List of French monarchs

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The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 509 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions. Between the period from King Charles the Bald in 843 to King Louis XVI in 1792, France had 45 kings. As well as the 7 undisputed Emperors and Kings after the French Revolution, this comes to a total of 52 undisputed monarchs of France.

In August 843 the Treaty of Verdun divided the Frankish realm into three kingdoms, one of which was short-lived; the other two evolved into France and, eventually, Germany. By this time the eastern and western parts of the land already had different languages and culture.

The Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, included the first rulers to adopt the title of 'King of France' for the first time with Philip II (r. 1180–1223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (from 1589).

During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style of "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy, which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[1]

With the House of Bonaparte, "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th-century France between 1804 and 1814, again in 1815, and between 1852 and 1870.

Family tree of French monarchs 509–1870. (Errata: Louis XVI died in 1793 and Louis XVII died in 1795. Henri III's reign started in 1574)

Titles[edit]

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550). It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century.[a] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–1792) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[1]

In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852 to 1870, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III (also known as Louis-Napoleon). They used the title "Emperor of the French".[3][4]

Frankish dynasties[edit]

Carolingian dynasty (843-888)[edit]

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the real powers behind the Merovingian kings. The dynasty is named after one of these mayors of the palace, Charles Martel, whose son Pepin the Short dethroned the Merovingians in 751, and with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks.[5] Pepin's great-grandson Charles the Bald was king at the time of the Treaty of Verdun (843). (For earlier rulers, see List of Frankish kings.)

Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Charles the Bald August 843
(King of the Franks from 20 June 840)
6 October 877  • Son of Louis the Pious King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans (875–77)
Louis the Stammerer 6 October 877 10 April 879  • Son of Charles the Bald King of the Franks
Louis III 10 April 879 5 August 882  • Son of Louis the Stammerer King of the Franks
Carloman II 5 August 882 6 December 884  • Son of Louis the Stammerer

 • Younger brother of Louis III

King of the Franks
Charles the Fat 20 May 885 13 January 888  • Son of Louis the German
 • Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II
 • Grandson of Louis the Pious
King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans (881–88)

Robertian dynasty (888–898)[edit]

The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris, was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens.[6]

Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Odo of Paris
(Eudes)
29 February 888 1 January 898  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Elected king against young Charles III.
 • Third Cousin of Louis II
King of the Franks

Carolingian dynasty (898–922)[edit]

Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral in 893, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.[7] He was deposed and died in captivity.

Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Charles the Simple 28 January 898 30 June 922  • Posthumous son of Louis II
 • Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
King of the Franks

Robertian dynasty (922–923)[edit]

Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Robert I 30 June 922 15 June 923  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Younger brother of Odo
 • Third cousin of Louis the Stammerer
King of the Franks

Bosonid dynasty (923–936)[edit]

The Bosonids were a noble family descended from Boso the Elder. A member of the family, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923.

Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Rudolph
(Raoul)
13 July 923 14 January 936  • Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
 • Son-in-law of Robert I
King of the Franks

Carolingian dynasty (936–987)[edit]

Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Louis IV of Outremer 19 June 936 10 September 954  • Son of Charles III the Simple King of the Franks
Lothair 12 November 954 2 March 986  • Son of Louis IV King of the Franks
Louis V 8 June 986 22 May 987  • Son of Lothair King of the Franks

Capetian dynasty (987–1792)[edit]

After the death of Louis V, Hugh Capet, the son of Hugh the Great and grandson of Robert I, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

Not listed below are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France and are not given ordinals.

Henry VI of England, son of Catherine of Valois, became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420; however this was disputed and he is not always regarded as a legitimate king of France. English claims to the French throne actually date from 1328, when Edward III claimed the throne after the death of Charles IV. Other than Henry VI, none had ever had their claim backed by treaty, and his title became contested after 1429, when Charles VII was crowned. Henry himself was crowned by a different faction in 1431, though at the age of 10, he had yet to come of age. The final phase of the Hundred Years War was fought between these competing factions, resulting in a Valois victory at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, putting an end to any meaningful claims of the English monarchs over the throne of France, though English (and later British) monarchs would continue to use the title "King of France" until 1801.

From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

House of Capet (987–1328)[edit]

The main line of descent from Hugh Capet is known as the House of Capet. That line became extinct in 1328, creating a succession crisis known as the Hundred Years War. While there were numerous claimants to succeed, the two best claimants were the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet and then later the House of Lancaster.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Hugh Capet 3 July 987 24 October 996  • Grandson of Robert I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Sceau de Robert II le pieux.jpg Robert II the Pious, the Wise 24 October 996 20 July 1031  • Son of Hugh Capet
Henry I
(Henri)
20 July 1031 4 August 1060  • Son of Robert II
Sceau du roi Philippe Ier.jpg Philip I the Amorous
(Philippe)
4 August 1060 29 July 1108  • Son of Henry I
Louis VI of France.jpg Louis VI the Fat 29 July 1108 1 August 1137  • Son of Philip I
Louis VII SCeau 17058.jpg Louis VII the Young 1 August 1137 18 September 1180  • Son of Louis VI
Sceau de Philippe Auguste. - Archives Nationales - SC-D157.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip II Augustus
(Philippe Auguste)
18 September 1180 14 July 1223  • Son of Louis VII King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis8.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Louis VIII the Lion 14 July 1223 8 November 1226  • Son of Philip II Augustus King of France
(Roi de France)
Saintlouis.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Louis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
8 November 1226 25 August 1270  • Son of Louis VIII
Miniature Philippe III Courronement.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip III the Bold
(Philippe)
25 August 1270 5 October 1285  • Son of Louis IX
Filippoilbello.gif Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Philip IV the Fair, the Iron King
(Philippe)
5 October 1285 29 November 1314  • Son of Philip III King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Ludvík X.png Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Louis X the Quarreller 29 November 1314 5 June 1316  • Son of Philip IV
John I of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg John I the Posthumous
(Jean)
15 November 1316 20 November 1316  • Son of Louis X
Philip V of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Philip V the Tall
(Philippe)
20 November 1316 3 January 1322  • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Louis X
Charles4 mini.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Charles IV the Fair 3 January 1322 1 February 1328  • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Louis X and Philip V

House of Valois (1328–1589)[edit]

The death of Charles IV started the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet later the House of Lancaster over control of the French throne.[8] The Valois claimed the right to the succession by male-only primogeniture, having the closest all-male line of descent from a recent French king. They were descended from the third son of Philip III, Charles, Count of Valois. The Plantagenets based their claim on being closer to a more recent French king, Edward III of England being a grandson of Philip IV through his mother, Isabella. The two houses fought the Hundred Years War to enforce their claims; the Valois were ultimately successful, and French historiography counts their leaders as rightful kings. One Plantagenet, Henry VI of England, did enjoy de jure control of the French throne under the terms of the Treaty of Troyes, which formed the basis for continued English claims to the throne of France until the 19th century. The Valois line would rule France until the line became extinct in 1589, in the backdrop of the French Wars of Religion. As Navarre did not have a tradition of male-only primogeniture, the Navarrese monarchy became distinct from the French, with Joan II, a daughter of Louis X, inheriting there.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Phil6france.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip VI the Fortunate
(Philippe)
1 April 1328 22 August 1350  • Grandson of Philip III of France King of France
(Roi de France)
JeanIIdFrance.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg John II the Good
(Jean)
22 August 1350 8 April 1364  • Son of Philip VI King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles V France.jpg Arms of Charles V of France (counter-seal).svg Charles V the Wise 8 April 1364 16 September 1380  • Son of John II King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VI de France - Dialogues de Pierre Salmon - Bib de Genève MsFr165f4.jpg Arms of Charles VI of France (counter-seal).svg Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad 16 September 1380 21 October 1422  • Son of Charles V King of France
(Roi de France)

House of Lancaster (1422–1453) (disputed)[edit]

From 1340 to 1801 (but not from 1360 to 1369), the Kings of England and Great Britain claimed the title of King of France. Under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Claim Title
King Henry VI from NPG (2).jpg Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg Henry VI of England
(Henri VI d'Angleterre)
21 October 1422 19 October 1453 By right of his father Henry V of England, who by conquest forced the French to sign the Treaty of Troyes became heir and regent of France. Grandson of Charles VI of France. King of France
(Roi de France)

House of Valois (1328–1589)[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor Title
KarlVII.jpg Coat of Arms of Charles VII of France (counterseal).svg Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served 21 October 1422 22 July 1461  • Son of Charles VI
 • Uncle of Henry VI of England
King of France.
(Roi de France)
Louis-XI.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of Valois France.svg Louis XI the Prudent, the Cunning, the Universal Spider 22 July 1461 30 August 1483  • Son of Charles VII King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VIII Ecole Francaise 16th century Musee de Conde Chantilly.jpg Coat of Arms of Charles VIII of France.svg Charles VIII the Affable 30 August 1483 7 April 1498  • Son of Louis XI King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis-xii-roi-de-france.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of Valois France.svg Louis XII Father of the People 7 April 1498 1 January 1515  • Great-grandson of Charles V
 • Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
 • By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)
François Ier Louvre.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
(François)
1 January 1515 31 March 1547  • Great-great-grandson of Charles V
 • First cousin once removed, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
King of France
(Roi de France)
Henry II of France..jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Henry II
(Henri)
31 March 1547 10 July 1559  • Son of Francis I/Maternal grandson of Louis XII King of France
(Roi de France)
FrancoisII.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Francis II
(François)
10 July 1559 5 December 1560  • Son of Henry II King of France
(Roi de France)

King of Scots
(1558–1560)
with Mary I (1542–1567)
CharlesIX.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Charles IX 5 December 1560 30 May 1574  • Son of Henry II King of France
(Roi de France)
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg Henry III
(Henri)
30 May 1574 2 August 1589  • Son of Henry II King of France
(Roi de France)

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
(1573–1575)

House of Bourbon (1589–1792)[edit]

The Valois line looked strong on the death of Henry II, who left four male heirs. His first son, Francis II, died in his minority. His second son, Charles IX, had no legitimate sons to inherit. Following the assassination of his third son, the childless Henry III, and the premature death of his fourth son Hercule François, France was plunged into a succession crisis over which distant cousin of the king would inherit the throne. The best claimant, King Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant, and thus unacceptable to much of the French nobility. Ultimately, after winning numerous battles in defence of his claim, Henry converted to Catholicism and was crowned king, founding the House of Bourbon. This marked the second time the thrones of Navarre and France were united under one monarch; as different inheritance laws had caused them to become separated during the events of the Hundred Years Wars. The House of Bourbon would be overthrown during the French Revolution, replaced by a short-lived republic.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Henri-Pourbus.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Henry IV the Green Gallant Good King Henry
(Henri)
2 August 1589 14 May 1610  • Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
 • By first marriage son in law of Henry II, Brother in law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
 • Great-great-great-great grandson of Charles V
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Luis XIII, rey de Francia (Philippe de Champaigne).jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XIII the Just 14 May 1610 14 May 1643  • Son of Henry IV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XIV of France.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XIV the Great the Sun King 14 May 1643 1 September 1715  • Son of Louis XIII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XV by Maurice-Quentin de La Tour.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XV the Beloved
1 September 1715 10 May 1774  • Great-grandson of Louis XIV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Antoine-François Callet - Louis XVI, roi de France et de Navarre (1754-1793), revêtu du grand costume royal en 1779 - Google Art Project.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XVI the Restorer of French Liberty 10 May 1774 21 September 1792  • Grandson of Louis XV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
(1774–1791)

King of the French
(Roi des Français)
(1791–1792)
Louis Charles of France6.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XVII
(Claimant)
21 January 1793 8 June 1795  • Son of Louis XVI (Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814)[edit]

The French First Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, after which its popular First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, decided to make France a monarchy again. He took the popular title Emperor of the French instead of King of France and Navarre or King of the French to avoid all titles of the Kingdom of France making France's second popular monarchy.

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg Grandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon I
(Napoléon)
18 May 1804 11 April 1814
  • Founder of the Bonaparte dynasty
Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty (1814–1815)[edit]

Following the first defeat of Napoleon and his exile to Elba, the Bourbon monarchy was restored, with Louis XVI's younger brother Louis Stanislas being crowned as Louis XVIII. Louis XVI's son had been considered by monarchists as Louis XVII but he was never crowned and never ruled in his own right before his own death; he is not usually counted among French monarchs, creating a gap in numbering on most traditional lists of French kings. Napoleon would briefly regain control of the country during his Hundred Days rule in 1815. After his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon attempted to abdicate in favour of his son, but the Bourbon Monarchy was re-established yet again, and would continue to rule France until the July Revolution of 1830 replaced it with a cadet branch, the House of Orleans.

House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815)[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Gérard - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XVIII the Desired 11 April 1814 20 March 1815  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg Grandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon I
(Napoléon)
20 March 1815 22 June 1815
  • Founder of the Bonaparte dynasty
Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
Le duc de Reichstadt.jpg Grandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon II the Eaglet
(Napoléon)
[b]
22 June 1815 7 July 1815  • Son of Napoleon I (Disputed) Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian dynasty (1815–1848)[edit]

House of Bourbon (1815–1830)[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Gérard - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XVIII the Desired 7 July 1815 16 September 1824  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Carlos X de Francia (François Gérard).jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Charles X 16 September 1824 2 August 1830  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis Antoine d'Artois.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XIX Antoine 2 August 1830 2 August 1830
(20 minutes)
 • Son of Charles X (Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Comte-de-chambord.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Henry V
(Henri)
2 August 1830 9 August 1830
(7 days)
 • Grandson of Charles X
 • Nephew of Louis Antoine
(Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

The Bourbon Restoration came to an end with the July Revolution of 1830, which deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis-Philippe I, a distant cousin with more liberal politics. Charles X's son Louis signed a document renouncing his own right to the throne only after a 20-minute argument with his father; because he was never crowned he is disputed as a genuine king of France.[9] Louis's nephew Henry was likewise considered by some to be Henry V, but the new regime did not recognise his claim and he never ruled.

House of Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848)[edit]

Under Louis-Philippe, the popular monarchy of France changed the styles and forms of the ancien régime, replacing them with more populist forms like replacing "King of France" with "King of the French").

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
1841 portrait painting of Louis Philippe I (King of the French) by Winterhalter.jpg Coat of Arms of the July Monarchy (1830-31).svg Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King 9 August 1830 24 February 1848  • Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
 • Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
King of the French
(Roi des Français)

Over the years Louis-Philippe grew more conservative. When a revolution broke out he fled to Great Britain leaving his grandson Prince Philippe, Count of Paris as King of the French. Two days later the Second French Republic was declared. He was never crowned, making him disputed as a genuine monarch.[citation needed]

House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870)[edit]

The French Second Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French. He took the regnal name of Napoleon III, after his uncle (Napoleon I) and his cousin (Napoleon II, who was declared but uncrowned as heir to the Imperial throne).

Napoleon III would later be overthrown during the events of the Franco-Prussian War. He was the last monarch to rule France; thereafter, the country was ruled by a succession of republican governments (see French Third Republic).

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Alexandre Cabanel 002.jpg Coat of Arms Second French Empire (1852–1870)-2.svg Napoleon III
(Napoléon)
2 December 1852 4 September 1870  • Nephew of Napoleon I Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Later pretenders[edit]

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the president of France, and of each other. These groups are:

Timeline[edit]

House of OrléansHouse of BonaparteHouse of BourbonHouse of ValoisHouse of CapetBosonid dynastyRobertian dynastyCarolingian dynastyNapoleon III of FranceLouis Philippe IHenri, Count of ChambordLouis Antoine, Duke of AngoulêmeCharles X of FranceNapoleon IILouis XVIIINapoleonLouis XVII of FranceLouis XVI of FranceLouis XV of FranceLouis XIV of FranceLouis XIII of FranceHenry IV of FranceHenry III of FranceCharles IX of FranceFrancis II of FranceHenry II of FranceFrancis I of FranceLouis XII of FranceCharles VIII of FranceLouis XI of FranceHenry VI of EnglandCharles VII of FranceCharles VI of FranceCharles V of FranceJohn II of FrancePhilip VI of FranceCharles IV of FrancePhilip V of FranceJohn I of FranceLouis X of FrancePhilip IV of FrancePhilip III of FranceLouis IX of FranceLouis VIII of FrancePhilip II of FranceLouis VII of FranceLouis VI of FrancePhilip I of FranceHenry I of FranceRobert II of FranceHugh CapetLouis V of FranceLothair of FranceLouis IV of FranceRudolph of FranceRobert I of FranceCharles the SimpleOdo of FranceCharles the FatCarloman IILouis III of FranceLouis the StammererCharles the Bald


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 'Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX' [2]
  2. ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9789053567678.
  2. ^ Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, c.1480–1560. Warfare in History Series. 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN 9781843834052. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  3. ^ Le Couronnement de Napoléon Premier, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Guerin. 1806. p. 1.
  4. ^ Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359.
  5. ^ Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 341.
  6. ^ Gwatking, H. M.; Whitney, J. P.; et al. (1930). Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Volume III. London: Cambridge University Press.
  7. ^ Parisse, Michael (2005). "Lotharingia". In Reuter, T. (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900–c. 1024. III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–315.
  8. ^ Knecht, Robert (2004). The Valois: Kings of France 1328–1422. NY, USA: Hambledon Continuum. pp. ix–xii. ISBN 1852854200.
  9. ^ "Shortest reign of a monarch". guinnessworldrecords.com. Retrieved 12 April 2017.

Sources[edit]

  • Hansen, M.H., ed. (1967). Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. NY, USA: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 103–107.[unreliable source?]