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The 1430s decade ran from January 1, 1430, to December 31, 1439.
- January 7 – Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, marries Isabella of Portugal.
- January 10 – Philip the Good founds the Order of the Golden Fleece.
- March 29 – The Ottoman Empire, under Murad II, captures Thessalonica after an eight-year siege.
- May 14 – The French first attempt to relieve the Siege of Compiègne.
- May 23 – Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians, while leading an army to relieve Compiègne.
- June 14 – William Waynflete becomes vicar of Skendleby, Lincolnshire.
- July 11 – The Battle of Trnava: The Hussites defeat the Hungarian-Moravian-Serbian army.
- October 27 – Švitrigaila succeeds his cousin as ruler of Lithuania.
- Bratislava Castle is converted to a fortress under Sigismund of Luxemburg.
- Optical methods are first used in the creation of art.
- With the surrender of Chalandritsa and the citadel of Patras to the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea, the Principality of Achaea comes to an end.
- January 9 – Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc begin at Rouen in France, which is under English occupation.
- February 21 – The trial of Joan of Arc for heresy begins.
- March – Alexander I Aldea takes the throne of Wallachia with support from Alexander I of Moldavia.
- March 3 – Pope Eugene IV succeeds Pope Martin V, to become the 207th pope.
- May 30 – Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake in Rouen.
- June 16 – The Teutonic Knights and Švitrigaila sign the Treaty of Christmemel, creating an anti-Polish alliance.
- September – Battle of Inverlochy: Donald Balloch defeats the Royalists.
- October 30 – The Treaty of Medina del Campo is signed, consolidating peace between Portugal and Castille.
- November 9 – The Battle of Ilava: The Hungarians defeat the Hussite army.
- November 18 – A treaty in Suceava concludes an attack on Poland, launched this year by Alexander I of Moldavia during the Lithuanian Civil War.
- December 13 – Vlad, future Prince of Wallachia as Vlad II Dracul, is made a member of the Order of the Dragon. Because of this, his son Vlad III the Impaler will inspire the literary figure named Dracula.
- December 16 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France at Notre-Dame de Paris.
- The University of Poitiers is founded.
- The Ayutthaya Kingdom besieges Angkor and sacks the Khmer capital, ending the Khmer Empire.
- Nezahualcoyotl is crowned Tlatoani of the Kingdom of Texcoco.
- Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman governor of Thessaly Turahan Bey breaks through the Hexamilion wall for the second time, and ravages the Peloponnese Peninsula.
- January 1 – Iliaș succeeds his father as Prince of Moldavia.
- Spring – An Albanian revolt, led by Gjergj Arianit Komneni, breaks out against the Ottoman Empire, and spreads through most of Albania.
- April – At the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Countess of Holland and Zeeland, is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour, ending Hainaut and Holland as independent counties.
- May 6 – Jan van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece is first presented to the public.
- June 1 – Battle of San Romano: Florence defeats Siena.
- August 31 – Sigismund Kęstutaitis attempts the capture or murder of Švitrigaila, his rival for the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Švitrigaila manages to escape.
- December 8 – Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438): The first battle between the forces of Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis is fought near the town of Oszmiana (Ashmyany), launching the most active phase of the civil war in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- The Université de Caen is founded.
- The first baccalaureate service is believed to have originated at the University of Oxford.
- May 31 – Sigismund is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome. There has been no crowned Emperor since the death of his father, Charles IV, in 1378.
- August 14 – Edward I becomes King of Portugal.
- September – Cosimo de' Medici, later the de facto ruler of Florence and patron of Marsilio Ficino, is exiled by the Albizzi/Strozzi faction (Cosimo returns a year later, in September 1434).
- October – Iliaș of Moldavia is deposed by his half-brother and joint ruler Stephen II.
- The Ming Dynasty in China completes is final last great maritime expedition, led by Admiral Zheng He; the fleet would be dispersed, altering the balance of power in the Indian Ocean, and making it easier for Portugal and other Western naval powers to gain dominance over the seas.
- In Ming Dynasty China, cotton is listed as a permanent item of trade, on the tax registers of Songjiang prefecture.
- April 14 – The foundation stone of Nantes Cathedral in Nantes, France, is laid.
- May 30 – Hussite Wars – Battle of Lipany: The Catholics and Ultraquists defeat the Taborites, ending the Hussite Wars.
- June 19 or 20 – Zara Yaqob becomes Emperor of Ethiopia.
- Late June – Miner Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson begins a Swedish rebellion against King Eric of Pomerania (named the Engelbrekt rebellion after him), eventually leading to the deposition of the king.
- July 10–August 9 – Suero de Quiñones and his companions stage the Passo Honroso, at the Órbigo in León.
- August 16 – King Eric of Pomerania is deposed from the Swedish throne at a meeting in Vadstena. He still retains power in Denmark and Norway, though.
- September – Cosimo de' Medici returns to Florence one year after being exiled by the Albizzi and Strozzi faction.
- October 21 – The University of Catania is founded in Italy.
- Jan van Eyck paints the Arnolfini Portrait.
- Explorer Gil Eanes rounds Cape Bojador in Western Sahara, thus destroying the legends of the "Dark Sea".
- Portuguese traders deliver their first cargo of African slaves to Lisbon.
- In Ming Dynasty China, a long episode of drought, flood, locust infestation, and famine cripple agriculture and commerce in areas throughout the country, until 1448.
- The Puke Feud occurs in Sweden.
- January 11 – Sweden's first Riksdag of the Estates is summoned under rebel leader Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, who is elected rikshövitsman (military commander of the realm), in the absence of a king, on January 13.
- January 13 – Sicut Dudum, a papal bull forbidding the enslavement of the Guanche natives in Canary Islands by the Spanish, is promulgated by Pope Eugene IV.
- February 2 – The Kingdom of Naples passes to René of Anjou.
- By August – Battle of Podraga: Brothers Iliaș and Stephen II battle to a draw for the throne of Moldavia, leading to a joint rule by them, helped by the intervention of the Polish king.
- August 5 – Battle of Ponza: Alfonso V of Aragon is captured.
- September 1 – Battle of Pabaiskas: Sigismund Kęstutaitis decisively defeats Grand Duke Švitrigaila, in the decisive battle of the civil war in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- September 21 – The Treaty of Arras between Charles VII of France and Philip III of Burgundy ends the English-Burgundian alliance.
- October 14 – Eric of Pomerania is reinstated as king of Sweden, only briefly, however, since he is once again deposed in January of the following year.
- Francis of Paola founds the Order of the Minims in Italy.
- China returns to a policy of isolation.
- Gil Eanes and Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia explore the coast of Africa, as far as the Angra dos Ruivos (now in Western Sahara).
- January 11 – Eric of Pomerania is deposed from the Swedish throne for the second time, only three months after having been reinstated. Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson remains the leader of the land, in his capacity of rikshövitsman (military commander of the realm).
- February – Charles Knutsson becomes joint rikshövitsman with Engelbrekt (the two will share the title, until Engelbrekt's death in May).
- April – Paris is recaptured from the English by French forces during the Hundred Years War.
- May 4 – Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson is murdered by a personal enemy, while on his way to Stockholm for negotiations. Charles Knutsson temporarily holds the position of leader of Sweden alone. The probable first meeting of the Riksdag of the Estates takes place afterwards, in Uppsala, Sweden.
- June 25
- July 5 – The Hussite Wars effectively end in Bohemia. Sigismund is accepted as King.
- July 29 – French forces abandon their Siege of Calais.
- August 30 – Brunelleschi's Dome at Florence Cathedral is dedicated.
- September 1 – Eric of Pomerania is once again reinstated as king of Sweden. Charles Knutsson, at the same time, resigns the post of rikshövitsman.
- September 10 – Scottish defeat the English at the Battle of Piperdean.
- Vlad II Dracul seizes the recently vacated throne of Wallachia, with Hungarian support.
- The Bosnian language is first mentioned in a document.
- Date of the Visokom papers, the last direct sources on the old town of Visoki.
- In Ming dynasty China, the inauguration of the Zhengtong Emperor takes place.
- In Ming dynasty China, a significant portion of the southern grain tax is commuted to payments in silver, known as the Gold Floral Silver (jinhuayin). This comes about due to officials' and military generals' increasing demands to be paid in silver instead of grain, as commercial transactions draw more silver into nationwide circulation. Some counties have trouble transporting all the required grain to meet their tax quotas, so it makes sense to pay the government in silver, a medium of exchange that is already abundant amongst landowners, through their own private commercial affairs.
- The Florentine polymath Leon Battista Alberti begins writing the treatise On Painting, in which he argues for the importance of mathematical perspective, in the creation of three-dimensional vision on a two-dimensional plane. This follows the ideas of Masaccio, and his concepts of linear perspective and vanishing point in artwork.
- Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia becomes the first European to explore the western coast of Africa, past the Tropic of Cancer.
- Johannes Gutenberg begins work on the printing press.
- February 20–21 – James I of Scotland is fatally stabbed at Perth in a failed coup by his uncle and former ally, Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl.
- March 11–25 – Nova Scorpii AD 1437 is observed from Seoul, Korea. 
- March 25 – In a ceremony in Holyrood Abbey, James II of Scotland is crowned at the age of six by Pope Eugene IV. For security of the crown, the capital of Scotland is moved to Edinburgh, from Dunfermline.
- April 23 – Malmö in Denmark (now Sweden) receives its current coat of arms.
- June – A peasant army gathers at Bobâlna during the Transylvanian peasant revolt. The revolt will be crushed by January of next year.
- September 20–October 19 – A Portuguese attempt to conquer Tangier fails, and Prince Ferdinand is taken hostage.
- December 9 – Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, dies.
- Sandside Chase in the north of Scotland: Clan Mackay defeat the Clan Gunn of Caithness.
- The Kazan Khanate is established.
- Ulugh Beg's Zij-i Sultani star catalogue is published.
- January 1 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary.
- January 9 – The city of Cluj (Kolozsvár) is conquered, thus marking the end of the Transylvanian peasant revolt, which started at Bobâlna.
- January 10 – The Council of Florence opens in Ferrara.
- February 2 – The Unio Trium Nationum pact is established in Transylvania.
- February 10 – All Souls' College is founded in the University of Oxford by Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Henry VI of England as a graduate institution.
- March 18 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany.
- July 7 – Charles VII of France issues the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, giving the French church control over the appointment of bishops, and depriving the Pope of French ecclesiastical revenues.
- September 13 – Afonso V becomes King of Portugal.
- Pachacuti becomes ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and begins its expansion into the Inca Empire (Tahuantinsuyu).
- At 95 years of age, Nang Keo Phimpha becomes queen of Lan Xang for a few months before being deposed and killed.
- Just two years after the Ming dynasty court of China allowed landowners paying the grain tax to pay their tax in silver instead, the Ming court now decides to close all silver mines and prohibit all private silver mining in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. This is a concerted effort to halt the increase of silver circulating into the market. The illegal mining of silver is now an offense punishable by death; although it becomes a dangerous affair, the high demand for silver also makes it very lucrative, and so many chose to defy the government and continue to mine.
- May 4 – Battle of Grotnik: Władysław III's royal army defeats the Hussite movement in Poland.
- June 29 – Date of Venerable Macarius' Miracle of the Moose, according to Russian hagiographers.
- September 8 – Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi captures Foligno, ending Trinci's signoria.
- September 29 or October 1 – Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway, is declared deposed in Sweden. Karl Knutsson Bonde continues to serve as Regent of Sweden.
- November 12 – In England, Plymouth becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
- Johannes Gutenberg develops printing with movable type at Mainz at about this date.
- The Great Ordinance is adopted by the French Estates-General. This measure grants the king the exclusive right to raise troops, and establishes the taxation measure known as the taille, in support of a standing army.
- The Council of Florence is moved to Florence.
- At the Portuguese Cortes, Peter, Duke of Coimbra is appointed Regent of the Kingdom.
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- March 10 – Oliviero Carafa, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1511)
- March 23 – Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry VI of England (d. 1482)
- June 13 – Beatrice, Duchess of Viseu, Portuguese infante (d. 1506)
- June 27 – Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, Lancastrian leader during the English Wars of the Roses (d. 1475)
- October 16
- October 28 – Richard West, 7th Baron De La Warr, son of Reginald West (d. 1475)
- November 11 – Jošt of Rožmberk, Bishop of Breslau, Grand Prior of the Order of St. John (d. 1467)
- date unknown – Hosokawa Katsumoto, Japanese warlord
- probable – Heinrich Kramer, German churchman and inquisitor (d. 1505)
- Clara Hätzlerin, German scribe (d. 1476)
- January 1 – Pope Alexander VI (d. 1503)
- October 26 – Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Italian politician (d. 1505)
- November or December – Vlad III the Impaler, Prince of Wallachia (d. 1476)
- date unknown
- January 15 – King Afonso V of Portugal (d. 1481)
- March 1 – Isabella of Coimbra, Portuguese infanta (d. 1455)
- March 2 – Countess Palatine Margaret of Mosbach, Countess consort of Hanau (d. 1457)
- March 30 – Mehmed II, the Conqueror, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1481)
- April 12 – Anne of Austria, Landgravine of Thuringia, consort of William III, Landgrave of Thuringia (d. 1462)
- August 15 – Luigi Pulci, Italian poet (d. 1484)
- date unknown – Pope Innocent VIII (d. 1492)
- probable – Alvise Cadamosto, Italian explorer (d. 1488)
- August 31 – Sigismondo d'Este, Italian nobleman (d. 1507)
- September 17 – James of Portugal, Portuguese cardinal (d. 1459)
- September 24 – Shekha of Amarsar, Rajput chieftain (d. 1488)
- September 27 – Stanisław Kazimierczyk, Polish canon regular and saint (d. 1489)
- October 19 – Marsilio Ficino, Florentine philosopher (d. 1499)
- November 10
- date unknown
- probable – Kettil Karlsson, regent of Sweden from 1464 (d. 1465)
- January 7 – Adolf, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1441)
- March 12 – William III, Count of Henneberg-Schleusingen (d. 1480)
- March 19 – Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, Japanese shōgun (d. 1443)
- March 25 – Eustochia Smeralda Calafato, Italian saint (d. 1485)
- June 13 – Cristoforo della Rovere, Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1478)
- September 18 – Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1467)
- September 23 – Yolande of Valois, Duchess consort of Savoy (d. 1478)
- December 28 – Antonio Grimani, Italian admiral (d. 1523)
- February 1 – Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy (d. 1472)
- April 8 – John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford, English noble (d. 1461)
- April 16 – Jan II the Mad, Duke of Żagań (1439–1449 and 1461–1468 and again in 1472) (d. 1504)
- May 4 – Joan of France, Duchess of Bourbon, French princess (d. 1482)
- October 24 – Andrea della Robbia, Italian artist (d. 1525)
- date unknown
- January 20 – Ashikaga Yoshimasa, Japanese shōgun (d. 1490)
- January 26 – Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, Lancastrian military commander during the English Wars of the Roses (d. 1464)
- February 26 – Imagawa Yoshitada, 9th head of the Imagawa clan in Japan (d. 1476)
- April 4 – Amalia of Saxony, Duchess of Bavaria-Landshut (d. 1501)
- June 6 – Regiomontanus, German astronomer (d. 1476)
- November 5 – Richard Grey, 3rd Earl of Tankerville, English nobleman, attainted as a Yorkist supporter during the Wars of the Roses (d. 1466)
- November 16 – Leonardo Loredan, Doge of Venice (d. 1521)
- November 26 – Princess Catherine of Portugal, nun and writer (d. 1463)
- date unknown
- Sheikh Hamdullah, Anatolian Islamic calligrapher (d. 1520)
- Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, Spanish cardinal and statesman (d. 1517)
- Hernando del Pulgar, Spanish writer (d. c. 1492)
- Abi Ahmet Celebi, chief physician of the Ottoman Empire (writer of a study on kidney and bladder stones; supporter of the research of Jewish doctor Musa Colinus ul-Israil on the application of drugs; founder of the first Ottoman medical school)
- March 7 – Anna of Saxony, Electress of Brandenburg (d. 1512)
- April 30 – János Thurzó, Hungarian businessman (d. 1508)
- July 22 – John Scrope, 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton, English Baron (d. 1498)
- October 4 – John IV, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1463)
- date unknown – Isaac Abravanel, Jewish statesman (d. 1508)
- probable – Elizabeth Woodville, Queen consort of King Edward IV of England (d. 1492)
- February 5
- February 12 – Adolf, Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen (1465–1471) (d. 1477)
- March 23 – Ludovico II, Marquess of Saluzzo, Italian noble (d. 1504)
- April 3 – John III of Egmont, Dutch noble (d. 1516)
- September 7 – Louis II, Landgrave of Lower Hesse (1458–1471) (d. 1471)
- December 1 – Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, son of Charles I (d. 1503)
- date unknown – Husayn Bayqarah, Timurid ruler of Herat (d. 1506)
- probable – Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset, English nobleman and military commander during the Wars of the Roses (d. 1471)
- March 3 – Ashikaga Yoshimi, brother of Shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (d. 1491)
- April 3 – Ludwig II, Count of Württemberg-Urach, German noble (d. 1457)
- May 29 – Pope Pius III (d. 1503)
- July 18 – John V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, German duke (d. 1507)
- July 26 – Sigismund, Duke of Bavaria, member of the Wittelsbach dynasty (d. 1501)
- August 10 – Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, Duchess of York, second child of Richard Plantagenet (d. 1476)
- date unknown – Hua Sui, Chinese inventor and printer (d. 1513)
- January 5 – Philippa of England, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (b. 1394)
- January 29 or 1427 – Andrei Rublev, Russian iconographer (possible date; b. 1360)
- August 4 – Philip I, Duke of Brabant (b. 1404)
- August 18 – Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros, English soldier and politician (b. 1406)
- October 27 – Vytautas, Grand Prince of Lithuania (b. 1352)
- date unknown
- January 25 – Charles II, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1364)
- February 20 – Pope Martin V (b. 1368)
- April 1 – Nuno Álvares Pereira, Portuguese general and religious figure
- April 5 – Bernard I, Margrave of Baden-Baden (b. 1364)
- April 19 – Adolph III, Count of Waldeck (b. 1362)
- May 30 – Joan of Arc, French soldier and saint (b. c. 1412)
- September 6 – Demetrios Laskaris Leontares, Byzantine soldier and statesman
- December 8 – Hedwig Jagiellon, Polish and Lithuanian princess (b. 1408)
- date unknown
- January 1 – Alexandru cel Bun, Prince of Moldavia
- January 22 – John of Schoonhoven, Flemish theologian (b. 1356)
- May 5 – Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola, Italian adventurer (executed)
- May 19 – Joan of Valois, Duchess of Alençon, French duchess (b. 1409)
- June 1 – Dan II, former Prince of Wallachia (killed in battle against Ottomans)
- June 13 – Uko Fockena, East Frisian chieftain (b. c. 1408)
- June 29 – Janus of Cyprus (b. 1375)
- October 19 – John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, English politician (b. 1392)
- November 14 – Anne of Burgundy, Duchess of Bedford (b. 1404)
- date unknown
- April 14 – Lidwina, Dutch saint (b. 1380)
- August 14 – King John I of Portugal (b. 1357)
- August 30 – Peter I, Count of Saint-Pol (b. 1390)
- September – Zweder van Culemborg, Bishop of Utrecht (birth year unknown)
- September 28 – Přemek I, Duke of Opava (b. c.1365)
- December 1 – Emperor Go-Komatsu, the 100th emperor of Japan (b. 1377)
- January – John I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1381)
- April 20 – Alexandra of Lithuania, Duchess of Masovia
- May 30 – Prokop the Great, Hussite general (b. 1380)
- June – Amda Iyasus, Emperor of Ethiopia
- June 1 – King Wladislaus II of Poland
- June 5 – Yuri IV, Russian grand prince (b. 1374)
- November 12 – King Louis III of Anjou (b. 1403)
- January 31 – Xuande Emperor of China (b. 1399)
- February 2 – Queen Joanna II of Naples (b. 1371)
- March 27 – Spytek z Tarnowa i Jarosławia, Polish nobleman
- June 12 – John FitzAlan, 14th Earl of Arundel, English military leader (b. 1408)
- September 9 – Sir Robert Harling, English knight under the Duke of Bedford
- September 14 – John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, regent of England (b. 1389)
- September 24 – Isabeau of Bavaria, queen of Charles VI of France
- September 27 – Savvatiy, Russian monastery founder
- October 9 – Paweł Włodkowic, Polish scholar (b. 1370)
- October 13 – Hermann II of Celje, Ban of Croatia
- December 30 – Bonne of Berry, Regent of Savoy (b. 1362)
- Winter – Alexander I Aldea, Prince of Wallachia (probably of illness) (b.1397)
- May 4 – Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (murdered) (b. c. 1390)
- October 8 – Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, Dutch sovereign (b. 1401)
- December 30 – Louis III, Elector Palatine (b. 1378)
- date unknown – Qāḍī Zāda al-Rūmī, Persian mathematician (b. 1364)
- January 3 – Catherine of Valois, queen of Henry V of England (b. 1401)
- January 22 – Niccolò de' Niccoli, Italian Renaissance humanist (b. 1364)
- February 21 – King James I of Scotland (b. 1394) (murdered)
- March 26 – Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, Scottish nobleman and regicide (executed)
- June 10 – Joan of Navarre, Queen of England (b. 1370)
- November 20 – Thomas Langley, cardinal bishop of Durham and lord chancellor of England (b. 1363)
- December 9 – Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1368)
- date unknown – John II Stanley of the Isle of Man
- April 24 – Humphrey FitzAlan, 15th Earl of Arundel (b. 1429)
- September 9 – Edward, King of Portugal (b. 1391)
- October 16 – Anne of Gloucester, English noblewoman (b. 1383)
- October 20 – Jacopo della Quercia, Sienese sculptor (b. c. 1374)
- April 30 – Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, English military leader (b.1382)
- June 24 – Duke Frederick IV of Austria (b. 1382)
- September 12 – Sidi El Houari, Algerian imam (b. 1350)
- October 20 – Ambrose the Camaldulian, Italian theologian
- October 27 – Albert II of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1397)
- December 31 – Margaret Holland, English noblewoman (b. 1385)
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