and Britain are the only countries who have rights of this type on such an international scale and they are the only nations where these arrangements have become a natural integrated part of foreign and military policy. In the past Britain ruled the waves and all the major Sea-lanes and Sea passes were under Britain's or the USA's control. Nowadays sea-movement is less important than it used to be. Nevertheless, Space is important. The USA has control of Space. It has Satellites and Missiles and a Space-orientated infrastructure that allows it access by satellite to most places of the world, for the purposes of attack or at least of surveillance. Through its satellites the USA (if it so wishes) can take very-close-up photographs of all areas.in Northern Syria. Possession of Tadmor enabled Solomon to control the passage of caravans bearing merchandise and traveling along caravan-routes through the desert. At that time the spice trade between the Far East, India, and the West was very important and it was conducted via the desert routes. In the past Britain and the USA controlled every important international strait and thoroughfares: Examples are Hong Kong, Singapore, Gibraltar, Falklands, Panama, Philippines, The Suez Canal, Malta, Heligoland, Cyprus, South Africa, etc. Everywhere where there was a strategic point of international importance it was in every case under official or at least de facto British or American control. Even now many of these places are still controlled by the USA or Britain. The USA has bases all over the world. The USA does not always publicize the existence of these bases but they are known about. The host countries to whom these bases technically belong have only limited control over them. They cannot just tell the USA to leave. Major gates once owned by the USA include the Panama Canal and the Philippine Islands and numerous island bases throughout the world. Between Britain and the USA every single major strategic international by-pass was at some time or other under their control. Even now, the USA has numerous strategically located overseas bases all over the world that it can employ to penetrate the territory of potential enemies." An article in Counter Punch of February 2, 2002 by Zoltan Grossman (New US Military Bases: Side Effects or Causes of War?) described the US practice of acquiring the gate of his enemies: "Since the end of the Cold War a decade ago, the U.S. has gone to war in Iraq, Somalia, Yugoslavia, and Afghanistan and since 1990, each large-scale U.S. intervention has left behind a string of new U.S. military bases in a region where the U.S. had never before had a foothold. The U.S. military is inserting itself into strategic areas of the world, and anchoring U.S. geopolitical influence in these areas, at a very critical time in history." This practice of acquiring the gates of potential adversaries, of those which hate them (Iraq, Afganistan, Iran, etc.), was always a fundamental pillar of American and British foreign and military policy. It was and still is unique to them and they succeeded in it. Britain and America received the blessings of the prophecy to Israel. Their populations must comprise the Ten Tribes of Israel.Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Thus it seems as if almost by instinct, the modern day descendants of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, in matters concerning their national security, are only prepared to trust the members of their own family. We must not forget that Canada, Australia and New Zealand share the Ephraim roots of Great Britain, and that they too are the sons of Joseph. ECHELON is controlled by the NSA and is operated in conjunction with the UK Government Communications Head Quarters (GCHQ) in Cheltenham, England, the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) of Canada, the Australian Defence Security Directorate (DSD), and the General Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) of New Zealand. These national security organisations are bound together under a secret agreement they entered into in 1948 in the aftermath of the Second World War. Their signals intelligence has proved invaluable in countering and eventually defeating the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The current focus of the system is the War against Global Terrorism, with the threat coming from fundamentalist Islamic terrorist organisations and countries such as Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Sudan and Libya." More Sources: Adapted from Biblical Truth by Yair Davidiy, chapter three: "In the past Britain controlled nearly all the major international thoroughfares and strategic points. In 1890 strategic gates owned by Britain included Malta, Gibraltar, Aden, Heligoland (off the German coast), the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, India, New Zealand, Canada. To this list can be added numerous other strategic points that were subsequently obtained. The USA followed the same strategy as Britain. 34) 35) 36) Cush (India), Egypt, Chains in Slaves from Africa to be taken overseas to homeland: Isaiah 44:28, 43:3, 45:14. These proofs are listed together since they are recalled in the same passage in Isaiah and historically connected (for a deeper explanation on Isaiah 45 see the Brit-Am Commentary 80 80 Brit-Am, Isaiah chapter 45: http://britam.org/isaiah/chap-forty-five.html and 45:14 and the verses around them.85 Wikipedia, Slaves in South Africa: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_South_Africa acting on their behalf, across the Sea to North America and to the West Indies. Isaiah said 86 that the exiles would be ingathered from the east and west, north, and south, and from the ends of the earth. Only the English-speaking nations have fulfilled these prophecies as they were written. Only they received the Promises.37) Ruled by Sons of David: Jer 33:22, 26. In the future, descendants of King David and of the Levites will be exceedingly numerous (33:22). Thus they have despised my people, that they should be no more a nation before them. Thus saith HaShem; if my covenant be not with day and night, and if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth; then will I cast away the seed of Jacob [Ten Tribes] and David my servant [Judah and Benjamin Tribes, again "servant" as many people], so that I will not take any of his seed to be rulers over the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: for I will cause their captivity to return, and have mercy on them." Literally speaking, the promises to David and to the Levites do not necessarily mean that they will always have rulers and ministers over the Houses of Israel. Rather, the Biblical promises may be understood to state that descendants of David and Levi will always be available to fulfill their ancestral functions whenever the Promised Messianic Order shall be instituted or whenever the Children of Israel are worthy. Even so, it may be that many of the Judah Rulers [as the teachers and judges of Torah and also secular] over the exiled Israelites and those who ministered to them in Britain, America, South Africa and elsewhere, are (and were) descended from the Houses of David and Levi. The verse could best be understood to say that throughout the history of these peoples they would be ruled secularly over by descendants of David, or at the least when it comes to Torah teachings. This in effect is what has occurred as partially explained in Brit-Am's work "Ephraim: The House of David And The Lost Tribes" concerning Jer 33;14-17 "...the days come that I will perform that good thing which I have promised unto the house of Israel and to the house of Judah. In those days... will I cause the branch of righteousness to grow up into David; and he shall execute judgement and righteousness in the land. ...David shall never want a man to sit upon the throne of Israel." David had numerous sons. Solomon the son of David had 300 wives and 700 concubines, and many children were borne to him. Most of the kings of the House of David had several children each of whom also would have raised a family of his own. It follows that numerous offspring on the male side must have belonged to the House of David. Rabbinical scholars were descended from King David. A good number of Jews should be able today to trace themselves back to King David81 Isaiah 44:28. 82 Isiah 45:14. 83 Isaiah 43:3. 84 Isaiah 43:3 The seed of Jacob will return and the seed of David will rule over them (33:26). Jer 33:22 "As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: so will I multiply the seed of David my servant [the servant in context refers to many people], and the Levites that minister unto me." David was promised that the Rulership over Israel (or at least part of it) would come from him. This is what we wrote in our commentary in Jer 33:23-26: "Moreover the word of HaShem came to Jeremiah, saying, considerest thou not what this people have spoken, saying, the two families which the lord hath chosen, he hath even cast them off? Descent through the male is what Scripture, strictly speaking, requires in order for the descendants to call themselves by the House of their (male) ancestor even though, in Jewish Law, anyone born of a Jewish mother is considered Jewish. The House of David reigned in Judah and quite a few families amongst the present day Jews trace themselves back to David. The Jewish Biblical Commentators Rashi and Abarbanel, the family of Dayan in Spain and Syria as well as the Maharal 87 and many other famous 88 Jonah was a Hebrew going to Tarshish in Spain. Israelites from the Ten Tribes were later exiled to Spain. They were known as Iberi, or as Hiberi i.e. as Hebrews.Gen 14:13, 39:17, 40:15, 41:12, 43:32. Jonah 1:9. The Western "Celts" called themselves "Iberi" meaning "Hebrews", why? Abraham was a Hebrew, Gen 14:13 "And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner: and these were confederate with Abram." The Book of Jonah relates how HaShem told Jonah to go to the major Assyrian city of Nineveh and there prophesy that after 40 days it would be overturned. This meant according to the understanding of Jonah that Nineveh would be destroyed. Jonah did not want to go on this mission and attempted to flee to Tarshish in Spain. A storm arose at sea and the sailors of his ship realized that a supernatural power was causing it. They threw lots and the result fell on Jonah. Jonah told the seamen to cast him overboard: Jonah 1:9 "And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew; and I fear Adonai, the Elohim of heaven, which hath made the sea and the dry land." Here we have the name Hebrew connected with worship of the Elohim of Israel as if the two were mutually relevant to each other. From Spain the Hiberi (Hebrews) moved onwards into Gaul and the British Isles, including Ireland and Scotland. The Celtic inhabitants of Britain were all referred to as Iberi, or Hiberi, or Iberni (meaning Hebrews) by themselves and by others (such as Ptolemy) and the name Iberi (i.e. Hebrew) very frequently occurs in ethnic and place-names of the Western Celtic peoples. Hibernian still means Irish. The Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) was named after the Iberi Hebrews who once dwelt there but later left moving to Gaul and Britain. The crew in Jonah's ship made another futile attempt to continue against the storm after which they reluctantly threw Jonah into the sea. A fish (whale or other sea-creature) swallowed Jonah and after three days spewed him out onto the shore. and the early inhabitants of 90 Search for Ancestors, Scott Surname Origin: http://www.searchforancestors.com/surnames/origin/s/scott.php 91 Arthur, William, M.A, An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names With an Essay on their Derivation and Import; New York, NY: Sheldon, Blake, Bleeker & CO., 1857. 92 Robert Craig Maclagan, Scottish Myths (1882): Publisher, Kessinger Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0766145239, 9780766145238. 93 Brit-Am, Hebrew Celtic Namesakes no.6: http://www.britam.org/namesakes.html , Prime Minister Rabin spoke of the love story between Holland and Israel. have been placed there by man. They were encoded by HaShem, proving the infallible and accuracy of the Bible. Time and space do not allow us to give the details of this vast and detailed study: for the full research please visit this link: A Secret Message in Scripture? http://www.britam.org/BibleCodes.html 120) Ephraimite Criteria: How can one tell that the nation one belongs to is primarily of Israelite origin? How can one determine that as an individual the chances are that a person has Israelite ancestry? Answers: You do not know for sure but one can be fairly certain according to national and personal criteria that are often pertinent: We concentrate in our research on countries in which the Israelites were and are dominant according to criteria that have proven themselves. located to the northwest of the Land of Israel. 148 c7) in the "North" Land. 149 c8) South Africa, Australia, New Zealand ("Land of Sinim"). 150 151 c9) Zarephath, meaning France and Britain 152. c10) many waters (Several Oceans). 153 c11) Manasseh (USA) has a name connoting responsible representation whereas Ephraim (UK) symbolizes the principle of aristocracy as explained above. GROUNDWORK: Historical, archaeological, and related proofs showing paths of migration. Dolmens showing pathway of migration.Coasts. 145 c4) Tarshish (Atlantic Ocean Area). 146 c5) western location. 147 c6) 154 Nennius: Historia Brittonum, The Prologue: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/nennius-full.html 27 Colonel J.C. Gawler, Our Scythian Ancestors, Identified With Israel: http://www.ensignmessage.com/archives/scythian.html For a more detailed study on this topic, read the work of Yair Davidiy, Commentary on the book of Micah: http://www.britam.org/micah.html Isaiah 45:2-13. Yair Davidiy discussed this in his research "Ephraim" and additional sources that we have since been made aware of have confirmed their conclusions. 54 See Brit-Am commentary for details: http://www.britam.org/isaiah/Isaiah41to45.html#42 55 Isaiah 42:6. 56 Yair Davidiy, Ephraim -"Ephraim The Gentile Children of Israel": Revised Edition,Russell-Davis Publishers, 1995, 2001 1 John 3:4 "Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law (Torah): for sin is the transgression of the law (Torah)." Isaiah 43:5-6. For more on this subject see, The Divine Promises to David: Were they Unconditional?: http://www.britam.org/Kings/1Kings2.html#Divine William F. Skene [1868], The Four Ancient Books of Wales: http://www.sacredtexts.com/neu/celt/fab/index.htm Jer 31:10. 96 Jer 31:15-16. 97 Rabbi Shlomo Yistchaki 1040-1105 CE. Gen 46: 24. 103 Gen 46:23. 104 Num 26:42. See the book Lost Israelite Identity (1996) by Yair Davidy for more details. Thank you very much to Bert Otten for this article concerning this remarkable truth about South Africa which Brit-Am endorse: Zebulun -Holland. A STUDY OF TEN PROPHETIC CLUES by http://www.britam.org/bert.html Wikipedia: Geography of South Africa: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_South_Africa Int. J. Shipping and Transport Logistics, Shipping line dominance and freight rate practices on trade routes: the case of the Far East-South Africa trade: Int. J. Shipping and Transport Logistics, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2013, p. 157. 121 For a list of Dutch explorers see: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lijst_van_Nederlandse_ontdekkingsreizigers Wikipedia, History of South Africa (1652-1815): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_South_Africa_(1652%E2%80%931815) 123 Wikipedia, Maritime history of South Africa: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Maritime_history_of_South_Africa PetroSA, Operations and Refinery: http://www.petrosa.co.za/innovation_in_action/Pages/Operations-and-Refinery.aspx Richards Bay Minerals: http://www.riotinto.com/diamondsandminerals/richards-bay-minerals-4642.aspx 126 The Testament of Zebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf08.iii.viii.html#fna_iii.viii-p13.1#fna_iii.viii-p13.1 Mining industry of South Africa: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining_industry_of_South_Africa For a list of Dutch and Flemish cartographers see: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartografie 129 Wikipedia, TomTom: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TomTom 130 Hebraic Roots Teaching Institute: http://www.hrti.co.za/ ) Proof from Biblical Brit-Am Computer Codes. This is basically undeniable facts where countries such as Scotland, Ireland, South Africa, etc. are found encoded deeply in the Hebrew letters of the Bible. These codes are carefully arranged by HaShem and cannot 131 His speech can be read on http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Foreign+Relations/Israels+Foreign+Relations+since+1947/1995-1996/Address+in+the+Knesset+by+Prime+Minister+Rabin+in.htm Hosea 1:9, Jer 3:8. See, "Aed and Israel: The Lost Tribes in Celtic and Arabic Lore" for the details at http://www.britam.org/aed.html 161 http://britam.org/hosea9.html#Brit