Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
Learning Goals
1. Describe interest rate fundamentals, the term structure of interest rates, and risk premiums.
2. Review the legal aspects of bond financing and bond cost.
3. Discuss the general features, quotations, ratings, popular types, and international issues of corporate bonds.
4. Understand the key inputs and basic model used in the valuation process.
5. Apply the basic valuation model to bonds and describe the impact of required return and time to maturity on bond values.
6. Explain yield to maturity (YTM), its calculation, and the procedure used to value bonds that pay interest semiannually.
True/False
1. Real rate of interest is the actual rate of interest charged by the suppliers of funds and paid by the demanders. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Real Rate of Interest
2. The longer the maturity of a Treasury (or any other) security, the smaller the interest rate risk.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Interest Rate Risk
3. A downwardsloping yield curve indicates generally cheaper shortterm borrowing costs than longterm borrowing costs. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
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4. The nominal rate of interest is the rate that creates equilibrium between the supply of savings and the demand for investment funds in a perfect world, without inflation, where funds suppliers and demanders have no liquidity preference and all outcomes are certain. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Nominal Interest Rate
5. An inverted yield curve is an upwardsloping yield curve that indicates generally cheaper shortterm borrowing costs than longterm borrowing costs. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
6. Although Treasury securities have no risk of default or illiquidity, they do suffer from “maturity risk”—the risk that interest rates will change in the future and thereby impact longer maturities more than shorter maturities. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Premiums
7. Liquidity preference theory suggests that for any given issuer, longterm interest rates tend to be higher than shortterm rates due to the lower liquidity and higher responsiveness to general interest rate movements of longerterm securities; causes the yield curve to be upwardsloping. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
8. The term structure of interest rates is the graphical presentation of the relationship between the annual rate of interest earned on a security purchased on a given day and held to maturity and the remaining time to maturity. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
9. An inverted yield curve is a downwardsloping yield curve that indicates generally cheaper long term borrowing costs than shortterm borrowing costs. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
254 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
10. A yield curve that reflects relatively similar borrowing costs for both short and longterm loans is called a normal yield curve.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
11. Upwardsloping yield curves result from higher future inflation expectations, lender preferences for shorter maturity loans, and greater supply of shortterm as opposed to longterm loans relative to their respective demand. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
12. Restrictive covenants are contractual clauses in longterm debt agreements that place certain operating and financial constraints on the borrower.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
13. Standard debt provisions specify certain criteria of satisfactory record keeping and reporting, tax payment, and general business maintenance on the part of the lending firm.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
14. Trustee is a paid party representing the bond issuer in the bond indenture. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Indenture
15. Restrictive covenants, coupled with standard debt provisions, allow the lender to monitor and control the borrower’s activities in order to protect itself against increases in borrower risk. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
16. The purpose of the restrictive debt covenant that imposes fixed assets restrictions is to limit the amount of fixedpayment obligations.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
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17. In a practical sense, the longer the term of a bond, the greater the default risk associated with the bond.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Risk Premiums
18. The size of the bond offering affects the interest cost of borrowing in an inverse manner. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Risk Premiums
19. To carry out the sinking fund requirement, the corporation makes semiannual or annual payments to a trustee, who uses these funds to retire bonds by purchasing them in the marketplace. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Features
20. Debentures such as convertible bonds are unsecured bonds that only creditworthy firms can issue.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
21. Call premium is the amount by which the call price exceeds the market price of the bond. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
22. A bond issued by an American Company that is denominated in Swiss Francs and sold in Switzerland would be an example of a foreign bond.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
23. Stockpurchase warrants are instruments that give their holder the right to purchase a certain number of shares of the firm’s common stock at the market price over a certain period of time.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
24. A foreign bond is a bond issued in a host country’s financial market, in the host country’s currency, by a foreign borrower.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3
256 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
Topic: Bond Types
25. Putable bonds give the bondholders an option to sell the bond at a price higher than par value by the amount of one year interest payment when and if the firm takes specified actions such as being acquired, acquiring another company, or issuing a large amount of additional debt. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
26. Since a putable bond gives its holder the right to “put the bond” at specified times or actions by the firm, the bond’s yield is lower than that of a nonputable bond. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
27. Highquality (highrated) bonds provide lower returns than lowerquality (lowrated) bonds.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Ratings
28. A Eurobond is a bond issued by an international borrower and sold to investors in countries with currencies other than the country in which the bond is denominated. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
29. Call feature is a feature included in almost all corporate bonds that allows the issuer to repurchase bonds at the market price prior to maturity. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
30. There is an inverse relationship between the quality or rating of a bond and the rate of return it must provide bondholders. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Ratings
31. Sinkingfund requirement is a restrictive provision often included in a bond indenture providing for periodic payments representing only interest and a large lumpsum payment at the maturity of the loan representing the entire loan principal.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Features
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32. In a bond indenture, subordination is the stipulation that subsequent creditors agree to wait until all claims of the senior debt are satisfied.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Provisions
33. Bondholders will convert their convertible bonds into shares of stock only when the conversion price is greater than the market price of the stock. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
34. To sell a callable bond, the issuer must pay a higher interest rate than on noncallable bonds of equal risk. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
35. The conversion feature of a bond is a feature that is included in almost all corporate bond issues that gives the issuer the opportunity to repurchase bonds at a stated price prior to maturity. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
36. In subordinated debentures, payment of interest is required only when earnings are available.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
37. A foreign bond is issued in a host country’s financial market, in the host country’s currency, by a foreign borrower. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
38. Since the issuer of zero (or low) coupon bonds can annually deduct the current year’s interest accrual without having to actually pay the interest until the bond matures (or is called), its cash flow each year is increased by the amount of the tax shield provided by the interest deduction.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
258 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
39. The market price of a callable bond will not generally exceed its call price, except in the case of a convertible bond.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
40. Floatingrate bonds are bonds that can be redeemed at par at the option of their holder either at specific date after the date of issue and every 1 to 5 years thereafter or when and if the firm takes specified actions such as being acquired, acquiring another company, or issuing a large amount of additional debt.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
41. The value of an asset depends on the historical cash flow(s) up to the present time.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
42. Valuation is the process that links risk and return to determine the worth of an asset.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
43. The value of an asset is determined by discounting the expected cash flows back to their present value, using the market return as discount rate. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
44. In the valuation process, the higher the risk, the greater the required return.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
45. The level of risk associated with a given cash flow positively affects its value.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
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46. Interest rate risk is the chance that interest rates will change and thereby change the required return and bond value.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
47. The value of a bond with semiannual interest is greater than a bond with annual interest, everything else the same. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
48. Regardless of the exact cause, the important point is that when the required return is greater than the coupon interest rate, the bond value will be less than its par value. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
49. Increases in the basic cost of longterm funds or in risk will raise the required return on the bond.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
50. A bond is said to sell at a premium when the required return and the bond value fall below the coupon interest rate and the par, respectively. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
51. The required return on the bond is likely to differ from the stated interest rate for either of two reasons: 1) economic conditions have changed, causing a shift in the basic cost of longterm funds, or 2) the firm’s risk has changed. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Yield to Maturity
52. Yield to maturity (YTM) is the rate investors earn if they buy the bond at a specific price and hold it until maturity.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
260 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
53. The yield to maturity on a bond with a current price equal to its par, or face, value will always be equal to the coupon interest rate.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
54. When the required return equals the coupon interest rate, the bond’s value will remain at par until it matures. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
55. When the required return is different from the coupon interest rate and is assumed to be constant until maturity, the value of the bond will approach its par value as the passage of time moves the bond’s value closer to maturity.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
56. When the bond value differs from par, the yield to maturity will differ from the coupon interest rate.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
57. Because a rise in interest rates, and therefore the required return, results in an increase in bond value, bondholders are typically more concerned with dropping interest rates. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
58. Whenever the required return is different from the coupon interest rate, the amount of time to maturity affects bond value, even if the required return remains constant until maturity. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
59. The shorter the amount of time until a bond’s maturity, the more responsive is its market value to a given change in the required return.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Bond Pricing
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60. A bond with short maturity has less “interest rate risk” than a bond with long maturity when all other features—coupon interest rate, par value, and interest payment frequency—are the same.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Bond Pricing
61. The real rate of interest is the compensation paid by the borrower of funds to the lender; from the borrower’s point of view, the cost of borrowing funds. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Real Rate of Interest
62. The nominal rate of interest is equal to the sum of the real rate of interest plus the risk free rate of interest. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Nominal Rate of Interest (Equation 6.1)
63. The risk free rate of interest is equal to the sum of the real rate of interest plus an inflation risk premium. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Free Rate of Interest (Equation 6.3)
64. The nominal rate of interest is equal to the sum of the real rate of interest plus an inflation premium plus a risk premium. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Nominal Rate of Interest (Equation 6.1)
65. An inverted yield curve is upwardsloping and indicates generally cheaper longterm borrowing costs than shortterm borrowing costs. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
66. A normal yield curve is upwardsloping and indicates generally cheaper shortterm borrowing costs than longterm borrowing costs.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
262 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
67. An inverted yield curve is downwardsloping and indicates generally cheaper longterm borrowing costs than shortterm borrowing costs.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
68. Between 1978 and 2000, the rate of return on U.S. treasury bills always exceeded the rate of inflation as measured by the consumer price index. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Free Rate of Interest
69. In theory, the rate of return on U.S. treasury bills should always exceed the rate of inflation as measured by the consumer price index. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Free Rate of Interest
70. The market segmentation theory suggests that the shape of the yield curve is determined by the supply and demand for loans within each maturity segment. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
71. The liquidity preference theory suggests that the shape of the yield curve is determined by the supply and demand for loans within each maturity segment. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
72. The liquidity preference theory suggests that shortterm rates should be lower than longterm rates.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
73. The expectations theory suggests that the shape of the yield curve reflects investors expectations about future inflation rates. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
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74. The reason for a difference in the yield between a Aaa corporate bond and an otherwise identical Baa bond is the risk premium; the real interest rate and the inflation rate is the same for both.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Premiums
75. According to Moodys, a bond rated A should provide investors with a higher yield than an otherwise identical bond rated Aa. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Premiums
76. The possibility that the issuer of a bond will not pay the contractual interest or principal payments as scheduled is called maturity risk. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Premiums
77. The possibility that the issuer of a bond will not pay the contractual interest or principal payments as scheduled is called default risk. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Premiums
78. Restrictive covenants, which are also known as standard debt provisions, place operating and financial constraints on the borrower. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
79. In a bond indenture, the term security interest refers to the fact that most firms that issue bonds are required to establish sinking fund provisions to protect bondholders. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Indenture
80. In a bond indenture, the term security interest refers to collateral pledged against the bond.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Indenture
264 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
81. The length of the maturity on a bond offering affects its cost. In general, the longer the maturity, the higher the cost.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Cost of Bonds
82. The length of the maturity on a bond offering affects its cost. In general, the longer the maturity, the lower the cost. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Cost of Bonds
83. A call feature in a bond allows bondholders to change each bond into a stated number of shares of common stock. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
84. A conversion feature in a bond allows bondholders to change each bond into a stated number of shares of common stock. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
85. A call feature in a bond allows the issuer the opportunity to repurchase bonds at a stated price prior to maturity. This option has a greater chance of being exercised (to the detriment of the bondholder) if market interest rates have fallen since the bond was issued.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
86. A call feature in a bond allows the issuer the opportunity to repurchase bonds at a stated price prior to maturity. This option has a greater chance of being exercised (to the benefit of the bondholder) if market interest rates have fallen since the bond was issued. Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
87. A call feature in a bond allows the issuer the opportunity to repurchase bonds at a stated price prior to maturity. This option has a greater chance of being exercised (to the detriment of the bondholder) if market interest rates have risen since the bond was issued.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
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88. In general, IBM bonds will experience greater trading activity (in terms of the number of bonds traded on a given day) compared to IBM stock.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Quotations
89. In general, IBM bonds will experience less trading activity (in terms of the number of bonds traded on a given day) compared to IBM stock. Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Quotations
90. Any bond rated according to Moody’s Caa through Aaa would be considered investment grade debt.
Answer: FALSE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Ratings
91. Any bond rated according to Moody’s Ba or lower would be considered speculative or “junk.” Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Ratings
92. As an outstanding bond approaches maturity, the price of the bond will always trend toward par value until, at maturity, the bond is worth its face value.
Answer: TRUE Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Ratings
Multiple Choice Questions
1. The
rate of interest creates equilibrium between the supply of savings and the demand
for investment funds.
(a) 
nominal 
(b) 
real 
(c) 
riskfree 
(d) 
inflationary 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Real Rate of Interest
266 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
2. The
funds.
rate of interest is the actual rate charged by the supplier and paid by the demander of
(a) 
nominal 
(b) 
real 
(c) 
riskfree 
(d) 
inflationary 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Nominal Rate of Interest
3. The
to maturity.
is the annual rate of interest earned on a security purchased on a given date and held
(a) 
term structure 
(b) 
yield curve 
(c) 
riskfree rate 
(d) 
yield to maturity 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Yield to Maturity
4. The
is/are a graphic depiction of the term structure of interest rates.
(a) yield curve
(b) supply and demand functions
(c) riskreturn profile
(d) aggregate demand curve
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
5. yield curve reflects higher expected future rates of interest.
(a) 
An upwardsloping 
(b) 
A flat 
(c) 
A downwardsloping 
(d) 
A linear 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
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6. yield curve reflects lower expected future rates of interest.
(a) 
An upwardsloping 
(b) 
A flat 
(c) 
A downwardsloping 
(d) 
A linear 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
7. Generally, an increase in risk will result in
(a) 
a lower 
(b) 
a higher 
(c) 
an unchanged 
(d) 
an undetermined 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Nominal Rate of Interest
8. The nominal rate of interest is composed of
required return or interest rate.
(a) 
the real rate plus an inflationary expectation. 
(b) 
the real rate plus a risk premium. 
(c) 
the riskfree rate plus an inflationary expectation. 
(d) 
the riskfree rate plus a risk premium. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Nominal Rate of Interest
9. The
Treasury bill.
(a) 
nominal 
(b) 
real 
(c) 
riskfree 
(d) 
premium 
rate of interest is typically the required rate of return on a threemonth U.S.
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: RiskFree Rate of Interest
268 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
10. Generally, longterm loans have higher interest rates than shortterm loans because of
(a) 
the general expectation of higher future rates of inflation. 
(b) 
lender preferences for shorterterm, more liquid loans. 
(c) 
greater demand for longterm rather than shortterm loans relative to the supply of such loans. 
(d) 
all of the above. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
11. A downwardsloping yield curve that indicates generally cheaper longterm borrowing costs than shortterm borrowing costs is called
(a) 
normal yield curve. 
(b) 
inverted yield curve. 
(c) 
flat yield curve. 
(d) 
None of the above. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
12. An upwardsloping yield curve that indicates generally cheaper shortterm borrowing costs than longterm borrowing costs is called
(a) 
normal yield curve. 
(b) 
inverted yield curve. 
(c) 
flat yield curve. 
(d) 
None of the above. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
13. A yield curve that reflects relatively similar borrowing costs for both shortterm and longterm loans is called
(a) 
normal yield curve. 
(b) 
inverted yield curve. 
(c) 
flat yield curve. 
(d) 
None of the above. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
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14. The theory suggesting that for any given issuer, longterm interest rates tends to be higher than shortterm rates is called
(a) 
expectation hypothesis. 
(b) 
liquidity preference theory. 
(c) 
market segmentation theory. 
(d) 
None of the above. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
15. The yield curve in an economic period of high inflation would most likely be
(a) 
upwardsloping. 
(b) 
flat. 
(c) 
downwardsloping. 
(d) 
linear. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
16. The yield curve in an economic period of low to moderate inflation would most likely be
(a) 
upwardsloping. 
(b) 
flat. 
(c) 
downwardsloping. 
(d) 
linear. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
17. The three theories cited to explain the general shape of the yield curve are all of the following except
(a) 
expectations hypothesis. 
(b) 
market segmentation theory. 
(c) 
liquidity preference theory. 
(d) 
security markets theory. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
270 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
18. The theory that explains only the tendency for the yield curve to be upward sloping is
(a) 
expectations hypothesis. 
(b) 
liquidity preference theory. 
(c) 
market segmentation theory. 
(d) 
investor perception theory. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
19. The risk premium consists of a number of components, including all of the following EXCEPT
(a) 
default risk. 
(b) 
inflationary risk. 
(c) 
tax treatment risk. 
(d) 
liquidity risk. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Risk Premiums
20. At any time, the slope of the yield curve is affected by
(a) 
inflationary expectations. 
(b) 
liquidity preferences. 
(c) 
the comparative equilibrium of supply and demand in the shortterm and longterm market segments. 
(d) 
all of the above. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure Theories
21. All of the following are examples of longterm debt EXCEPT
(a) 
bonds. 
(b) 
lines of credit. 
(c) 
term loans. 
(d) 
debentures. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Types of Bonds
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22. The legal contract setting forth the terms and provisions of a corporate bond is a(n)
(a) 
indenture. 
(b) 
debenture. 
(c) 
loan document. 
(d) 
promissory note. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Indenture
23. The cost of longterm debt generally
(a) 
is less than 
(b) 
is equal to 
(c) 
is greater than 
(d) 
has no relation to 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Cost of Bonds
that of shortterm debt.
24. A
is a restrictive provision on a bond which provides for the systematic retirement of the
bonds prior to their maturity.
(a) 
redemption clause 
(b) 
sinkingfund requirement 
(c) 
conversion feature 
(d) 
subordination clause 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
25. A
is a complex and lengthy legal document stating the conditions under which a bond
has been issued.
(a) 
bond debenture 
(b) 
warrant 
(c) 
sinking fund 
(d) 
bond indenture 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Indenture
272 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
26. is a paid individual, corporation, or commercial bank trust department that acts as a third party to a bond indenture to ensure that the issuer does not default on its contractual responsibilities to the bondholders.
(a) 
A trustee 
(b) 
An investment banker 
(c) 
A bond issuer 
(d) 
A bond rating agency 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Indenture
27. If a bond pays $1,000 plus interest at maturity, $1,000 is called the
(a) 
stated value. 
(b) 
market value. 
(c) 
par value. 
(d) 
longterm value. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Features
28. All of the following are examples of restrictive debt covenants EXCEPT
(a) 
prohibition on selling accounts receivable. 
(b) 
supplying the creditor with audited financial statements. 
(c) 
constraint on subsequent borrowing. 
(d) 
prohibition on entering certain types of lease arrangements. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
29. All of the following are examples of restrictive debt covenants EXCEPT
(a) 
limiting the firm’s annual cash dividend payments. 
(b) 
supplying audited financial records. 
(c) 
prohibiting combinations with other firms. 
(d) 
management restrictions to maintaining certain key employees. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
273
30. All of the following are examples of standard debt provisions EXCEPT
(a) 
maintaining all facilities in good working order. 
(b) 
paying taxes and liabilities when due. 
(c) 
maintaining satisfactory accounting records. 
(d) 
limiting the annual dividend payment. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
31. An example of a standard debt provision is the
(a) 
limiting of the corporation’s annual cash dividend payments. 
(b) 
requirement to pay taxes and other liabilities when due. 
(c) 
restricting the corporation from disposing of fixed assets. 
(d) 
constraints on subsequent borrowing. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
32. A debt instrument indicating that a corporation has borrowed a certain amount of money and promises to repay it in the future under clearly defined terms is called
(a) 
discount bond. 
(b) 
corporate bond. 
(c) 
bond indenture. 
(d) 
treasury bond. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Types
33. The major factor(s) affecting the cost, or interest rate, on a bond is (are) its
(a) 
maturity. 
(b) 
size of the offering. 
(c) 
issuer risk. 
(d) 
basic cost of money. 
(e) 
All of the above. 
Answer: E Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Cost of Bonds
274 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
34. The purpose of the restrictive debt covenant that requires maintaining a minimum level of net working capital is to
(a) 
protect the lender by controlling the risk and marketability of the borrower’s security investment alternatives. 
(b) 
limit the amount of fixedpayment obligations. 
(c) 
ensure a cash shortage does not cause an inability to meet current obligations. 
(d) 
prevent liquidation of assets through large salary increases of key employees. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
35. The purpose of the restrictive debt covenant that prohibits borrowers from entering into certain types of leases is to
(a) 
protect the lender by controlling the risk and marketability of the borrower’s security investments alternatives. 
(b) 
limit the amount of fixedpayment obligations. 
(c) 
ensure a cash shortage does not cause an inability to meet current obligations. 
(d) 
prevent liquidation of assets through large salary increases of key employees. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
36. The purpose of the restrictive debt covenant that imposes fixed assets restrictions is to
(a) 
protect the lender by controlling the risk and marketability of the borrower’s security investment alternatives. 
(b) 
limit the amount of fixedpayment obligations. 
(c) 
ensure a cash shortage does not cause an inability to meet current obligations. 
(d) 
prevent the firm from liquidation, acquisition, or encumbrance of capital assets. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
37. The purpose of the restrictive debt covenant that prohibits the sale of accounts receivable is to
(a) 
assure the lender that the borrowed funds are put to the use for which they were intended. 
(b) 
limit the amount of fixedpayment obligations. 
(c) 
ensure that a cash shortage does not cause an inability to meet current obligations. 
(d) 
prevent liquidation of assets through large salary increases of key employees. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
275
38. The purpose of the restrictive debt covenant that requires that subsequent borrowing be subordinated to the original loan is to
(a) 
ensure that certain key employees are maintained. 
(b) 
limit the amount of fixedpayment obligations. 
(c) 
ensure a cash shortage does not cause an inability to meet current obligations. 
(d) 
protect the lender by maintaining its position in the priority of claims in the event of liquidation. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
39. is a stipulation in a longterm debt agreement that subsequent or less important creditors
agree to wait until all claims of the
(a) 
Subordination; common stockholders 
(b) 
Subordination; senior debt 
(c) 
The combination restriction; senior debt 
(d) 
The senior debt; common stockholders 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
are satisfied before having their claims satisfied.
40. Violation of any standard or restrictive provision by the borrower gives the lender the right to do all of the following EXCEPT
(a) 
alter the terms of the initial agreement, for example accelerate the maturity date. 
(b) 
demand immediate repayment. 
(c) 
increase the interest rate. 
(d) 
seize the loan collateral. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Bond Provisions
41. To compensate for the uncertainty of future interest rates and the fact that the longer the term of a loan the higher the probability that the borrower will default, the lender typically
(a) 
charges a higher interest rate on longterm loans. 
(b) 
reserves the right to change the terms of the loan at any time. 
(c) 
includes excessively restrictive debt provisions. 
(d) 
reserves the right to demand immediate payment at any time. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Cost of Bonds
276 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
42. The size of the loan and its cost of borrowing are
(a) 
not related. 
(b) 
inversely related. 
(c) 
independent. 
(d) 
correlated. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Cost of Bonds
43. The major factors affecting the cost of longterm debt include all of the following EXCEPT
(a) 
restrictive covenants. 
(b) 
loan maturity. 
(c) 
loan size. 
(d) 
the basic cost of money. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Cost of Bonds
44. The
feature permits the issuer to repurchase bonds at a stated price prior to maturity.
(a) 
call 
(b) 
conversion 
(c) 
put 
(d) 
capitalization 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
45. The
stock.
feature allows the bondholder to change each bond into a stated number of shares of
(a) 
call 
(b) 
conversion 
(c) 
put 
(d) 
capitalization 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
277
46. Another name for a low or deep/zerodiscounted bond is a
(a) 
junk bond. 
(b) 
floating rate bond. 
(c) 
zero coupon bond. 
(d) 
subordinated debenture. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
47. gives purchasers inflation protection. A 

(a) 
zero coupon bond 
(b) 
junk bond 
(c) 
floating rate bond 
(d) 
income bond 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
48. became popular vehicle used to finance mergers and takeovers.
(a) 
Income bonds 
(b) 
Junk bonds 
(c) 
Floating rate bonds 
(d) 
Convertible debentures 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
49. allow the holder to purchase a certain number of shares of the firm’s common stock at a specified price over a certain period of time and are occasionally part of a debt agreement.
(a) 
Rights 
(b) 
Stockpurchase warrants 
(c) 
Debentures 
(d) 
Puts and calls 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
278 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
50. is secured by real estate.
(a) 
An income bond 
(b) 
A debenture 
(c) 
A mortgage bond 
(d) 
A subordinated debenture 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
51. is issued with a very low coupon and sells significantly below its par value.
(a) 
An income bond 
(b) 
A deep/zero coupon bond 
(c) 
A mortgage bond 
(d) 
A subordinated debenture 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
52. On
, the stated interest rate is adjusted periodically within stated limits in response to
changes in specified money or capital market rates.
(a) 
a floating rate bond 
(b) 
a deep/zero discount bond 
(c) 
a mortgage bond 
(d) 
an equipment trust certificate 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
53. are commonly issued in the reorganization of a failed or failing firm.
(a) 
Floating rate bonds 
(b) 
Income bonds 
(c) 
Mortgage bonds 
(d) 
Equipment trust certificates 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
279
54. bonds are characterized by interest payments that are required only when earnings are available from which to make such payment.
(a) 
Floating rate 
(b) 
Income 
(c) 
Mortgage 
(d) 
Junk 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
55. are debt rated Ba or lower by Moody’s or BB or lower by Standard & Poor’s and are commonly used by rapidly growing firms to obtain growth capital, most often to finance mergers and takeovers of other firms, particularly during the 1980s.
(a) 
Subordinated debentures 
(b) 
Mortgage bonds 
(c) 
Junk bonds 
(d) 
Equipment trust certificates 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
56. Convertible bonds are normally
(a) 
debentures. 
(b) 
income bonds. 
(c) 
subordinated debentures. 
(d) 
mortgage bonds. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
57. A debenture is
(a) 
a lengthy legal document stating the conditions under which a bond has been issued. 
(b) 
a secured bond that is secured by unspecified assets. 
(c) 
a bond secured by specific asset. 
(d) 
an unsecured bond that only creditworthy firms can issue. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
280 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
58. are secured by stock and/or bonds that are owned by the issuer.
(a) 
Mortgage bonds 
(b) 
Equipment trust certificates 
(c) 
Collateral trust bonds 
(d) 
Subordinated debentures 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
59. are bonds that have a short maturity, typically one to five years, and which can be redeemed or renewed for a similar period at the option of their holders.
(a) 
Floating rate bonds 
(b) 
Extendible notes 
(c) 
Putable bonds 
(d) 
Junk bonds 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
60. Payment of interest required only when earnings are made available from which to make a payment is characteristic of a(n)
(a) 
floating rate bond. 
(b) 
income bond. 
(c) 
mortgage bond. 
(d) 
equipment trust certificate. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
61. A feature that allows bondholders to change each bond into a stated number of shares of common stock is called
(a) 
stock purchase warrants. 
(b) 
call feature. 
(c) 
conversion feature. 
(d) 
None of the above. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
281
62. A feature that gives the issuer the opportunity to repurchase bonds at a stated price prior to maturity is called
(a) 
stock purchase warrants. 
(b) 
call feature. 
(c) 
conversion feature. 
(d) 
None of the above. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
63. An instrument that give their holders the right to purchase a certain number of shares of the firm’s common stock at a specified price over a certain period of time is called
(a) 
stock purchase warrants. 
(b) 
call feature. 
(c) 
conversion feature. 
(d) 
None of the above. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Features
64. The riskiness of publicly traded bond issues is rated by independent agencies. According to
Moody’s rating system, an Aaa bond and a Caa bond are
(a) 
speculative; investment grade 
(b) 
prime quality; medium grade 
(c) 
prime quality; speculative 
(d) 
medium grade; lowest grade 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Ratings
65. A putable bond gives the bondholder
and
,
respectively.
(a) 
the right to sell the bond back to the corporation at the original purchase price. 
(b) 
the right to sell the bond back to the corporation at a stated premium. 
(c) 
the right to sell the bond back to the corporation at the current market value. 
(d) 
the right to sell the bond back to the corporation at par. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
282 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
66. The significant portion of the return on a zero coupon bond is in the form of
(a) 
interest and gain in value. 
(b) 
interest. 
(c) 
gain in value. 
(d) 
tax reduction. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
67. In utilizing a
the issuer can annually deduct the current year’s interest accrual without
having to actually pay the interest until the bond matures.
(a) 
junk bond 
(b) 
zero coupon bond 
(c) 
floating rate bond 
(d) 
extendible notes 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
68. Highrisk, highyield junk bonds have declined in popularity during the early 1990s due to
(a) 
the decline in mergers and takeovers, which these bonds were used to finance. 
(b) 
the declining need of growth capital. 
(c) 
the stabilizing of interest rates. 
(d) 
a number of major defaults on these bonds. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
69. are claims that are not satisfied until those of the creditors holding certain (senior) debts have been fully satisfied.
(a) 
Convertible debentures 
(b) 
Subordinated debentures 
(c) 
Mortgage bonds 
(d) 
Collateral trust bonds 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
283
70. Bonds that can be redeemed at par at the option of their holders either at specific date after the date of issue and every 1 to 5 years thereafter or when and if the firm takes specified actions such as being acquired, acquiring another company, or issuing a large amount of additional debt are called
(a) 
zero coupon bonds. 
(b) 
junk bonds. 
(c) 
floatingrate bonds. 
(d) 
putable bonds. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
71. The decision to refund a callable bond
(a) 
should be made only if interest rates have increased. 
(b) 
is a net working capital decision. 
(c) 
is a capital budgeting decision. 
(d) 
is a financing decision. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Bond Types
72. The process that links risk and return in order to determine the worth of an asset is termed
(a) 
evaluation. 
(b) 
valuation. 
(c) 
discounting. 
(d) 
variable growth. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
73. A type of longterm financing used by both corporations and government entities is
(a) 
common stock. 
(b) 
bonds. 
(c) 
preferred stock. 
(d) 
retained earnings. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Bond Basics
284 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
74. Bonds are
(a) 
a series of shortterm debt instruments. 
(b) 
a form of equity financing that pays interest. 
(c) 
longterm debt instruments. 
(d) 
a hybrid form of financing used to raise large sums of money from a diverse group of lenders. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Bond Basics
75. The less certain a cash flow, the
(a) 
lower; higher 
(b) 
lower; lower 
(c) 
higher; lower 
(d) 
higher; higher 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
the risk, and the
the value of the cash flow.
76. of all future cash flows an asset is expected to provide over a relevant time period is the value of the asset.
(a) 
The future value 
(b) 
The present value 
(c) 
The stated value 
(d) 
The sum 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
77. The return expected from an asset is fully defined by its
(a) 
risk and cash flow. 
(b) 
cash flow and timing. 
(c) 
discount rate. 
(d) 
beta. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
285
78. The key inputs to the valuation process include
(a) 
returns and risk. 
(b) 
returns, timing, and risk. 
(c) 
cash flows and discount rate. 
(d) 
returns, discount rate, and risk. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
79. In the present value model, risk is generally incorporated into the
(a) 
cash flows. 
(b) 
timing. 
(c) 
discount rate. 
(d) 
total value. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals
80. The are priced at a
value of a bond is also called its face value. Bonds which sell at less than face value
, while bonds which sell at greater than face value sell at a
(a) 
discount; par; premium 
(b) 
premium; discount; par 
(c) 
par; discount; premium 
(d) 
coupon; premium; discount 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Basics
81. Corporate bonds typically have
(a) 
a face value of $5,000. 
(b) 
a market price of $1,000. 
(c) 
a specified coupon rate paid annually. 
(d) 
a par value of $1,000. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Basics
286 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
82. The value of a bond is the present value of the
(a) 
dividends and maturity value. 
(b) 
interest and dividend payments. 
(c) 
maturity value. 
(d) 
interest payments and maturity value. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
83. When the required return is constant and equal to the coupon rate, the price of a bond as it approaches its maturity date will
(a) 
remain constant. 
(b) 
increase. 
(c) 
decrease. 
(d) 
change depending on whether it is a discount or premium bond. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
84. The market price of outstanding issues often varies from par because
(a) 
the maturity date has changed. 
(b) 
the coupon rate has changed. 
(c) 
the market rate of interest has changed. 
(d) 
old bonds sell for less than new bonds. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
85. The price of a bond with a fixed coupon rate and the market required return have a relationship that is best described as
(a) 
varying. 
(b) 
constant. 
(c) 
direct. 
(d) 
inverse. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
287
86. 
If the required return is less than the coupon rate, a bond will sell at 

(a) 
par. 

(b) 
a discount. 

(c) 
a premium. 

(d) 
book value. 

Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing 

87. 
When the required return is constant but different from the coupon rate, the price of a bond as it approaches its maturity date will 

(a) 
remain constant. 

(b) 
increase. 

(c) 
decrease. 

(d) 
approach par. 

Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing 

88. 
If the required return is greater than the coupon rate, a bond will sell at 

(a) 
par. 

(b) 
a discount. 

(c) 
a premium. 

(d) 
book value. 

Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing 

89. 
The ABC company has two bonds outstanding that are the same except for the maturity date. Bond 
D matures in 4 years, while Bond E matures in 7 years. If the required return changes by 15 percent
(a) 
Bond D will have a greater change in price. 
(b) 
Bond E will have a greater change in price. 
(c) 
the price of the bonds will be constant. 
(d) 
the price change for the bonds will be equal. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
288 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
90. A firm has an issue of $1,000 par value bonds with a 12 percent stated interest rate outstanding. The issue pays interest annually and has 10 years remaining to its maturity date. If bonds of similar risk
are currently earning 8 percent, the firm’s bond will sell for
(a) 
$1,000 
(b) 
$805.20 
(c) 
$851.50 
(d) 
$1,268.20 
today.
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
91. When valuing a bond, the characteristics of the bond that remain fixed are all of the following EXCEPT the
(a) 
coupon rate. 
(b) 
price. 
(c) 
face value. 
(d) 
interest payment. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
92. A firm has an issue of $1,000 par value bonds with a 9 percent stated interest rate outstanding. The issue pays interest annually and has 20 years remaining to its maturity date. If bonds of similar risk
are currently earning 11 percent, the firm’s bond will sell for
(a) 
$1,000 
(b) 
$716.67 
(c) 
$840.67 
(d) 
$1,123.33 
today.
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
93. Hewitt Packing Company has an issue of $1,000 par value bonds with a 14 percent annual coupon interest rate. The issue has ten years remaining to the maturity date. Bonds of similar risk are currently selling to yield a 12 percent rate of return. The current value of each Hewitt bond is
(a) 
$791.00 
(b) 
$1,000 
(c) 
$1,052.24 
(d) 
$1,113.00 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
289
94. A bond will sell
when the stated rate of interest exceeds the required rate of return,
when the stated rate of interest is less than the required return, and
when the
stated rate of interest is equal to the required return.
(a) 
at a premium; at a discount; equal to the par value 
(b) 
at a premium; equal to the par value; at a discount 
(c) 
at a discount; at a premium; equal to the par value 
(d) 
equal to the par value; at a premium; at a discount 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
95. If a corporate bond is issued with a coupon rate that varies directly with the required return, the price of the bond will
(a) 
equal the face value. 
(b) 
be less than the face value. 
(c) 
be greater than the face value. 
(d) 
be greater than or less than the face value depending on how interest rates vary. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing
96. Calculate the value of a $1,000 bond which has 10 years until maturity and pays quarterly interest at an annual coupon rate of 12 percent. The required return on similarrisk bonds is 20 percent.
(a) 
$656.77 
(b) 
$835.45 
(c) 
$845.66 
(d) 
$2,201.08 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
97. Interest rate risk and the time to maturity have a relationship that is best characterized as
(a) 
constant. 
(b) 
varying. 
(c) 
direct. 
(d) 
inverse. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Bond Pricing
290 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
98. For an investor who plans to purchase a bond maturing in one year, the primary consideration should be
(a) 
interest rate risk. 
(b) 
changes in the risk of the issue. 
(c) 
yield to maturity. 
(d) 
coupon rate. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Bond Pricing
99. The yield to maturity on a bond with a price equal to its par value will
(a) 
be less than the coupon rate. 
(b) 
be more than the coupon rate. 
(c) 
always be equal to the coupon rate. 
(d) 
be more or less than the coupon rate depending on the required return. 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity
100. What is the approximate yield to maturity for a $1,000 par value bond selling for $1,120 that matures in 6 years and pays 12 percent interest annually?
(a) 
8.5 percent 
(b) 
9.4 percent 
(c) 
12.0 percent 
(d) 
13.2 percent 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
101. Mugwump Industries has issued a bond which has a $1,000 par value and a 15 percent annual coupon interest rate. The bond will mature in ten years and currently sells for $1,250. Using this information, the yield to maturity on Mugwump’s bond is
(a) 
10.79 percent 
(b) 
11.39 percent 
(c) 
12.19 percent 
(d) 
13.29 percent 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
291
102. What is the yield to maturity, to the nearest percent, for the following bond: current price is $908, coupon rate is 11 percent, $1,000 par value, interest paid annually, eight years to maturity?
(a) 
11 percent 
(b) 
12 percent 
(c) 
13 percent 
(d) 
14 percent 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Yield to Maturity (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
103. Al is trying to decide which of two bonds to buy. Bond H is a 10 percent coupon, 10year maturity, $1,000 par, January 1, 2000 issue paying annual interest. Bond F is a 10 percent coupon, 10year maturity, $1,000 par, January 1, 2000 issue paying semiannual interest. The market required return for each bond is 10 percent. When using present value to determine the prices of the bonds, Al will find that
(a) 
there is no difference in price. 
(b) 
the price of F is greater than H. 
(c) 
the price of H is greater than F. 
(d) 
he needs more information before determining the prices. 
Answer: A Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
104. What is the current price of a $1,000 par value bond maturing in 12 years with a coupon rate of 14 percent, paid semiannually, that has a YTM of 13 percent?
(a) 
$604 
(b) 
$1,090 
(c) 
$1,060 
(d) 
$1,073 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
105. Nico Nelson, a management trainee at a large New Yorkbased bank is trying to estimate the real rate of return expected by investors. He notes that the 3month Tbill currently yields 3 percent and has decided to use the consumer price index as a proxy for expected inflation. What is the estimated real rate of interest if the CPI is currently 2 percent?
(a) 
5% 
(b) 
1% 
(c) 
3% 
(d) 
2% 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Real Rate of Interest (Equation 6.1)
292 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
106. Consider the following returns and yields: U.S. Tbill 8%, 5year U.S. Tnote 7%, IBM common stock 15%, IBM AAA Corporate Bond 12% and 10year U.S. Tbond 6%. Based on this information, the shape of the yield curve is
(a) 
upward sloping. 
(b) 
downward sloping. 
(c) 
flat. 
(d) 
normal. 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
107. What is the nominal rate of return on an IBM bond if the real rate of interest is 3 percent, the inflation risk premium is 2 percent, the U.S. Tbill rate is 5 percent, the maturity risk premium on the IBM bond is 3 percent, the default risk premium on the IBM bond is 2 percent, and the liquidity risk premium on the bond is 1 percent?
(a) 
16% 
(b) 
13% 
(c) 
11% 
(d) 
9% 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Nominal Rate of Interest
Table 6.1 Use the following information to answer questions #108 through #110.
EST 
EST 
VOL. 

Company 
Coupon 
Maturity 
Last Price 
Last Yield 
Spread 
UST 
(000s) 
Ford (F) 
11.0 
July 31, 2009 
65.50 
? 
104 
10 
5,100 
108. On this trading day, the number of McLeod bonds which changed hands was (Table 6.1)
(a) 
5,100. 
(b) 
51,000. 
(c) 
510,000. 
(d) 
5,100,000. 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Corporate Bond Quotes
109. Assume this bond’s face value is $1,000. What is the bond’s current market price (Table 6.1)?
(a) 
$65.00 
(b) 
$655.00 
(c) 
$650.00 
(d) 
$6,550.00 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
293
Topic: Corporate Bond Quotes
294 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
110. What is the last yield for this bond (Table 6.1)?
(a) 
11.0% 
(b) 
14.2% 
(c) 
16.8% 
(d) 
18.9% 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 3 Topic: Corporate Bond Quotes
111. Nico Corp issued bonds bearing a coupon rate of 12 percent, pay coupons semiannually, have 3 years remaining to maturity, and are currently priced at $940 per bond. What is the yield to maturity?
(a) 
12.00% 
(b) 
13.99% 
(c) 
14.54% 
(d) 
15.25% 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: SemiAnnual Yield to Maturity (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
112. Nico bought an investment one year ago and just calculated his return on investment. He found that his purchasing power had increased by 15 percent as a result of his investment. If inflation during the year was 4 percent, then Nico’s
(a) 
real return on investment is more than 15 percent 
(b) 
nominal return on investment is more than 15 percent 
(c) 
nominal return on investment is less than 11 percent 
(d) 
real return on investment is equal to 4 percent 
Answer: B Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: SemiAnnual Yield to Maturity (Equation 6.1 and Equation 6.2)
113. Jia Hua Enterprises wants to issue sixty 20year, $1,000 par value, zerocoupon bonds. If each bond is priced to yield 7 percent, how much will Jia Hua receive (ignoring issuance costs) when the bonds are first sold?
(a) 
$11,212 
(b) 
$12,393 
(c) 
$15,505 
(d) 
$18,880 
(e) 
$20,000 
Answer: C Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
295
114. On January 1, 2002, Zheng Corporation will issue new bonds to finance its expansion plans. In its efforts to price the issue, Zheng Corporation has identified a company of similar risk with an outstanding bond issue that has an 8 percent coupon rate that is due January 1, 2017. This firm’s bonds currently are selling for $1,091.96. If interest is paid semiannually for both bonds, what must the coupon rate of the new bonds be in order for the issue to sell at par?
(a) 
5.75% 
(b) 
6.00% 
(c) 
6.50% 
(d) 
7.00% 
Answer: D Level of Difficulty: 4 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
Essay Questions
1. A record collector has agreed to sell her entire collection to a historical museum in three years at a price of $100,000. The current riskfree rate is 7 percent. At what price should she value her collection today?
Answer: $100,000(0.816) $81,600
Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals (Equation 6.5 and Equation 6.6)
2. A corporate financial analyst must calculate the value of an asset which produces yearend annual cash flows of $0 the first year, $2,000 the second year, $3,000 the third year, and $2,500 the fourth year. Assuming a discount rate of 15 percent, what is the value of this asset? Answer: Using PVIF(15,n):
$0(0.870) $2,000(0.756) $3,000(0.658) $2,500(0.572)
$0 $1,512 $1,974 $1,430 $4,916 Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals (Equation 6.5 and Equation 6.6)
3. What is the value of an asset which pays $200 a year for the next 5 years and can be sold for $1,500 at the end of five years from now? Assume that the opportunity cost is 10 percent.
Answer: P 200(PVIFA) 1,500(PVIF)
200(3.791) 1,500(0.621) $1,689.70 Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 4 Topic: Valuation Fundamentals (Equation 6.5 and Equation 6.6)
296 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
Table 6.2 

Annual Coupon Interest Rate (%) 
Years to 
Required 

Bond Par Value ($) 
Maturity 
Return (%) 

L 
1000 
9 
5 
6 

M 
100 
10 
8 
10 

N 
500 
18 
17 
15 

4. 

(a) 
Calculate the current value of Bond L. (See Table 6.2) 

(b) 
What will happen to the value/price as the bond approaches maturity? 

Answers: 

(a) 
$90(4.212) $1,000(0.747) $1,126.08 

(b) 
The bond price will decrease and come closer to par. 

Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a) 

5. 
Calculate the current value of Bond M. (See Table 6.2) 

Answer: Annual coupon interest rate required rate of return 

Therefore, value par value $100 

Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a) 

6. 
Calculate the current value of Bond M if the time of maturity is six years. (See Table 6.2) Answer: The bond is at par, or $100, because the annual coupon interest rate is equal to the required rate of return. 

Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a) 

7. 

(a) 
Calculate the current value of Bond N. (See Table 6.2) 

(b) 
What will happen to value/price as the bond approaches maturity? 

Answers: 

(a) 
$90(6.047) $500(0.093) $590.73 

(b) 
The bond price will decrease and come closer to par. 

Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a) 

8. 
Hewitt Packing Company has an issue of $1,000 par value bonds with a 14 percent coupon interest rate outstanding. The issue pays interest semiannually and has 10 years remaining to its maturity date. Bonds of similar risk are currently selling to yield a 12 percent rate of return. What is the value of these Hewitt Packing Company bonds? 
Answer: B $70(11.470) $1,000(.312) $1,114.90 Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5
Chapter 6
Interest Rates and Bond Valuation
297
Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
9. To expand its business, the Kingston Outlet factory would like to issue a bond with par value of $1,000, coupon rate of 10 percent, and maturity of 10 years from now. What is the value of the bond if the required rate of return is 1) 8 percent, 2) 10 percent, and 3) 12 percent?
Answers: Coupon payment 1,000 0.10 $100
1) B 100(PVIFA _{8}_{%}_{,} 10) 1,000(PVIF _{8}_{%}_{,} 10)
100(6.710) 1,000(0.463) $1,134.00
2) B $1,000 since coupon rate and required rate of return are equal.
3) B 100(PVIFA _{1}_{2}_{%}_{,} 10) 1,000(PVIF _{1}_{2}_{%}_{,} 10)
100(5.650) 1,000(0.322) $887
Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
10. To finance a new line of product, the Westchester Company has issued $1,000,000 bond with a par value of $1,000, coupon rate of 8 percent, and maturity of 30 years. Compute the price of the bond if the opportunity cost is 11 percent.
Answer: Coupon payment 1,000 0.08 $80
B 80(PVIFA _{1}_{1}_{%}_{,} 30) 1,000(PVIF _{1}_{1}_{%}_{,} 30)
80(8.694) 1,000(0.044) $739.52
Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
11. Peter has recently inherited $10,000 and is considering purchasing 10 bonds of the Lucky Corporation. The bond has a par value of $1,000 with 10 percent coupon rate and will mature in 10 years. Does Peter have enough money to buy 10 bonds if the required rate of return is 9 percent? Answer: No. Since the required rate of return (9 percent) is less than the bond’s coupon rate (10 percent), the bond’s price is greater than its par value ($1,000). Thus, the total price of 10 bonds is greater than $10,000.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.7a)
12. Fancy Food, Inc. has issued a bond with par value of $1,000, a coupon rate of 9 percent that is paid semiannually, and that matures in 10 years. What is the value of the bond if the required rate of return is 12 percent?
Answer: Coupon payment 1,000 0.09 $90
Semiannual coupon payment 90/2 $45
P 45(PVIFA _{6}_{%}_{,} 20) 1,000(PVIF _{6}_{%}_{,} 20)
45(11.470) 1,000(0.312) $828.15 Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
298 Gitman • Principles of Finance, Eleventh Edition
13. The H&H Computer Company has an outstanding issue of bond with a par value of $1,000, paying 12 percent coupon rate semiannually. The bond was issued 25 years ago and has 5 years to maturity. What is the value of the bond assuming 14 percent rate of interest?
Answer: Coupon payment 1,000 0.12 $120
Semiannual coupon payment 120/2 $60
P 60(PVIFA _{7}_{%}_{,} 10) 1,000(PVIF _{7}_{%}_{,} 10)
60(7.024) 1,000(0.508) $929.44
Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 5 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
14. Dell Camping Equipment, Inc. just issued a 10 percent, 25year bond with a $1,000 par value that pays interest semiannually.
(a) 
How much can the investor expect in annual interest (in dollars)? 
(b) 
How much can the investor expect in interest every six months (in dollars)? 
(c) 
How much can the investor expect in par value at the end of the 25th year? 
Answers:
(a) 
$100 
(b) 
$50 
(c) 
$1,000 
Level of Difficulty: 1 Learning Goal: 6 Topic: Bond Pricing (Equation 6.8 and Equation 6.8a)
15. Draw a graph of a typical Treasury yield curve and discuss why it usually takes that shape.
Answer: The student should draw a normal, upwardsloping yield curve as shown in the text. Factors impacting the shape of the yield curve are the risk free rate, the inflation premium, and the interest rate risk premium. Level of Difficulty: 2 Learning Goal: 1 Topic: Term Structure of Interest Rates
16. Explain liquidity, default risk, and maturity risk premiums.
Answer: Liquidity problems exist in thinly traded bonds, default risk is the likelihood the corporation will default on its bond obligations, and the maturity premium reflects the fact that longerterm bonds possess greater interest rate risk and sensitivity than shorter term
bonds
demanding a yield premium to own the bonds.
If any of these exist, investors will demand to be compensated for the risk by
Level of Difficulty: 3 Learning Goal: 2 Topic: Risk Premiums
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