A Survey of the History of the Western Alphabet Research + Booklet Design / E-publishing by stacy asher - Issuu

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Ty p o g r a p h y Course Projects Spring 2015

Typography GRPH 223–01 11:00 – 1:50 p.m. Tuesday + Thursday 208 Woods Art Building

A Survey of the History of the Western Alphabet Matthew Bailey

Olivia Konert

Morgan Bruggeman

James Lindsay III

Kevin Buglewicz

Emily Nemec

Madeline Christensen

Pha Nguyen

Jessica Dolan

Sydney Rotthaus

Jennica Fernen

Jayme Sederberg

Jordan Geisert

Courtney Sehn

Lani Hanson

Matthew Standley

Natalie Henning

Huy Tran

Shawnee Johns

Alexandria Trumbley

Elizabeth Johnson

Department of Art + Art History University of Nebraska-Lincoln

3150 BCE–1450 CE By Kevin Buglewicz, Pha Nguyen, and Sydney Rotthaus

Survey of the History of the Western Alphabet Years of Study: 3150 BCE – 1450 CE By Kevin Buglewicz, Pha Nguyen, and Sydney Rotthaus Spring 2015 GRPH 223 – Stacy Asher Typeset in ITC Caslon


Table of Contents 8



The Origins of Writing


Egyptian Typography


Typography in Greece


Typography in the Roman Empire


Christianity Influences Typography


Typography Spreads Worldwide




Zeitgeist c. 1350 BCE – 1450 CE


he turn of the first century, or what is now referred to as the “Common Era,” was a time

of great transition in the world. From typography to technology, and all the way to civilization and culture; the way people interacted with their peers and their environment evolved significantly in this specific time period, which is certainly exciting as a surveyor of history. Beginning in the 14th Century BCE, the people of the world had only what they could see, which limits understanding of the world, but at the same promotes curiosity and innovation. Knowledge of the world beyond one’s immediate location was nonexistent, meaning the people were forced to make sense with what they could. Some worshipped Gods, who seemingly brought upon the goodness in life. Others researched and learned. As time went on, and humans’ methods of recording history improved, a general uprising of knowledge occurred. People not only began to understand the world, but also each other. Really, the world grew–though not in size. At the beginning of the Common Era, the worldly religions began to emerge, and as the people on Earth realized their differences, conflict arose. Battles over territories and belief systems ensued, and a toll was taken on the way history was being recorded. Thankfully, many records survived, and what we can see now is how the evolution of the human condition had a direct correllation with the discovery, development, and creation of typographic traditions that are still commonplace today.

Lascaux Cave discovered in 1940 in France. This section of the cave is the “Hall of the Bulls”.

The Origins of Writing North Africa, c. 1350 BCE



riting is relatively new to man compared to spoken languages which evolved over tens of

thousands of years ago. Writing started as signs that were understood as symbolic values to communicate with. Then proto-writing began to take shape in the form of tokens and seals after 10,000 BCE. By 3000 BCE advancements in carvings and inscriptions began to occur. Specialized tools were made to support different writing surfaces such as clay, stone, papyrus, skin, bone, wax, metal, and wood. The great thing about written language is that it offers access to nearly the entire history of some scripts. The earliest known script is the Sumerian cuneiform. The Sumerian cuneiform is considered the ancestor of all writing and offers an abundance of documented evidence about its beginnings. Several alphabetic scripts also document evidence about their beginnings such as the ancient Greek and Latin provide much information that maps their evolution. The earliest indications of writing were cave drawings and carvings from the Upper Paleolithic (35,00015,000 B.C.), which are scattered in the caves at Lascaux, France. Theses drawings and carvings are still questioned if they can in fact be considered writing, since it challenges the definition of writing, however cannot be completely ruled out. After 8000 BCE numeric and pictography signs began to appear on clay tokens. “Pictography” (or “pictogram”) is seen as another early stage of writing.

Pictorial signs show early stages of writing and development of phonetic scripts.



ictography connects us to the development of phonetic scripts. Pictograms are seen

everywhere in today’s world, such as the signage on the women’s and men’s restroom doors. These pictograms were combined with logograms and ideograms, and were used from there to communicate. These images were arranged in an order so it could be more easily communicated. Pictography and the rebus system is not applied the same in all non-alphabetic scripts, which gives each written language it’s own uniqueness. The shapes we see in the first glyphs, letters, and signs are similarly related to our present day alphabet. Letters used in some type first appeared in Development of the alphabetic letterforms from ninth to the first century BCE

a schematic system that consisted of around twenty signs and used Egyptian hieratic script and principles of cuneiform syllabaries. The early alphabet was flexible and easy to make changes to and advance over the years. Mark making has always been one of the most basic forms of graphic expression and we have been doing it for thousands of years through writing. Fully developed writing represents language in a strong system of signs that has been used for years and has only advanced.


Egyptian Hieroglyphics Paint on Papyrus

Egyptian Typography North Africa, c. 2500 BCE



rom African pictography in etchings on clay tablets directly to beautiful inks on the walls

of great tombs and ornate pottery, the imagery of humankind’s early typography quickly spread around 2500 BCE to the great Egyptian Empire in the form of Hieroglyphs. Hieroglyphics show pictures, human beings or object that were familiar to most people in ancient Egypt. Upon their creation, Hieroglyphs were written with the intention of being read from right to left, left to right or in a column from top to bottom. This complex system showed evidence that great thought went into the iconography and pictography in the creation of the individual symbols. Moreover, all Egyptians alike were able to discern what each message meant individually. Knowing “how to read” was not the same thing as it means today; one needed

Along with Hieroglyphics was the Egyptian discovery

only the knowledge of simple cultural symbols to

of a new form of paper called Papyrus. The earliest

understand the stories being told with them. In this

papyrus roll is Egyptian, dating to c. 3000 BC.

way, Hieroglyphics were somewhat universal to

Papyrus was made from the pith of a water plant

the Egyptian Empire, and successfully became the

growing mainly in the Nile River. The pith was sliced

vernacular of the people. Hieroglyphs can be divided

vertically into thing strips, and one layer of strips

into three categories: sound signs which we call

with fibers running vertically was superimposed on

phonographs, ideograms which are both sound and

another layers were hammered together and adhered

sense signs, and determinatives which are sense signs

by means of the plant’s natural gum. The sheet was

that cannot be pronounced.

dried and the surface polished. The sheers were about 16 in wide and 9 in high and were pasted side by side to form a continuous roll (khartes) (as papyrus does not fold well). It was also written on wooden tablets, metal or stone. There were 2 types of ink people can choose from. One was made from carbon mixed with a thing vegetable gum to give it adhesive properties. Most writing on papyrus rolls was done with this type of ink. And the other type is iron-tannin ink. Pens were made of reed, and a stylus was used for wax tablets.


Egyptian Hieroglyphics


Jean Francois Champollion

here are over seven hundred Hieroglyphic

For the next fourteen hundred years hieroglyphic

symbols, and each one is something familiar

writing remained a mystery that no-one could

and relatable to the ancient Egyptian culture.

solve, though many people have tried. The key

Hieroglyphs were carved and painted on the walls of

was finally discovered in 1799 at a place known as

tombs, temples, pyramids, and statues, along with

Rosetta. They found something that was about four

everyday objects and personal possessions. The

feet high and was covered with what seemed to be

ancient Egyptians called their writing ‘words of the

three completely different kinds of writing. One of

gods’, because they believed that Thoth, the god of

the texts was written in Egyptian hieroglyphs. A

learning, had invented writing. The word ‘hieroglyph’

second of the three texts was written in demotic, an

was first used to name these signs after 300 BC,

extremely cursive script that developed around 700

when the Greeks in Egypt saw them carved on the

BC from hieratic; the latter is itself a cursive version

temple walls. After the Greeks, under the command

of hieroglyphic writing. Although the Egyptian scripts

of Alexander the Great, took control of Egypt in 332

could not be read, the third inscription was in Greek

BC, Greek became the official language of Egypt,

and could therefore be translated. Young

spoken by the Greeks themselves and used for official

Frenchman named Jean Francois Champollion

documents. But the ancient Egyptian language

eventually solved the mystery, under twenty years

continued to be spoken and its scripts written by the

of studying and learned eleven languages, including

Egyptians for at least another seven hundred years.

Greek and Hebrew.


16th Century Map of the Greek Islands

Typography in Greece Greece, c. 1500 BCE



lthough Greece was divided into numerous regions and states, the same language was

spoken, distinguishing Greeks from barbarians (a word they applied to all non-Greek speaking people, especially the Persians in the 5th century BC). Greeks were therefore monoglots. Greek is an Indo-European language, originating at the end of the 2nd millennium BC with the migrations of Indo-European language. During the 17th and 16th century BCE the Greek language began to develop and is recognizable in the Linear B script written on clay tablets in the Mycenaean period. From about 1200 BC there were widespread movements of people throughout Europe, these events may have resulted in the distribution of various dialects in historic Greece. There were three major dialects in ancient Greece, Aeolic, Doric and Ionic. Each of these were from different tribes, the Aeolians lived in the islands of the Aegean, the Dorians, from the Greek coast of Peloponnesus, including Crete, Sparta and other parts of West Coast Asia Minor. With the unification by conquest of many parts of Greece by Phillip II of Macedonia, and many parts of the east by Alexander the Great, local dialects declined, and a new uniform Greek dialect emerged known as koine (common dialect). It was based on the Attic dialect rather than the semi barbarous Macedonian dialect. Its use spread throughout the Greek Empire.


North African Hieroglyphics, which served as the inspiration for Greek Symbology.


n Minoan Crete in the 2nd millennium BC a pictographic form of writing (found mainly on sealstones or selaings) emerged, sometimes miscalled hieroglyphic. The small number of symbols probably represented open syllables.

From this script Linear A probably developed early in the second Palace Period. Linear A was a syllabic script used throughout Crete and some other Aegean islands c. 1700-c. 1450 BC, and it is only partly deciphered. It sees to have been used for administrative documents and in religious sites, and is found on clay tablets, stone vases and double axes. During the Mycenaean period a syllabic script known as Linear B was used 1450-1200 BC. It was written on clay tablets, as many of the signs are similar or identical, Linear B probably developed from Linear A at Knossos during the early Third Palace Period. Clay Tablets: Linear A and B scripts have been found on thousands on unbaked, sun-dried clay tablets.


The signs of the Greek lettering system were most commonly written on damp clay with a sharp instrument. Parchment and papyrus: Skins or parchments may have been used for writing from an early date. Parchment (pergamene) was made from skins of cattle, sheep and goats, and manufacture may certainly have been improved at Pergamum. It was made up in to leather rolls known as diphtherai.



Majuscule typography on the Pantheon in Rome

Typography in the Roman Empire Italy, c. 1500 BCE


Lapis Niger, mid-sixth century BCE, is one of the

Roman inscriptions from the

oldest Latin inscriptions in Rome.

Colosseum in Rome.



he alphabet clearly did not begin with the

a permanent part of the letter. The Romans had

Romans. However, the Roman alphabet is

guidelines to provide them for overcutting letters,

where we start to see the alphabet become slowly

but there was no distinct serif treatment. This serif

modernized. The Roman alphabet has a lot to them

however was just a simple detail that really helped

that can and has been studied for years. The early

complete the Roman alphabet. The way each Roman

stages of the Roman alphabet no explanation to the

letter was made was also not explained. Roman

creative process on how it came to be. Which is one

letters varied in widths, and some strokes were thin,

of the reasons we analysis and try to understand it

while others were thick. Stylistically the Roman

now. No Roman ever explained the serif and why

alphabet has a lot going on, and a lot we can study

it was used, the serif was taken for granted in the

such as open-lobed P’s, splayed M’s, long-tailed R’s

Roman alphabet. It was a common item in ancient

and other alphabetic facts. The Roman culture used

Rome and after the late Republic the serif never

written language all the time, because the Roman

left the Romans side. The Roman alphabet is one of

culture was highly literate. The streets of Rome were

the main origins of the serif. It is believed that the

covered with signage. Scales in these inscriptions

serif was originally a guideline that was accidentally

often demonstrated social hierarchy. Carving letters

made when carving letters, which then turned into

in stone was a common theme for the Romans.

Carving letters was a multiple-stage process. Rusted

In 281 BCE, after the Romans conquered the

letters were carved into marble and were often not

Etruscans at Cumae the Romans took 21 letters from

read in a system that made sense, but seemed to be

their script’s 26, and then added some of their own.

everywhere. A good example of carved lettering is

The, in 410 CE when Rome was attacked by northern

the Lapis Niger from mid-sixth century BCE, which

invaders marks the end of the Classical period.

is one of the oldest Latin inscriptions found in Rome. The marks from this milestone also provided evidence of political power and cultural influence. When you observed signage in Roman culture you automatically knew the social hierarchy and the impact of Roman authority.

The Roman Alphabet


A page from the original Gutenberg Bible, the first artifact created using movable type. (Late 1400s)

Christianity Influences Typography Europe, c. 400 CE–900 CE



s the Roman Empire rapidly transformed the traditions of culture, art, architecture and

typography in Europe, knowledge and traditions were kept alive within Christian monasteries. Here, highly-trained Christian monks would spend hours in dark studies hunched over desks producing manuscripts in scriptoria. Scriptoria comes from the root word scriptorium which translates to “place of writing.” During this time period, later dubbed the medieval era, a vast number of monastic scriptures were drafted, thus creating an era that is – to this day – extremely well documented. Different monasteries within the Christian faith had opposing beliefs of typography’s true role in scriptures, and the duty of scribes changed over time as a result. In the beginning, monks would enhance upon the teachings of their religion, making them more clear and relatable to the public through personification of objects and the transformation of the religious law into thematic parables and stories. As time went on, however, the scripture became less and less about Christianity itself, and began to reflect more on the time period historically. This is one of the reasons why historians know so much about this era – Christians did a thorough job in recording their presence on Earth.

Painting of a Spanish monastic scriptorium 14th Century


No two manuscripts were alike, but most used the same typographic systems and nomenclature. This means that the general identities of the typefaces used in scripture were the same, in terms of individual letterforms and their components. Primarily, the typography seen in this context would be majiscule, meaning all capital letters. More precisely, the common type form used was called uncial, which was an early relative to the Roman alphabet, characterized by broad single strokes and round majiscule forms. In classical Latin uncialis could mean both “inch-high” and “weighing an ounce”, and some have even drawn conclusions to the translation, “block of wood”. This typography was not unfamiliar to change, however. Over the years, uncial majiscule typography evolved greatly in detail, becoming significantly more ornate as time went on. Later manuscripts created by the Roman Catholics can be observed having several flourishes, stroke width exaggerations, and more contrast in size. Other characteristics of uncial script include definitive spacing between words, wide gutters, and justified alignment.

Greek-Coptic manuscript of the New Testament using uncials, 10th Century


Gutenberg printing press, invented in the mid–1400s

Typography Spreads Worldwide Eighth-Century CE Onward


A Renaissance–Style printing press, utilizing Gutenberg’s movable type.



ontrary to popular belief, the most innovation

At this time in Europe, people were perfecting

in the world of typography did not occur in

letterforms rather than creating typography.

Europe (or Western culture at all, for that matter).

Rotunda, for example, is a form of rounded Gothic

It was in China, in truth, where typography sprang

letter flourished in southern Europe, which was

towards the future around the eighth century.

made around the thirteenth century. A few attempts

Everyone in the world knew that books were

at masss printed typography were made, including

becoming more and more necessary for recording

woodblock transfer type, but this method was not

observations of the world, preserving history, and

fast enough to keep up with the demands of reading

marking stories for future generations to learn

consumers. Around 1450, a German goldsmith,

about. In Western Christian culture, the need for

Johannes Gutenberg, developed a printing system

books was especially important, as scribes wanted

by both adapting existing technologies and making

for the teachings of biblical script to be preserved

inventions of his own. By utilizing new tools for

forever. It was around this time that the Chinese

typesetting, mass-produced “assembly-line-style”

produce the first extant printed manuscript, the

typography was possible. This creation of what is

Diamond Sutra, which was a printed book descibing

now called “movable type” in Europe led to the first

the teachings of Buddha.

books, and – ultimately – the future of typography.


he first widely produced book using Gutenberg’s printing style was, not

surprisingly, the Bible. Characterized by closelyset Latin type in 42 lines per page, water-based ink, wide margins and gutters, and – in some copies – ornate illlustrations, the “Gutenberg Bible” as it came to be called, had a total of 48 copies printed, and was distributed around Europe around 1455. It’s good reception among viewers made Gutenberg’s printing style the standard of typography to come. The copies of the Gutenberg Bible that remain in existence today are considered some of the most treasured artifacts of human history, and are valued at millions of US dollars.






Catitch, Edward M. The Origin of the Serif. Davenport,

Iowa: The Catfish Press, 1968. Print.

Senner, Wayne M. The Origins of Writing. Lincoln, Ne-

braska: University of Nebraska Press, 1989. Print.

Diringer, David. The Alphabet A Key to the History of

Mankind. New York: Philosophical Library Inc., 1948. Print.

Baker, Arthur. The Roman Alphabet. New York: Art Direc-

tion Book Company, 1976. Print.

Ober, J. Hambleton. Writing: Man’s Great Invention.

Baltimore: Peabody Institute, 1965. Print.

Drucker, Johanna and McVarish, Emily. Graphic Design

History A Critical Guide. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2013. Print.

Watson, Rowan. Illuminated Manuscripts and their Mak-

ers. New York: Abrams Books, 2003. Print.

Davies, W.V.. Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Berkeley and Los

Angeles: University of California Press, 1987. Print.

Katan, Norma Jean and Mintz, Barbara. Hieroglyphs The

Writing of Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Publications Limited, 1980. Print.

Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient

Greece. New York: Facts On File, 1997. Print.

Allan Haley, Richard Poulin, Jason Tselentis Tony Sed-

don, Gerry Leonidas, Ina Saltz, Kathryn Henderson with Tyler Alterman. Typography Referenced. Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers, 2012. Print.

Wiles, Kate. Secrets of Scriptoria. London: History Today,

2014. Print.


Survey of the History of the Western Alphabet Years of Study: 3150 BCE – 1450 CE By Kevin Buglewicz, Pha Nguyen, and Sydney Rotthaus Spring 2015 GRPH 223 – Stacy Asher


Invention of Printing A D 1450 - 1800

The 15th through 18th centuries will be remembered for tremendous advancements in printing, design, and typographic form The development of the printing press influenced the development of full typefaces and their production rather than the job-specific approach that most typography was developed for. Nicholas Jenson was responsible for the development of the first full roman typeface, which was based on humanistic characteristics and was highly legible. Aldus Manutius proved influential in the world of printing and production while his punch cutter Francesco Griffo developed the first italic as a handwritten style designed to conserve space so that the books Manutius published could take a smaller form. The Italian Renaissance of roman typography influenced the French which led to a period in which many developments occurred in both typography and printing. The push towards a higher quality of printing was led by several printers including Robert Estienne, Simone de Colines and Geofroy Tory. Apprenticing for de Colines and Estienne, Claude Garamond learned the trade of punch cutting and printing. After Estienne died, Garamond became the first to produce and sell typefaces to other printers. His style of type design moved even further from the style of calligraphy and his type designs were further developed by Jean Jannon who produced a set of roman and italics which were mistakenly attributed as Garamond’s all the way into the 20th century because of their resemblance.

Papermaking and book binding .......... 2 German Illustrated Book ..................... 3 The Mainz Psalter ................................. 6 Incunabula .............................................. 7 The Anatomy of a Letterform ........... 9 Blackletter ............................................... 12 Roman Typefaces .................................. 13 Johann Gutenburg ................................ 16 William Caxron ...................................... 17 Johann Fust & Nicolas Jensen ............ 19 Peter Shoffer ......................................... 21 Claude Garamond ................................ 24 Gwriffo Francesc ................................. 25 Aldus Manutius .................................... 28 Jean Jannon ........................................... 29


Papermaking and Book Binding

European papermaking in the 15th and 16th centuries was characterized by the use of water-based mills. The small team of men that worked at these paper mills made paper by hand using the vat method. These teams were able to make about nine reams, or 4,500 sheets, in a thirteen-hour day. The quality of the paper produced depended on the quality of materials being used to construct the paper. Making higher-grade paper required the use crushed and fermented white linen rags and clean spring or well water. This combination of materials would ultimately yield high quality, white writing paper. Quality materials, such as coarse rags, netting, canvas, colored linen, pieces of rope, and other flax or hemp based fabrics, to yield browner, more common papers. By the 17th century, the papermaking industry had advanced technologically, and many mills were now using machines with Hollander beating engines. These machines were able to shred the raw materials to create the pulp more efficiently than the human workers at water-based mills. The Hollander machines allowed paper makers

to keep up with the increase in paper d e m a n d t h a t c a m e a l o n g w i t h t h e im provements in the printing process. The Hollander also increased the demand for linen rags and other raw materials. History has greatly influenced the typographic forms of today, and it is very informative to look at how the anatomy of any given letter can be traced back to some point in typographic history. The basic element in each letterform is a linear stroke, due to the fact that typography evolved from handwriting – making series of marks with our hands. The early typographic forms were also influenced by the marks made by the reed pen and stone engraver’s chisel. The reed pen, from ancient Rome and medieval times, was held at an angle and produced a pattern of thick and thin within each stroke. The chisel was used to make mainly capital letters with minimal curved strokes. Curved strokes developed with pen writing, and were used to cut down on the number of marks needed to write a series of characters.

1. paper making in ancient chinsa <paper.lib.uiowa.edu> 2. paper making in early european 15000s <www.pinterest.com>


German Illustrated Book

Books printed from Gutenberg’s invention of typography until the end of the fifteenth century are referred to as incunabula, the latin word for “cradle” or “baby linen”. Incunabula’s references to birth and beginnings caused seventeenth-century writers to adopt it as a name used for books printed between Gutenberg’s invention of typography in the 1450s and the end of the fifteenth century. After Gutenberg’s invention of movable type, typographic printing spread rapidly. Printing had become a practice used in over 140 towns in Europe by the 1500’s. Book Publications of several editions began, after the first print was created.This increase in editions also increased study possibilities for people who could purchase a more affordable book. A large sum of design innovations started and took place in Germany, where woodcut artists and typographic printers came together in order to develop the illustrated book and broadsheet. Eventually it became common practice for Scribes and artists to make layouts for illustrated books and broadsides. (“History of Graphic Design | History of Graphic Design.”)

1. “Think Smart Designs Blog: Printing Comes to Europe - Graphic Design History 3.”


The Mainz Psalter

The Psalterium (Mainz Psalter) is the second earliest printed book, after the Gutenberg Bible. This is the first volume to include a date of printing, August 14, 1457. It was commissioned by the Mainz archbishop. This book introduced several innovations, it was the first book to have a colophon containing the work’s title printer, and date of publication. In the colophone it mentioned that the entire book was produced with the aid of printing methods, like decoration, which was no longer added by book illuminators. It was also the first book to be printed in 3 colors. It was the first importatn publicaton issued by Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer after their separation form Gutenberg. Only 10 copies of the completed book have survived. The Psalter combines printed text with a two-colour woodcut since both woodcuts and movable print are a relief processes, they could be printed together on the same press. The Psalter is printed using black and red inks, with two-color initials, and large colored capitals printed in blue and red inks These capitals were partly the work of the Fust master a known artisan, who later also worked for Fust and Schöffer again on the 1462 Bible. The musical score accompanying the psalms was provided in manuscript, and may have been the model for the type style. Printing in two colors, although feasible on the moveable press of Gutenberg’s time (as shown by the Mainz Psalter), was apparently abandoned soon afterward due to being too time-consuming, as few other examples of the process in it’s fulfillment are in existence. Only 10 copies of the completed book hae survived, 6 of the long issue and 4 of the short issue. (“Digitising the Mainz Psalter.”)

1. The colophon of the Psalter. (“Digitising the Mainz Psalter”) 2. Iluminated initial from the title page on vellum in black and red, with woodblock two colour initials. (“Digitising the Mainz Psalter”)


Incunabula “Incunabula” is a term coined by seventeenth century English book collectors to call the first printed books of the fifteenth century. These books were previously called “fifteeners” but were changed to sound more elegant. The word is formed by two Latin words that literally mean “in the cradle” or “in swaddling clothes. The very first Incunabulum is the Gutenberg Bible of 1455. There is some debates over whether this is corrected considered the first printed book, as books had been printed in Europe since the fourteenth century using solid block type and not moveable type. The books at this time, some of which were still being hand copied, were in high depend by a large amount of readers. Books made in 1500 are the last incunabula because they are printed in the final year of the fifteenth century. Scholars started to study the typography in the books because they hold the most important clues to the origins of the incunabula. Many of the Incunabula lacked any indication of printing or the printer’s names. It was because of this that scholars began to group letterforms together by their characteristics. The first catalog of incunabula owned by the U.S. was Census of Fifteenth Century books owned in America. The catalog identified 13,200 copies of 6,292 titles in American libraries. Religious literature was printed in large amounts during the incunabula period, but especially in Germany. The Bible was printed 11 times in Italian, 15 times in German, and 94 times in Latin. (Incunabula | Printing.)

1. Found in the ca. 1477 Vitae sanctorum patrum (“Early Printed Books.”) 2. Coat of arms (“Category Archives: Incunabula.” ) 3. 2004 National Diet Library, Japan (“External View of Incunabula (2) | Incunabula - Dawn of Western Printing.”)


The Anatomy of a Letterform History has greatly influenced the typographic forms of today, and it is very informative to look at how the anatomy of any given letter can be traced back to some point in typographic history. The basic element in each letterform is a linear stroke, due to the fact that typography evolved from handwriting – making series of marks with our hands. The early typographic forms were also influenced by the marks made by the reed pen and stone engraver’s chisel. The reed pen, from ancient Rome and medieval times, was held at an angle and produced a pattern of thick and thin within each stroke. The chisel was used to make mainly capital letters with minimal curved strokes. Curved strokes developed with pen writing, and were used to cut down on the number of marks needed to write a series of characters. Many of the characteristics used to design today’s typefaces are based on the principals of Roman and Greek writing styles, such as stress placement, proportions, stroke-to-height ratio, the different parts of a letterform, and many, many more. (“The Anatomy of Typography”)

1. Shows how letterforms according to the human body. <http://www.wccs.k12.in.us/cchs/departments/fine.../TypographyHistory.ppt>. 2. Basic letterform for capital letters. <http://www.wccs.k12.in.us/cchs/departments/fine.../TypographyHistory.ppt>.



Black Letter Blackletter is sometimes also called Gothic script or Old English script. It was mostly used for manuscript books and documents in Europe from the end of the 12the century to the 20th century. Blackletter was a dominant letter shape of medieval typography and was only used in extant works that were known to have been printed by Johannes Gutenberg. German designers fell out of favor of blackletter and replaced it with sans serif typefaces, but in 1933 Hitler declared the new typography to be unGerman and declared Fraktur to be the people’s font. In Germany blackletter persisted until 1941. There are four major families that can be identified in blackletter: Textura, Rotunda, Schwabacher, and Fractur. These styles were often associated with the different regions in which they were used and developed. Textura is closely related to the calligraphic style because it includes a lot of ligatures. Schwabacher typefaces are often a more simplified, rounded stroke. Cursiva is most closely related to cursive letters and can be recognized by the presence of desenders and looped ascenders. Granktur is characterized by broken stokes and is the most common blackletter. (“Type Classification : Design Is History.”) Blackletter began to become less popular during the 1500’s because they were difficult to read as a body text and roman and italic typefaces were easier to print with movable type. Blackletter can still be seen today in pl aces like newspaper nameplates or diplomas. More recently they have become associated with beer labels and Disneyland. (“Blackletter / Gothic Lettering.”)

1. Gutenberg Bible (“The Blackletter Typeface: A Long And Colored History.”) 2. Blackletter being used for the Disneyland sign. (“The Blackletter Typeface: A Long And Colored History.”) 3. Examples of blackletter in newspaper nameplates. (“The Blackletter Typeface: A Long And Colored History.”) 4. Examples of blackletter as beer lables. (“The Blackletter Typeface: A Long And Colored History.”)

Roman Typefaces

Main: Fragment of Adolf Rusch’s 1470s edition of “Rationale Divinorum Officiorum;” The Daily Gargle Above: Sweynehym & Pannartz, 1465. Left: Rome: Conradus Sweynheym and Arnoldus Pannartz type sample; Livius, Titus. “Historia Romanae decades”

The art of printing from movable metal type was mastered and used widely midway through the 15th century, and this is when letter cutters began to attempt to make their letter forms as much as possible like the handwriting of manuscript scribes. The earliest instances of printed matter were produced in black-letter type—the heavy-bodied, essentially spiky letter forms associated with the Middle Ages—which today in many places is simply called “Gothic.” Black letter was an elaborate, ornamental type, but it was difficult to read and wasteful of space and expensive paper. Models for a new type that would be easier to cut and read were found in the scriptoria, where scribes were experimenting with a letter face that they believed had been used in ancient Rome. By comparison with black letter typefaces, it was a simple, straightforward, unembellished shape. Historians

now trace its ancestry less to Rome than to Charlemagne and the “official” letter form developed for his decrees by an English monk, Alcuin, in the 9th century. The first use of a recognizable roman type was either by Adolf Rusch at Strasbourg in 1464 or by two German printers, Sweynheim and Pannartz, at Subiaco, Italy around 1465, the honor depending on how loosely the words “recognizably roman” are interpreted. A Venetian printer actually patented a cutting of a roman face later in the 1460s but subsequently died and thus invalidated the patent a year later. Within a century of its first introduction, roman type had swept all others before it and left Germany as the sole country in which black letter held dominance until well into the 20th century. Adapted by many type designers of genius, it has been the “standard” typeface of book typography, and steered the way for future forms of type for years to come.


Johann Gutenberg Johannes Gutenberg was born in 1395 in Mainz Germany. He was the son of Greile zum Gensfleisch and his second wife, Else Wirick zum Gutenberg. Johann later adopted her maiden name. Little information exists about him, but it is known that he had acquired skills in metalwork. Gutenberg moved to Strassburg between 1428 and 1430 after being exiled form Mainz in a struggle between the guilds of the city and the patricians. While in Strassburg Gutenberg taught crafts, and engaged in the art of gem cutting. A couple of Gutenberg’s partners, who loaned him considerable amounts of money, insisted on drawing up a five-year contract between them. The three other men were Hans Riffe, Andreas Dritzehn, and Andreas Heilmann. The contract contained a clause stating that if there was a death of one of the partners, his heirs were not to enter the company, but to be compensated financially. Andreas Dritzehn died in 1483. His heirs began a lawsuit against Gutenberg to try and avoid the terms contract and to be made partners. They lost the suit, but found out that Gutenberg

Portrait of Johann Gutenberg “Gutenberg Találmánya, a Nyomtatott Könyv.”

was working on a new project. A carpenter had advanced sums to Andreas Dritzehn for the building of a wooden press, and a goldsmith had sold Gutenberg 100 guilders’ worth of printing materials. Gutenberg was well along in completing this invention, and wanted to keep the nature of it a secret. By 1450 Gutenberg was able to persuade Johann Fust, a wealthy financier, to loan him 800 guilders for tools for printing. Two years Later Fust made another 800 guilders for a partnership in the enterprise. Fust and Gutenberg eventually split because Fust wanted a fast return on his investment and Gutenberg was striving for protection and wanted to take his time. Fust then won a suit against Gutenberg where his was required to pay the sum of both loans and compound interests. Gutenberg’s masterpiece, the forty-two-Line Bible was completed in 1455 at the latest. The sale of the Forty-two-Line Bible alone would have made many times over the sum owed to Fust by Gutenberg, but these tangible assets were not counted among Gutenberg’s property at the trial.


William Caxton William Caxton (c. 1415 – c. March 1492) is credited with introducing England to movable type in the mid 15th century. He actually printed one of the first commercial advertisements ever – a sign for the goods being sold in his shop. Caxton is also credited with printing one of the first books in the English language with movable type. Eight fonts were produced for Caxton’s press when he commissioned a Flemish calligrapher-turned-typeface designer to create Blackletter-style typefaces, which are considered to be the ancestors to the Old English typefaces used today. His best known publications are Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, the Golden Legend, and Malory’s Morte D’Arthur. He also translated historical works and romances and wrote prefaces to his books. As publisher of more than one hundred publications, Caxton established a new readership for major works in English. Caxton never printed a Bible, as this was forbidden by law; from 1408, explicit Church permission was required to translate or even to read translations of scripture in English, permission which was never granted. It was not until the Church of England broke from Rome that this proscription was lifted. The book known informally as the “Caxton Bible” was printed in 1877 for the Caxton Celebration in South Kensington.

1. William Caxton showing specimens of his printing to King Edward IV and his Queen. Published in The Grabhic in 1877 refering to The Caxton Celebration. The Caxton Celebration, commemorating the 400th anniversary of the first printed book in England, took place in London in the summer of 1877; The Graphic, June 30, 1877, p617.


Johann Fust

Johann Fust (c. 1400 – October 30, 1466) is believed to have been a money-lender or banker. Due to Fust’s connection with Johann Gutenberg, he has been called the inventor of printing, and both the instructor and partner of Gutenberg. While he is viewed as a benefactor who saw the value of Gutenberg’s discovery and supplied him with the means to carry it out, Fust is also portrayed as a speculator who took advantage of Gutenberg’s need and robbed him of the profits of his invention. On the right, we see a portrait where Fust is described by the artist as Gutenberg’s “wealthy business partner.” Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer are both known for continuing a partnership after their mutual work on the Guttenberg bible, and after Fust sued and won a case against Johann Gutenberg in 1455 for the right to take back his loans that he permitted to Gutenberg years prior for the continuation of the Gutenberg bible.

Nicolas Jensen Nicolas Jenson (1420 – 1480) was one of the first in his field to cut and use a typeface based on traditional Roman typefaces, rather than the northern European gothic forms being used at the time. H is ea r ly letterforms had strong vertical stems and transitions from thick to thin that evoked lettering done with a pen. Jenson’s typefaces influenced typography in its 19th and 20th century revival. Many typefaces were modeled after his, including Bruce Rogers’s Montaigne, Morris’s Golden Type, and Robert Slimbach’s Adobe Jenson. Slimbach created Adobe Jenson to have a low x-height and inconsistencies to differentiate letters from one another. These features couple to make this typeface appropriate and readable for large blocks of text.

Above: Gutenberg, his wealthy business partner, Johann Fust (right), and his assistant, Peter Schoeffer (in back), with printed page.; Alamy.com Left: Sample of roman typeface by Nicolas Jenson, from an edition of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Laertiusâ&#x20AC;?, printed in Venice 1475; English Wikipedia


Peter Shoffer Peter Shoffer was born in 1425 in Gernsheim, Germany. Schöffer studied in Paris, as a copyist, and then became an apprentice to Gutenberg in Mainz. Peter Shoffer printed the Mainz Psalter, a triumph of that bibliographers consider letterpress typography’s greatest achievement. He observed Sir Irvine Masson, author of the definitive study of the Psalter: “Schoeffer never again attempted such a tour de force.” He entered the printing business as the partner of Johann Fust, whose daughter he later married. After the break with Gutenberg and the fall of Mainz, three-color printing Schoeffer and Fust established their printing works at the Haus zum Iseneck on the Brand, known later as the ‘Printing House’. Schöffer cast the first metallic type in matrices and used it for the second edition of the Vulgate Bible. By the time of his death he had printed more than 300 books. Examples of his craftsmanship are the 1457 Mainz Psalter and the 1462 48line Bible. The Psalter was the first printed book to give the date and place of printing and the printers’ names.

1. Peter Shoffer of Germany <http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/s/schoffer_peter.htm>




Claude Garamond Frenchman Claude Garamond (ca. 1480 – 1561) was the first to ever specialize in type design and punch-cutting as a service to others. Due to his position as the first type designer and punch-cutter to sell his punches in retail to other printers, Garamond led on the establishment of the trend for many other typographers, punch-cutters, printers, and publishers to make the same sales in retail, which helped spread new typefaces. He quickly became one of the leading type designers of his time. Several contemporary typefaces, including those currently known as Garamond, Granjon, and Sabon, reflect his influence. In the 1500s, French printers began to adopt the Venetian typographic traditions, and people such as Garamound took notice. Garamond moved away from designing type with calligraphic evidence and made advances to some of Francesco Griffo’s first italic letters. As a punchcutter, Garamond placed a priority on type design and casting, and he gained prominence as the founder of one of the first independent type foundaries. Of the many Garamond revivals and variations, few come close to the exact specifications with which Garamond created his initial typeface, making some designers skeptical of using this font. Garamond has been labled “organic” as a type family but also known to be quite blobby among typefaces because of the unrefined serifs. However, the subtle slant to the peaks of Garamonnd’s ‘T’ and ‘Z’ are said to give those letters a varied whimsical appearance.

1. Claude Garamond – born c. 1480 in Paris, France, died 1561 in Paris, France; www.linotype.com


Gwriffo Francesco Francesco Griffo da Bologna started his career as a goldsmith, and later worked for the most important publisher of the day, the house of Aldus Manutius of Venice. He devised types for the mechanical craft of printing and not for an alternative to hand-written manuscript. His initial project in Venice was to invent a typeface called Bembo, which is regarded as the most modern in appearance of all 15th century types. He was the inventor of the cursive or italic style which made a fortune for the printer Aldus Manutius. Bembo was cut by Francesco Griffo, Stanley Morison supervised the design of Bembo for the Monotype Corporation in 1929. In February 1496, Griffo designed a typeface for the essay “De Aetna” by the Italian scholar Pietro Bembo, which achieved great popularity under the name Bembo. In 1929, the British

Monotype Corporation released a family of Bembo fonts. A 1524 pattern book by the Italian calligrapher Giovanni Tagliente provided a template for the italics. Griffo’s typefaces have been very influential. Typefaces based on his work include Monotype Poliphilus roman, Bembo Book roman, and Bembo Titling, Morris Fuller Benton’s Cloister Old Style italic, Jack Yan’s JY Aetna roman, Bitstream Aldine 401 roman, and Franko Luin’s Griffo Classico roman and italic; more distant descendants include the romans of Claude Garamond, Giovanni Mardersteig’s Dante, Robert Slimbach’s Minion and Matthew Carter’s Yale Typeface. During a quarrel, he seized an iron bar and inflicted wounds leading to the death of his son-in-law. He disappeared from history after that and is thought to have been executed by hanging in 1518.

1. Fancesco, of Italy <http://turing.lecolededesign.com/i2/DesignGraphique/TypoBembo/Design%20Graphique/pietro-bembo_web.jpg>


Aldus Manutius

Aldus was an entrepreneur and an innovator, and soon became the most prolific publisher and printer in Renaissance Italy. He invented pocket editions of books with soft covers that were affordable for a wide range of readers, organized the scheme of book design, normalized the use of punctuation, and used the first italic type. If you recognize Aldus’ name, it may be because the company that created Pagemaker, the first widely used layout software, and that spurred the whole desktop publishing revolution, was named Aldus, and used his image as their logo. Early in the sixteenth century Aldus founded the Aldine Academy of Hellenic Scholars, through which he promoted the works of the great classical philosophers and scientists in their native Greek language. The Aldine works were readily recognizable by a distinctive trademark depicting a dolphin’s body wrapped around the shaft of an anchor. Among the greatest achievements of Aldus Manutius were the Aldine fonts. He was the first printer to develop an italic roman font. The Aldine italic fonts were modeled from the handwriting of two Italian scribes. For the design of his italic, Aldus turned to Francesco Griffo, who made the molds in which the type would be cast. Then Aldus decided he needed a new typeface that he would use first to publish an essay titled De Aetna by the famed scholar Pietro Bembo. The

italic fonts were significant politically because they were used for printing government documents in Venice and other Italian city-states. Aldus published the copyright notice in his Ovid collection of 1502. The exhibition that opened this week at the Grolier Club in Manhattan, “Aldus Manutius: A Legacy More Lasting Than Bronze,” gathers nearly 150 Aldines, as books from the press Aldus founded in Venice in 1494 are known, for a more sober tribute. Gutenberg may have invented the movable-type printing press, used to create his monumental Bibles. But anyone who has ever sat in a cafe, or in the bath, with a paperback owes a debt to Aldus and the small, cleanly designed editions of the secular classics he called libelli portatiles, or portable little books. He was possibly the first printer to compare manuscripts to arrive at the most reliable text. He was the first to use italic type. He was the first to use the semicolon in its modern sense. And then there were the unwitting firsts, like what may be the earliest known version of “This page left intentionally blank,” preserved in a 1513 edition of the Greek orators included in the show, along with instructions to the binder to remove the extra leaf.

1. Manutius of Italy <http://www.labyrinthdesigners.org/alchemic-authors-641-1597/aldus-manutius-hypnerotomachia-poliphili/>


Jean Jannon Born 1580; died 1658. French punchcutter and printer in Paris and Sedan. He worked as a printer for the Calvinist Academy in Sedan. He was arrested by order of Cardinal Richelieu and his equipment, including his font punches and printing matrices, was confiscated. When his typefaces were rediscovered centuries later, they were erroneously attributed to Claude Garamond and consequently served as the source for many Garamond revivals at companies such as American Type Founders and Monotype. His punches and matrices are now preserved in the Imprimerie Nationale in Paris.

1. Jannon of France <http://tonyamacalino.com/1/post/2012/11/saving-our-stories-aldus-manutius-and-the-technology-of-storytelling.html>



Bibliography Vervliet, Hendrik D. L. French Renaissance Printing Types: A Conspectus. London: Bibliographical Society, 2010. Print. Clemens, Raymond, and Timothy Graham. Introduction to Manuscript Studies. London: Cornell UP, 2007. Print. Carter. Rpb. Bem Day, and Philip Meggs. “The Anatomy of Typography.” Typographic Design: Form and communication. 2nd ed. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, 1993. Print. “Fust & Schoeffer.” The University of Manchester: University Library. The University of Manchester, 1 Jan. 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. “Roman | Typeface.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. Wallau, Heinrich. “Johann Gutenberg.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 13 Apr. 2015 “Peter Schoeffer, Scribe, Printer and Publisher - Gutenberg’s Apprentice.” Gutenbergs Apprentice. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Typefaces as History: Aldus Manutius and The Noble Bembo.” The Book Designer RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. Schuessler, Jennifer. “A Tribute to the Printer Aldus Manutius, and the Roots of the Paperback.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Aldus Manutius 1450 - 1515.” First Impressions. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Font Designer – Jean Jannon.” Jean Jannon. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “The Paper Project - History of Paper 1000 - 1500.” The Paper Project - History of Paper 1000 - 1500. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Blackletter / Gothic Lettering.” Blackletter / Gothic Lettering. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. “Bio” Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. “Johannes Gutenberg | Biography - German Printer.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. “History of Graphic Design | History of Graphic Design.” History of Graphic Design | History of Graphic Design. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. “Incunabula | Printing.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. “An Introduction to Incunabula.” Introduction to Incunabula. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. Type Classification : Design Is History. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Digitising the Mainz Psalter.” CHICC Manchester. 22 Nov. 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Gutenberg Találmánya, a Nyomtatott Könyv.” Gutenberg Találmánya, a Nyomtatott Könyv. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “External View of Incunabula (2) | Incunabula - Dawn of Western Printing.” External View of Incunabula (2) | Incunabula - Dawn of Western Printing. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Category Archives: Incunabula.” Nonsolusblog. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Early Printed Books.” The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. Farley, Jennifer. “The Blackletter Typeface: A Long And Colored History.” The Blackletter Typeface: A Long And Colored History. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. “Think Smart Designs Blog: Printing Comes to Europe - Graphic Design History 3.” Think Smart Designs Blog: Printing Comes to Europe - Graphic Design History 3. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

Emily Nemec | Madeline Christensen| Jayme Sederberg


cs u 7 f l 8 1 t a A1 L


a r h e s p y g n as E s e



An Era of Typographic Geniuses Late 1700’s - 1800’s

T ’r e



Table of Contents Zeitgeist The Enlightenment Louis Simonneau Philippe Grandjean Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune William Caslon The Renaissance John Pine John Baskerville Robert Clee Jean Joseph Barbou Giambattista Bodoni Firmin Didot Hermann Berthold Geofroy Tory George Bickham Printing Technologies Bibliography

4 5 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 16 17 19 21 22 23 25 26 27





rom the 1700’s in to the 1800’s, three significant periods were met, The Enlightenment, the Rococo, and the Renaissance. The enlightenment period was known as the times of questioning where the enlightenment thinkers questioned traditional authority. Better known as the Age of Reason, caused for a big change, produced many books, essays, inventions, discoveries, laws, etc. The movement shifted away from authoritarian control. More information about The Enlightenment will be discussed on the following chapter. Moving onto the Rococo period, which originated in Paris, adopting later into France and then into other countries (i.e. Austria and Germany). The characteristics were shown from the lightness and elegance as well as curves and natural forms in ornamentation. Rococo derives from rocaille, the shell-covered rock work used in the decoration of artificial grottoes. This period formed the vast use of very elegant and prestine-like shapes, very curvy in nature, creating shapes similar to that of the letters, “C” and “S.” Now the Renaissance, literally meaning, “Rebirth,” surged for the interest in Classical values. The Renaissance formed new discoveries with new continents, scientific findings, inventions, and more importantly pertaining to typography, innovations of paper and printing. The renaissance also gave form to that of humanist activity. It was mainly the art that defined the spirit of the Renaissance, forming into not only something to look at, but its own knowledge, art became much more valuable. It became based on observation of the world, finding the balance and harmony of its time.


The Enlightenment


he Enllightenment was also known as the Age of Reason. It occured from the 1650s to the 1800s. During this time is when logic, analysis, and uniqueness started to be the main focus in place of conventional authority. The powerhouses that use to be in charge, such as the Catholic Church, began to be challenged. There were also changes happening within civilization, philosophy, and the government. Furthermore, new ideals of freedom and equality for all, were implemented. Throughout the Enlightenment, type design progressively changed from Old Style fonts to Modern Style fonts. Philosophers had a huge impact on the community because they wrote and published works that many people read. The Enlightenment was affiliated with French thinkers of the 18th century, also called “philosophes.” One of the many philosophes was Denis Diderot. Diderot was a French writer and philosopher as previously stated. He was mainly fascinated by reading and literature. However, his passion for literature was not enough for his father. By not following in his fathers footsteps into the law or medi-


cine fields, Diderot was seen as a disappointment.He started his career path with many self-employed writing jobs. By the 1740s, he started to translate English books. However, Diderot was most known for his contribution to the Encyclopedia, which was the most significant encyclopedia that was published in France. On the side, Diderot published tales and comedies. Before the Encyclopedia started, Diderot’s Essai sur la merite et la virtu (1745) and Pensees philosophique (1746) were his most popular works. During the 1750s, the Encyclopédie was published. It had such a powerful impact on France and Europe that more than 25,000 copies were sold by the year 1789. The Encyclopédie was the first encyclopedia that gave the mechanical arts some attention. It was known for representing the Enlightenment, and its main goal was to “change the way people think.” Its complete title is Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts). The Encyclopédie uses Didot as its typeface.

Front page of the EncyclopĂŠdie with its full title. 1

Portrait of Denis Diderot, the famous French writer and philosopher. 2


Louis Simonneau


ouis Simonneau was born in 1645 and died in 1728. He was an engraver in Paris at the Imprimerie Royale. He was one of the central designers of the “Romain du Roi,” which Louis XIV commissioned. “Romain du Roi” translates to “Roman of the King,” meaning the Roman alphabet which was used for the first time in 1702. Simonneau created a new typeface that was moving away from Old Style typefaces. When he was creating his typeface, he was closely watched by the French Academy of Science. Therefore, his typeface was greatly influenced by math and science. He did not create his typeface completely on his own. Simmoneau worked alongside Philippe Grandjean, who punchcut the letters for him. Simmoneau’s typefaces are transitional.

French Academy of Science, where Louis Simmoneau created his typeface. 3


Philippe Grandjean


hilippe Grandjean was born in 1666 and died in 1714. He helped Louis Simonneau in the creation of the “Romain du Roi,” which began in 1692. “Romain du Roi” were italic and Roman types. It was designed at the request of King Louis XIV in 1692, who wanted to use the typeface for the Royal printer. Both Granjean and Simonneau were watched closely by various mathematicians and philosophers. “Romain du Roi” was a modern font with serifs that were flat and thin. In the end it was a set of 82 fonts, which were not finished until 1745. It took half a century to create the complete set of fonts.

Examples of the “Romain du Roi” typeface. 4, 5


Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune


ierre Simon Fournier le Jeune was born in 1712 and died in 1768. Fournier was a French typefounder and he was also a punch-cutter. He is the designer of the typefaces fournier and Narcissus. His typefaces are best known for the decorative elements that he added onto them. Fournier stated, regarding one of his fonts, “The petit ceil leaves more space between lines of type, which gives a lighter and more graceful air. But it is more fatiguing to persons of delicate eyesight.” (Updike 262) He also is known for his creation of a regulated measuring system. This particular measuring system would remodel the typography world permanently. Fournier started the creation of this measuring system in 1737. He began with a measurement called pouce, which is a French measurement. He then sectioned that into 12 lines. Fournier then continued to split the 12 lines into six points each. In order to regulate all his fonts, he related each font to the system. When Fournier was just 24-years-old, he opened his own type foundry. The Rococo period was attracted to his typefaces because of their unique elegance.

Examples of Fournier’s typefaces. 6

Examples of Fournier’s typefaces. 7


William Caslon


illiam Caslon lived from 1692-1776. He was an English type designer. In London during the year 1716, he began his own personal engraving shop. While he was working in his shop, a printer named John Watts liked Caslon’s work so Watts had Caslon start working for him. When Caslon was working under Watts, he cut type for London’s presses. In 1720, Caslon created an “English Arabic” typeface which was utilized in a New Testament. Caslon then moved on and started working under William Bowyer, who was also a printer. While working for

Bowyer, Caslon cut a roman, italic typeface. This particular typeface was used for the first time in 1726. It would later be named Caslon. Caslon’s typeface eventually became extremely popular. “Caslon” is an Old Style typeface. It was used all through the British Empire. At the beginning of the 18th century, between 1720 and 1726, he created another typeface. When Caslon was creating this typeface, he based it from the “OldFace” which was from Holland. During this time, several of the typefaces came from Holland. Caslon became known as “The Father of British Typography.”

Portrait of William Caslon 8

Example of the Caslon typeface 9




uring the Renaissance, many elements were altered within graphic design by Italian scholars and printers. They altered type design, ornamentation, illustration, and page layout. The first change to occur, moving towards the new Renaissance designs, were the decorative borders in French books, and the roman alphabet original designs which were designed by Arnold Pannartz and Konrad Sweynheym. Italy and Germany received the typographic text in the form of a manuscript styled book that was printed. The book included movable types. A few of the many prominent designers of typographic books in this period were Johannes de Spira, Erhard Ratdolt, and Aldus Manutius. During this time period, the


designers adored floral ornamentation, such as wildflowers and vines. The 18th century brought about massive alterations in graphic design. Mainly, type design, page layout, and typography were being changed. When the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Romain du Roiâ&#x20AC;? was first printed at the start of the 18th century, a conversion to transitional roman typographic design with an elevated contrast between the thick and thin strokes, a greater balance in the typographic letterforms, and sharpened horizontal serifs began.

Examples of Renaissance letterforms and their fascination of floral ornamentation. 10, 11



ohn Pine was born in 1690 and died May 4, 1756. He was an English engraver who published many notable illustrated books. He lived in London and owned a print shop there which allowed him to publish books with his own engravings. Although it is not certain where he learned his craft, however he might have studied under the Frenchman, Bernard Picart. One of his first and most notable works was a group of engravings of the ceremonies attending King George I’s establishment of the Order of the Bath (1725) Another highly revered work of Pines was a copy of the Magna Carta. Pines engraving of this piece of historic literature consisted of an engraved facsimile of the original text of the Magna Carta, surrounded by a series of 25 coats of hand-colored arms of

John Pine the Barons, panel at foot containing notes and a representation (hand-colored) of the remains of King John’s Great Seal, all panels surrounded by oak leaf and acorn borders Other producation include copies of the tapestries celebrating the defeat of the Spanish Armada and hanging in the House of Lords, and several maps of London. In 1755 he and a number of other English artists formed a committee to found a royal academy, but he died 12 years before the plans became a reality. From 1743 until his death he was Blue Mantle Pursuivant. A Bluemantle Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary is a junior officer of arms of the College of Arms in London, in the Heralds’ College. This is were he lived out the last years of his life. His two sons, Robert Edge Pine and Simon Pine, were both painters.

This page from Pine’s work shows the heralds in procession at the ceremony to install the first Knights and Esquires of the Bath.


Magna Carta first edition in 1733

was engraved and printed on vellum as a facsimile of the original.

The Procession and Ceremonies Observed at the Time of the Installation of the

Knights Companions of the Most Honourable and Military Order of the Bath,

was produced by the engraver John Pine (later Bluemantle Pursuivant of Arms) in 1730, from original drawings by Joseph Highmore, depicting the processions and ceremonies at the time of the first installation of Knights and Esquires of the Bath in 1725.



ohn Baskerville was born in Wolverly, England in 1706 and died in London in 1775. Baskerville is most well known for his namesake typeface, which he orignally designed in 1757. Baskerville’s type was unlike anything that had come before it. Considered by contemporary historians to be the quintessential example of a transitional face, it featured rounded characters, a perpendicular axis, strong contrasts between thicks and thins and very fine, sharp serifs, all of which clearly distinguished it from the old-style faces it followed and predated the high stroke contrasts od such later “Modern” typefaces such as Bodoni. It took John Baskerville six years to complete the drawings for his type and another two to oversee its cutting. When finished, he discovered that conventional printing presses could not adequately capture its subtleties and redesigned his own. In place of wood, he used a machined brass bed and platen and a smooth vellum

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John Baskerville tympan (a sheet that was placed between the impression surface and the paper to be printed) packed with fine cloth to ensure that the two planes of the press met more evenly. Most paper used in the mid-18th century was made on crude wire mesh molds that left deep vertical ribbed impressions. This too was unsuitable for capturing the delicacy of Baskerville’s type. Setting up a mill on his own land in Birmingham, Baskerville manufactured what we today refer to as wove paper, made on very fine meshes that resulted in smooth, silky stock. To further polish its surface, he created a device consisting of two heated copper cylinders between which he pressed his paper after printing it. During the period in which Baskerville lived, printers made their own inks, and their proprietary formulas were highly guarded trade secrets. Baskerville invented an ink that was both quick-drying, allowing him to print the reverse sides of his paper faster, and uncommonly rich, black and lustrous in appearance.


The title page of his edition of

Paradise Lost by Milton, Printed By John Baskerville,

One of the surviving punches cut by

John Handy for John Baskerville in the eighteenth century.

Ironically for a confirmed atheist, his greatest work was a folio edition of

the Bible, which. represented a mon-

umental advance upon the standards and practices of the time.



obert Clee was an accomplished English engraver in the 18th century, strongly influenced by the Rococo movement. He used the skill of copperplate engraving to achieve the curvilinear decoration and fine detail achieved in both text and image by designers during the Rococo Era. Robert Cleeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s became known for engraved trading cards he used this copperplate technique to create for merchants to expand businesses adn gain customers. Because of the need of such detailed embellishment, this type of engraving became an important technique for book illustrations during this period. Lines were etched into a smooth metal plate; ink was pressed into these carved lines; the extra ink was wiped clean from the surface. A sheet of paper was then placed


Robert Clee onto the plate with sufficient pressure to transfer the ink from the printing plate to the paper. This allowed book illustrations to be produced with finer lines and greater detail than woodblock printing. In order to make text more compatible with these fine-line engravings, designers increasingly made casting types and ornaments with finer details. The Rococo Style originated in Paris in the early 18th century but was soon adopted throughout France and later in other countries, principally Germany and Austria. It is characterized by lightness, elegance, and an exuberant use of curving, natural forms in ornamentation. The word Rococo is derived from the French word rocaille, which denoted the shell-covered rock work that was used to decorate artificial grottoes.


ean Joseph Bardou established himself as a bookseller in paris in 1746 and in 1750 he issued the series of Latin classics called by his name. He also printed in superior style the “New Testament” in latin and various other works. Since many artists specialized in book illustration in the seventeen and eighteenth centuries graphic design often involved a collaboration of specialists. In the work below, Joseph Gerard Barbou, the printer, used types and ornaments by Fournier, full-page engravings by Eisen, and complex spot illustrations and tailpieces by Pierre-Phillippe Choffard. This superb example of Rococo book design combined the ornamented types, decorative initials, elaborate frames and rules, and intricate illustrations typical of the genre. Another artistic collaboration that created beautiful prints is Louis René Luce, the designer, and Jean Joseph Barbou, the printer. The print (right) ornaments page from Essai d’une Nouvelle Typographie, 1771. These meticulously constructed cornices and borders express the authority and absolutism of the French monarchy.

Jean Joseph Barbou

Essai d’une Nouvelle Typographie, 1771. Louis René Luce, the designer, and Jean Joseph Barbou, the printer.

“Tales and Novels in Verse”

Two-page spread from Jean de

La Fontaine’s Contes et nouvelles en vers (1762), printed by Joseph

Gerard Barbou and illustrated by Charles Eisen.



Giambattista Bodoni

iambattista Bodoni was born in Saluzzo, Italy on February 16, 1740. He was born into a printing family. At the age of 18, Bodoni went to Rome and became a pupil of Abbate Ruffierei in the Vatican polyglot press of the Propaganda Fide. In 1768, Giambattista Bodoni was appointed to head of the ducal printers in Parma – the “Stamperia Reale”. His employer, Duke Ferdinand, had nothing less in mind than to accumulate the greatest wealth of Italy’s writings in his print shop. During his work at the “Stamperia Reale”, Bodoni first studied the fonts of Pierre Fournier of Paris; This led to development of his own typefaces. Three years after beginning to work in Parma, Giambattista Bodoni produced his first font pattern book with the title “Saggio tipografivo di fregi e maiuscole”. In order to keep Giambattista Bodoni at his court, Duke Ferdinand allowed him to establish his own printing works in 1791 in his palace, In 1806, Bodoni printed the Lord’s Prayer in

AaBbCcDdEe FfGghIiJjKk LlMmNnOoP pQqRrSsTtU uVvWwXxYy Zz1234567890 19

155 languages, in 1808 the “Iliad” by Homer. Around 1800, Giambattista Bodoni developed a completely new kind of type which refrained from decorative padding and was conceived solely on the criteria of symmetry and proportionality. In this way, the classical font “Bodoni” emerged, a masterpiece of typography, which would be used untold times by other typesetters. Bodoni was the first in the Modern or Didone class of typeface, characterized un bracketed serifs and highly contrasted stroke-widths. Giambattista Bodoni, also known as the “prince of typographers” and “printer of kings”, died in 1813 in Parma. He achieved a purity of form with sparse pages, generous margins and line-spacing, and severe geometric types; this functional purity avoided any distractions from the act of reading. He drew inspiration from Baskerville as he evolved his preferences from Rococo-derived designs toward modern typefaces.

The “Manuale Tipografico”, 1818

After the death of type designer and printer Giambattista Bodoni his widow and foreman published the Manuale tipographico, displaying specimens of the approximately three hundred type fonts, it also included a collection of flowering ornamentals and geometric patterns designed by Bodoni. The page (above) shows the dazzling contrasts and vigorous proportions found in found in Modern Style typefaces. Thick and thin oxford rules echo and complement the letters’ stroke weight.

In 1806, Bodoni printed the Lord’s Prayer in 155 languages


Firmin Didot


irmin Didot, born in Paris France on April 14th, 1764, was a French painter, engraver, and type founder. His family were active designers for about 100 years in the 18th and 19th centuries. They were printers, publishers, typeface designers, and inventors. All founded by François Didot, the father of 11 whom also had their manufactory located in Essonnes. Didot was also known for inventing the word stereotype, which in printing refers to the metal printing plate. In 1783, Firmin cut his first typefaces and rewroked his father’s roman alphabets. Later on in 1797 he was granted a patent for his developments and had his typeface used in his brother’s series mentioned below. In 1812 he was made the director of the Imprimerie Imperiale type

foundry. Firmin usually cut the letters and his brother, Pierre, used them in printing. One example of this is the “Editions du Loucre” series. Firmin was credited with establishing the use of “Modern” typefaces along with Giambattista Bodoni. The typeface Didot was named after the Didot family, it’s considered a modern classification based on a collection of types developed from 1784 - 1811. Firmin cut the letters and cast them in Paris. The type was taken from inspiration from John Baskerville’s experimentation of stroke contrast and a more condensed armature. Firmin then died on April 24th, 1836 in Mesnil-sur-l’Estee, France.

ABCDEFGHIJKL MNOPQRSTUVW XYZ abcdefghijklmnopq rstuvwxyz 1234567890 Didot Regular 20pt typeface (top) Firmin Didot portrait (left)


Hermann Berthold


ermann Berthold was born on August 19th, 1831. He was the son of a calico-printer, an entrepreneur, printer, and German typefounder. He founded the Berlin Institute for Galvanotype which was dedicated to electroplating. He soon became dedicated to the type foundry. The type foundry generally wored from brass instead of lead or zinc which gave it more strength and precision. In 1878 Berthold was given responsibility for all German foundreis in order to set new standards for typography. In 1833 Berthold built the “Berthold House,” now known as the Oechsler Villa in Heringsdorf which showed examples of neoclassical architecture called Baderarchitecktur. In 1858 Berthold established the H. Berthold AG type foundry, based in Berlin. The foundry is best known for the development of the type Akzidenz-Grotesk in 1896. This type formed the basis of most sans-serif fonts such as present day Helvetica. The foundry was taken from predecessors such as John Baskerville and Justus Erich Walbaum. Akzidenz-Grotesk was believed to be derived from Walbaum or Didot, design wise and the contemporary versions descend from a late-1950s project directed by Jimmy Lazar. The sans-serif typeface was known as Standard in the United States. “Akzidenz” is German for “schrift” and “grotesk” meaning sans-serif. Later on in 1978, with the aid of Professor Foerster, made a basic unit measurement for type. Birthing the first system of typographic measurement. The unit was that 1m was equal to 2,660 typographic points. Berthold ran his foundry until 1888 and then died in 1904 at his villa in Grunewald.

Hermann Berthold Portrait (top)

Akzidenz-Grotesk typeface (bottom)


Geoffroy Tory


eoffroy Tory, born in Bourges around 1480, was a French humanist and engraver. Tory is known mainly for adding accents on letters in French such as the apostrophe, cedilla, and other simple punctuation marks. He heavily influenced French publishing. Early in his life he decided to attend a local university in Paris where he developed an interest in Latin literature. Later on Tory left Bourges for Italy and studied in Rome at Sapenzia and later on in Bologna where he studied under Philip Beroaldus. After his studies he returned back to Paris in 1505 where he would work as a bookbinder, editor of texts, and corrector for the press. In 1508, Tory developed his first book, the Pomponius Mela. Upon developing this book, Tory started to gain a large reputation, later on becoming one of the youngest professors to teach at the College du Plessis a year later. In 1514 he married the widow of his friend, in which later had a daughter whom he named Agnes. Tory decided to teach all of his life’s work to her. Unfortunately Agnes died at the age of 9 for reasons unknown. The death of his daughter put Tory into a period of depression, during which he wrote several pieces of poetry, also making his printers mark that of an urn, representing what his daughter’s ashes were in. The poetry that he wrote generally consisted of talking about how lucky he was to have his daughter and the influence she brought upon him. After his depression Tory discovered The Book of Hours. He made a copy of it in which is dedicated to him and still known as the most famous. This book consisted of 16 full page borders and 13 large woodcuts. There are 17 known copies of the 23

1531 version. Through this he gained specific privileges with King François I to publish his own works. Later on in 1529, Tory published a very important and influential work of that time, the Champfleury. Champfleury translates to flowery fields, also a French idiom for paradise. The Champfleury was divided into 3 books. It was mainly about the proper use of French, ranged from the alphabet to the proper use of grammar. Subtitled “The Art and Science of the Proportion of the Attic or Ancient Roman Letters, According to the Human Body and Face” In the Champfleury, Tory used a square-shaped grid. This book also set the standard to French publishing, which is still seen in the present. In 1530 he became the official printer to King Francis I and two years later the librarian at the University of Paris. It’s unknown as to when Tory died, however it’s assumed before October 14th, 1533 because the lease claimed that his wife was widowed. Some other facts about Tory was that he was greatly inspired by the human body, which was shown in the Champfleury. he believed that the proportions of letters reflected the human form, writing, “the crossstroke covers the man’s organ of generation, to signify that Modesty and Chastity are required, before all else, in those who seek acquaintance with well-shaped letters.”

2-page spread of Geoffroy Tory’s Champfleury (top)

2-page spread of Geoffroy Tory’s The Book of Hours (left) Page taken from Champfleury (bottom)


George Bickham


eorge Bickham the Elder, born in 1684, was an English writing master and engraver. He is best known for his work in The Universal Penman, which helped popularize the English Round Hand script. In 1712 he wrote copy books and business texts, linking between writing and mathematics. In 1733, Bickham collected from 25 London writing masters to create and engrave samples of penmanship, forming the Universal Penman. Later on Bickman published The British Monarchy, a collection of 188 plates of historical notes, 43 plates of the view of English and Welsh counties. It wasn’t really a map, but it had map-like qualities. George Bickham the Younger, his son, kept the engraving tradition alive.

George Bickham’s British Monarchy page (top) The Penman’s Advice (left)


George Bickham the Elder, Engraver portrait

Printing Technologies


ne of the printing technologies of the era that was created during the 1700s and 1800s is the Stereotype. The Stereotype is also known as the cliche stereoplate or just stereo for short. The name is originally meant for a solid plate of type metal. Type metal is the metal alloys used for the typesetting, the composition consists of lead, tin, and antimony. The Stereotype was invented by William Ged in 1725. Ged used the plates for the Bible. The words “cliche” and “stereotype” were both originally printers’ words before other meanings came into play that are used now. The stereotype is used in letterpress, newspaper, and other high-speed press runs, the process is made by locking in type in place in form of a mat, the mat is then used as a mold to cast the stereotype. Another piece of technology that was made during the 1800’s was the Rotary press, invented by Richard M. Hoe. The rotary press printed one sheet on a flat plate, however the difference was that the plate was continuously wrapped around a rotating cylinder, allowing for multiple copies to be made. This was innovative at the time because it sped up the process of printmaking. In 1886 the Linotype was made, a very important invention, the first real advance in printing. The linotype was a machine where the operator could sit and type at a keyboard, whereas the machine would arrange the characters typed out in lines of type. The linotype was invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. The last piece to mention that made its process into the 1800’s is the technology advancement to photo engraving. This

process allowed photographs to be printed on press. The process used screens to produce half-tones, small dots, through the use of chemicals. The first example known was made by Joseph Niepce.

Stereotype plate mold (top)

Linotype machine (middle)

Rotary press machine (bottom)



The Stanford Encyclopedia oThe European Graduate School: Graduate & Postgraduate Studies. “Denis Diderot-Biography.” Last modified April 02, 2015. http://www.egs. edu/library/denis-diderot/biography/. I utilized The European Graduate School: Graduate & Postgraduate Studies to research who Denis Diderot was. I learned about his life, his interests, and how he got his start. I also learned about the history of the Encyclopédie and how Diderot contributed to its creation. Wikipedia. “Age of Enlightenment.” Last modified March 30, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment. I used the Wikipedia page for The Age of Enlightenment to get a grasp on the overall events and changes that occurred during the Enlightenment. It also told me how important philosophers were, and introduced me to Denis Diderot. The Philosophy provided me with more general information on the Enlightenment.I also found more information on the Encyclopédie and how the Enlightenment was essentially based around its creation. Carter, Rob, Ben Day, and Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: Form and Communication. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, inc, 2012. From reading this book, I learned how the type design changed from Old Style to Modern Style within the 18th century. Wikipedia. “Encyclopédie.” Last modified April 02, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Encyclop%C3%A9die. Wikipedia provided me with more information on how the Encyclopédie was created and what who was all involved in the process. It allowed me to get an overview of its creation before I went into further research.


California State University. “Typography & Graphic Design: Renaissance to Rococo Era.” http://www.csun.edu/~pjd77408/DrD/ Art461/LecturesAll/Lectures/lecture03a. html. The California State University “Typography & Graphic Design: Renaissance to Rococo Era” told me about the designers of the typographic book designs during the Renaissance. I also discovered that Italian printers influenced the design of this time period. The origin of the typographic book was also revealed and what designers loved during this time. Dodd, Robin. From Gutenberg to Opentype: An Illustrated History of Type from the Earliest Letterforms to the Latest Digital Fonts. Lewes: Ilex, 2006. Print. From Gutenberg to Opentype: An Illustrated History of Type from the Earliest Letterforms to the Digital Fonts told me about Louis Simonneau’s career as a designer of typefaces. I also learned about “Romain du Roi”, what went into its creation, and who created it. Wikipedia. “Philippe Grandjean.” Last modified November 14, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_Grandjean. Wikipedia gave me a very brief explanation of who Grandjean was and what he did. It also told me a little bit about “Romain du Roi.” Bartram, Alan. Typeforms: a History. London: British Library, 2007. Print. I then came upon Typeforms: a History which told me a little more about “Romain du Roi” and how Grandjean was a part of its creation. Wikipedia. “Pierre Simon Fournier.” Last modified March 16, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Simon_Fournier.

Wikipedia provided a good amount of information on Fournier, but I only utilized the short overview of who he was and what he did so that I could research in a more reliable source. Updike, Daniel Berkeley. Printing Types: Their History, Forms and Use. 4th ed. Expanded. Delaware: Oak Knoll Press. 2001. Print. I then went to Printing Types: Their History, Forms and Use, when reading through this text I was able to find more detailed information on Fournier. I particularly liked what he said about his typeface, which I used in a quote in the presentation. Carter, Rob, Ben Day, and Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: Form and Communication. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, inc, 2012. I utilized the timeline in Typographic Design: Form and Communication to gather a short background on Caslon’s typeface. Britannica. “William Caslon: English Printer.” Last Modified December 15,2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98016/William-Caslon. Then I went to Britannica to find more detailed information on Caslon’s life and how his career started. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “John Pine”, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. accessed March 31, 2015. http:// www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1364832/John-Pine. Portrait of John Pine and Information about life and works of John Pine, including death and birth dates, works, family and accomplaishments.

Philip B. Meggs. Art, Graphic Design. Alternate title: visual communications. Rococo Graphic Design. http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/1032864/graphic-design/242763/Rococo-graphic-design. Information including works and life of Robert Clee. “Rococo Style | Design.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/506448/Rococo-style>. Information on the Rococo era. Timperley, Charles Henry. A Dictionary of Printers and Printing, with the Progress of Literature; Ancient and Modern;. London: H. Johnson, 1839. Google Ebook. Information on works and bookselling and engraving in Paris. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/1032864/graphic-design/242763/Rococo-graphic-design>. Barbou Tales and Novels in Verse Print: “Rococo Graphic Design.” “08-15.” 08-15. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <http:// higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/ meggs/0471699020/html/Chapter08/ slides/08-15.html>. Image designed by Luce and Created by Barboua. Carter, Rob. Typographic design: Form and communication. Pg. 304. Ben Day, Phillip Meggs, Sandra Maxa, Mark Sanders. Sixth Edition. 2015. Information about Modern Typefaces and Manuale Tipografico. 28

“Beauty and Ugliness in Type Design — I Love Typography.” I Love Typography RSS. 25 Sept. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <http:// ilovetypography.com/2012/09/25/beautyand-ugliness-in-type-font-design/>. Information about Bodoni design style and Image of Mauale Tipographico. Baines, Phil and Andrew Haslam. Type and Typography Second Edition. Pg. 47. Waston- Guptill Publications, New York. 2005. Information about Modern Typefaces. “Firmin Didot.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmin_Didot>. “Font Designer – Firmin Didot.” Firmin Didot. Linotype, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://www.linotype.com/370/firmindidot. html>. “Didot (typeface).” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didot_(typeface)>. I used these sources to find the information about Firmin Didot, his family, and some information about the Didot typeface. Wikipedia helped start me off in finding information and gave me a good general idea. Linotype was a great place to go to as well. “Hermann Berthold.” « MyFonts. MyFonts, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <https://www.myfonts.com/person/Hermann_Berthold/>. “Hermann Berthold.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_ Berthold>.


“Akzidenz-Grotesk.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akzidenz-Grotesk>. “Berthold Type Foundry.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berthold_Type_Foundry>. I used MyFonts and Wikipedia to find the information on Hermann Berthold. The information given told me about his life, the type foundry that he founded and some information about the famous typeface that they made, Akzidenz-Grotesk. The information was a bit hard to decipher since it was in French, however using my prior knowledge of French and checking the translated version allowed me to get what I needed. “Geoffroy Tory | Biography - French Printer.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/600302/Geoffroy-Tory>. “Geoffroy Tory.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffroy_Tory>. “A Brief History of Typefaces.” (n.d.): n. pag. Thinkingwithtype.com. Thinking With Type. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://www. thinkingwithtype.com/misc/type_lecture/ Type_Lecture.pdf>. I used these sources to figure out all that I needed about Geoffroy Tory and his life. It was interesting to read so much on his French influence and of his daughter. The Thinking With Type pdf was very useful in using examples of his work during the Humanist period. “George Bickham the Elder.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ George_Bickham_the_Elder>.

There wasn’t too much about George Bickham, but what I could find mainly was on Wikipedia. This website told me about what he was mainly known for, The Universal Penman and the British Monarchy, and the fact that he was a master at engraving and English writing. “Key Historical Developments in Printing Technology.” Key Historical Developments in Printing Technology (n.d.): n. pag. MTSU School of Journalism. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://mtsujournalism.org/vcom_materials/history/print_timeline.pdf>. “Stereotype | Printing.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://www. britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/565675/ stereotype>. “Stereotype (printing).” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereotype_ (printing)>. These sources helped me scour the Internet and find out what kind of printing technologies were made during the 1700’s and 1800’s. I found out that the Stereotype, Rotary Press, Engraved Photo technology, and Linotype was made. These are all important advances, much help from the MTSU School of Journalism for making it easy to understand.


Industrial Revolution From 1760-1830





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25 31

St. Nicholas Restaurant advertising shell oysters

Lose Weight the easy way try LARD-BE-GONE advertistment


y the 1880s, advertisement seemed to take on a driving aspect of its own, and focused on the creation of “wants” and “needs” in the growingconsumer population. In order to create a market for certain items, clever businessmen would advertise products in careful language, designed to influence potential buyers into seeing the necessity of owning particular products. Evidence of this is seen in the growing number of appliances such as cooking stoves, washing machines, and sewing machines produced at this time, and found within “modern” households. Advertisements appealed to women especially, detailing how the possession of a cooking stove, for instance, was guaranteed to reduce the toil and labor of the kitchen, and thus free time for “nurturing” the family according to the values and standards of the day.


the kitchen, and thus free time for “nurturing” the family according to the values and standards of the day. Women were intended, in a sense, to be the principle consumers of the new market economy. In creating wants and needs in a population of consumers, advertisement was instrumental in paving the way for successful capitalism in America. Advertising played an increasingly important role in the financial performance of American newspapers and magazines. In 1880, advertising represented 44 percent of publishers’ revenue; that is, $39 million of the $89 million in total revenue that publishers of all types of periodicals received. In the aggregate, daily newspapers received 49 percent of their revenue from advertising and 51 percent from readers. Less frequent periodicals were much less reliant on advertisers: 39 percent of their revenue came from advertising

Exvelsior Ginger Ale printed in 1885 by John Klee

Perhaps the most significant trend discernible during the last two decades of the nineteenth century was not the raw growth of advertising, as impressive as it was; rather, it was the utilization of advertising to introduce new products, to homogenize tastes, and to create demand. The last decade also witnessed the growth of national, as opposed to regional, advertising campaigns. Eleven million advertisements appeared in some 2,000 American newspapers in 1847, according to an estimate made the following year. . . . By 1854, with the population only 25 per cent. larger, the estimated number of publications in the United States had grown 100 per cent., or to 4,000. These figures present a quick index to the increasing interest in newspaper advertising which made it possible to maintain so many papers.

Naylors Dog Show Poster (1879)





he carbon process of photography was invented by Alphonse-Louis Poitevin in 1855 and further developed between 1864 and 1874 by Joseph Swan and John Sawyer, whose research led to the introduction of so-called carbon tissue, which became a key component of both photogravure and rotogravure printing during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. The light sensitivity of dichromate-sensitized carbon tissue attracted the attention of Klíč, who was aware of the Talbot process and was trying to improve upon it by depositing a grain-forming, resinous powder directly on the surface of a copper plate. In 1877 Klíč succeeded in depositing a highly uniform layer of resin on a copper plate; he then bonded resin particles to the copper plate by heat. He later experimented with transferring dichromate-sensitized carbon tissue to a resin particle copper plate and exposing it under a positive. This was followed by the removal of the paper substrate from the copper plate–carbon tissue–paper substrate sandwich. The resin grain coated copper plate was then etched, through the exposed but undeveloped carbon tissue, using a series of ferric chloride solutions of decreasing concentrations. The industrialization of the printing process continued with the development of the cylinder press, invented in London by the German designers Koenig and Bauer. This carried the paper over the type on a rolling mechanization. One of the first steam-powered presses was installed at The Times newspaper in London in 1814. Mechanization quickly spread to most major newspapers, but book-publishing houses continued to make use of hand-presses throughout the 19th century.




he first truly fat roman typeface is believed to have been introduced by prominent London type founder Robert Thorne, in 1803. This was a period of invention and discovery , when Europe was experiencing an enormous expansion of trade and commmerce. As innovation in printing technology improved and enterprising new trades began to flourish, so did the demand for print advertising. Job printers who formerly relied on printing books soon discovered new sources of commercial print work. Thorne responded to this new surge in advertising by designing his “improved printing types” expressly for job printers composing short lines of large text. His bold new, call caps fat face, which looked more like a Didone on steroids, proved to be wildly succesful and was largely responsible for altering the appearance of advertising in this era. The Slab Serif or Egyptian is also home to further subsets of typeface styles, like the Fat Faces which are fundamentally Didones (or Moderns) on steroids.


Take a Modern style typeface, give its thicker strokes even more weight, triangulate some of those serifs, and you have a Fat Face. You might be familiar with types like Poster Bodoni. Bodoni is of course a Modern style type but, carrying all that extra weight, it’s a Fat Face. The Fat Face, then, is basically an Obese Didone.

Genius is nothing but a great aptitude for patience. Although Thorne never published another book of specimens after 1803, he came very close to completing one, and he continued turning out bold new fonts at his Fann Street Foundry until his death in 1820. After Robert Thorne’s death, the Fann Street Foundry was put up for auction, and purchased by William Thorowgood in 1820 from winnings he received in a state lottery. Although Thorowgood had no previous experience in type founding, he quickly learned his ‘p’s and ‘q’s. Months later, he published 132 pages of Thorne’s composed specimens which remained after his death, including the first showing of his original fat face with the ill-fitting title of “Five-lines Pica, No. 5”.

7 Portrait of Robert Thorne


he British punch-cutter and typefounder Vincent Figgins (1766-1844) ran a notable London typefoundry and is credited with designing the first Egyptian (slab serif) typeface, which he simply named ‘Antique’ and released in 1815. Figgins was originally apprenticed to the typefounder Joseph Jackson, a student of William Caslon I, and established his own typefoundry in Swan Yard, Holborn Bridge, in 1792. Figgins’ designs reflected a trend in the early nineteenth century toward the use of bolder types, rather than the lighter faces popular at the end of the previous century. The new style of types met with a mixed reception, with descriptions of them ranging from “the most brilliant typographical innovation of the nineteenth century” to them being described as a “typographical monstrosity”. Figgins is also believed to have introduced the term ‘sans-serif ’, with the introduction of a typeface of that name in 1836.

Specimen of Printing Types by Vincent Figgins



illiam Caslon IV is best known as the designer of the first sans serif typeface, though sans serif lettering had existed for some time. He was the great grandson of the original William Caslon,son of William Caslon III who had purchased the Joseph Jackson foundry in 1792 creating a second Caslon foundry. William IV took over the business in 1807 and was evidently very creative. He invented two part matrices for casting large letters and a method of casting wedge shaped letters for cylinder printing. In 1816 William IV issued a specimen book that showed a single line of upper case sans serif letters labeled â&#x20AC;&#x153;2 Line English Egyptianâ&#x20AC;? or about 28 points in size. Though Egyptian has come to refer to slab serif types only, it originally referred to all monotone or monoline stroke types. It is not known why he cut the sans, whether it was cut for a client or as an experiment, but there was no interest in it and several years would pass before more sans serif types appeared. In 1819 William IV sold the foundry to Blake, Garnett & Co., which was formed specifically to purchase the company. They moved the company from London to Sheffield, England where it flourished and eventually became the Stephenson Blake foundry. William IV concentrated on developing a coal-gas system for lighting.

Portrait of William Caslon IV


MANUAL TIPOGRAPHICO Manuel of Typography by Giambattista Bodoni


Scanned Portrait of Giambattista Bodoni


elebrated printer and type designer Giambattista Bodoni set the standard for printing the alphabet his Manuale tipographico (1818). The two-volume set—published posthumously in a limited edition of 250—features 142 sets of roman and italic typefaces, a wide selection of borders, ornaments, symbols, and flowers,as well as Greek, Hebrew, Russian, Arabic, Phoenician, Armenian, Coptic, and Tibetan alphabets. Official printer for the Duke of Parma, Bodoni (1740-1813) declared that well-designed type derived its beauty from four principles: uniformity of design, sharpness and neatness, good taste, and charm. His typefaces display an unprecedented degree of technical refinement, and epitomize purity and grace. The culmination of more than four decades of work, the Manuale tipografico represents one of history’s great est typographical achievements. The Bodoni typeface is still widely used even today, both in digital media and in print, and meticulous reprint of Bodoni’s masterwork gives readers a rare opportunity to explore the origins of the Bodoni typeface and learn about its creator. Duke of Parma gives Bodoni permission to open his own printing works.The first books to be published are volumes of Greek, Roman and Italian classics. Bodoni died in 1813; his widow, Paola Margherita, finished the book he was working on at the tiem of his death, the Manuale

Scanned Pages from the Manuel of Typography

Tipographico, which was finally published in 1818. He was a rare example of an early type designer who actually made some money out of his work; at the height of his success he was even recieving 300 francs a year from no less than Napoleon Bonaparte. However, what is now percieved as a general decline in printing standards in the nineteenth century took its toll on the fine strokes of Modern face, which explains in part the reaction printing works.The first books to be published are volumes of Greek, Roman and Italian classics. Bodoni died in 1813; his widow, Paola Margherita, finished the book he was working on at the tiem of his death, the Manuale Tipographico, which was finally published in 1818. He was a rare example of an early type designer who actually made some money out of his work; at the height of his success he was even recieving 300 francs a year from no less than Napoleon Bonaparte. However, what is now percieved as a general decline in printing standards in the nineteenth century took its toll on the fine strokes of Modern face, which explains in part the reaction against them. It was only in the twentieth century that Bodoni experienced a revival.




he chromolithographs is a printing process where different color separations are printed from a group of lithographic stones to create a full color image. In the beginning, a red outline is drawn in red chalk and than the colors are separated and transferred to the stone. Many chromolithographs were sold for under 10$ in the late 19th century and were very popular to the middle class family. Louis Prang, a famous lithographer and publisher, strongly supported the production of chromolithographs. Heavy oil-based inks ranging in blues and reds all helped create the effect prevented the colors from fading over periods of time. These chromolithographs often fool the human eye; a lot of times people think they are just looking at an ordinary original oil painting. The quality of these lithographs is incredible and were often sold door to door Chromolithographs were most often published by Louis Prang who became the most successful American publisher of chromolithograph prints after the Civil War.

8x magnification

Image used with permission of Bamber Gascoigne from his book, How to Identify Prints.

12 Magazine illustration c.1880

Salesmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Christmas card sample c.1885



ecorative is another name used for Ornamental Typeface that’s full of colorful and decorative faces that awaked in the Industrial Revolution. While the type face is recongnizable it has a touch of embellishing aspects. There are many aesthetic influences that revolve around the architecture and and exaggerated flowering forms of the Victorian time people. This style of typeface continued all the way through 19th century and even made its way through the 20th centuray as well. Ornamental letterforms have many influences and often reflect from developing in architecture and the graphic arts. Often times, ornamental has many Victorian characteristics catergorizing it into the groups of Medieval, Egyptian, classical, and even gothic. The faces are in capital only and are composed of decro

tive forms of foliage, rustic work, human form, and even abstract forms. Different popular sub catergories in the ornamental type include Gill Floriated, Castellar, Pepperwood, and Bodoni Classic. Eric Gill drew single characteristics for his Perpetua type and Gill Floriated fed off the type face in the early 20th century. It’s often times used with Perpetua and is often used with capital letters. Castellar was created in 1957 by John Peters. It is also all capitals and is often used with Humanist typefaces. Kim Buker Chansler, Carol Twombly, Carl Crossgrove created Pepperwood in the year of 1994 for Adobe. This font is more extravagant and has many decorative points. Bodoni Classic was created by Gert Weisher and has decorative floaral faces as well. It is very similar to Bodoni’s Fournier.



he slab serif is a form characteristic that contributes to the new industrial age emerging with the promotion and packaging aspect. It was originated in the 18th century with architecture and sign writing. The slab-serif letterform is reletively new in typogrpahic history. It was invented in a quite unique way. It was actually created by an English invention and was first triggered by the need for communication. People thought it would be easier to read posters, bills, and signs with a more bold lettering. With the Industrial Revolution and economy booming with the industries slab serif was very beneficial. Slab-serif typefaces developed from a large-scale display of letters that were often used in woodblock letter press printing and even lettering that was used in architecture. Many different relief forms including Clarendon and Egyptian were casted in metal and often appeared in Victorian architecture, projects, posters, and many other materials that were promotional. But the big question is what exactly makes up a slab-serif typeface? Slab-serif is a general term meaning that typefaces have a square-cut, slab-like serifs. Some different sub catergories include egyptian, antique, clarendon, and ionic. During the early nineteenth century, type faces began to really speak and have their own voice and many slab-serifs including egyptians and antiques did just that. There are many chacteristic features to the slab seriftype face that makes it so unique including short


descenders, bracketed serifs with square ends, vertical stresses, and different variations in stroke transitions. In the 1970s and 1980s the letterforms of slab serif developed for uses in typewriters. Slab serif differentiated from many other typefaces, in which the type face was a solid form and gave much stability in the width of the letter while using a typewriter. Clarendon unlike other slab serifs actually have brackits and differentiate in size in the actual serif creating contrast. Clarendon is very similar to other designs including Egyptienne with the same bold and stroke weight. Neo-gortesque has no bracketing and is weighted evenly with stems and serifs including Rockwell, Memphis, and Lubalin. The Italienne model have heavier stems and a more dramatic affect while the the slab serif typefaces are different in which they have a format with a fixed-width and every character takes up the same amount of horizontal space. Because of slab-serifs bold characterists, they are more used in headlines and are great for advertisments. Very seldom are slab-serifs are used in body text. One exception to this rule is to UK’s newspaper called, “The Guardian”, which has the slab-serif Guardian Egyptian used throughout the the paper’s headlines and body.

October 1853 Oxford Auction 02



ood has been used for many letter forms starting pack in 868 CE and was known as Chinese wood block prints. In today’s world, many wood types are jsut rubber-stamps, but when they were first created they carved them out of wood. Many types that were carved out of metal often time created uneven surfaces and would actually break during the cooling process. Carving the letters out of wood allowed the letter to be bigger as well giving it more availability to create promotional items, advertisements, etc. Wood was light, efficiant, less expensive than metal, and had great printing qualities. The first published woodtype was made in the year of 1827 by Darius Wells of New York. The usual steps to creating the wood type was to first draw the letter on the wood and then cut around the letter. To make this process easier, Wells came up with the invention that helped the designer gain more control while cutting while decreasing the time it took. This invention was called the lateral router and often referred to as the Wells router. There were many other different designers that designed and helped manufacture wood type as well. Edwin Allen helped the woodtype production by inveint a pantograph-router that allowed independent cut-typing. He had his own shop in South Windham, North


Carolina. John Cooley later took over Edwin’s shop and was eventually renamed Tubbs Manufacturing Company that was moved to Ludington, Michigan. The business was sold to Hamilton Mfg Co in 1899. The manufacturing of wood type took a major leap in 1880 when the holly wood type was introduced. Hamilton had major economic advantages due to this introduction and led him to gain different machinery to create type and using different methods. Wood-cut has came a long ways sing the 1800’s and has been evident in the type history. It was invention that created so many advantages for the design world and has made a big impact on art.

Photograph by Olivia Konert


Portrait of Rob Roy Kelly (from the back flap of “American Wood Type: 1828–1900”, 1969 Van Nostrand Reinhold hardcover edition)



he Rob Roy Kelly Wood Type Collection was manufactured and used for printing during the 19th century. Rob Roy Kelly was a design educator, collector and historian collected wood type from many of his students at the Minneapolis College of Art & Design. He first pubished his research that he had gathered on the different woodtypes in the year of 1963. It was published in the issue of Design Quarterly and then proceeded to be published in American Wood Types, Volume One. His work was all accumulated and published in the final book titled, “American Wood Type: Notes on the Evolution of Decorated and Large Types and Comments on Related Trades of the Period. Later in his life Rob Roy Kelly sold the collection to Dr. Bernard Karpel, the head librarian of “The Museum of Modern Art” due to Rob Roy Kelly being unable to maintain the large collection. Kelly has published over 100 faces with many


decorative type as well. His collection remains available to many students and scholars and even is available on current website that was launched to dedicate the collection. The collection is made up of over 160 faces including the most popular of the 1800’s, they range in size and styles.

Page 5 from the American Wood Type Mfg. Co. Catalog No 36


Fold-out of fat face from the 1825 Fann Street Foundry type specimen book at the Butler Library. (Source: Daily Type Specimen)

Backslanted italic fat face from the 1815 Figgins type specimen at Butler Library. (Source: Daily Type Specimen) English Battledore published by William Davison in 1830.

Fold-out of fat face from the 1825 Fann Street Foundry type specimen book at the Butler Library. (Source: Daily Type Specimen)




he “Fat Face” types were inspired by modern fonts and typically were used to grab the viewer’s att ention with its large size. It was also very

common to use “fat faces”for advertising. It first appeared in 1810 and have characterists of slab verticals and a wedge shape. There are many different typfaces that are categorized under “Fat Face” including Bodoni Ultra, Normande, and Elephant. It is believed that Robert Thorne created the first type face for the purpose of posters and broadsheets. This brought a change in the way books and advertisments were sold. In the 1800’s posters were often times used to promote lotteries and using the big, bold, heavy, loud characteristics that “Fat Faces” had helped encourage the production. Not only were they used for advertisements and posters, they were also used as title pages for brochures, news pamphlets, and ballads. During the time that Thorne created the first “Fat Face”, a lot of disoveries and inventions was being discovered in Europe a long with an enormous amount of trade. Given what was all going on during this time period, Thorne’s improved type face was incredibly successful.

Five-Line pica nº 5, Thorowgood, 1821. St Bride Printing Library.



hat exactly is Condensed font? The difference between condensed and regualr is that condensed font has two set-widths that are more narrow and are the majority of the time taller than wide. There are millions of fonts that have condensed and extra condensed varitions but some popular fonts include Bernard Condensed, Franklin Gothic Condensed, Gill Sans Condensed, and Liberation Sans Narrow. The main goal of why Condensed and Extra Condensed were invented was to do one simple thing, save space. In a lot of different publicantions, headlines, title pages, posters, etc. Condensed and Extra Condensed are used in order to save the designer more space. There are many advantages to condensing the font and many disadvantages as well. Yes, it saves room on the page but it can also create misleading information. Sometimes when designers up the font size while using a condensed font it often creates the legibility of the writing to decrease. They create a really unique style and are great in small quanity but when used to much they might create distortions in the text and are not as effective. Condensend fonts are hard to pair with other type faces when not thought out thoroughly. They can also cause problems when a designeris working with color. With


the thin strokes its often hard to read when the color on the backgroud is not contrasted well enough. They were created for a reason though and they do have some great advantages as well. They can add a huge amount of effectiveness when used in headers that have very few letters and they can add to make a great element to a design piece especially when the piece is looked at more for the element rather than to comprehend and read information. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a great variation of font when it is used standing alone rather in a body of text. Like all things, condensed and extra condensed letters have their pros and cons but over all the variation has made a positive impact in the design world.


OTTMAR MERGENTHALER and the Linotype Machine


ttmar Mergenthaler (1854-1899) invented the Linotype machine, the first widely used typesetting machine. This machine removed the necessity of handsetting type and greatly increased the efficiency of publication. Originally from Hachtel, Germany, Mergenthaler emigrated to the United States when he was 18. He found employment at his cousin’s machine shop and it was there, in 1876, a customer asked him to make improvements to a prototype typesetting machine. Mergenthaler moved far beyond the original scope of the project and premiered the Linotype machine at the New York Tribune in 1886. The machine itself was reportedly named by Tribune editor Whitelaw Reid’s exclamation “Ottmar, you’ve done it! A line o’ type.” The linotype machine was based on the use of small brass matrixes with concave impressions of letterforms. These matrices were precisely deployed from vertical tubes based on operation from a 90 key typewriter. Once a line of type was completed, lead was poured into the arranged letters to create a single slug of raised type. After completion, the matrices were automatically returned to their appropriate magazines for reuse. The typesetter could arrange the next line of type while the first was being cast. Text was automatically justified and the linotype could cast lines up to thirty picas in length The Linotype could do the work of seven to ten hand typesetters and its introduction initially lead to strikes and labor disputes as highly skilled hand-typesetters became obsolete. Despite this, the linotype ultimately caused a boom in the publishing industry with employment rising to meet demand. The price of newspapers declined and their page count increased dramatically. Book publication greatly expanded allowing publishers to explore niche genres. Linotypes stayed in wide use until the 1960s and 1970s when they were replaced by phototypesetting and computers.


Above: Ottmar Mergenthaller Below: The linotype machine

TOLBERT LANSTON and the Monotype Machine


olbert Lanston (1844-1913) invented the Monotype typesetting system which cast single characters from hot metal. The monotype debuted in 1887. The monotype was composed of a keyboard and a typecaster. The operator used the keyboard to generate a perforated paper strip. The strip was loaded into the typecaster were compressed air was driven through the punched holes to determine the type to be cast. Hot metal was forced into matrices and then assembled in galleys after cooling. The monotype could generate a maximum line length of 60 picas and cast 150 characters per minute. Monotype machines had certain advantages over the linotype. It allowed corrections by changing individual letters instead of entire lines of text. Monotypes had a larger variety of characters available for use. As the components of the machine were separate, text could be generated away from the noise of the casting machine.

Above: Tolbert Lanston Below: Monotype keyboard and matrix case arrangement plate




The imprint for William Morris’ Kelmscott Press

The Kelmscott Press edition of Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Published in 1896, it included 87 illustrations by Edward Burne-Jones


he Kelmscott Press was a private publishing house and type foundry founded by designer William Morris (18431896) in 1890. Morris had a long and productive career as an artist, designer, and writer before founding Kelmscott. Kelmscott was a result of decades of Morris’ exploration and analysis of typeface design and printing. Morris had studied Medieval illuminated manuscripts in 1850s during Oxford undergrad and in 1860s produced studies for deluxe books in Medieval style with Pre-Raphaelite artist Edward Burne-Jones. Morris established a private printing house out of a cottage near the Kelmscott Manor in Hammersmith, England, and named the new business Kelmscott Press. Kelmscott produced the highest quality books with handmade paper similar to 15th century styles, handcut woodblocks, meticulous initials and borders, and sourcing excellent vellum and leather for binding. Kelmscott Press alone created a renaissance of blackletter typeface, with incunabula Gothic types being adapted into the remarkably legible Troy typeface. Before being disbanded in 1898, Kelmscott produced 18,000 volumes of 53 different titles. Morris’ Kelmscott Press stimulated a revival of fine book design and printing. Ironically, this was taken up by the industrial commercial publishing industry which he had sought to defy. Morris’ artdecorating firm produced high-quality and stylish furniture which showed artistic innovation in textiles, glass, paper, and ceramics. The economic and social disruption of industrialization, concerned Morris and he sought to show the beauty of applied design and quality craftsmanship. He was a leader of the English Arts and Crafts movement and he was heavily involved in the protection of architectural treasures, condemning false advertising, and opposing the economic exploitation of the poor.

Auguste and Louis


ouis (1864-1948) and Auguste (1862-1954) Lumiére became pioneers in art and cinema by developing the Cinématographe which allowed for motion pictures to be shown to a large audience.The Lumiére brothers were the sons of Antoine Lumière, a portrait painter who later became a supplier of photographic materials. After attending technical school, the brothers worked for their father manufacturing photographic plates. Inspired by Edison’s Kinetoscope, which could only be viewed by one person, the Lumiére brothers set about developing cameras and projectors specifically for motion pictures. They patented the Cinématographe in 1895; the single machine was a combination camera, projector, and printer. Using a mechanism similar to a sewing machine, perforated film was moved along by a claw pulldown. The machine was hand-cranked and showed film at 16 frames per second. The first screening was on March 22, 1895 showing 25 seconds of employees leaving the family factory.

Top: Auguste and Louis Lumiére Bottom: A frame of the first motion picture exhibited by the Lumiére brothers in 1895



Henri de Toulouse Lautrec’s poster Moulin Rouge: La Goulue (1891)


rt Nouveau was an international artistic movement that held sway at the turn of the 20th century. Art Nouveau was a holistic movement encompassing a wide variety of media: architecture, fashion, product design, ceramics, graphics, and others. The Art Nouveau style began to emerge in artistic expositions of the 1880s with inspirations drawn from the Arts and Crafts movement, Japanese wood block prints, Rococo architectural revivalism, Symbolism, and Pre-Raphaelite art styles. The term Art Nouveau itself originated in 1895 in Paris at Salon de l’Art Nouveau, a cutting edge gallery that served as an international meeting place for young artists. The style was visually typified by graceful, organic lines, abstract forms, and arabesques. Unlike the Arts and Crafts movement, Art Nouveau was more abstract and was willing to embrace mass


production instead of react against it. A large number of artists across many disciplines were part of the art nouveau movement.A large number of artists across many disciplines were part of the art nouveau movement. Jules Chéret (1836-1932) was a French painter and lithographer whose Belle Époque posters were an early example of Art Nouveau. Emile Gallé (1846-1904) was a French glass artist whose mass-produced designs were at the forefront of Art Nouveau. Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) was a Czech painter whose depictions of the female form in posters exemplified the movement and became a standard for advertisements. Henry Van de Velde (1863-1957) was a Belgian art theorist and interior designer whose curvilinear style was archetypal to Art Nouveau. René Lalique (1860-1945) was a French artist who created naturalistic glass art and jewelry. Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) was an American artist most known for his glass work including jewelry and lamps. William H Bradley (1868-1962) was an American illustrator and artist who created the typefaces Bradley Type, Wayside Roman, Missal Initials, Bewick Roman, and Vanity Initials. Henri de ToulouseLautrec (1864-1901) was a French painter and printer who was influenced by Post-Impressionist art. Theophile Steinlen (18591923) was a Swiss painter and printmaker renowned for his poster art. In Germany the Art Nouveau style was key to the Jugendstil movement, the Secession movement in Austria, and Modernsime in Spain. Art Nouveau had a major influence on art, graphic design, architecture, and advertising. Elements were further explored in Art Deco, De Stijl, and Bauhaus.

Packaging designs by Henry van de Velde for Tropon (1898)

Théophile Steinlen’s poster Tournee du Chat Noir de Rodolphe Salis (1896)

Right: Alphonse Mucha’s poster Gismonda(1894)




rederic Goudy (1865-1947) was one of the most prolific American type designers. His typefaces included Camelot (his first, developed in 1896), Copperplate Gothic, Kennerley, and Goudy Old Style. Inspired by the Kelmscott Press, Goudy pursued a career in typography aspiring to work for purposes beyond merely commercialism and publicity. Goudyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s designs harkened back to the early years of printing and had the refined edge typical of fine press. A total of 122 typefaces are attributed to him and this number does not include typefaces lost when several of his foundries burned down over the course of his career.


Top Left: Frederic Goudy Bottom: Goudy Oldstyle Top Right: Imprint of the Inland Printers, one of Goudyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s publishing houses.



lbert Bruce Rogers (1870-1956) was an influential American book designer. Disaffected by a career in journalism, Rogers shifted careers to typographic desgin after seeing the output of the Kelmscott press. Rogers took this Arts and Crafts influence with him as a book designer at Riverside Press, a division of the Houghton Mifflin Company. While at Riverside, e was responsible for designing 60 high-quality limited editions and the artistry of his output was compared to Kelmscott itself. In 1912, Rogers began freelance book design which resulted in some of his most creative output. It was during this period he designed The Centaur by Maurice de Guerin which employed Rogerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s typeface design Centaur.

The Centaur, Rogerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most renowned work


BIBLIOGRAPHY A Publisher’S History Of American Magazine Publishing — Magazine Growth In The Nineteenth Cen. A Publisher’s History of American Magazine Publishing — Magazine Growth in the Nineteenth Century Part 4: Advertising Trends in the 19th Century (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 13 Apr. 2015 “Art Nouveaum.” Huntfor.com. 2007. Web. 31 Mar. 2015 “Bodoni. Manual of Typography – Manuale Tipografico (1818). TASCHEN Books.” Bodoni. Manual of Typography – Manuale Tipografico (1818). TASCHEN Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. Carter, Rob, Ben Day, and Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: Form and Communication. 5th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012. Print. Davies, Penelope, et al. Janson’s History of Art: The Modern World. 8th Edition. London: Prentice Hall. 2012. Print. Dennies, Nathan. “Ottmar Mergenthaler at 159 West Lanvale Street.” Explore Baltimore Heritage. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. http://explore.baltimoreheritage.org/items/show/183 Meggs, Philip, and Alston Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 5th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012. Print. Drucker, Johanna, and Emily McVarnish. Graphic Design History. 2nd Edition. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2013. Print. Drucker, Johanna, and Emily McVarnish. Graphic Design History. 2nd Edition. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2013. Print. “In Search of a European Style.” Art Nouveau European Route. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. <http://www.artnouveau.eu/pdf/en/intro.pdf> Meggs, Philip, and Alston Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 5th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Print. Drucker, Johanna, and Emily McVarnish. Graphic Design History. 2nd Edition. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2013. Print. “Frederic W. Goudy.” The Typograpthic Archives. 2006. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. <http://www.typographia.org/1999/graphion/goudy.html> Meggs, Philip, and Alston Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 5th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Print. Drucker, Johanna, and Emily McVarnish. Graphic Design History. 2nd Edition. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2013. Print. Meggs, Philip, and Alston Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 5th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012. Print. “Elements of Photogravure, Photo Printing from Copper Plates: Screen Photogravure Simply Explained, with Full Working Instructions and an Explanatory Chapter on Modern Rotary Gravure Printing.” Nature 118.2971 (1926): 513. Web. 11 Apr. 2015. “Graphics Atlas: Welcome.” Graphics Atlas: Welcome. Web. 19 Apr. 2015. “Hamilton Wood Type & Printing Museum.” Hamilton Wood Type Printing Museum RSS. Web. 19 Apr. 2015. Herbert, Stephen. “Auguste Marie Nicolas Lumière.” Who’s Who of Victorian Cinema. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. <http://www.victorian-cinema.net/augustelumiere.php> Hill, Will, and Christopher Perfect. The Complete Typographer: A Manual for Designing with Type. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Person Prentice Hall, 2005. Print. “Louis Prang, Father of the American Christmas Card - New-York Historical Society.” NewYork Historical Society RSS. 18 Dec. 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2015. “Lumiére brothers.” Earlycinema.com. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. Meggs, Philip, and Alston Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 5th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012. Print. “Ottmar Mergenthaler.” Zion Baltimore. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. <http://www.zionbaltimore.org/history_people_mergenthaler.htm> “The University of Texas at Austin.” The University of Texas at Austin. Web. 19 Apr. 2015. “Tympanus.” Tympanus. Web. 19 Apr. 2015. “The Rise of Advertisement and American Consumer Culture.” The Rise of Advertisement and American Consumer Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2015. “The Story of Our Friend, the Fat Face.” - Fonts In Use. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015. “Type Specimens from the Vincent Figgins Type Foundry – 1815.” Type for You. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2015. “William Caslon IV | Typophile.” William Caslon IV | Typophile. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2015.

Table of Contents Typographic Time-line: 1853-1959 Arts & Crafts Movement Contributions of William Morris History of the Grid Modern Typography by Jan Tschichold Lettering by Edward Johnston Herbert Bayer: Alphabet



A Brief History Typography in the 1800s-1960s

There is a broad range of events that shaped the typographic history from the 1850s to the 1960s. In the 1850s we see the volume and variety of printed media changing dramatically as print technology progressed, which broadened the range of type, images, and production methods available to graphic design and typography. During the 1880s, the impulse to return to craft traditions evolved, which is referred to as the “Arts & Crafts” movement. Later in the early 1900s, modernism begins to become popular in design and typography, lead by the new approaches to form. “Modern designers embraces functionalism, geometric formalism, and machine aesthetics.” Jan Tschichold wrote a book on “New Typography,” advocating for a sole purpose of communication when it comes to typography.



18501960â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s T i m e l i n e

1853 1854 Handbill combining Egyptian, outline, and decorative types

Broadside using elongated Fat Face fonts

1887 1890 1892 Tolbert Lanston invents the monotype


Golden Typeface, by William Morris

William Morrisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Kelmscott Press Launches a revival of printing and typography

1867 1880 1886 Christopher Stoles constructs the first practical typewriter

Lettering printed by choromolithography chromolithography

Ottmar Mergenthaler invents the Linotype, the first keyboard typesetting machine

1892 1893 Troy Typeface, by William Morris

Chauncer Typeface, by William Morris


1890 1897 1909 Inspired by Kelmscott, Americans; Frederick Goudy and Bruce Rodgers bring renewed excellence to book and typeface design

Will Bradley, title page in his â&#x20AC;&#x153;Chap Bookâ&#x20AC;? style, reviving Caslon type and colonial woodcut techniques

Filippo Marinetti founds Futurism, experimentation with typographic form and syntax

1930 Chrysler Building, an example of Art Deco decorative geometric style


1910 1925 Invention of German sans-serif “Block Style”

Herbert Bayer, universal alphabet

1930 1959 1959 Paul Renner, prospectus for Futura

Otto Storch, figurative typography

Gerald Holton creates the “Peace Symbol”



Arts & Crafts Movement Standing for traditional craftsmanship using decorative forms.


etween the 1880s and 1910, a new art movement was born out of the industrial revolution and craze of mass production. Industrialism had brought the gap between form and surface and production methods into focus. It has been suggested that the Arts and Crafts movment, in Britain, in particular was inspired by the desire to produce beautiful things and thrive on a hatred of modern civilization. This movement derived from two important sources, that of A.W.N. Pugin and John Ruskin. Each were important to the philosophical elements, Pugin promoted the Gothic Revival in his early writings and Ruskin with his advocation for medieval architecture with great craftsmanship and quality materials. Note that William Morris, who believed that industrialization created a large gap between the designer and manufacturer, found his inspiration through the work of Ruskin. “The Arts and Crafts movement did not promote a particular style, but it did advocate reform as part of its philosophy and instigated a critique of industrial labor; as modern

William Morris’ design for “Trellis” wallpaper, 1862 www.digitaljournal.com

machines replaced workers, Arts and Crafts proponents called for an end to the division of labor and advanced the designer as craftsman.” According to Alan Crawford’s Ideas and Objects: The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, there are two arguments with admirable clarity to describe the design of the movement, “Design serves to express ideas, and that it shifts our perceptions of the world. The other is that design is the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was preoccupied with the experince and modernity.” In time the English Arts and Crafts movement came to stress craftsmanship at the expense of mass market pricing. The result was exquisitely made and decorated pieces that could only be afforded by the very wealthy. So the idea of art for the people was lost, and only relatively few craftsman could be employed making these fine pieces. This evolved English Arts and Crafts style came to be known as “Aesthetic Style.” It shared some characteristics with the French/Belgian Art Nouveau movement.


Owen Jones, The Grammar of Ornament, 1865 www.panteek.com


The Nature of Gothic by John Ruskin, printed by William Morris at the Kelmscott Press, 1892 en.wikipedia.org




illiam Morris, the speaker on behalf of the Arts & Crafts Movement in Britain. “Apart from the desire to produce beautiful things, the leading passion of my life has been and is hatred of modern civilization,” remarked May Morris. Morris delivered lectures in many British towns and cities in the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s., which were later published for the first time in 1882 in a collection entitled, Hopes and Fears for Art. Below is an excerpt from his book, “…sever them from those lesser so-called Decorative Arts, which I have to speak about: it is only in latter times, and under the most intricate conditions of life, that they have fallen apart from one another; and I hold that, when they are so parted, it is ill for the Arts altogether: the lesser ones become trivial, mechanical, unintelligent, incapable of resisting the changes pressed upon them by fashion or dishonesty; while the greater, however they may be practised for a while by men of great minds and wonder-working hands, unhelped by the lesser, unhelped by each other, are sure to lose their dignity of popular arts, and become nothing but dull adjuncts to unmeaning pomp, or ingenious toys for a few rich and idle men.”


William Morris en.wikipedia.org


History of The Grid History from 1850s:


hen Industrial beginning to take over the economy, graphic design was born. With this come the rise of poster, flyer, all kind of advertising, newspaper, magazineâ&#x20AC;Ś Later photographs were included in the design, along with typefaces. This had cause problems for printers and compositions, which were struggling to layout these contents. In the late nineteenth century, artist realized this is a problem. William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement is the predecessor of this aspect. Morris believed that form and function really go together. The problem sound like the one that Picasso and Braque had, which is presenting 3d object on 2d canvas. Designer and artists then created competition based on this work. Early twentieth art movements all had an influence on the development of the grid. Artist and designer aware of the industrialized age, with quicker transportation and faster communication. They started to broke conventional rule of word, by introduce the extreme variation


of word, ignore the x and y axis of type. Space was used as one of the component to help with the typography. This idea opened the door to de Stijl , the Bauhaus and Jan Tschichold.

De Stijl, and the Bauhaus. An architect, painter and designer Theo van Doesburg found De Stijl in 1917. The importance of this movement is that it experience with form with function, and used it in political context. The movement consist rectangular form and limited color scheme. Designers in the de Stijl movement want to use these design principle in real world. In 1919, the Bauhaus was open in Weimar, Germany. Architect Walter Gropius was a director of the school. Gropius believed that all the arts and design principal were related to each other. Long after the Nazis closed the school in 1930s, Gropiusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s believe still have impact on graphic and typography design. In an amazingly short time, graphic designers were able to combine analytical skills with abstract forms to mass produced in order to convey ideal political ideal.

“This spread and throw-out is from Jan Tschichold’s seminal work Asymmetric Typography, originally published in 1935. In it Tschichold argued that typographic consistency is a necessary precursor to understanding, and described designers as akin to engineers. His work was nevertheless aesthetically refined and dynamic. Here he explains the parallels between abstract art and typographic layout.” www.graphics.com www.graphics.com “The ingenuity of the “A” paper sizing system appeals to designers who are interested in modular approaches to design. For the true modernist, working with standard paper sizing is more economic and celebrates mass production. But, for designers who want to usurp the system, there are countless ways to subdivide the sheet sizes to arrive at more unusual formats.” - www.graphics. com

This is the one from the page of Futurist magazine Lacerba, published in 1914. The work was breaking from the last layout design, by follow the new development from the grid. The page seems chaotic, but it is intentional. This crated opportunity for a better system to develop. www.graphics. com


“Having started the journal Octavo, designers 8vo edited and designed it from the mid 1980s to the early 1990s. The design often explored systematic and modular approaches, but in issue 7 the designers chose to reveal their methods by giving the grid coordinates, like a map, and printing it as a background to each page.“ - www.graphics.com


“Dutch designer Wim Crouwel is known for his exploration and experimentation with grids. In this poster for the Vormgevers exhibition in 1968, he made the grid visible. This device then formed the basis not only for the layout, but also for the lettering.” - www.graphics.com

“The Swiss designer Karl Gerstner’s 1962 grid for the periodical Capital is near perfect. His unit, both horizontally and vertically, was 10pt—the baseline to baseline measurement of the text type. The type area was a square of 58 units. Allowing for intercolumn spaces, this gave Gerstner grids of two, three, four, five, and six columns and fields.” - www.graphics.com

“Several post-War Swiss designers are the best-known exponents of the grid. This spread is from Josef Müller-Brockmann’s Grid Systems in Graphic Design, in which he explains, in meticulous detail, how multicolumn and field-based grids can be used flexibly to achieve any number of different layouts, in both 2-D and 3-D work.” - -


Jan Tschichold


he 20th century was greatly influenced by the designer Jan Tschichold. Not only did he introduce new approaches to typography, he set standards for modern design with his books and ideas. Tschichold’s background in calligraphy was very helpful in his upbringing, as well as influences gathered from the Bauhaus movement, and modernism. Although many found Tschichold’s work inspiring, he came across a rough patch in Germany with the Nazi regime however found a way to continue creating typographic and design work. Jan Tschichold was born in Leipzig, Germany to Franz and Maria Tschichold on April 2, 1902. Franz Tschichold’s occupation as a sign painter and calligrapher becomes very beneficial to his son’s future as a designer. Tschichold became familiarized with painted lettering and calligraphy at a young age with the help of his father. Not only was he acquainted with letter painting; he was also familiar with the art of the book. Tschichold spent countless hours studying civilizations of the past and the story of books and lettering at an exhibition of the history of civilization at the Hall of Culture. Although he was skilled in letter painting, and was full of knowledge on the art of the book, his aspirations were to become an artist. His parents were very skeptical about Tschichold’s dream job due to the work field being unstable and uncertain. Compromising with his parents, he would attend the Teacher Training College at Grimma to become a teacher of drawing. Tschichold however did not forget about the study of lettering, he continued it in his free time. Within his studies he realized that there was a need for new typefaces and better letter forms. He then found himself becoming more attracted to the idea of becoming a type designer. Tschichold then received consent from his parents to become a type designer. It was decided that after attending the school in Grimma for 3 years, he would then continue his education at the Academy for the Graphic Arts and the Book Production Trade at Leipzig.


Jan Tschichold in 1920 www.linotype.com



When attending the Weimar Bauhaus Exhibition, Tschichold came to believe that abandoning the rule that setting must be symmetrical was the only way to recreate interest in typography. Tschichold also thought that san serif typefaces were universal for any type of job. In Jan Tschicholdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto, Typographische Mitteilungen, he stated the following principles of typography in his book.

Single-Alphabet Type Designed by Jan Tschichold in 1929

Jan Tschichold in 1962 pmcinto5.wordpress.com


Principles of Typography 1. The new typography is purposeful. 2. The purpose of all typography is communication. Communication must be made in the shortest, simplest, most definite way. 3. For typography to perform its social function, there must be organization of its component parts, both internal (i.e. content) and external (consistent use of printing methods and materials). 4. Internal organization is restriction to the basic elements of typography: letters figures, signs, lines of type set by hand and by machine. 20

“Die Neue Typography”


an Tschichold wrote his first book Die neue Typographie in 1928. This book was written in dogmatic tones that he later regretted. However Tschichold’s book conveyed a strong message, he was insisting on simplicity and purity in design. Tschichold eventually abandoned his rigid beliefs around 1932 and said “Die neue Typographie is too extreme”, then steered back to classicism. He also claimed that modernist design in general was authoritarian and fascistic. In 1933, Tschichold had much of his work seized by the Gestapo during the Nazi regime. The Nazi’s accused Tschichold of creating “un-german” artwork, and were suspicious of him being in collaboration with the communists. Him and his wife were then arrested. After 6 weeks, a police officer got him and his family tickets to Switzerland, and him and his family escaped from Nazi Germany in August, 1933.






Drawings for Sabon spenceralley.blogspot.com


an Tschichold is well known for the design of Penguin Books. While working with the company he standardized practice for creating the covers that were to go on all of the Penguin Books, and color-coded genres. Tschichold oversaw more than 500 books during his career at Penguin Books. Another thing Tschichold is greatly known for is creating the type face Sabon in 1967. He created Sabon to meet specific

technical requirements. The typeface was commissioned by a group of German master printers. The requirements were that it should be suitable for production, it had to be easy and pleasant to read, and wanted the style to be similar to Garamond however 5% narrower. This typeface then became a distinguished addition to the range of modern book faces.



Edward Johnston


dward Johnston was born in San José, Uraguay on February 11, 1872. Edward Johnston was a type designer, calligrapher, author, and teacher. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. In 1898 he obtains his Ph. D. after which he moves to London and tudies ancient writing techniques in the British Museum. In 1906 Johnston determined “Essential” characters on ancient roman inscriptions while deriding commercial lettering. Johnston accepted the decoration of medieval-inspired forms. Edward Johnston deeply warned against the dangers of exaggeration of type. Edward Johnston was inspired by


the 19th Century arts and crafts movement. Johnston referred to the renaissance and middle ages for pure, uncorrupted letter forms. He considered this love for pure letter forms as him being “romantically attached to history”. From 1899–1913 Edward Johnston taught at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London in the new lettering department. In 1906 his book “Writing and Illuminating and Lettering” is published, causing something of a “renaissance” for calligraphy. It is considered the most influential book on calligraphy ever written.

Edward Johnston’s Wrting & Illuminating Lettering. www.amazon.es



Herbert Bayer



erbert Bayer was an Austrian and American graphic designer and artist. He is most recognized as a member of the Bauhaus. In between Herbert Bayer’s time at the Bauhaus and his career in America he spent time as the Art Director of Vogue magazine’s Berlin office. His contributions to the fields of graphic design, typography and advertising were numerous and extremely impacting. A major accomplishment that should be noted was his design for a typeface that consisted of entirely lowercase letters. The German black letter types were overly ornate for his taste and their use of capital letter for every proper noun was annoying. Logically, Bayer developed a sans-serif alphabet of lowercase letters titled “Universal.”


Herbert Bayer’s Univeral typeface www.galleryhip.com



Bibliography Crawford, Alan. Ideas and Objects: The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain. MIT Press, 1997. Print. Morris, William. Hopes and Fears for Art. London: Ellis & White, 1882. Print. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web. 2015. Art, Design, and Visual Thinking. The Arts and Crafts Movement. 1995. Print. Drucker, Johanna.. McVarish, Emily. Graphic Design History: A Critical Guide. 2012. Print. Pioneers of Modern Typography. New York: Hastings House, 1970. Print. Tschichold, Jan. Jan Tschichold: Typographer. Bedford Square: Lund Humphries Limited, 1975. Print. Roberts, Lucienne. â&#x20AC;&#x153;A Brief History of Grids.â&#x20AC;? Graphics.com. Mediabistro Inc., 2008. Web. 09 Apr. 2015. Design Is History. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. <http://www.designishistory. com/1920/herbert-bayer/>. Web. 9 April. 2015. <http://www.linotype.com/733/edwardjohnston. html> 29




Max Miedinger


Akzidens Grotesk


Armin Hofmann


Basel School of Design


Saul Bass


Paul Rand


Herb Lubalin


Wolfgang Weingart


Karl Gerstner


Gerald Holtom


Emil Rider


Wim Crouwel


Zuzana Licko


Rudy Vanderlans


Emigre Magazine


The Rise of Digital Communication


Evolution of Mac


Neville Brody


Phillipe Apeloig



A Timeless Typeface

ABOVE: The differences between Helvetica and Arial, a somewhat simliar sans-serif typeface. (webdesignerdepot.com) ABOVE RIGHT: Max Miedinger works in his studio. (designculture.it) FAR RIGHT: Pro Arte, a condensed slab-serif typeface created by Max Miedinger in 1954, 3 years before Helvetica was created. (luc.devroye.org)

Helvetica – one of the world’s most frequently-used typefaces – is a sleek, neutral and modern sans-serif that will never age. Created with readability in mind, Helvetica has a very uniform line width as well as straight edges that lie only along the x and y axis. Today, Helvetica can be found on almost every computer in the world. Helvetica was created in the Swiss town of Münchenstein in 1957 when Eduard Hoffmann commissioned Max Miedinger to create a new typeface for the Stempel type foundry. Miedinger first gave this typeface the name Neue Haas Grotesk, which means New Haas Sans Serif. The Haas type foundry was a branch

of the Stempel type foundry, but since Stempel would be the one releasing the typeface, they thought the name would be too confusing. The two foundries worked together to form a new name for the newly created typeface. They decided on the name Helvetica, which came from the Latin word for Switzerland: “Helvetia.” Helvetica soon became a staple typeface for many modern companies including BMW, American Airlines, American Apparel, Jeep, JCPenney, Lufthansa, Orange, Target, Microsoft, Mitsubishi Electric, Toyota, Motorola, Panasonic, Apple, Intel, Nestlé, Kawasaki and Verizon Wireless.

MAX MIEDINGER Max Miedinger was born on December 24, 1910, in Zurich, Switzerland, where he also died on March 8, 1980. At 16, Miedenger worked as an apprentice for Jacques Bollmann at a book printing company, after which he attended the School of Arts and Crafts. Miedenger was a graphic designer as well as a typographer. Miedinger worked at advertising company, Globe, for 10 years until he started working for the Haas type foundry. Miedinger created his first typeface, a condensed slab serif called Pro Arte, in 1954. Soon after, Miedinger created Helvetica, followed by his final typeface, Horizontal.

Akzidenz Grotesk is a typeface very similar to Helvetica. It is rumored that the modern typeface, Didot, was based on this 19th-century typeface, because if the serifs were removed from Didotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s letterforms, its proportions would be very similar to Akzidenz Grotesk. Thought to be created around 1880, Akzidenz Grotesk was unchanged until Berthold GĂźnter Gerhard Lange added 33 new styles. The typeface was still the same, but this update provided more versatility within its variations. In 2006, Berthold once again added more styles and released Akzidenz Grotesk Pro. Many confuse Akzidenz Grotesk with Helvetica and Univers, because all three typefaces are sans serif-style with very similar proportions.


One of the greatest graphic design teachers of his time, Armin Hofmann was born June 29, 1920. His first teaching job was at The Basel School of Arts and Crafts, where he began teaching at 26 years old. Soon after, he followed the head of the graphic design department to the Basel School of Design. Hofmann is known for creating the Swiss Style design method and for being one of the most unorthodox teachers in all of graphic design. Hofmann designed everything from books to stage sets, exhibitions to posters and, of couse, typography, Hofmann’s posters were so beautiful that they were often exhibited in the New York Museum of Modern Art. In 1965, Hofmann wrote a textbook called The Graphic Design Manual. This textbook is widely used still today, showing how modern Hofmann’s line of thinking was.

LEFT: (madalinatantareanu.wordpress.com) BOTTOM LEFT: (luc.devroye.org) BELOW: (asiancorrespondent.com) ABOVE: (swissdesignawards.ch)

BASEL SCHOOL OF DESIGN The Basel School of design was opened in 1968 by Armin Hofmann, Emil Ruder, Kurt Hauert and Wolfgang Weingart. Known for its modern graphic design teaching techniques, the school’s mission was to lay a strong and broad foundation for the major design disciplines. The school educated famous designers such as Kenneth Hiebert, April Greiman, Robert Probst, Steff Geissbuhler, HansUlrich Allemann, Inge Druckrey and the late Dan Friedman. Many are now also educators.


A well-known designer from Bronx, New York, Saul Bass was born May 8, 1920 and died April 25, 1996. He was well known for his title sequences in movies, movie posters and logo design. Bass was the first to ever design a title sequence and even today his work is still considered the best. Bass’s first title sequence was Otto Preminger’s The Man with the Golden Arm (1955). Bass was known for not being afraid to push the boundaries.

“Design is thinking made visual.” –Saul Bass

Bass created hundreds of movie posters throughout his life. His style was most notable because movie posters of that age were usually an iconic scene from the movie. Bass, however, created simple symbols to represent the movie and used a very cutout-like design approach. Some of his most notable posters were for the movies Vertigo, West Side Story, Schindlers List, The Shining and The Man with The Golden Arm. Bass designed many logos for companies such as Quaker Oats, AT&T Corporation, Dixie, Continental Airlines, Girls Scouts, United Airlines, and Warner Communications.

A selection of posters designed by Saul Bass. (tdylf.com, saulbassposterarchive. com, thefoxisblack.com, thecreatorsproject.com, wikipedia. org) FAR LEFT: Saul Bass in his studio. Bass was knownfor not being afriad to push boundaries. (saulbassposterarchive.com)

“Art in any form is a projected emotion using visual tools.” –Paul Rand

Paul Rand (also known as Peret Rosenbaum) was born on August 15, 1914. He went to college at the Pratt Institute from 1929 until 1932, the Parsons School of Design from 1932 until 1933, and the Art Students League from 1933 until 1934. Rand’s first job was to create stock images for a syndicate that supplied graphics for newspapers and magazines. He was influenced by the German advertising style Sachplakat


(ornamental poster) as well as the graphic designer Gustav Jensen. Rand was granted full artistic freedom for the covers of Direction magazine, but was not paid for his work. His page designs were the initial source for his reputation. Rand is known for his corperate logos, starting with his design for the IBM logo in 1956. He helped establish the Swiss Style of graphic design and was inducted into the

New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame in 1972. Rand died of cancer in 1996. ABOVE: Various corporate identities created by Paul Rand, including ABC, IBM, Westinghouse and UPS. (www-03.ibm.com, logos.wikia.com, imgkid.com, www.paul-rand.com, www.logoeps.net)


Herb Lubalin was born 1918 in New York City and graduated from the Cooper Union School of Art and Architecture in 1939. In 1945, he became the creative director and vice-president of Sudler & Henessey and directed their design organization, Sudler Hennessey & Lubalin. Several years later, in 1963, Lubalin was awarded the Clio for the best television commercial.

In 1964, he created his own design firm, Herb Lubalin, Inc. He gained two partners in 1968 and changed his design firm to Lubalin, Smith, Carnase, Inc. A year later, he joined with Etienne Delessert to establish a book production and publishing venture, Good Books, Inc. With Aaron Burns, he established a typographic agency called Lubalin, Burns & Co., Inc. In the same year, he created a London studio with

Douglas Maxwell, Lubalin Maxwell. Lubalin died in 1981. ABOVE: Herb Lubalin is known for designing the typeface Avant Garde. (www.telegraphics.com)


Wolfgang Weingart was born in the Salem Valley, Germany in 1941. He attended a two-year program at the Merz Academy in Stuttgart in 1958. After graduating, he applied for an apprenticeship as a typesetter at Ruwe Printing, where he met KarlAugust Hanke, who would become a mentor for Weingart. After this three-year apprenticeship, Hanke encouraged Weingart to attend the Basel School of Design, and in 1964, he enrolled as an independent student. At 27 years old, Weingart was invited to conduct a typography class at Basel. LEFT Several of Wolfgang Weingart’s books. (www.vangeva.com, clementinecarriere.wordpress.com, galleryhip.com, flyergoodness.blogspot.com) RIGHT: Portrait of Karl Gerstner. (www.swissdesignawards.ch)

“Typography fostered the modern idea of individuality, but it destroyed the medieval sense of community and integration.” –Wolfgang Weingart


Karl Gerstner was born in Basel in 1930. He went to Basel School of Arts and Crafts and apprenticed at the studio of the advertising designer Fritz Bühler. Gerstner was very fortunate and got to visit Cassandre in Paris and got to know Tschichold in Basel. He took a photography course in Zurich with Hans Finsler. He met Max Bill and Alfred Roth, who edited the monthly Werk. Roth gave Gerstner a whole issue of the magazine to edit and design at 25 years old.

Gerstner’s design was presented as a logical development of Modernism. He used a complex grid for the varying proportions. Gerstner published his first book in 1957. In 1959, Markus Kutter and Gerstner established their own design office and published another book. Their design office grew into a large advertising agency and moved the main office in Düsseldorf. By the Beginning of the 1970s, Gerstner when into “semi retirement”. In the 1990s, the agency was bought by a public relations agency, Trimedia.


Gerald Holtom was a designer from West London who objected World War II. He advised the Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War that their impact would be greater if they had a visual symbol. Haltom created the “Ban the Bomb” symbol which used letters from the semaphore alphabet and a circle to symbolize the world. The design was taken by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. The U.S. adopted the symbol during the anti-Vietnam movement to use it as a peace symbol. (LEFT)


Emil Ruder was born din Zurich and when he was fifteen he too a compositor’s apprenticeship. In his twenties he attended the Zurich School of Arts and crafts. He eventually became a teacher in 1947 for typography at the Basel School of Design. He and Armin Hoffman developed a system for objectivity in design instead of the subjective, style-driven typography of the past. He pushed for precision, proportions, and the role of legibility and communication with type. Ruder was know to take only two to three students per year.He published his book Typographie in 1967 with his concepts, experiments, and philosophies. LEFT: “Typographie,” by Emil Ruder. (designers-books.com)


Wim Crouwel was born 1928 in Groningen. He studied fine art at Minerva Academy and after two years of military service, he moved to Amsterdam in 1951. Crouwel worked for an exhibition company learning from Dick Ellfers, then established his own studio with Kho Lian le. He took night classes at the Academy for Applied Arts and in 1954, he

met Edy de Wilde â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the director of the Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum. De Wilde made Crowel the sole designer for the museum. Crowel created a grid-based methodology for the museum, which he used from 1963-1985. In 1985, he became a director a a museum in Rotterdam until he retired in 1993.

LEFT: a poster designed by Wim Crouwel for the Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum. (mrmac7.wordpress.com) ABOVE: A portrait of Wim Crouwel. (blog.soton.ac.uk)





Born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia in 1961, Zuzana Licko emigrated to the U.S. at 7 years old. Although she doesn’t remember much of her childhood before moving to the U.S. in 1968, Licko said her background has given her a different perspective and a tendency to question things. Licko entered the University of California at Berkeley as an architecture student, where she met her future husband, Rudy VanderLans, who was studying photography. After discovering an interest in typography, Licko changed her major to graphic design. Fascinated by the use of type as illustration but limited due to UC Berkeley’s lack of a type design program, Licko was not able to create typefaces, only use them. The Macintosh computer was released just before her graduation, and Licko still works primarily on screen.

VanderLans moved to California to study photography after working for a number of design studios in Holland for several years following his graphic design studies at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague.

In 1984, VanderLans – with two other Dutch artists – started Emigre, which began as a magazine that featured the work of artists who were influenced by travel or working abroad. After graduating with a degree in Graphic Communication, Licko joined VanderLans as co-founder of the magazine. Licko was not involved from an editorial standpoint, but started contributing as the magazine’s resident type designer. She used the first generation Macintosh computer to create her designs, despite the fact that most graphic designers of the time were rejecting the Mac. When Emigre turned its focus to graphic design, Licko began contributing more content, but was mostly involved with running the Emigre type foundry, the first digital type foundry, which introduced early dot-matrix fonts and, later, high-resolution typefaces.

“Sometimes I have to put a design away for months, even years before being able to see it with fresh eyes, which is sometimes required to solve a problem.” –Zuzana Licko

ABOVE: Emigre, an alternative-culture graphic design magazine, The foundry met many negative reactions was launched from modernists like Paul Rand, who by Rudy thought the new movement forgot beauty VanderLans and harmony. Massimo Vignelli said Licko’s and Zuzana designs were “garbage, lacking depth, Licko in 1984. refinement, elegance, or a sense of history.” (MoMA) Nevertheless, the foundry, magazine, Licko RIGHT: The and VanderLans met international fame and exposure of success. Zuzana Licko’s Emigre ran for 23 years, printing 69 issues typefaces sporadically until 2005, and provided a in Emigre forum for a growing community of digital designers. magazine The Museum of Modern Art said, together, led to the Licko and VanderLans “set the standard manufacture for digital typography and design” and of Emigre “established graphic design at the forefront fonts, which of contemporary art practice” with Emigre are now as the “testing ground for their digital distributed experimentation” and the “medium through worldwide. which they spread their enthusiasm for the (emigre.com) new technology.”



For graphic arts professionals, it makes all the difference in the world (adobe.com)

“Adobe invented PostScript and made it the world’s leading page description language. It was the first company to offer deviceindependent color technology, film recorders, color laser printers, and professional digital proofing devices. And today, Adobe’s latest innovations not only assure you of the finest output, but also provide you with an integrated workflow that will help you work more efficiently than ever.” – Adobe Postscript brochure, 1997


Founded in 1976 by college dropouts Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, Apple Computers, Inc. changed the way people viewed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and used â&#x20AC;&#x201C; computers. The Apple II revolutionized the computer industry with the introduction of the first-ever color graphics. (macdaily.co)


One of the best-known graphic designers of his generation, Neville Brody was born in London in 1957 and studied graphic design at the London College of Printing from 1976 to 1979. His record cover designs and involvement with the British independent music scene brought him into the public eye in the early 1980s. Brody has designed a number of very wellknown typefaces. In 1989, as art director of the English magazine “The Face,” Brody designed Industria, a condensed sans serif font with abbreviated, essential forms. Influenced by the New Typography of the Bauhaus, Brody also designed Insignia as a headline face for the “Arena” magazine. Insignia’s monoline, round-and-sharp forms reflect the Zeitgeist of that era, suggesting technology and progress. In 2011, when the Museum of Modern Art added the first digital typefaces to its permanent collection, Brody’s FF Blur was one of just 23 designs to be included. Brody developed the typeface in 1991 by blurring grayscale images of an existing grotesque and making vectors from the results. MoMA says FF Blur “resembles type that has been reproduced cheaply on a Xerox machine – degenerated through copying and recopying.” Today, Brody continues to create his unique and striking digital typefaces, and his work focuses largely on electronic communications design. TOP RIGHT: Neville Brody’s designs have received international recognition for their innovative style, reaching almost cult status. (linotype.com) RIGHT: Neville Brody is the founder of Brody Associates – a globally renowned, innovative, creative agency specializing in digital, typography and identity. Brody is internationally recognized as a pioneer in the fields of graphic design, art direction and brand strategy. (designboom.com)

LEFT: The letter forms of FF Blur – fuzzy around the edges like an out-offocus photograph – seem to celebrate their own imperfection, speaking to Neville Brody’s unique background. (MoMA)

PHILIPPE APELOIG A French graphic designer, Philippe Apeloig worked as an intern at Total Design in Amsterdam after studying art at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Appliqués and the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs in Paris. After realizing the extent of his interest in typography and graphic design, Apeloig worked as a designer for Musée D’sorsay in Paris from 1985 to 1987. He left after receiving a grand from the French Foreign Ministry to work and study in Los Angeles. Later, he was honored with a research and residency grant by the French Academy of Art at the Villa Medici in Rome. Apeloig established his own studio after returning to Paris and from 1992 to 1999 taught at his alma mater, after which he taught as a professor of graphic design at the Cooper Union School of Art in New York City until 2002. Apeloig has produced many acclaimed poster designs for cultural events and institutions. (designboom.com)

WORKS CITED “A Brief History of Emil Ruder « Thinking for a Living.” Thinking for a Living RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2015. “Eye Magazine.” Eye Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2015. Hillebrand, Henri. “Herb Lubalin.” Graphic Designers in the USA. Vol. 1. New York: Universe, 1971. 37-42. Print. “Paul-Rand.com.” Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2015. Weingart, Wolfgang. Typography: My Way to Typography. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print. Westcott, Kathryn. “World’s Best-known Protest Symbol Turns 50.” BBC News. BBC, 20 Mar. 2008. Web. 12 Apr. 2015. “Wim Crouwel.” Design Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2015. Poynor, Rick. “Armin Hofmann.” AIGA. AIGA, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. Poynor, Rick. “Saul Bass.” AIGA. AIGA, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. Anderson, Warren H. Vanishing Roadside America. Tucson: U of Arizona, 1981. Print. Jamieson, Harry. Visual Communications: More than Meets the Eye. Intellect Books, 2007. Print. “Emigre Fonts: Zuzana Licko.” Emigre Fonts: Zuzana Licko. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.emigre.com/Bios.php?d=10>. “Emigre Fonts: Interview with Zuzana Licko.” Emigre Fonts: Interview with Zuzana Licko. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www. emigre.com/Licko6.php>. “Emigre Fonts: Rudy VanderLans.” Emigre Fonts: Rudy VanderLans. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.emigre.com/Bios. php?d=2>. “THE COLLECTION.” MoMA.org. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results. php?criteria=O:AD:E:30189&page_number=1&template_id=1&sort_order=1>. “Font Designer – Neville Brody.” Neville Brody. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.linotype.com/669/nevillebrody.html>. “Neville Brody.” Designers:. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <https://www.fontfont.com/designers/neville-brody>. “THE COLLECTION.” MoMA.org. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results. php?criteria=O:AD:E:38491&page_number=1&template_id=1&sort_order=1>. “FF Blur.” Fonts from the FontFont Library. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <https://www.fontfont.com/fonts/blur>. “Interview with Graphic Designer Neville Brody.” Designboom Architecture Design Magazine Interview with Graphic Designer Neville Brody. 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.designboom.com/design/interview-with-graphicdesigner-neville-brody-10-10-2014/>. “Philippe Apeloig Interview.” Designboom. 7 June 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.designboom.com/design/ philippe-apeloig-interview/>. “Apple Computer, Inc.” Apple Computers: This Month in Business History (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress). Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/businesshistory/April/apple.html>. Jong, Cees De., and Alston W. Purvis. Creative Type: A Sourcebook of Classic and Contemporary Letterforms. London: Thames & Hudson, 2005. Print.”A Brief History of Digital Type.” Fonts.com. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <http://www.fonts.com/ content/learning/fyti/using-type-tools/digital-format>.



It took radio 38 years to reach 50 million listeners. Terrestrial television took 13 years to reach 50 million users. The Internet took 4 years to reach 50 million people (1). In today’s world, information moves fast, really fast. In fact it is so fast that the record speed for the internet is 186 GBPS – in other words, speeds this fast would allow a person to download 100,000 Blu-Ray discs in a mere 24 hours (2). The way information is presented to a global audience is critical in forming a person’s perception of society. Information is communicated in a number of ways including through text and image. With an abundance of new and more efficient forms of communication, the digital age provides people around the world with nearly unlimited information with the click of a mouse.








In an effort to end the “font wars”adobe and microsoft collaborated on a new font format called OpenType. This program was an extraction of TrueType with PostScript font data.This format had several goals of having broad multi-platform support, better protection of font data, smaller file sizes, and more


Crackhouse Jeremy Dean

Created by rubbing a Letraset sans serif typeface and then lifting up the sheet multiple times to create a distressed feel, feeding into the “grunge” typographic style of the times

1990 1995 2000


Matthew Carter


Frank Heine

Designed as a screen font and was offered for free download through Microsoft. This type face is intentionally neutral to provide widespread acceptance

This typeface is the perfect representation of the revolt against Helvetica, the modernist’s pride and joy. It sports a spiratic baseline, random ornamentation, and handwritten qualities.

FF Scala

Martin Majoor

Created the same year as FontShop, FF Scala was the first FF (FontFont) face released by FSI. It was the first of the new collection of Dutch Types to re-establish type design.


Paul Elliman


Robert Slimbach

Considered to be the first italic type family where you can set hierarchical texts in italics.

Inspired by objects found on the street

Body Type Peter Bil’ak

A display font made from twenty-six high resolution images of models shaped into letterforms

Lost Type C0-OP


Riley Cran and Tyler Galphin

This foundry is the first of its kind. It features unique typefaces created by contributors from all over the world. They believe that quality fonts should be made available to anyone who wants to create beautiful design

Stone Type Foundry

A Humanist sans serif similar to Gill Sans. Can be used very small to ensure readability

2005 2010 2015

Silencio Sans Jessica Hische

Inspired by “Old Hollywood” movie title credits.


Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum

A typeface that was capable of responding, in real time, to urban conditions like wind and temperature. Text set in 300+ character twin could change from “formal” to “round” to “eccentric” as the temperature and wind change.

Base 900 Zuzana Licko

A modular, geometric sans-serif typeface of the computer technology era with a refined touch



A type family that breaks from the constraints of historical style, while honoring the traditions of typography from the industrial age.


HISTORYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S EFFECT ON TYPEOGRAPHY The 1990s-2010s was full of social and political movements. Thanks to globalization, getting messages around the world has become faster than ever before, especially with the advent of texting and social networking websites such as Facebook. In a matter of moments, a person in Algeria can post a picture and a person in the United States can view that photo seconds later. The speed information can spread today is mindboggling and it is bound to become still faster. Not only is the way information is being sent changing but so is how it is being sent. Only a century ago, newspapers, letters, and telegraphs were the fastest way to get information long distances but over the years this has become a much faster, more personalized process with cellphones, the internet, video chat, etc. History plays a big roll in how technology, and more specifically, typography exist today. For instance, the space race before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, advanced technologyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capabilities dramatically for decades. Globalization has bolstered new types of design with worldwide influences to guide it. Typefaces have grown past the Roman alphabet and advances are being made to produce more Kanji, Cyrillic, and Arabic typefaces as well (just to name a few), these typefaces accommodating to the needs of the non-western sphere are only at the eve of their creation, they are bound to grow in variety over the next several years. Global connectedness has been the major theme of history for the past few decades; a smaller world with big ideas has come to define society. A sense of unity or individuality is created through art, culture, and history, all of which play on each other to create the world as it is known today, history effecting culture, culture effecting art, art effecting history - a continuous cycle producing ideas that can now be spread to billions of people in an instant.


The first ethnically targeted bombing in Argentinian history occurs on July 18, 1994 in a Jewish community in Argentina.

World Trade Center Bombing

HISTORICAL TIMELINE The Gulf War August 2 1990 - 28 February 1991 Iraq invades Kuwait resulting in intervention from UN forces, launching The Gulf War.

February 11, 1990 Nelson Mandela is released after 30 years of imprisonment.


Bill Clinton takes the presidency January 20, 1993

Somali Civil War

February 26, 1993 A truck bomb attacks north tower, killing six and injuring thousands.

1993 Russian Constitutional Crisis

January 1991-Ongoing Conflict between local clan tribes and government organization has led to an ongoing “power-vacuum” conflict.

A political stand-off between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet Congress ultimately leads to an outbreak of violence, killing upwards of 2,000 people.

Los Angeles Riots of 1992 The riots resulted in 53 deaths and 5,500 property fires in a 100-square-mile (260 km2) zone.


Tajikistan Civil War 5 May 1992 – 27 June 1997 Underrepresentation of ethnic groups sparks a civil war killing 50,000-100,000.

The European Union is formed in 1992 under the Maastricht Treaty.

January 1, 1993 The peaceful seperation of Czechslovakia.

Yugoslav Wars 1991-2001 A series of violent ethnic conflicts after the dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1991. Major Events included: War in Slovenia (1991) Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995) Bosnian War (1992–1995) Kosovo War (1998–1999), including the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia Insurgency in the Preševo Valley (1999-2001) Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia (2001)

German Reunification October 3, 1990

The Rwandan Genocide 100-day period from April 7, 1994-July The Hutu peoples lead mass killings against the Tutsi population, killing 500,000 plus.

Chechen Wars 1994-Ongoing Ethnic conflict between the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the Russian Federation.

Oslo Accords September 13, 1993 Palestine Liberation Organization recognizes Israel’s right to exist, while Israel permitted the creation of an autonomous Palestinian National Authority. This marked the end of the First Intifada.

First and Second Congo Wars October 24, 1996 - July 2003 Rwanda invades Zaire replacing the decades ruling dictator with rebel leadership. After continuing conflict, the war resulted in the killings of over 5.4 million people.

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) is enacted January 1, 1994.

Oklahoma City Bombing April 19, 1995 Two American terrorists bomb the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City resulting in the deaths of 168 people and at least $652 million

Colombine High School Shooting April 20, 1999 Two senior students murder 13 individuals at a high school in Colorado and injure 21 others.

August 31, 1997 Princess Diana dies in car crash.

Portugal hands the soverignty of Macau to China December 20, 1999.

Monica Lewinsky Scandal Accusations come to fruition about Bill Clinton having an affair with 22 year old Monica Lewinsky.


Tokyo Subway Attack March 20, 1995 Religious Cult Aum Shinriko uses Sarin Gas to attack a subway station.


Kyoto Protocol December 11, 1997 83 Countries sign in order to take action against global climate change.

Hugo Chávez becomes president of Venezuela on February 2, 1999.

Taliban Forces Sieze Control of Afghanistan 1996

The “Million Man March” October 16, 1995 Over 800,000 African American men rally in D.C. to better the status of African American men in society and politics.

July 1994, Kim-Il Sung dies, his son, Kim Jong-Il, assumes control of North Korea.

July 1, 1997 United Kingdom hands the sovereignty of Hong Kong to China.

May 2, 1997 Tony Blair becomes British Prime Minister.

Pervez Musharraf takes over the democratically elected Pakastani Government. October 12, 1999


USA PATRIOT Act Enacted October 26, 2001 After the events of September 11th, the PATRIOT act goes into effect allowing government surveilance on persons suspected of terroristic activities.

November, 7, 2000 George W. Bush is elected into office.

War on Terror in Afghanistan October 7, 2001-December 2014 American troops are sent into Afghanistan beginning the “Opperation Enduring Freedom” campaign.

Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health November 18, 2003 The landmark court case legalized gay marriage in Massachussets.

January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007 Democrat Nancy Pelosi becomes the first female Speaker of the House.

Septemeber 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

November 22, 2005 Angela Merkel becomes the first female Prime Minister of Germany.

19 hijackers take over four airplanes and crash them into both World Trade Center towers, the Pentagon, and a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania killing nearly 3,000 people and injuring over 6,000. All civilian air traffic is suspended for 3 days.



December 13, 2003 Saddam Hussein is captured by US forces.

May 7, 2000 Vladimir Putin becomes the President of Russia.

October 3, 2006 North Korea conducts its first nuclear tests.

November 25, 2002 The Department of Homeland Security is founded in the United States.

The Great Recession begins 2007-2009


Arctic Sea Ice hits a record low in summer 2007.

December 30, 2006 Saddam Hussein is executed.

War with Iraq

2002, the Euro goes into circulation.

20 March 2003 – 18 December 2011 The United States goes to war with Iraq and disassembles the regime under Saddam Hussein. January 8, 2002 The “No Child Left Behind” act goes into effect as part of education reforms.

War and Genocide in Darfur 26 February 2003– present.

Virginia Tech Massacre April 17, 2007 student shoots 32 students and teachers and then commits suicide.

The London Bombings July 7, 2005 London’s public transport systems are attacked by suicide bombers, killing 56 and injuring 700.

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act Passed by Congress October 22, 2009 The act expanded upon the 1969 Federal hate-crime law, to include crimes conducted on a count of a victim’s actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.

Barak Obama assumes the presidency January 20, 2009. In 2008, oil prices reach a record $147 a barrel.

Occupy Wallstreet Movement September 17, 2011 Protests abound due to continued economic stagnation.

December 17, 2010 Mohamed Bouazizi’s self-immolation in Tunisia begins the Arab Spring movement.

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 20 April – 15 July 2010 An oil rig owned by BP in the Gulf of Mexico explodes. It is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in history.



Global Financial Crisis September 7, 2008 Severely contracted liquidity in the global credit markets and insolvency threats to investment banks and other institutions plunges the global financial situation into turmoil.

Osama bin Laden is killed by US forces May 2, 2011.

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Russo-Georgian War August 7-12, 2008.

Tea Party Protests February 27, 2009-March 21, 2010 Protests focused on smaller government, fiscal responsibility, individual freedoms and a conservative interpretation of the Constitution.

March 23, 2010 “Obamacare” is enacted, it was the largest regulatory overhaul of the U.S. healthcare system since Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.

Syrian Civil War begins on March 15,

Boston Marathon Bombing April 15, 2013 Two terrorists detonate a bomb after a race in Boston kiling 3 and injuring 264. ISIS destroys numerous historic monuments in Iraq during 2015.

August 9, 2014 Officer Darren Wilson is not charged in the shooting death of Michael Brown inciting protests and riots against racism and police brutality in the St. Louis area.



Gaza Israeli conflict of 2014 8 July – 26 August 2014 (ceasefire).

Isis Invades Mosul Iraq June 2014.

ISIS conflict begins in Syria on January 2, 2014.

June 26, 2013 The Supreme Court strikes down the Defense of Marriage Act DOMA (1996), which banned the federal recognition of same-sex marriages and refused to recognize the legal standing of proponents of Proposition 8. Resulted in re-legalization of gay marriage in California.




DAVID CARSON Originally getting his degree in sociology, Carson entered the field of design at the age of 26 after receiving a flyer for a Summer graphic design program at the University of Arizona that was originally intended for his students. After attending this program, Carson enrolled in a Summer workshop in Rapperswil, Switzerland. Where he was challenged by typesetter Hans-Rudolf Lutz to find reason for shaping form in specific ways. Later on, Carson’s first job as an art director was for Transworld Skateboarding from 1984-1987. In 1992, when Marvin Scott Jarrett launched RAY GUN, Carson was asked to be the founding art director. During his time there, his visual voice became more famous than the music content that the magazine was founded on. Carson later remarked, “Ray gun had no grid, formula or format, letting the music and individual articles dictate the direction of the design and layout. Every page was an entirely new design assignment, making it a lot more work than most magazines, but also a lot more fun, and I believe with more effective results.” (1)

From 1995-2003 Carson ran his own studio, working with clients such as Nike, Toyota, Quicksilver and MTV. He has also served as the creative director for Bose. Carson’s approach to design is non-conventional, particularly because he had no formal training, which he says helped him a lot because never learned the things “not to do”. His interest in sociology helped him enter the world of editorial design, because it had real stories, about real people and events. He would start out by reading the brief, article, or other material he is given, which would then give his designs a direction. He tried to reinforce visually what is written, spoken, or sung. This creates a connection with the viewer on an emotional level, which he believes is effective and lasting. AIGA says that, “His legendary disregard for readerly conventions has made him a hero to some and an agent of ugliness to others.”



PAULA SCHER Scher received her BFA from the Tyler School of Art and a Doctor of Fine Arts from Corcoran College of Art and Design. Her teaching career includes School of Visual Arts, Cooper Union, Yale University and the Tyler School of Art. Paula went into college originally for painting. She felt like she was’nt good at anything until she found graphic design in her 3rd year at the Tyler school. From school she then moved to New York City. Her first design job was designing the inside of children’s books. After that, she went to CBS records but shortly left them for Atlantic Records in order to design covers. After only a year at Atlantic, CBS records hired her back as the East Coast Art Director at the age of 25. It was through her 10 years of designing album covers that Scher found out how to present her work and make her clients appreciate it. Scher has been a forerunner of the international design firm Pentagram since 1991. Her career hit an all time high when her typography became popular within the design community. Through pentagram, Scher has designed branding Identity for clients such as The New York Times, Target, and The Daily Show with John Stewart (2). It was with Pentagram in the 90s that Scher created the identity for the Public Theatre in New York City. Scher created a language that directly mirrored that of street typography.

The logo is made out of different weights of the same typeface taken from Rob Roy Kelly’s book American Woodtype that was later made into the typeface Akzidenz Grotesk. It was made to have a sense of evolution from the P to the C to further emphasize the word and meaning of “public”. After the 1995 poster for a production of Savion Glover’s Bring in ‘Da Noise, Bring in ‘Da Funk, shown on the left hand page, that the Publics typographic style emerged throughout all of the Public Theater’s branding. The branding continues to change and stay current in the highly competitive theatre scene in NYC (3). Her current identity and environmental graphics take the same form, taking from what she has learned from her 10 years designing covers. Scher believes that doing design isnt just for the “public good.” She explains that “people think that if you design something to help for a tramatic event you are a hero, but if you design something for an instituation such as a bank, that is a bad design moral”. She believes that all design matters and that the most responsible design is that of which takes something “bad” and makes it great by changing its expectations (4).



LOUISE FILI Fili grew up in an Italian-American household in New Jersey. In high school, she taught herself calligraphy with common everyday writing utensils. She originally went to Skidmore College to study studio art but discovered that graphic design was the best avenue to travel. Inspired by her love for Italian cooking, her senior project was a hand-lettered cookbook (5). It was on her first freelance assignment for a book publishing house, Knopf, where Fili found her desire to work with book design. At the young age of 25, Fili became the senior designer for American designer Herb Lubalin. Her new work atmosphere, where type was the forefront of design, had a profound effect on Fili’s stylistic development. In 1978 Fili left her job with Herb Lubablin for a position as an art director for Random House Publishing. During her time there, she designed over 2,000 book covers, in an effortless manner that subtly gave any one of her books a wonderful feel.

In 1980, Fili wanted to open her own studio which would focus on hand-lettered packaging, logos, and restaurant identities. During the run of her studio, she has designed for the School of Visual Arts, Sarabeth’s, Good Housekeeping, and hundreds of restaurants in New York City (6). Fili has published many books such as Shadow Type, Grafica Strada, and most recently Elegantissma. Her books showcase her hand-lettering styles and techniques and are a great resource for designers. September 8th-9th of 2014, Fili held an exhibition New York City to showcase Elegantissma. This showcase featured her favorite works from throughout her career as a designer. Louise Fili’s sense of design brings out the “old” in the “new”. Her hand-crafted typefaces are transcendent and give an elegant touch to her designs.



STEFAN SAGMEISTER Born in Bregenz, Austria, Sagmeister began his career at the young age of 15 for the magazine Alphorn. It was during this endeavour that he found that designing layouts was a lot more fun than actually writing the article he was hired to write. In 1985, he earned his M.F.A at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna. While he was in school at the Pratt Institute on a full-bright scholarship years later, Sagmeister would start calling his favorite designer, Tibor Kalman, over and over for a year and a half until he agreed to meet with him and look at this portfolio. It was five years later that Sagmeister was finally hired at Kalman’s design firm M&Co. Kalman’s wisdom and driven advice had a deep influence on Sagmeister at the start of his own career. Kalman’s strong desire to jump from one field to another influenced Sagmeister in a profound way. In the 90s, Sagmeister turned to designing album covers for musicians like Mick Jagger, David Byrne, and Jay-Z. He used printing and packaging techniques such as die-cuts, model building, and more to give the covers a deeper sense of the artist’s persona. I.D magazine critiqued that his CD packaging was what poetry is to prose: distilled, intense, cunning, and utterly complete.

Two of his covers received Grammy Awards for Album Cover design (7). Later, in 2008, Sagmeister took a year off of work and travel to Bali. It was during his time there that he was able to devote a lot of time to learning new concepts. He would sometimes end up not working with the medium he started exploring with. He ultimately decided that he would stick to design and see if he had anything to say with that (8). Stagmeister soon had something to say, something extraordinary. In 2012, Sagmeister tackled the scientific evidence of Happiness. Sagmeister pulled research from two pioneers of positive psychology, Martin Seligman and Jonathan Haidt. He used this scientific evidence to to create a exhibition that included kinetic type, video, interior space design, among many other mediums. Currently, Sagmeister has been production with his first film, a film on happiness (9). Stefan Sagmeister rethinks convention, finds infinite possibilities, and alters popular perceptions with typography. He uses many platforms to express his typographic style such as books environmental art, conceptual exhibitions, and as of this year, video.



ED FELLA Considered the pioneer of post modern design, Fella has changed design with his unique combinations of low-culture and high-culture. Much Like David Carson, Ed Fella makes the idea of deconstruction, that was so popular with the post modernists, evident in his design work. By separating himself from â&#x20AC;&#x153;good designâ&#x20AC;? Fella introduced ambivalence and ambiguity, and the notion that graphic designers are really artists. Fellas most reconized works come from his freelance projects. One of his popular processes was to mix mechanically reproduced materials with drawings and hand letterings. The posters, catalogs, and other specimens he made for non-profit orginizations like the Detriot Focus Gallery had solidified Fellaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reputation. Regardless of his success, he still and has always refused to be compensated for his work (10).

MATTHEW CARTER With Carter’s father being a typographer himself, Carter had an early start to the world of design. At the age of 20, he learned how to cut type by hand through a year-long internship at the Enshede printing house in Harlem. He has designed typefaces and fonts such as Snell Roundhand, Helvetica Compressed, Big Caslon and many more. Carter is more seen as a problem solver in the eye of designers than a type designer. Though Carter does not have a specific style, all of his typfaces have the precision and distintion of a well orchestrated agrument. “A font is always a struggle between the alphabetic nature of the letterform, the ‘A-ness’ of the A, and your desire to put some of yourself into the letterform. It’s a struggle between representing something and trying to find some iota of yourself in it.” (11).


MARTIN VENEZKY As the founder of the internationally reconized design firm, Appetite Engineers, his firm has done exhibition designs for Reebok as well as print work for the Sundance Film Festival. Recently, the firm has been working with book design. Venezkyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s team encourages exploartion with many different mediums such as drawing, collage, photography, and even sculpture. These processes can be seen in prestigious print medias such as Wired and the New York Times (12).

P. SCOTT MAKELA Most known for his typeface Dead History, Makela designed typefaces that were specific to the time in which he created them. Dead history was designed in the 1990s, when digital tools were becoming more and more accepted for designers. It was made by mixing together Centennial and Adobeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s V.A.G Rounded that created something completely original (13). This typeface has varying stroke widths and multiple varying serifs. He believed that this typeface personified a new attidude in type creation, where the result of the computerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capabilities to function as the perfect assembling tool (14).


THE GRUNGE Every grunge artist has a style of his or her own, there is no single way to view grunge art but even so, it has a very unique look classic to the 1990s - Sometimes an image is composed by layering images and snippets in a way that creates a more complex piece although, this does not necessarily make it “grungier” but “grunginess” does not end there. There is something immensely freeing in grunge photography, which brings the viewer out of his or her (often boring) headspace into a new and creative world. Grunge shows that not everything needs to be “perfect and pretty.” By venturing into the unorthodox, the ugly, and the dangerous, Grunge style shows no boundaries and no limitations. It does not strive for conformity like much of the pop-culture world, it strives to challenge and be challenged, breaking away from the “ticky-tacky box” style life of the postwar World War Two generation.


Street artists do not aspire to change the definition of an artwork, but rather to question the existing environment with its own language. The motivations and objectives that drive street artists are as varied as the artists themselves. Street artists aspire to have their work communicate with everyday people about socially relevant themes. There is a strong current of activism and subversion in urban art making Street Art a powerful platform for reaching the public and a potent form of political expression for the oppressed, or people with little resources to create change. Common variants include ad busting, â&#x20AC;&#x153;subvertisingâ&#x20AC;? and other culture jamming means, the abolishment of private property, and, in general, reclaiming the streets for the people.


POST-MODERN Post-Modernists ceased to rid itself of any modernist viewpoint that it could. Notable features of this era was how it erased its lines between high culture and pop culture. Post-modernists wanted to challenge the Modernists theory of “good design” by deconstructing every ounce of what “good design” meant to them. This is where the new astetic of the impure, chaotic, irregular came into vogue, or know as the “anti-astetic (15).


Design for social change has arisen in the mid 2010s as a way of providing design to people in need, activism, etc. Its essentially design with a strong agenda to help and to change the world. With the feminist movement taking full stride in 2015, advertisments promoting the ideals of this group have arisen. Many champains such as the Fuck H8 and more have taken to punchy advertising strageties to help stop the oppresive nature of this country on women. Environmental rights have also been a huge effort in changing the world with design. It is during this time that design morals are more and more enforced. (16).




BATTLE OF THE TYPEFACE Selecting user-friendly typefaces was no easy task for the first computer programmers. In fact, it took many years for companies to develop realistic rights to typefaces and how they should be designed to be the most readable on a monitor. Trying to take the upper hand on the typeface monopoly took a conjoined effort of two, now rivaling, companies, Apple and Microsoft. Instead of paying stiff royalties to Adobe, the two budding companies joined forces in the 1990s to combat the situation. Apple provided font technology and Microsoft provided for imaging technology (similar to PostScript) (17). Of course, there were many bugs with this new software the two had developed. The recoil, Adobe created a series of typefaces through software called Adobe Type Manager (ATM), which had improved upon the output of the fonts. From there typeface software developed customization features. With more progress they even created sharing networks and programs that made getting new ideas (and unfortunately stealing typefaces) much easier. Now there are many new types of font programs, still ever competing but that seem more natural for computers and more reader friendly with plenty of interesting varieties.


19 9 0

Tim Berners-Lee develops HyperText Markup Language (HTML) giving rise to the World Wide Web. “Archie”, the first attempt at indexing the Internet, is created by Peter Deutsch Adobe Photoshop 1.0

19 9 3 The number of hosts breaks 1,000,000

19 9 4 The White House launches its website SPAM is created by commercial sites and mass marketing campaigns

19 9 5

CompuServe, America Online, and Prodigy start providing dial-up Internet Sun Microsystems releases the Internet programming language called Java The Vatican launches its website

19 9 6

Approximately 45 million people are using the Internet and 43.2 million households own a PC

19 9 7

Microsoft invests $150 million in Apple, which was struggling at the time The term “weblog” is coined (and later shortened to blog)

19 9 8 Google opens its first office in Californina

19 9 9

Wi-Fi becomes a part of computing language College student Shawn Fanning invents Napster, which allowed users to swap music over the Internet. The number of Internet users reaches 150 million MySpace is launched


Viruses begin to enter the computer realm Twitter is created American Online buys Time Warner for $16 billion â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the biggest merger of all time.

2 0 01

Apple unveils Mac OS X operating system while Microsoft rolls out Windows XP 9.8 billion electronic messages are sent daily Wikipedia is launched

2002 There are now 544.2 million Internet users worldwide.


President Bush signs the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM) Apple introduces the iTunes music store.

2004 Mike Zuckerberg launches Facebook.com


YouTube is launched


There are more than 92 million websites online Microsoft Windows Vista


Microsoft offers to buy Yahoo for $44.6 billion. Federal courts order disabling of Wikileaks.org â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a website that discloses confidential information

2 010

Apple unveils the iPad

2 014

Edward Snowden turns over thousands of classified documents to the general media



19 9 0 s M U S I C There were many genres of music that gained even more popularity during the 1990s such as pop and rap - especially with the younger generations. Some of the major music groups that typified 90â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s music were: The Spice Girls, Backstreet Boys, NYSNC, Nirvana, Brittany Spears, Ice Cube, Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre, and DMX.

2000s MUSIC

The melismatic style of signing made popular by Christina Aguilera and artists alike began to take a back seat to artists like Kesha and Katy Perry, who sold much more than their voices. In 2011 girl groups and boy bands have returned to the mainstream for the first time since the 90s. By this time several different types of pop including: dance and synthpop have become the driving force in mainstream music. Alternative movements, like those of the hipster subculture include: Indie rock, indie pop, and indie folk, which have come into the mainstream focus since the early 2010s.


CINEMA The 2000s saw an exciting amount of diversity within the film industry. By this time CGI (computer generated graphics) had become popular with Pixar movies such as Shrek, The Incredibles, and many more. Other genres such as comic book adaptations, musicals, foreign, and independent films began to find popularity. It was in 2012 that Wes Anderson, an American filmmaker since the 1980s, began to pick up more mainstream interest with his highly colorful and thoughtful compositions. 2013 - present films often use fantastical colors to convey emotions though more than the setting and acting alone, making film a more artful experience, some films being created to celebrate â&#x20AC;&#x153;film artâ&#x20AC;? in and of itself.


By the late 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, almost every show that made it to Broadway was a corporate production. With the average musical budget running over $8,000,000, it took a lot of people to finance a show, and nearly every one of those donors wanted some say in the production. This left no room for amateurs, rebels, or basic artists. By the 2000s critics began to consider the constant adaptations of films into plays and further, into a redefinition of Broadway as a tourist attraction, as opposed to a creative outlet.


IMAGE ACCREDITATION The Creators of this booklet do not own any of the images or labels presented in this project. We would like to thank the owners of these images for publishing their works for students like ourselves to use to promote information and creativity. If there are any issues with the images used we greatly apologize and invite you to contact us over issuu and we will address the problem. Thank you for reading!

BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) Jake Hird. “20+ More Mind Blowing Media Statistics.” Last modfied August 17, 2009. https://econsultancy.com/ blog/4402-20+-more-mind-blowing-social-media-statistics. Econsultancy.com/blog. (2) Shared by datajack. “ Broadband Internet Speeds - Facts and Figures.” Posted on January 26, 2012. http://visual.ly/broadband-internet-speeds-fun-facts-figures. “Technology”. Visually. (3) Designboom. “Interview with Graphic Designer David Carson.” Last modified September, 24, 2014. http://www. designboom.com/design/interview-with-graphic-designer-david-carson-09-22-2013/. Designboom.com. (4) AIGA. “Inspiration.” Last modified 2015. http://www.aiga.org/ medalist-paulascher/. AIGA bibliography. “Paula Scher.” (5) Ryan and Tina Essmaker. “Paula Scher: Artist/Designer.” Last modified November 19, 2013. https://thegreatdiscontent.com/ interview/paula-scher. The Great Discontent. (6) Identities. “New Work: The Public Theater.” Last modified June 12, 2006. http://new.pentagram.com/2008/06/new-workthe-public-theater-1/. Pentagram.com.

(7) AIGA. “Inspiration.” Last modified 2015. http://www. aiga.org/medalist-louise-fili/. AIGA bibliography. “Louise Fili.” (9) Randy Kennedy. “How That Sausage of Happiness is Made.” Last modified April 3, 2012. http://www. nytimes.com/2012/04/04/arts/design/stefan-sagmeisters-happy-show-at-institute-of-contemporary-art. html?_r=1. The New York Times. “Art & Design.” (10) AIGA. “Inspiration.” Last modified 2015. http:// www.aiga.org/medalist-edfella/. AIGA bibliography. “Ed Fella.” (11) AIGA. “Inspiration.” Last modified 2015. http://www. aiga.org/medalist-matthewcarter/. AIGA bibliography. “Matthew Carter.” (12) Cranbrook Academy of Art. “Martin Venezky.” Last modified 2015. https://www.cca.edu/academics/faculty/mvenezky. California College of the Arts. (13) Dead History. “P. Scott Makela.” Last modified 2015. http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_ id=139317. The Museum of Modern Art. (14) Emigre Fonts. “P. Scott Makela.” http://www.emigre. com/Bios.php?d=9. Emigre.com (15) Mr. Keedy. “Graphic Design in the Post Modern Era. http://www.emigre.com/Editorial.php?sect=1&id=20. Emigre Fonts. (16) Drenttel, William. “Designing for Social Change. http://designobserver.com/feature/designing-for-social-change/33188/ . The Design Observer Group. (17) PrepPressure.com. “The History of Fonts.” Last modified August 8, 2013. (http://www.prepressure.com/ fonts/basics/history).


Stacy Asher email stacyasher@unl.edu 209A Woods Art Building Department of Art + Art History University of Nebraska-Lincoln stacyasher.com

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A Survey of the History of the Western Alphabet Research + Booklet Design / E-publishing  

Learning Outcomes Identify, specify, and classify printing types and fonts of historical and cultural significance through completion of a f...

A Survey of the History of the Western Alphabet Research + Booklet Design / E-publishing  

Learning Outcomes Identify, specify, and classify printing types and fonts of historical and cultural significance through completion of a f...